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THE FIVE C’s.; CINEMATOGRAPHY MOTION PICTURE FILMING TECHNIQUES JOSEPH V. MASCELLI POV Ee Wiad) LOS ANGELES CONTENTS CAMERA ANGLES CONTINUITY CUTTING . . CLOSE-UPS . COMPOSITION . INDEX . CREDITS . 11 67 . 147 173 197 245 pee ot INTRODUCTION By ARTHUR ©. MILLER, A.S.C While production of motion pictures has changed considerably since photographed The Perils of Pauline in 1914, some aspects — particularly those involving story telling — are still the same as they were half a century ago. Motion pictures are faster paced for today's more sophisticated audi. ences. Television dramas now introduce the characters, set the scene and establish story line in a few minutes. To accomplish this, early films took a reel or more. Today’s uses of the moving camera — especially helicopter shots — and wide-screen formats permit more continuous filming with fewer editorial cuts. Modern filming trends are moving away from the- atrical effects, and toward more natural lighting and camera treatment, involving the audience more deeply with the screen story. That is good! Motion picture production was vastly different in 1908, when it was my good fortune as a boy of 14 to become assistant — or “camera boy” as he was then called — to Fred J. Balshofer, a pioneer motion picture pro- ducer, director and cameraman. Mr. Balshofer initiated many filming techniques — such as strict adherence to directional continuity — which have become accepted production standards. The following year I went to work for Edwin S. Porter — who in 1903 had produced what is now considered the first story film — The Great Train Robbery. Early audiences recognized these story pictures as resembling stage plays — because of their continuity, which was a great advance over the animated movie snapshots presented until then, ‘This year marks the golden anniversary of the release of The Birth of @ Nation, produced and directed by D. W. Griffith, the acknowledged orig- inator of screen syntax — as we now know it. Yet, despite the influence on cinematographers everywhere exerted by these outstanding pioneers — and by many competent cinematographers and directors of today and yesterday — not one of these masters of our