~OIO A
•
a
cp
= depth of equivalent rectangular stress block.
b,
bv
= width of that part of cross section containing
the closed stirrups resisting torsion.
= area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross section.
bw
ovL5
Ah
Aj
= width of cross section at contact surface being
investigated for horizontal shear.
Ag = gross area of section, in. 2
= area of shear reinforcement parallel to flexural tension reinforcement, in.
2
2
= web width, or diameter of circular section, in.
c
c}
= distance from extreme compression fiber to
neutral axis, in.
= Effective crosssectional area within a joint,
in. in a plane parallel to plane of reinforcement generating shear in the joint. The joint depth shall be the overall depth of the column. Where a beam frames into a support of larger width, the effective width of the joint shall not exceed the smaller of: (a) beam width plus the joint depth (b) twice the smaller perpendicular distance from the longitudinal axis of the beam to the column side. total area of longitudinal reinforcement to resist torsion, in. 2
= size of rectangular or equivalent rectangular
column, capital, or bracket measured in the direction of the span for which moments are being determined, in.
c2
= size of rectangular or equivalent rectangular
column, capital, or bracket measured transverse to the direction of the span for which moments are being determined, in.
d
= distance from extreme compression fiber to
centroid of tension reinforcement, in.
d' db
de
= distance from extreme compression fiber to
centroid of compression reinforcement, in.
An
Ao
= area of reinforcement in bracket or corbel resisting tensile force N uc , in.
2
= nominal diameter of bar, wire, or prestressing
strand, in.
= gross area enclosed by shear flow path, in. 2
= area enclosed by centerline of the outermost
closed transverse torsional reinforcement, in.
2
AOh Aps
= thickness of concrete cover measured from extreme tension fiber to center of bar or wire located closest thereto, in.
= area of prestressed reinforcement in tension
zone, in. 2 area of nonprestressed tension reinforcement, in. 2
dp
= distance from extreme compression fiber to
centroid of prestressed reinforcement.
e
= eccentricity of load parallel to axis of member
measured from centroid of cross section.
A's
area of compression reinforcement, in.
2
total crosssectional area of transverse reinforcement (including crossties) within spacing S and perpendicular to dimension h o'
A,
Ec = modulus of elasticity of concrete, psi.
Es Eps
= area of one leg of a closed stirrup resisting torsion within a distance s, in. 2
= modulus of elasticity of bar reinforcement, psi. = modulus of elasticity of prestressing reinforcement. crete, psi.
A,r
= total crosssectional area of transverse reinforcement (stirrup or tie) within a spacing s and perpendicular to plane of bars being spliced or developed, in. 2
I: = specified 28day compressive strength of conler = average strength to be used as basis for selecting concrete proportions, psi.
I~r =
Av
= area of shear reinforcement within a distance
s, or area of shear reinforcement perpendicular to flexural tension reinforcement within a distance s for deep flexural members, in. 2
required average compressive strength of concrete used as the basis for selection of concrete proportions, psi.
AVJ AVh
= area of shearfriction reinforcement, in. 2
V'/~ = square root of specified compressive strength of concrete, psi.
I~i =
= area of shear reinforcement parallel to flexural tension reinforcement within a distance 2 Sz, in.
compressive strength of'cbncrete at time of initial prestress, psi. crete at time of initial prestress, psi.
b bo
= width of compression face of member, in.
\!I~i
leI
= square root of compressive strength of con= average splitting tensile strength of light
= perimeter of critical section for slabs and footings, in.
weight aggregate concrete, psi.
I
J;l = stress due to unfactored dead load, at extreme
fiber of section where tensile stress is caused by externally applied loads, psi. = compressive stress in concrete due to effective prestress forces only (after allowance for all prestress losses) at extreme fiber of section where tensile stress is caused by externally applied loads, psi. = stress in prestressed reinforcement at nominal strength. = specified tensile strength of prestressing tendons, psi. = specified yield strength of prestressing tendons, psi. = modulus of rupture of concrete, psi. = tensile strength of concrete, psi. = specified yield strength of nonprestressed reinforcement, psi. = specified yield strength of transverse, reinforcement, psi. = overall thickness of member, in. = moment of inertia of section resisting externally applied factored loads, in.4 = moment of inertia about centroidal axis of gross section of beam, in.4 = moment of inertia of cracked section transformed to concrete, in.4 = effective moment of inertia for computation of deflection, in.4 = moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis, neglecting reinforcement, in.4 = effective length factor for compression members. = flexural stiffness of beam; moment per unit rotation. = flexural stiffness of column; moment per unit rotation. = flexural stiffness of equivalent column; moment per unit rotation. = flexural stiffness of slab; moment per unit rotation. = torsional stiffness of torsional member; moment per unit rotation. = development length of standard hook in tension, measured from critical section to outside end of hook (straight embedment length between critical section and start of hook [point of tangency] plus radius of bend and one bar diameter). in. = Ihb x applicable modification factors. = maximum moment in member at stage deflection is computed.
Me Md
= factored moment to be used for design of
compression member.
fpc
= moment due to dead load. Mer = cracking moment. Mn = nominal moment strength. Mm = maximum factored moment at section due to
externally applied loads.
Mu
f p,
= factored moment at section.
n
Nu
= modular ratio of elasticity.
= E/ Ee or Ep/ Ec
= factored axial load normal to cross section occurring simultaneously with Vu; to be taken as positive for compression, negative for tension, and to include effects of tension due to creep and shrinkage.
fr
f;
fy
Nuc
= factored tensile force applied at top of bracket
or corbel acting simultaneously with V u , to be taken as positive for tension.
fy(
h
Pb
= nominal axial load strength at balanced strain
conditions.
I
Pc
Pn
Ib
= critical buckling load. = nominal axial load strength at given eccentricity.
Ier Ie Ig
Pcp
= outside perimeter of the concrete crosssection Acp; in.
Ph r
= perimeter of centerline of outermost closed
transverse torsional reinforcement, in.
= radius of gyration of cross section of a compression member.
k
s
= spacing of shear or torsion reinforcement in
?irect parallel to longitudinal reinforcement,
lll.
Kb
Kc Kec
K, K(
Idh
= thickness of a wall of a hollow section, in. Tu = factored torsional moment at section. Ve = nominal shear strength provided by concrete.
V Ci
= nominal shear strength provided by concrete
when diagonal cracking results from combined shear and moment.
Vew = nominal shear strength provided by concrete when diagonal cracking results from excessive principal tensile stress in web.
Vd
= shear force at section due to unfactored dead
load. at section.
VI' = vertical component of effective prestress force
Vs Vu
= nominal shear strength provided by shear reinforcement.
Ma
= factored shear force at section.
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
A Fundamental Approach
Fifth Edition Update ACI, AASHTO, IBC 2009 Codes Version
Edward G. Nawy
Distinguished Professor Emeritus Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
Prentice Hall
Upper Saddle River Boston Columbus San Francisco New York Indianapolis London Toronto Sydney Singapore Tokyo Montreal Dubai Madrid Hong Kong Mexico City Munich Paris Amsterdam Cape Town
Vice Prcsident and Editorial Director, ECS: Marcia 1. H orton Senior Editor: Holly Stark Associate Editor: Dee Bernhard Editorial Assistant: William Opa/llch Director of TeamBased Project Management: Vince O 'Brien Senior Managing Editor: SCOtt D islll/ll o Production Editor: Jalle BOll llell/Patty D OIIOVlIII Senior Operations Supervisor: AllIlI Fischer Operations Specialist: Li.m M cD owell Senior Marketing Manager: Tilll GlllligM Marketing Assistant: Mack /'lI/terSOIl Art Director. Cover: Jayne COllfe Cover Designer: Brtlee Kef/selllar Art Editor: Greg Dillies Media Editor: Daniel Sam/ill Media Project Manager: Danielli' Lealie Composi tion: Lasem'ortts Aft/ille
Abolll the Cover; The new 1 35W bridge, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Designed for the Minnesota Department of Trans
poTtation by FIGG, this new bridge incorporates aesthetics selected by the community using a theme of "ArchesWaterReflection" to complement the site across the Mississipi Ri ver. Curved. 70' tall concrete piers meet the sweeping para· bolic arch o f the 504' precast, prestressed concrete main span over the river to create a modem bridge. The new IOIane interstate bridge was constructed by FlatironManson, JV and opened to traffic on September 18, 2008. The bridge was designed and built in II months, The bridge incorporates the first use of LED highway lighting, the first major use in the United States ofnanolechnology cement thaI cleans the air (gateway sculptures) and "smart bridge" technology with 323 sensors embedded throughout the concrete to provide valuable daHl for the future. The photogra ph of the new 1 35W bridge is courtesy of FIGG.
Copyrighl20tO, 2006, 2003, 2000, 1996, 1989 by Pearson Educillion. Inc_ Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458. All rights reserved. Manufa ctured in the United States of America. This publication is protected by Copyright and permissions sho uld be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system. or transmission in any form or by nny men ns. electronic. mechanical. photocopying, recording. or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to usc materials from this work. please submit a written request to Pearson Higher Education, Permissions Department , I Lake Street, Upper Saddle Ri ver. NJ 07458.
The aut hor and publishcr of this book have used their best efforts in prepari ng Ihis book. These efforts include the developme nt, research. and testing o f the theories and programs to determine their erfeetiveness. The author and publisher make no warranty of any kind, expressed or implied. wi th regard to these programs or the documentation contained in this book. The author and publisher shall not be liable in any evem for incidental or consequential damages in connection with, o r arising out of. the furnishing, performance. o r the use of these programs.
Library of Congress CatalogillginPubliculion Data
Nawy, Edward G, Prestressed concrete : a fundamental approach I Edward G. Nuwy.5th cd. p.cm. ISBN 0 13·6081509 I. Prestressed concrete. I. Title. TA683.9.N39 2009 624.1 '834 1 2~dc22 2009024405
Prentice Hall
is an imprint of
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 I 1S8N13' 97B01360B150  0
www.pearsonhlghered.com
PEARSON

ISBNloO:
01360&1509
To Rachel E. Nawy
For her highlimit state of stress endurance over the years, which made the writing of this book in its several editions a reality.
CONTENTS
PREFACE
xix 1
1
BASIC CONCEPTS
1.1
1.2 1.3
1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7
Introduction 1 1.1.1 Comparison with Reinforced Concrete 2 1.1.2 Economics of Prestressed Concrete 4 Historical Development of Prestressing 5 Basic Concepts of Prestressing 7 1.3.1 Introduction 7 1.3.2 Basic Concept Method 10 1.3.3 CLine Method 12 1.3.4 LoadBalancing Method 15 Computation of Fiber Stresses in a Prestressed Beam by the Basic Method CLine Computation of Fiber Stresses 21 LoadBalancing Computation of Fiber Stresses 22 SI Working Stress Concepts 23 Selected References 28 Problems 28
19
2
MATERIALS AND SYSTEMS FOR PRESTRESSING
2.1 Concrete 31 2.1.1 Introduction 31 2.1.2 Parameters Affecting the Quality of Concrete 31 2.1.3 Properties of Hardened Concrete 32 StressStrain Curve of Concrete 36 Modulus of Elasticity and Change in Compressive Strength with Time 2.3.1 HighStrength Concrete 38 2.3.2 Initial Compressive Strength and Modulus 39 Creep 43 2.4.1 Effects of Creep 45 2.4.2 Rheologial Models 45 Shrinkage 48 Nonprestressing Reinforcement 50 Prestressing Reinforcement 53 2.7.1 Types of Reinforcement 53 2.7.2 StressRelieved and LowRelaxation Wires and Strands 54 2.7.3 HighTensileStrength Prestressing Bars 55 2.7.4 Steel Relaxation 56 2.7.5 Corrosion and Deterioration of Strands 58
31
2.2 2.3
36
2.4
2.5 2.6 2.7
vii
viii
Contents 2.8 ACI Maximum Permissible Stresses in Concrete and Reinforcement 59 2.8.1 Concrete Stresses in Flexure 59 2.8.2 Prestressing Steel Stresses 59 AASHTO Maximum Permissible Stresses in Concrete and Reinforcement 60 2.9.1 Concrete Stresses before Creep and Shrinkage Losses 60 2.9.2 Concrete Stresses at Service Load after Losses 60 2.9.3 Prestressing Steel Stresses 60 2.9.4 Relative Humidity Values 60 Prestressing Systems and Anchorages 61 2.10.1 Pretensioning 61 2.10.2 PostTensioning 62 2.10.3 Jacking Systems 63 2.10.4 Grouting of PostTensioned Tendons 64 Circular Prestressing 70 Ten Principles 70 Selected References 70
2.9
2.10
2.11 2.12
3
PARTIAL LOSS OF PRESTRESS
3.1 3.2
73
3.3
3.4 3.5 3.6
3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 3.12
Introduction 73 Elastic Shortening of Concrete (ES) 75 3.2.1 Pretensioned Elements 75 3.2.2 PostTensioned Elements 78 Steel Stress Relaxation (R) 78 3.3.1 Relaxation Loss Computation 80 3.3.2 ACIASCE Method of Accounting for Relaxation Loss 80 Creep Loss (CR) 80 3.4.1 Computation of Creep Loss 82 Shrinkage Loss (SH) 83 3.5.1 Computation of Shrinkage Loss 84 Losses Due to Friction (F) 85 3.6.1 Curvature Effect 85 3.6.2 Wobble Effect 86 3.6.3 Computation of Friction Loss 87 AnchorageSeating Losses (A) 88 3.7.1 Computation of AnchorageSeating Loss 89 Change of Prestress Due to Bending of a Member (MpB) 90 StepbyStep Computation of All TimeDependent Losses in a Pretensioned Beam 90 StepbyStep Computation of All TimeDependent Losses in a PostTensioned Beam 96 LumpSum Computation of TimeDependent Losses in Prestress 99 SI Prestress Loss Expressions 100 13.12.1 SI Prestress Loss Example 101 Selected References 104 Problems 105
4
FLEXURAL DESIGN OF PRESTRESSED CONCRETE ELEMENTS 106
4.1 4.2 Introduction 106 Selection of Geometrical Properties of Section Components 4.2.1 General Guidelines 108 4.2.2 Minimum Section Modulus 108 108
Contents 4.3 ServiceLoad Design Examples 115 4.3.1 Variable Tendon Eccentricity 115 4.3.2 Variable Tendon Eccentricity with No Height Limitation 122 4.3.3 Constant Tendon Eccentricity 126 Proper Selection of Beam Sections and Properties 128 4.4.1 General Guidelines 128 4.4.2 Gross Area, the Transformed Section, and the Presence of Ducts 130 4.4.3 Envelopes for Tendon Placement 130 4.4.4 Advantages of Curved or Harped Tendons 131 4.4.5 LimitingEccentricity Envelopes 132 4.4.6 Prestressing Tendon Envelopes 136 4.4.7 Reduction of Prestress Force Near Supports 138 End Blocks at Support Anchorage Zones 139 4.5.1 Stress Distribution 139 4.5.2 Development and Transfer Length in Pretensioned Members and Design of Their Anchorage Reinforcement 141 4.5.3 PostTensioned Anchorage Zones: Linear Elastic and StrutandTie Theories 144 4.5.4 Design of End Anchorage Reinforcement for PostTensioned Beams 153 Flexural Design of Composite Beams 158 4.6.1 Unshored Slab Case 159 4.6.2 Fully Shored Slab Case 161 4.6.3 Effective Flange Width 161 Summary of StepbyStep TrialandAdjustment Procedure for the ServiceLoad Design of Prestressed Members 162 Design of Composite PostTensioned Prestressed Simply Supported Section 165 UltimateStrength Flexural Design 178 4.9.1 CrackingLoad Moment 178 4.9.2 Partial Prestressing 179 4.9.3 Cracking Moment Evaluation 180 Load and Strength Factors 181 4.10.1 Reliability and Structural Safety of Concrete Components 181 ACI Load Factors and Safety Margins 184 4.11.1 General Principles 184 4.11.2 ACI Load Factors Equations 185 4.11.3 Design Strength vs. Nominal Strength: StrengthReduction Factor <!> 187 Limit State in Flexure at Ultimate Load in Bonded Members: Decompression to Ultimate Load 188 4.12.1 Introduction 188 4.12.2 The Equivalent Rectangular Block and Nominal Moment Strength 189 4.12.3 Strain Limits Method for Analysis and Design 191 4.12.4 Negative Moment Redistribution in Continuous Beams 193 4.12.5 Nominal Moment Strength of Rectangular Sections 194 Preliminary UltimateLoad Design 202 Summary StepbyStep Procedure for LimitStateatFailure Design of the Prestressed Members 204 UltimateStrength Design of Prestressed Simply Supported Beam by Strain Compatibility 209 Strength Design of Bonded Prestressed Beam Using Approximate Procedures 212 SI Flexural DeSign Expression 216 4.17.1 SI Flexural Design of Prestressed Beams 218 Selected References 220 Problems 221
ix
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7 4.8 4.9
4.10 4.11
4.12
4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 4.17
x
Contents
5
SHEAR AND TORSIONAL STRENGTH DESIGN
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4
223
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15
5.16
5.17
5.18 5.19
Introduction 223 Behavior of Homogeneous Beams in Shear 224 Behavior of Concrete Beams as Nonhomogeneous Sections 227 Concrete Beams without Diagonal Tension Reinforcement 228 5.4.1 Modes of Failure of Beams without Diagonal Tension Reinforcement 229 5.4.2 Flexural Failure [F] 229 5.4.3 Diagonal Tension Failure [Flexure Shear, FSl 229 5.4.4 Shear Compression Failure [Web Shear, WSl 231 Shear and Principal Stresses in Prestressed Beams 232 5.5.1 FlexureShear Strength [Ve;] 233 5.5.2 WebShear Strength [Vewl 236 5.5.3 Controlling Values of Vei and Vew for the Determination of Web Concrete Strength Ve 237 WebShear Reinforcement 238 5.6.1 Web Steel Planar Truss Analogy 238 5.6.2 Web Steel Resistance 238 5.6.3 Limitation on Size and Spacing of Stirrups 241 Horizontal Shear Strength in Composite Construction 242 5.7.1 ServiceLoad Level 242 5.7.2 UltimateLoad Level 243 5.7.3 Design of CompositeAction Dowel Reinforcement 245 Web Reinforcement Design Procedure for Shear 246 Principal Tensile Stresses in Flanged Sections and Design of DowelAction Vertical Steel in Composite Sections 249 Dowel Steel Design for Composite Action 250 Dowel Reinforcement Design for Composite Action in an Inverted TBeam 251 Shear Strength and WebShear Steel Design in a Prestressed Beam 253 WebShear Steel Design by Detailed Procedures 256 Design of Web Reinforcement for a PCI Double TBeam 259 Brackets and Corbels 263 5.15.1 Shear Friction Hypothesis for Shear Transfer in Corbels 264 5.15.2 Horizontal External Force Effect 266 5.15.3 Sequence of Corbel Design Steps 269 5.15.4 Design of a Bracket or Corbel 270 5.15.5 SI Expressions for Shear in Prestressed Concrete Beams 272 5.15.6 SI Shear Design of Prestressed Beams 274 Torsional Behavior and Strength 278 5.16.1 Introduction 278 5.16.2 Pure Torsion in Plain Concrete Elements 279 Torsion in Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Elements 284 5.17.1 SkewBending Theory 285 5.17.2 Space Truss Analogy Theory 287 5.17.3 Compression Field Theory 289 5.17.4 Plasticity Equilibrium Truss Theory 293 5.17.5 Design of Prestressed Concrete Beams Subjected to Combined Torsion, Shear, and Bending in Accordance with the AC131808 Code 298 5.17.6 SIMetric Expressions for Torsion Equations 303 Design Procedure for Combined Torsion and Shear 304 Design of Web Reinforcement for Combined Torsion and Shear in Prestressed Beams 308
Contents 5.20 StrutandTie Model Analysis and Design of Concrete Elements 317 5.20.1 Introduction 317 5.20.2 StrutandTie Mechanism 318 5.20.3 ACI Design Requirements 321 5.20.4 Example 5.10: Design of Deep Beam by StrutandTie Method 324 5.20.5 Example 5.11: Design of Corbel by the StrutandTie Method 328 SI Combined Torsion and Shear Design of Prestressed Beam 332 Selected References 335 Problems 337
xi
5.21
6
INDETERMINATE PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES 340
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Introduction 340 Disadvantages of Continuity in Prestressing 341 Tendon Layout for Continuous Beams 341 Elastic Analysis for Prestress Continuity 344 6.4.1 Introduction 344 6.4.2 Support Displacement Method 344 6.4.3 Equivalent Load Method 347 Examples Involving Continuity 347 6.5.1 Effect of Continuity on Transformation of CLine for Draped Tendons 347 6.5.2 Effect of Continuity on Transformation of CLine for Harped Tendons 352 Linear Transformation and Concordance of Tendons 354 6.6.1 Verification of Tendon Linear Transformation Theorem 355 6.6.2 Concordance Hypotheses 358 Ultimate Strength and Limit State at Failure of Continuous Beams 358 6.7.1 General Considerations 358 6.7.2 Moment Redistribution 361 Tendon Profile Envelope and Modifications 362 Tendon and CLine Location in Continuous Beams 362 Tendon Transformation to Utilize Advantages of Continuity 373 Design for Continuity Using Nonprestressed Steel at Support 378 Indeterminate Frames and Portals 379 6.12.1 General Properties 379 6.12.2 Forces and Moments in Portal Frames 382 6.12.3 Application to Prestressed Concrete Frames 386 6.12.4 Design of Prestressed Concrete Bonded Frame 389 Limit Design (Analysis) of Indeterminate Beams and Frames 401 6.13.1 Method of Imposed Rotations 402 6.13.2 Determination of Plastic Hinge Rotations in Continuous Beams 405 6.13.3 Rotational Capacity of Plastic Hinges 408 6.13.4 Calculation of Available Rotational Capacity 411 6.13.5 Check for Plastic Rotation Serviceability 412 6.13.6 Transverse Confining Reinforcement for Seismic Design 413 6.13.7 Selection of Confining Reinforcement 414 Selected References 415 Problems 417
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8 6.9 6.10 6.11 6.12
6.13
7
CAMBER, DEFLECTION, AND CRACK CONTROL
7.1 7.2 Introduction 418 Basic Assumptions in Deflection Calculations 419
418
xii
Contents 7.3 ShortTerm (Instantaneous) Deflection of Uncracked and Cracked Members 420 7.3.1 LoadDeflection Relationship 420 7.3.2 Uncracked Sections 423 7.3.3 Cracked Sections 427 ShortTerm Deflection at Service Load 433 7.4.1 Example 7.3 NonComposite Uncracked Double TBeam Deflection 433 ShortTerm Deflection of Cracked Prestressed Beams 439 7.5.1 ShortTerm Deflection of the Beam in Example 7.3 if Cracked 439 Construction of MomentCurvature Diagram 440 LongTerm Effects on Deflection and Camber 446 7.7.1 PCI Multipliers Method 446 7.7.2 Incremental TimeSteps Method 448 7.7.3 Approximate TimeSteps Method 450 7.7.4 Computer Methods for Deflection Evaluation 452 7.7.5 Deflection of Composite Beams 452 Permissible Limits of Calculated Deflection 453 LongTerm Camber and Deflection Calculation by the PCI Multipliers Method 454 LongTerm Camber and Deflection Calculation by the Incremental TimeSteps Method 458 LongTerm Camber and Deflection Calculation by the Approximate TimeSteps Method 469 LongTerm Deflection of Composite DoubleT Cracked Beam 472 Cracking Behavior and Crack Control in Prestressed Beams 479 7.13.1 Introduction 479 7.13.2 Mathematical Model Formulation for Serviceability Evaluation 479 7.13.3 Expressions for Pretensioned Beams 480 7.13.4 Expressions for PostTensioned Beams 481 7.13.5 ACI New Code Provisions 483 7.13.6 LongTerm Effects on CrackWidth Development 484 7.13.7 Tolerable Crack Widths 485 Crack Width and Spacing Evaluation in Pretensioned TBeam Without Mild Steel 485 Crack Width and Spacing Evaluation in Pretensioned TBeam Containing Nonprestressed Steel 486 Crack Width and Spacing Evaluation in Pretensioned IBeam Containing Nonprestressed Mild Steel 487 Crack Width and Spacing Evaluation for PostTensioned TBeam Containing Nonprestressed Steel 488 Crack Control by ACI Code Provisions 490 SI Deflection and Cracking Expressions 490 SI Deflection Control 491 SI Crack Control 496 Selected References 496 Problems 497
7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7
7.8 7.9 7.10 7.11 7.12 7.13
7.14 7.15 7.16 7.17 7.18 7.19 7.20 7.21
8
PRESTRESSED COMPRESSION AND TENSION MEMBERS
8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 Introduction 500 Prestressed Compression Members: LoadMoment Interaction in Columns and Piles 501 Strength Reduction Factor cf> 507 Operational Procedure for the Design of Nonslender Prestressed Compression Members 508
500
Contents 8.5 8.6 8.7 Construction of Nominal LoadMoment (PnMn) and Design (PuMu) Interaction Diagrams 509 Limit State at Buckling Failure of Slender (Long) Prestressed Columns 515 8.6.1 Buckling Considerations 519 Moment Magnification Method: FirstOrder Analysis 520 8.7.1 Moment Magnification in NonSway Frames 521 8.7.2 Moment Magnification in Sway Frames 522 SecondOrder Frames Analysis and the P  ~ Effects 523 Operational Procedure and Flowchart for the Design of Slender Columns 525 Design of Slender (Long) Prestressed Column 525 Compression Members in Biaxial Bending 531 8.11.1 Exact Method of Analysis 531 8.11.2 Load Contour Method of Analysis 532 8.11.3 StepbyStep Operational Procedure for the Design of Biaxially Loaded Columns Practical Design Considerations 537 8.12.1 Longitudinal or Main Reinforcement 537 8.12.2 Lateral Reinforcement for Columns 537 Reciprocal Load Method for Biaxial Bending 540 Modified Load Contour Method for Biaxial Bending 542 8.14.1 Design of Biaxially Loaded Prestressed Concrete Column by the Modified Load Contour Method 542 Prestressed Tension Members 544 8.15.1 ServiceLoad Stresses 544 8.15.2 Deformation Behavior 546 8.15.3 Decompression and Cracking 547 8.15.4 Limit State at Failure and Safety Factors 547 Suggested StepbyStep Procedure for the Design of Tension Members 548 Design of Linear Tension Members 548 Selected References 551 Problems 552
xiii
8.8 8.9 8.10 8.11
535
8.12
8.13 8.14
8.15
8.16 8.17
9
TWOWAY PRESTRESSED CONCRETE FLOOR SYSTEMS
9.1 Introduction: Review of Methods 554 9.1.1 The Semielastic ACI Code Approach 557 9.1.2 The YieldLine Theory 557 9.1.3 The Limit Theory of Plates 557 9.14 The Strip Method 557 9.1.5 Summary 558 Flexural Behavior of TwoWay Slabs and Plates 558 9.2.1 TwoWay Action 558 9.2.2 Relative Stiffness Effects 558 The Equivalent Frame Method 559 9.3.1 Introduction 559 9.3.2 Limitations of the Direct Design Method 560 9.3.3 Determination of the Statical Moment Mo 561 9.3.4 Equivalent Frame Analysis 563 9.3.5 Pattern Loading of Spans 566 TwoDirectional Load Balancing 567 Flexural Strength of Prestressed Plates 569 9.5.1 Design Moments Mu 569
554
9.2
9.3
9.4 9.5
xiv
9.6
Contents Banding of Prestressing Tendons and Limiting Concrete Stresses 572 9.6.1 Distribution of Prestressing Tendons 572 9.6.2 Limiting Concrete Tensile Stresses at Service Load 573 LoadBalancing Design of a SinglePanel TwoWay Floor Slab 577 OneWay Slab Systems 582 ShearMoment Transfer to Columns Supporting Flat Plates 583 9.9.1 Shear Strength 583 9.9.2 ShearMoment Transfer 583 9.9.3 Deflection Requirements for Minimum Thickness: An Indirect Approach 586 StepbyStep TrialandAdjustment Procedure for the Design of a TwoWay Prestressed Slab and Plate System 587 Design of Prestressed PostTensioned FlatPlate Floor System 592 Direct Method of Deflection Evaluation 610 9.12.1 The Equivalent Frame Approach 610 9.12.2 Column and Middle Strip Deflections 611 Deflection Evaluation of TwoWay Prestressed Concrete Floor Slabs 613 YieldLine Theory for TwoWayAction Plates 616 9.14.1 Fundamental Concepts of HingeField Failure Mechanisms in Flexure 617 9.14.2 Failure Mechanisms and Moment Capacities of Slabs of Various Shapes Subjected to Distributed or Concentrated Loads 622 YieldLine Moment Strength of a TwoWay Prestressed Concrete Plate 628 Selected References 629 Problems 630
9.7 9.8 9.9
9.10 9.11 9.12
9.13 9.14
9.15
10
CONNECTIONS FOR PRESTRESSED CONCRETE ELEMENTS 632
10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 Introduction 632 Tolerances 633 Composite Members 633 Reinforced Concrete Bearing in Composite Members 634 10.4.1 Reinforced Bearing Design 638 DappedEnd Beam Connections 640 10.5.1 Determination of Reinforcement to Resist Failure 641 10.5.2 DappedEnd Beam Connection Design 644 Reinforced Concrete Brackets and Corbels 647 Concrete Beam Ledges 647 10.7.1 Design of Ledge Beam Connection 649 Selected Connection Details 651 Selected References 659 Problems 659
10.6 10.7 10.8
11
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE CIRCULAR STORAGE TANKS AND STEEL ROOFS 660
11.1 11.2 Introduction 660 Design Principles and Procedures 661 11.2.1 Internal Loads 661 11.2.2 Restraining Moment Mo and Radial Shear Force 0 0 at Freely Sliding Wall Base Due to Liquid Pressure 664 11.2.3 General Equations of Forces and Displacements 669 11.2.4 Ring Shear 0 0 and Moment Mo Gas Containment 673
Contents 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 Moment Mo and Ring Force 0 0 in Liquid Retaining Tank 674 Ring Force Oyat Intermediate Heights of Wall 676 Cylindrical Shell Membrane Coefficients 677 Prestressing Effects on Wall Stresses for Fully Hinged, Partially Sliding and Hinged, Fully Fixed, and Partially Fixed Bases 679 11.6.1 Freely Sliding Wall Base 694 11.6.2 Hinged Wall Base 694 11.6.3 Partially Sliding and Hinged Wall Base 695 11.6.4 Fully Fixed Wall Base 695 11.6.5 Partially Fixed Wall Base 699 11.7 Recommended Practice for SituCast and Precast Prestressed Concrete Circular Storage Tanks 704 11.7.1 Stresses 704 11.7.2 Required Strength Load Factors 705 11.7.3 Minimum WallDesign Requirements 706 11.8 Crack Control in Walls of Circular Prestressed Concrete Tanks 708 11.9 Tank Roof Design 708 11.9.1 Membrane Theory of Spherical Domes 709 11.10 Prestressed Concrete Tanks with Circumferential Tendons 715 11.11 Seismic Design of Liquid Containment Tank Structures 715 11.12 StepbyStep Procedure for the Design of Circular Prestressed Concrete Tanks and Dome Roofs 720 11.13 Design of Circular Prestressed Concrete WaterRetaining Tank and Its Domed Roof 727 Selected References 740 Problems 741
xv
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LRFD AND STANDARD AASHTO DESIGN OF CONCRETE BRIDGES 742
12.1 12.2 Introduction: Safety and Reliability 742 AASHTO Standard (LFD) and LRFD Truck Load Specifications 744 12.2.1 Loads 745 12.2.2 Wheel Load Distribution on Bridge Decks: Standard AASHTO Specifications (LFD) 748 12.2.3 Bending Moments in Bridge Deck Slabs: Standard AASHTO Specifications (LFD) 12.2.4 Wind Loads 751 12.2.5 Seismic Forces 751 12.2.6 AASHTO LFD Load Combinations 751 12.2.7 LRFD Load Combinations 753 Flexural Design Considerations 758 12.3.1 Strain E and Factor <I> Variations: The Strain Limits Approach 758 12.3.2 Factored Flexural Resistance 760 12.3.3 Flexural Design Parameters 760 12.3.4 Reinforcement Limits 761 Shear Design Considerations 762 12.4.1 The Modified Compression Field Theory 762 12.4.2 Design Expressions 763 Horizontal Interface Shear 768 12.5.1 Maximum Spacing of Dowel Reinforcement 770 Combined Shear and Torsion 770
750
12.3
12.4
12.5 12.6
xvi 12.7 12.8 12.9 12.10 12.11 12.12 12.13 12.14
Contents AASHTOLRFD FlexuralStrength Design Specifications vs. ACI Code Provisions 773 StepbyStep Design Procedure (LRFD) 775 LRFD Design of BulbTee Bridge Deck 780 LRFD Shear and Deflection Design 793 Standard AASHTO Flexural Design of Prestressed Bridge Deck Beams (LFD) 801 Standard AASHTO ShearReinforcement Design of Bridge Deck Beams 809 Shear and Torsion Reinforcement Design of a BoxGirder Bridge 813 LRFD Major Design Expressions in SI Format 819 Selected References 820 Problems for Solution 821
13
SEISMIC DESIGN OF PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES 824
13.1 Introduction: Mechanism of Earthquakes 824 13.1.1 Earthquake Ground Motion Characteristics 826 13.1 .2 Fundamental Period of Vibration 827 13.1.3 Design Philosophy 828 Spectral Response Method 829 13.2.1 Spectral Response Acceleration Maps 829 13.2.2 Seismic Design Parameters 829 13.2.3 Earthquake Design Load Classifications and Seismic Categories 833 13.2.4 Redundancy 835 13.2.5 General Procedure Response Spectrum 835 Equivalent Lateral Force Method 837 13.3.1 Horizontal Base Shear 837 13.3.2 Vertical Distribution of Forces 840 13.3.3 Horizontal Distribution of Story Shear Vx 841 13.3.4 Rigid and Flexible Diaphragms 841 13.3.5 Torsion 841 13.3.6 Story Drift and the PDelta Effect 841 13.3.7 Overturning 843 13.3.8 Simplified Analysis Procedure for Seismic Design of Buildings 843 13.3.9 Other Aspects in Seismic Design 844 Seismic Shear Forces in Beams and Columns of a Frame: Strong ColumnWeak Beam Concept 845 13.4.1 Probable Shears and Moments 845 13.4.2 Strong Column Weak Beam Concept 847 ACI Confining Reinforcements for Structural Concrete Members 849 13.5.1 Longitudinal Reinforcement in Compression Members 849 13.5.2 Transverse Confining Reinforcement 851 13.5.3 Horizontal Shear at the Joint of BeamColumn Connections 852 13.5.4 Development of Reinforcement 854 13.5.5 Allowable Shear Stresses in Structural Walls, Diaphragms, and Coupling Beams Seismic Design Concepts in HighRise Buildings and Other Structures 858 13.6.1 General Concepts 858 13.6.2 Ductility of Elements and Plastic Hinging 858 13.6.3 Ductility Demand Due to Drift Effect 859 Structural Systems in Seismic Zones 860 13.7.1 Structural Ductile Frames 860 13.7.2 Dywidag Ductile BeamColumn Connection: DDC Assembly 864
13.2
13.3
13.4
13.5
854
13.6
13.7
12 13. INVERTED TEES.11 13.3 Structural Precast Wall Base Connection Design 888 Design of Precast Prestressed Ductile Frame Connection in a HighRise Building in HighSeismicity Zone Using Dywidag Ductile Connection Assembly (DOC) 890 Design of Precast Prestressed Ductile Frame Connection in a HighRise Building in HighSeismicity Zone Using a Hybrid Connector System 895 Selected References 900 Problems for Solution 902 xvii 13. DESIGN INFORMATION.10 13.9 13.8 13.15 APPENDIX A UNIT CONVERSIONS. PROPERTIES OF REINFORCEMENT 905 APPENDIX B SELECTED TYPICAL STANDARD PRECAST DOUBLE TEES. AND AASHTO BRIDGE SECTIONS 929 INDEX 943 .Contents 13.7.14 13.4 Unbonded Precast PostTensioned Walls 869 Dual Systems 872 Design Procedure for EarthquakeResistant Structures 872 SI Seismic Design Expressions 876 Seismic Base Shear and Lateral Forces and Moments by the IBC Approach 879 Seismic Shear Wall Design and Detailing 882 Example 13. HOLLOW CORE SECTIONS.13 13.3 Structural Walls in HighSeismicity Zones (Shear Walls) 867 13.7.
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as well as the design engineer. with the stepbystep logic of trial and adjustment as well as the flowcharts shown. level. The text is the outgrowth of the author's lecture notes developed in teaching the subject at Rutgers University over the past 45 years and the experience accumulated over the years in teaching and research in the areas of reinforced and prestressed concrete inclusive of the Ph. shear. Reinforced concrete's tensile strength is limited. both normal and high strength. and torsion are selfcontained and can be covered in one semester at the senior level and the graduate level. and offshore oil drilling platformswork impossible to undertake in the past. IEC 20062009. The indepth discussions of these topics permit the advanced undergraduate and graduate student. prestressing becomes essential in many applications in order to fully utilize that compressive strength and. Hence. Hence. a basic understanding of the fundamentals of linear and circular prestressed concrete. Chapters 4 and 5 on flexure. stressing the strain limits approach. and the consulting engineering and forensic work that the author has been engaged in over the years. the historical development of prestressed concrete. and the evaluation of prestress losses should give an adequate introduction to the subject of prestressed concrete. graduates of every civil engineering program must have. for seismic design. and torsion. nuclear reactor vessels. design of the members of a total structure is achieved only by trial and adjustment: assuming a section and then analyzing it. the properties of constituent materials. Additionally. while its compressive strength is extensive. prestress loss.PREFACE Prestressed concrete is a widely used material in construction. Consequently. to eliminate or control cracking and deflection. through proper design. shear. The concise discussion presented in Chapters 1 through 3 on basic principles. a concept to which every engineering student should be exposed today. flexure. the longterm basic behavior of such materials. using the new xix .D. The material is presented in such a manner that the student can become familiarized with the properties of plain concrete. The high technology advancements in the science of materials have made it possible to construct and assemble largespan systems such as cablestayed bridges. segmental bridges. design and analysis are combined in this work in order to make it simpler for the student first introduced to the subject of prestressed concrete design. and its components prior to embarking on the study of structural behavior. The book is uniquely different from other textbooks on the subject in that the major topics of material behavior. sometimes termed as the "unified method" in the code. as a minimum requirement. This completely updated fifth edition of the book revises the previous text so as to conform to the new ACI 31808 Code and the International Building Code. They should also aid in developing fundamental knowledge regarding the reliability of performance of prestressed structures. to develop with minimum effort a profound understanding of fundamentals of prestressed concrete structural behavior and performance. give the student and the engineer a basic understanding of both the service load and the limit state of load at failure.
The service load behavior utilizes. deflection. (PI) system or the international (SI) system. Chapter 4 in this edition contains the latest design procedure with numerical examples for the design of end anchorages of posttensioned members as required by the latest ACI and AASHTO codes. In this manner.and longterm effects using three different approaches: the PCI multipliers method. Chapter 6 on indeterminate prestressed concrete structures covers in detail continuous prestressed beams as well as portal frames. Chapter 8 covers the proportioning of prestressed compression and tension members. Additionally. Furthermore. A detailed discussion is presented on the shearmoment transfer at column support section in twoway action prestressed concrete plates. as well as the incorporation of vertical prestressing. It is revised to accommodate the new load and strength reduction factors required in the ACI 31808 Code. Chapter 9 presents a thorough analysis of the service load behavior and yieldline behavior of twoway action prestressed slabs and plates. considering both short. This book is also unique in that Chapter 11 gives a detailed account of the analysis and design of prestressed concrete tanks and their shell roofs. of the evaluation and control of flexural cracking in partially prestressed beams. semifixed. and sliding wall bases. and on deflection of twoway plates. a detailed theoretical discussion is presented on the mechanisms of shear and torsion. which include a unified approach to the topic of torsion in reinforced and prestressed concrete members. inclusion in this edition of design examples in SI Units and a listing of the relevant equations in SI format extends the scope of the text to cover wider applications by the profession. with detailed design examples as required by the latest ACI Code provisions. An extensive Chapter 5 presents. the various approaches to the torsional problem and the plastic concepts of the shear equilibrium and torsional equilibrium theories and their interaction. A totally new section is added on the strutandtie modeling of forces in deep beams and corbels. the detailed incremental time steps method. Chapter 7 discusses in detail the design for camber. ledge beams.xx Preface ACI 31808 Code requirements for ultimate load design. hinged. the provisions on torsion combined with shear and bending. . SI Units examples are included in the text in addition to having equivalent SI conversions for the major steps of examples throughout the book. and crack control. thereby producing a good feel for the reserve strength and safety factors inherent in the design expressions. and the balancing method presented in Chapter 1. including the buckling behavior and design of prestressed columns and piles and the PLl effect in the design of slender columns. Chapter 11 also discusses the theory of axis ymmetrica1 shells and domes that are used in the design of domed roofs for circular tanks. and the approximate time steps method. based on the author's work. and bearing. Several design examples are included in the discussion. the student as well as the practicing engineer can avail themselves with the tools for using either the Ibin. consistent with the increased use of continuous members in bridge structures. Presented are the basics of the membrane and bending theories of cylindrical shells for use in the design of prestressed concrete tanks for the various wall boundary conditions of fixed. Numerous detailed examples illustrate the use of the basic concepts method. using wrapped wires as well as tendons. Extensive coverage is presented of the yieldline failure mechanisms of all the usual combinations of loads on floor slabs and boundary conditions. the Cline method. with design examples. including the design expressions for these various conditions. A stateoftheart discussion is presented. Chapter 10 on connections for prestressed concrete elements covers the design of connections for dappedend beams. in addition to the design of the beams and corbels presented in Chapter 5 on shear and torsion. with extensive examples. the equivalent frame method of flexural design (analysis) and deflection evaluation.
who inspired him with the affection that he has developed for systems constructed of reinforced and prestressed concrete. It also includes the AASHTO requirements for truck and lane loadings and load combinations as stipulated both by the LRFD and the Standard specifications. both undergraduate and graduate. It contains several design examples and a detailed discussion of ductile momentresistant connections in highrise buildings and parking garages in high seismicity zones. It also contains examples of the design of shear walls and hybrid connectionsall based on the state of the art in this field. the topics of this updated fifth edition of the book have been presented in as concise a manner as possible without sacrificing the need for instructional details. The contents should also serve as a valuable guideline for the practicing engineer who has to keep abreast of the stateoftheart in prestressed concrete and the latest provisions of the ACI 31808 Building Code and PCI Standards. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Grateful acknowledgment is due to the American Concrete Institute. Several extensive examples are given using bulbtees and box girder sections. the Prestressed Concrete Institute and the PostTensioning Institute for their gracious support in permitting generous quotations from the ACI 318 and other relevant Codes and Reports and the numerous illustrations and tables from so many PCI and PTI publications. Chapter 13. who have had much to do with generating the writing of this book and to the many who assisted in his research activities over the past 50 years. Additionally. Selected photographs involving various areas of the structural behavior of concrete elements at failure are included in all the chapters. Grateful acknowledgment is also made to the author's many students. photographs of some major prestressed concrete landmark structures are included throughout the book to illustrate the versatility of design in pre tensioned and posttensioned prestressed concrete. and the International Building Code (IBC 2009). PCI/AASHTO bulbtees. Thanks are also due to the many professors who have been continuously . sections and charts of flexural and shear evaluation of sections. box girder and AASHTO standard sections for bridge decks. torsion. Appendices have also been included. the late Professor A. Technology and Medicine. dealing with the seismic design of prestressed precast structures in high seismicity zones. including the design of anchorage blocks. AASHTO 2009 Standards. A unique approach for the design of such ductile connections in precast beamcolumn joints in highrise building structures was extended and updated to conform to the new load and strength reduction factors. has been updated based on the new ACI 31808 and the significantly modified International Building Code. has been updated to accommodate the latest LRFD and Standard AASHTO 2009 specifications for the design of prestressed bridge deck girders for flexure.Preface xxi The extensive Chapter 12. as well as representative tables for selecting sections such as PCI doubletees. with monograms and tables on standard properties. Baker of London University's Imperial College of Science. as well as the designer who seeks a concise treatment of the fundamentals of linear and circular prestressing. added to the previous edition. L. on seismic design of reinforced and prestressed concrete structures. shear. The major portions of the text can be used without difficulty and equally in an advanced senior level and at the graduate level for any student who has had a prior course in reinforced concrete. Conversion to SI metric units is included in the examples throughout most chapters of the book. and serviceability. In summary. IBC 2009. Special mention has to be made of the author's original mentor. L. They are taken from research work conducted and published by the author with many of his MS and PhD students at Rutgers University over the past four decades.
for their assistance in the fifth edition. Vice President and Editorial Director. MBA. BS. George Nasser. Jane Bonnell. formerly EditorinChief. and Dr. the author is grateful to Mayrai Gindy. for his cooperation and advice. BA. President and CEO. Jenny. Thomas T. Research Director. Freyrmuth. C. who both have given me continuous encouragement and support over the years. for his continuous guidance in the successful and prompt production of the book. for his extensive input. Senior Managing Editor. Englekirk Consulting Engineers. for commendable efforts over the years in bringing to fruition the several editions of this book. for their support. EDWARD G. particular thanks are due to Professor Thomas Hsu for again reviewing the revised portions on torsional theory and examples and the shear LRFD section. Hsu of the University of Houston. Nawy. FIGG Bridge Engineers. and James Giancastro. and Clifford L. NAWY Rutgers University The State University of New Jersey Piscataway. Dywidag Systems International. Acknowledgment is also made to the many experts who reviewed the manuscript of the first edition including Professors Carl E. Nakin Suksawang. Rutgers Engineering class of 1983.xxii Preface using this textbook since 1988 in major universities in the United States and their valuable comments. both of the Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute. Professor Alex Aswad of Pennsylvania State University at Harrisburg for his valuable input on precast shear walls in seismic regions. PhD. of the Prentice Hall Art Department. all PhD. Senior Engineering Editor. and Vincent O'Brien. and Visiting Professor at the Universities of California. Scott Disanno. for his admirable artwork on the book cover for this and prior editions of the textbook. Bruce Kenselaar. Mr. Robert E. formerly of the PTI. Vice PresidentEngineering. Los Angeles. for his past help and diligent computational and processing work in the new sections of this edition. Thanks are also due to Robert M. Rutgers. Rutgers. Laserwords Maine. President. for her input into this and previous editions of this book. Linda Figg. for her coordinating efforts. Holly Stark. MS Rutgers 1999. and Paul Johal. Ekberg of Iowa State University. and to Engineer Gregg Romano. and San Diego. For the third edition of this book. Production Liaison. for his contribution to the last edition's Chapter 12 on LRFD design of bridge decks. Director of TeamBased Project Management. who assisted in the work on the first edition. Last but not least. and Patty Donovan. and to Joseph Davis. discussions and advice on the subject of ductile momentresisting frame connections in high sesimicity zones. Daniel P. formerly of the PCI. and to the engineers worldwide who have adopted this book as a standard reference on the uptodate analysis and design of prestressed concrete structures. Thanks also go to Ms. Englekirk. Senior Project Coordinator. for her cooperation in processing this updated version. Grateful acknowledgment is also made to the Prentice Hall officers and staff: Marcia Horton. Khalid Shawwaf. New Jersey .
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE .
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(Courtesy."g force.BASIC CONCEPTS 1. Prestressed Concrete Institute. shear. i. Due to such a low tensile capacity. and torsional capacities of Ihe sections. fl exural cracks develop at early stages of loading. Virginia. a concentric or eccentric force is imposed in the longitudinal direction of the structural elemen t. are determined mainly on the basis of the type of system to be constructed and the span length and slendcrness desired. In order to reduce or prevent such cracks from developing. The sections arc then able to behave elastically. Situ cast and precast posttcnsioned prestressed structure. but weak in tension: ils tensi le strength varies from 8 to 14 percent of its compressive strength. This force prevents the cracks from developing by eliminating or considerably reducing the tensile stresses at the critical midspan and su pport sect ions at service load. Richmond.1 INTRODUCTION Concrete is strong in compression. Si nce the prestressing fo rce is applied longitudinally along or parallel to The Diamond Baseball Stadium. a compressive force that prestresses the sections a long the span of the structurol element prior to the applicat ion of the transverse gravity dead and live loads or transient horizontal live loads.\'s.) 1 .e . Such an imposed longit udinal force is called a /Jrestre. thereby raising the bending.. The type of prestressing force involved. together with its magnitude. and aimosl the full capaci ty of the concrete in compression can be efficiently utilized across the entire depth of the concrete sections when all loads act on the structure.
The circumferential hoop. in order to eliminate or considerably reduce the net tensile stresses caused by these loads. the axis of the member. because of the compressive prestress imposed by the metal bands as a form of circular prestressing. 1.1 Comparison with Reinforced Concrete From the preceding discussion. A. it is assumed that the tensile strength of the concrete is negligible . the individual concrete blocks act together as a beam due to the large compressive prestressing force P. (e) Tensile force F on half of metal band due to internal pressure. Figure 1. neutralizes the tensile stresses at the outer fibers of the curvilinear surface caused by the internal contained pressure. or "hugging" stress on the cylindrical or spherical structure. Although it might appear that the blocks will slip and vertically simulate shear slip failure. With reinforced concrete. used in liquid containment tanks. in a basic fashion. Similarly.2 Chapter 1 Basic Concepts A T \ P If' t=:t\~c::::. the prestressing action in both types of structural systems and the resulting stress response. (b) Compressive stress on midspan section C and end section A or B. the wooden staves in (c) might appear to be capable of separating as a result of the high internal radial pressure exerted on them. (c) Circular prestressing of a wooden barrel by tensioning the metal bands. (a) Linear prestressing of a series of blocks to form a beam.r=!::b~. (d) Circular hoop prestress on one wooden stave. they will remain in place. C (b) Sec. essentially follows the same basic principles as does linear prestressing.1 Prestressing principle in linear and circular prestressing. In (a). B / ~~I'\C' Circular prestressing Wooden staves Metal bands F A wooden barrel (c) (d) (e) F Figure 1. it is plain that permanent stresses in the prestressed structural member are created before the full dead and live loads are applied. But again.1 illustrates. and pressure reactor vessels. Circular prestressing.: Individual ~ : "ock' Longitudinal prestressing force Elevation (a) Sec. to be balanced by circular hoop prestress. the prestressing principle involved is commonly known as linear prestressing.1.1r'~ I fe fe i ~ : . pipes. in fact they will not because of the longitudinal force P.
Guideways consist of prestressed precast simple·span box girders 70 ft long and 11 ft wide.) . Bay Area Rapid Transit District. (Collrtesy.1. Th e reinforcement in the reinforced concrete member does not exert any force of its own on the member. Oakland.) and disregarded.1 Introduction 3 Photo 1. permitting a relatively high controlled recovery of cracking and denection. Cracking and denection are therefore essen tially irrecoverable in reinforced concrete once the member has reached its limit sta te at service load. Once the nex Photo 1. The steel required to produce the prestressing fo rce in the prestressed mem ber actively prc loads the member. Argentina. (Courtesy. The longest precast prestressed concrete cablestayed box girder bridge in South America. California. cont rary to the action of prestressing stee l. Ammann & Whitney. California.1 Bay Area Rapid Transit (BA ln).2 CharoCorrientes Bridge. This is because the tensile forces resulting from the bending moments are resisted by the bond created in the reinforcement process. Sll n Francisco and Oakland.
1. the di ffe rence between at least the in itial costs of prestressed and reinforced concrete systems is usua lly not very large. Flexible structures such as fender piles in wharves have to be highly energy absorbent. In general. Prestressed Concrete Institute. if a large enough number o f precast units are manufactured .) uraltcnsi le strength of the concrete is exceeded. regardless of the system used. can easily be made rigid through the con tribu tion of the prestressing force to the reduction of their o therwise []exible deformation behavior. such as machine foundations. (COIlflesy. si nce the geometry of prestressed sections is usually composed o f fl anged sections with th in webs. such a flex ibil ity in behavior is considerably more difficult to achieve if considera tions of economy are to be observed in the design. By controlling the amount of prestress. a structural system can be made eit her flexible o r rigid without infl ue ncing its strength. the prestressed member requires less concrete. In spite o f these additional costs. and prestressed concrete can provide the required resiliency. th is saving in material weight is balanced by the higher cost of the highe r quality materials needed in prestressing. and about 20 to 35 percent o f the amount of reinforcement.3 Park Towers. And the indirect longterm savings are quiIe substantial. Hence.1. the prestressed member starts to act like a rein forced concrete elemen t. Also. because less main tenance is needed.4 Chapler 1 Basic Concepts Photo 1. prest ressing operations themselves resu lt in an added cost: Formwork is more complex. a longer working life is possible due to . the depth of a prestressed concrete member is usually about 65 to 80 percent of the depth o f the eq uivalent rei nforced concrete member. In reinforced concrete. Tulsa. Unfortu nately. Oklahoma. Structures designed to withstand heavy vibrations.2 Economics of Prestressed Concrete Prestressed members are shaJ10wer in depth than their reinforced concrete counterparts for the same span and loading conditions.
consequently. H. Thus. E. Dill of Alexandria. Very large spans such as segmenta l bridges or cable. Steiner of the Uni ted Slates tried early in the twentieth century to solve this problem. 1. Nebraska. Hewett of Minneapolis developed the principles of circu lar prestressi ng.slayed bridges can olily be constructed through the usc of prestressing. Once the beam span of reinforced concrete exceeds 70 to 90 feet. rSee Figure l. R. prestressed concrete becomes mandatory sinee arches are expensive to construct and do not perform as well due to the severe longterm shrinkage and creep they undergo.j In 1888.I (a). W. H. but to no avail. W. (Collrtesy.2 Historical Development of Prestressing 5 better quality control of the concrete. In the early 1920s. for larger spans. the dead weight of the beam becomes excessive. C. Doehring of Germany obtained a patent for prestressing slabs with metal wires.2 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF PRESTRESSING Prestressed concrete is not a new concept. Lund of Norway and G. Maine.1. when P.4 Wiscasset Bridge. resulting in heavier members and. patented a prestressing system that used a tie rod to construct beams or arches from individual blocks. After a long lapse of lime during which lillIe progress was made because of the unavailability of highstrength steel to overcome prestress losses. PostTensioning Institute. He hoopstressed horizonta l reinforcement arou nd walls of COIlcrete tanks through the usc of turnbuckles to prevent cracking due to internolliquid pres Photo 1. greater longterm deflection and cracki ng. recognized the effect of the shrinkage and creep (transverse material flow) of concrete on the loss of prestress. R. But these early attempts at prestressing were not really successful beca use of the loss of the prestress with lime. dating back to 1872. J.) . He subscquenl ly developed the idea that successive posttensioning of Ill/boneleel rods would compensate for the timedependent loss of stress in the rods due to the decrease in the length of the member because of creep and shrinkage. Jackson. an engi neer from Cali fornia . and lighter foundations are achieved due to the smaller cumulative weight of the superstructure.
F. . Thereafter. particularly in continuous structures.) Executive Center. Magnel of Ghent . Guyon of Paris extensively developed and used the concept of prestressing for the design and construction of numerous bridges in western and central Europe. as it considerably simplified the design process. In 1940. Mikhai lov of Russia. The Magnel system also used wedges to anchor the prestressing wires. with thousands of tanks ofwater. Hawaii. They differed from the original Freyssinet wedges in that they were flat in shape. Lin of the United States also contributed a great deal to the art and scie nce of the design of prestressed concre te.5 tute.liquid. it became necessary to reconstruct in a prompt manner many of the main bridges that were destroyed by war activi ties. These twen tiet hcentury developments have led to the extensive usc of prestressing throughout the world. Linear prestressing con tinued to develop in Europe and in France. Lin's loadbalancing method deserves particular mention in this regard. Honolulu. Leonhardt of Germany. thereby achieving watertighteness. Y. G. During World War II and thereafter. who proposed in 1926 through 1928 methods to ove rcome prestress losses through the use of highstrength and highd uctility steels. and gas storage built and much mileage of prestressed pressure pipe laid in the two to three decades thai followed. Abeles of England introduced and deve loped the concept of partial prestressing between the 19305 and 1960s. prestressing of tanks and pipes developed at an accelerated pace in the United States. (Courtesy.6 Chapter 1 Basic Concepts Photo 1. accom· modating the prestressi ng of two wires at a time. V. Belgium. P. and T. in parlicular through the ingenuity of Eugene Freyssinet. and Y. he introduced the now wellknown and well accepted Freyssi net system comprising the conical wedge anchor for 12wirc tendons. and in the United States in particular. PostTensioning Insti sure. W.
Consider.2(a).) Today.6 Stratford "8" Condeep offshore oil drilling platform. nuclear reactor vessels.2) is determined from the principles of mechanics and of stressstrain relationships. the late Ben C. (Courtesy. Norway.and long·term losses in the prestressing forces.1 Introduction The prestressing force P that satisfies the particular conditions of geometry and loading of a given e lemen t (sec Figure 1. and the accumulated knowledge in estimating the short. prestressed concrete is used in buildings. TV towers. particu larly prestressing steel. The success in the deve lopmen t and construction of all these landmark structures has been due in no small measu re 10 the advances in the technology of materials. power stations. a simply supported rectangular beam subjected to a cOllcentric prestressing force P as shown in Figure 1. The compressive stress on the beam cross section is uniform and has an intensity . Note the va riety of prestressed structures in the photos throughou t the book: they demonstrate the versati lity of the prestressing concept and its allencompassing applications. 1. Gerwick. as when a prestressed beam is assumed 10 be homogeneous and clastic.3 BASIC CONCEPTS OF PRESTRESSING 1_ 3. Sometimes simplification is necessary. and numerous types of bridge systems including segmental and cablestayed bridges. noating storage and offshore structures. then. underground structures.3 Basic Concepts of Prestressing 7 Pholo 1.1.
and IOlallcllgth or 21. Inc. bend ing moments are drawn on the tensile side of the member.2a) (1. (Collrtesy. If external transverse loads are applied 10 Ihe beam. Figg and Muller Engineers.8 Chapter 1 Basic Concepts Photo 1. the bridge has a 1. the resulling stress becomes f' and = _ ~ _ Me A " ( 1. now FIGG Engineers) [ = P A. A minus sign is used for compression and a pillS sign fo r tension throughout the text. Tampa Bay. either elim i .2b) where f' = stress at the top fibers fb = stress at the bottom fibers e = i ll for the rectangular section Ig = gross moment of inertia of the section (bh 3/12 in this case) Equation J. A lso. (1.200fl cablc+slsyed main span with a single pylon.878 fL It has twin 4Oft roadways and has 135ft spans in precast segmen tal sections and high approaches to elevation + 130 ft. Florida.1 ) where Ac = bh is the crosssectional area of a beam section of wid th b and tota l depth II.2b indicates that the presence of prestressingcompressive stress ... Designed by Figg and Muller Engineers..7 Sunshine Skyway Bridge. Inc. 175ft vertical clearance. causing a maximum moment M at midspan.PIA is reducing the tensile Oexural stress Mdl to the exten t intended in the design.
2a at the top fibers of the beam due to prestressing are compounded by the application of the loading stress .2( c). (c) Eccentric tendon. (d). to induce tensile stresses at the top fibers due to prestressing. selfweight added. The compressive stresses in Equation 1.3 Basic Concepts of Prestressing 9 (d) A I I Figure 1. (d) Eccentric tendon. (a) Concentric tendon. In order to avoid this limitation.1.2(b).] If the tendon is placed at eccentricity e from the center of gravity of the concrete. nating tension totally (even inducing compression). as seen in Figure 1. the prestressing tendon is placed eccentrically below the neutral axis at midspan. prestress only.2 Concrete fiber stress distribution in a rectangular beam with straight tendon. Hence.Me/I. or permitting a level of tensile stress within allowable code limits. [See Figure 1. (b) Concentric tendon. termed the cgc line. the compressive stress capacity of the beam to take a substantial external load is reduced by the concentric prestressing force. it creates a moment Pe. selfweight added. prestress only. The section is then considered uncracked and behaves elastically: the concrete's inability to withstand tensile stresses is effectively compensated for by the compressive force of the prestressing tendon. and the ensuing stresses at midspan become .
These segments for Ihe main span were assembled in one directional cantilever from the main piers in just 47 days. achieved an average concrete st rength of 7600 psi. 1.. The bridge has 50. prestn:ssed concrete s pan over the Mississippi River. the concrete fiber stresses are directly computed from the external forces applied to the concrete by longitudinal prestressing and the ex terna ltrans\lerse load .. or eliminated altogether. the expreSSIOns for stress can be rewritten as follows: (a) Presfressing Force Ollly (1. where r is th e radius of gyra tion of the gross section . or e lse a negati\le eccen tricity abo\le the cgc line is used. This new interstate bridge was designed and built in II mon ths. (1.3:. the ecce ntricity of the prestressing tendon profile. + Pec _ At I. Substitu ting? for II A c in Equations 1. Mc I.. Minnesota.000 cubic yards of concre te and nearly 3 million pounds of posttensioning steel that runs the length of the twin 1. then 'Y =  P.2 14' bridges.) (1. (1.3.8 The new 135W bridge. Minneapolis.. openi ng on September 18. The span's 120 precast concrete segments.10 Chapter 1 Basic Concepts I'holo 1. Mc I. the IOlane interstate bridge has n 504 ' prccast.3. high tensile fiber stresses at the top fi bers are caused by the eccen tric prestressing force..3. Equations 1. 2(M)8. each 45' wide.2 Basic Concept Method In the basic concept method of designing prestressed concrete clements. up to 25' deep and weighing 200 tons.4a) . Since the support section of a simply supported beam carries no moment from the external trans\lerse load. (Courtesy of FlOG. To limit such stresses.3..) can be defined as the residual prestress factor. with 75' vcrlical clcarnnce. Designed by FlOG . and p~ is the e[fecti\le prestressing force after losses. P. and b can be modified and simplifi ed fo r use in ca lcula ting stresses at the initial prestressing stage and at ser\lice load le\lels. is made less at the support section than at the midspan section. If Pi is the initial prestressing force before stress losses.+  P A( Pec I.3b) fh = . the cgs litle. the bridge designer) f' = _.!.
respectively.5b) . and c" are the distances from the ce nter o f gravity of the section (the cgc line) to the extreme top and bottom fibers.5.) ( \.1. the largest span bridge in Asia . China.)_ S' r2 Mt) ( \. Engineer for project design and construction control guidance: Tianjin Municipal Engineering Survey and Design Institute.9 Tianjin YongHe cablestayed prestressed concrete bridge. (Credits Owner: Tianjin Municipal Engineering Bureau.3 Basic Concepts 01 Prestressing 11 Photo 1.535 ft. become f' and =. Bang·yan Yu. respectively. Chief Bridge Engineer.PI At (I _ee. Eq uations IAa and b. was completed in 1988. General contractor: Major Bridge Engineering Bureau of Ministry of Railways of China. with a total length of 1. (b) Prestressing PillS Selfweight If the beam selrweight causes a moment M n at the section undcr consideration.673 ft and a suspended length of 1.) (lAb) where c. Tianjin.
causing a superimposed moment Ms' The full intensity of such loads normally occurs after the building is completed and some timedependent losses in prestress have already taken place. a process called harping.3.g. such as flooring M L = moment due to live load. Figure 1. a process called draping. The change in eccentricity from the midspan to the support section is obtained by raising the prestressing tendon either abruptly from the midspan to the support. Hence.7a) fb eCb) MT = P e ( 1 + . Subsequent to erection and installation of the floor or deck.3(b) shows a draped tendon usually used in posttensioning. e.12 Chapter 1 Basic Concepts (a) lr¢d (b) Figure 1.5 then become (1. (a) Harped tendon. If it is exceeded. The prestressing force is considered an ex . 6W 1.4.6) where MD = moment due to selfweight MSD = moment due to superimposed dead load. It = at midspan in the ACI code. or gradually in a parabolic form. live loads act on the structure. Figure 1.3 Prestressing tendon profile..3(a) shows a harped profile usually used for pretensioned beams and for concentrated transverse loads. including impact and seismic loads if any Equations 1.7b) Some typical elastic concrete stress distributions at the critical section of a prestressed flanged section are shown in Figure 1. where Sf and Sb are the moduli of the sections for the top and bottom fibers. the prestressing force used in the stress equations would have to be the effective prestressing force Pe' If the total moment due to gravity loads is M T .2 + Ac r Sb (1. (b) Draped tendon.3 CLine Method In this lineofpressure or thrust concept. respectively. The tensile stress in the concrete in part (c) permitted at the extreme fibers of the section cannot exceed the maximum permissible in the code. bonded nonprestressed reinforcement proportioned to resist the total tensile force has to be provided to control cracking at service loads. then MT = M D + MSD + ML (1. the beam is analyzed as if it were a plain concrete elastic beam using the basic principles of statics.
ternal compressive force. Ac (1 _ eC. it is evident that the Cline. _ p.3 Basic Concepts of Prestressing 13 (a) 1fPi Ac ( 1+. (b) Addition of selfweight.2 . Equilibrium equations "'i.5 shows the relative line of action of the compressive force C and the tensile force T in a reinforced concrete beam as compared to that in a prestressed concrete beam.H = 0 and "'i. The moment is given by . (a) Initial prestress before losses.:) +S8 ' ec' Mo (b) _ p. (c) Service load at effective prestress. It is plain that in a reinforced concrete beam. Ac + f+ MSO + ML Sb (e) ( 1+. is at a varying distance a from the Tline. Figure 1.) _ Mo . S.2 Mso + ML S.4 Elastic fiber stresses due to the various loads in a prestressed beam. Ac ( 1+) eC b . or centerofpressure line. In this manner. The moment arm a remains basically constant throughout the elastic loading history of the reinforced concrete beam while it changes from a value a = 0 at prestressing to a maximum at full superimposed load.6. +Sb MO p.) _ Mr .) eC b ' .2 +Sb Mr Figure 1. the effects of external gravity loads are disregarded. 1f~ p.2 S.) eCb .2 +Sb MO Pi Ac (1 + . T can have a finite value only when transverse and other external loads act.1. with a constant tensile force Tin the tendon throughout the span. Taking a freebody diagram of a segment of a beam as in Figure 1. Ac (1 _ eC.M = 0 are applied to maintain equilibrium in the section.
e T (1.5 Comparative freebody diagrams of a reinforced concrete (R.C.8) and the eccentricity e is known or predetermined.C.C.9a) Since C = T. (b) P. beam with load WI.) beam and a prestressed concrete (P. (f) P.C. (a) R.C. beam with no load. giving e' From the figure. a.C.6. M = Ca = Ta e' = (1."""~ e _ C= P kl T kI/2~ = P 1r:f112~ (a) a=O (b) w= w1 tL_I_~~ (e) __I_tI I <t <t W= W 1 I e  ·e_e (d)  c=p =:E a = a1 = e T=P <t w=w I w=w <t I ki T (e) ___________ ~I = T2 k1 T (f) ··. a = MIT.10a) (1. (1. beam with typical load w. (c) R. beam with load WI.C. (d) P.. so that in Figure 1.e4~~ = ~+ P Figure 1.) beam.14 Chapter 1 Basic Concepts <t w= 0 <t w= 0 I I 4~ ___________ ~=t ~_4T=O e __ •  ·. (e) R. beam with typical load w.9b) .C.e (1.e4"". beam with no load.10b) = M .
3. A segmentally assembled precast prestressed concrete cablestayed bridge spanning 200900608 ft .!.e'Cb f. 1.1.~b) 1 +' r2 (1.I2a) (1. This technique is based on utilizing the vertical force of the draped or harped prestressing tendon to counteract or balance the imposed gravity loading to which a beam is subjected.4 LoadBalancing Method A third useful approach in the design (analysis) of continuous prestressed beams is the loadbalancing method developed by Lin and mentioned earlier.IIb) Pr P. ~+A( I( Since I( = Ar.11 a and b can be rewrillen as r [ b P =. Arvid Grant and Associates.12a and b and Equations 1. _ PoI! 'C. Photo 1.6 Freebody diagram for the Cline (cenler of pressure). it is appl icable 10 nonstraight prestressing tendons.7a and b should yield identical va lues for the fiber stresses.1 0 East Huntington Bridge over Ohio River. ( Ac = . (Courtesy.. A( I( (1.3 Basic Concepts of Prestressing 15 Figure 1.IIa) (1. But in the tendo n the (orce T eq uals the prestressing force Pr : so [' = _ p. Hence. Inc.I2b) Eq uations 1. Equations 1. : e'C) (I _e.) .
we have y=O =0 c=o B=O dy dx and for x = 112. as an approximation in longspan beams. The load balancing reaction R is equal to the vertical component of the prestressing force p.r~ . is taken to be equal to the full force P in computing the concrete fiber stresses at midspan of the simply supported beam. the load intensity is 4a A=[2 q= T 2 a2y ax (1..14) Finding 2PY/dX2 in Equation 1.8.16 Imposed load W Chapter 1 Basic Concepts .7 demonstrates the balancing forces for both harped. the actual horizontal component of P is used. The horizontal component of P.. y=a But from calculus.'t' (a) I mposed load W p~l:=l '~ P~tttl\l\~p (b) t t t t ttt t t t tt Figure 1.7 Loadbalancing forces. 1. the force T denotes the pull to which the tendon is subjected. Then for x = 0.1 LoadBalancing Distributed Loads and Parabolic Tendon Profile. I.. sider a parabolic tendon as shown in Figure 1.13 and substituting into Equation U4 yields q = T 4a X 2 [2 = 8Ta [2 (USa) y ttttttt T_. At other sections. .4. Figure 1. (a) Harped tendon. Let the parabolic function AX2 Con + Bx + C = y (U3) represent the tendon drape.8 Sketched tendon subjected to transverse load intensity q.and drapedtendon prestressed beams. a Figure 1.. (b) Draped tendon.3.
t PI~ Wb I t + t t t ege 1/2 +I c=p a T=P I Figure 1. This is reasonable to expect in the loadbalancing method.18 can be rewritten as the two equations f =  P' _ Mub Ac 51 (1.18) Equation 1.16) Figure 1.10 shows the superposition of stresses to yield the net stress. the two sets of equal and opposite transverse loads Wb cancel each other. . and no bending stress is produced.9 gives a freebody diagram of the forces acting on a prestressed beam with a parabolic tendon profile. without having a convex shape. a moment Mub = WubP/8 results at midspan. since it is always the case that T = C. or camber. Figure 1. the balancedload intensity. the beam remains straight. Note that the prestressing force in the loadbalancing method has to act at the center of gravity (cgc) of the support section in simply supported beams and at the cgc of the free end in the case of a cantilever beam. is Wb =y 8Pa (1. at the top face. and C has to cancel T to satisfy the equilibrium requirement that "LH = O. As there is no bending. The corresponding fiber stresses at midspan become fb t =  P' Mub C =fAc Ie (1.3 Basic Concepts of Prestressing 17 or q[2 T=8a q[2 (USb) (1.1Sc) Ta=8 Hence.1. is due to the force P' = P cos 8. which is constant. This condition is necessary in order to prevent any eccentric unbalanced moments. from Equation LISa. The concrete fiber stress across the depth of the section at midspan becomes f£ = .9 Loadbalancing force on freebody diagram. Clearly. When the imposed load exceeds the balancing load Wb such that an additional unbalanced load wub is applied.17) This stress.. if the tendon has a parabolic profile in the prestressed beam and the prestressing force is denoted by P.=~ P' C A A (1.19a) ct.
A series of hollow precast prestressed concrete 100foo\ box girders individually posttensioned 10 provide sixspan conti nuous structure.. (c) Balanced·load stresses. . (Collrtesy..e.12. Tacoma. (d) Net stress..10 Loadbalancing stresses.l9b) S" Equations 1. Chapter 1 Basic Concepts Photo 1. i. Florida.) and /. Designed by AllAM Engineers. + + ~ . (b) Imposedload stresses. Walt Disney World Corporat ion.19 will yield the sa me values of fiber stresses as Equations 1. P' M~b (1. A' ~ +7 Ibi ~ I ~ A' '" 1'1 Figure 1.7 and 1. (a) Prestress stresses.=+A ... Keep in mi nd that P' is laken to be equal to Pal the midspa n section beca use the prestressing force is horizontal at this section. 0 = O..11 Walt Disney World Monorail. .. Orlando. Washington.
45 f~ = maximum allowable compressive stress in concrete at service Assume that tenhn.13 kN/m).4 Computation of Fiber Stresses in a Prestressed Beam by the Basic Method 19 1.6 f~i = 2.347 cm4 ) r2 = lei Ac = 50.1 A pretensioned simply supported 10LDT24 double Tbeam without topping has a span of 64 ft (19.13 kN/m) f I" t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t ~ C9C~~ 64'0" (19.1 MPa) = concrete compressive strength at time of initial prestress fei = 0.034 MPa) It = 12 ~ = 930 psi (6.4 MPa) = maximum allowable tensile stress in concrete f~i = 4.915 cm 2) Ie = 22.517 MPa) = specified yield strength of the tendons fpe = 150.51 m) I 53/4" + ~ iJt tO~ing 10'0" ·1 +r 2" 24" ~ I 5'0" JtL3 Example 1.11 . It is subjected to a uniform superimposed gravity deadload intensity W SD and liveload intensity W L summing to 420 plf (6.800 psi (33. and the effective prestress after losses is fpe = 150.000 psi (1. 2 (2.000 psi (1.7mmdia strand) tendons with a 108D1 strand pattern are used to prestress the beam.51 m) and the geometry shown in Figure 1.862 MPa) = specified tensile strength of the tendons fpy = 220.dia.469 in.000 psi (1.1.2 Wso + WL =420 plf (6.70 fpu = 189.4 MPa) fpu = 270. stress relieved (1.303 MPa).1 j 314' Figure 1.000 psi (1.880 psi (19. The initial prestress before losses is fpi == 0. Compute the extreme fiber stresses at the midspan due to (a) the initial full prestress and no external gravity load (b) the final service load conditions when prestress losses have taken place. Ac = 449 in.4 COMPUTATION OF FIBER STRESSES IN A PRESTRESSED BEAM BY THE BASIC METHOD Example 1. lightweight (41.04 in.034 MPa).000 psi.000 psi. Allowable stress data are as follows: f~ = 6. Sevenwirestrand (ten 12. 4 (935.11.9 MPa) = maximum allowable stress in concrete at initial prestress fe = 0.
696 50. Gcrwick.+ A~ . the late Ben C.04 3.170 lb (1. = 10 X 0. = 6.11 Prestressed lightweight concrete midbody for Arctic onshore drilling platform. (249 kNm) From Equat ions 1.287 kN) 1'.77 in.) Ch = 17.77 X 17.5 a .20 Chapter 1 Basic Concepts Photo 1.2 <c.( 1 + .607 in.000 = 289. A~ (1 _ee.7.3 (20.2 0 = _ 289. = 1.7 14 em l ) SO = 3.5 and 1.264 .696 in.77 in..23 in.53 in.) _101S . (158 mm) t!" "" 14.45kN/ m) SolUlion: (i) Initial Conditio"s at Prestress ing A . (375 mm) 7. (452 mm) c.153 = 1.2.020 kN) The midpan selfweight deadload moment is MI) =""""8 = I' = W/ 2 359 (64f 8 x 12 .205.IOS ern) lVo = 359 plf (4.77 X 6.500 lb ( I.77) + 2. (Collrtesy.000 = 229.53 X 189.205.23) _ 2.3 .lb.P.04 1.607 +540.. (197 mm) f!~ = 51>:: 1264 in .611.170 ( 449 :I _ 14. AI" 16=.205.77 in.70 psi {q P.696 I 50.3 (59. Global Mari ne Development.2 1)/ = Ap>h' = 1. 170( 449 I + 14.53 X 150. .) Sb =_289.
08 X 17.23) = _ .77 = 6. Ib = Pe ( 1 Ac eCb) MT +.580.2 229.277 psi (C) :S lei = 2.000 = 2.786. 50.607 = +429 .1.77 X 17.1.85 lll.04 .176 in. O.176 449 50.85 .880 psi allowed. 50.786 == +594 psi (T) (5.2 = _ 229.786.205.14.77) + 4. Midspan moment due to superimposed dead and live (ii) Final Condition at Service Load load is MSD + ML = 420 (64f .786.5 CLine Computation of Fiber Stresses 21 = 4.594 pSI (T) 449 1 Notice how the Cline method is shorter than the basic method used in Example 1.696 + 2.1 + 1. = MT 4. From Equations 1.500 (1 + 14. 229.lb.77) = + .264 = _ 229. (541 kNm) _ Pe I I = _ Ac = _ (1 _ec l) MT SI .2 12V"il = 930 psi.K.08 in.+? Sb 50.500lb MT = 4. Solution: P e = 229.K.745.500 ( _ 6.04 . 8 X 12 = 2.500 (1 _ 14.176 449 = .23) _ 4.500 ( 449 1 + 6. O.1. O.176 in.3.022.04 3.2 MPa) <It = 1.786.580.700 psi.lb Total Moment MT = 2.08 X 6.45 X 6. Cline method.176 .04 1.5 CLlNE COMPUTATION OF FIBER STRESSES Example 1.898 pSI (C) = _ 229.12.1 for the final serviceload condition by the lineofthrust. e' = a .192 + 3.lb a= P.77 X 6.480 = 4.e = 20.500 = 20.0 == 2. .K. Solve example 1.786.327 == 898 psi (C) (7 MPa) <Ie = 0.480 lll. r P = " Ae (1 e'c) + _I .
1 kN/m) Thus. Mobi le County.. Post Tensioning Institute. .1 3 Dauphin Island Bridge.500 x 1.22 Chapter 1 Basic Concepts Photo 1.(I)' = 227(64)' 8 x 12 ...688 in. .552 = 227 plf Unbalanced moment Moo/> . we have W = 8 PII = 8 x 229.394.) 1. Total load to which the beam is subjected = WI) + IV. 1.6 LOADBALANCING COMPUTATION OF FIBER STRESSES Example 1. . 359 + 420 = 779 plf Unbalanced load Woo/> " 779 . = 229... (Collrtesy.500 Ib at midspan AI midspan.SD + \til.231 (64)2 b P = 552 pI[ (8...19.7r .231 ft For the balancing load.8  W.1.14. Solulion: P' = P. if the lo tal gravity load would have been 552 piC only the axial load P' I A would act if the beam had a parabolically draped tendon with no eccentricity at Ihe supports.1 for the final service load condition after losses using the loadbalancing method.. Hence.Ib From Equations 1. Alabama. (j = e~ . This is because the gravity load is balanced by the tcndon althe midpan.3 Solve Example 1.
394. C.7 SI WORKING LOAD STRESS CONCEPTS Example 1.9 million Kg.. = 0.511 So.1.511 .14 Heidrun Onsho re Oil Drill ing Pla tform in the North Se<l weighing 2. CONOCO Inc" Houston.860MP<I [pi "" 0. K. I".A c + s::=~+ 1264 "" ." 229.520 MPa . = 930 psi allowcd.U D ura I. span beams (Collrtesy.1 using 51 units SIn. I" '"' 41AM Pa I.4 Solvc Example 1. + 1. E. It measures 110 m on each side. O.104 i 11 594 psi (T) f.70/".70 x 1860 = BOO MPa 1.7 SI Wof1(ing Load Stress Concepts 23 Photo 1.. 1.. has four slipform constructed hulls and modulcsupport SOft.500 1..) :: .387 ii11898 psi (C) p' M. . Texas.. Morrison.688 [ b=.
000 tons o f prestressing tendons.5 Hibernia Platform.1.346 em 2 fl = fJ A r '" 323cmz .8f~ i d = 0.45 t. is deflection check O . Dr. first platform designed for iceberg impacts (Collrtesy.) I. 1997: 80 rn water depth.6 /:' '' 19. George C. = 10 tendo ns 17. Newfoundland. 1 MPa frla O. = j.000 m3• 70 MPa stre ngth concrete and 8. Hoff.7 rum diameter = 10 x 99mm 2 = 990 mm1 Sution G~om t!I'y Try IOS01 Strand Pattern A r = 2897 cm t Ie = 935.K . = 6. = 18.4 MPfl. if no check made on deflection = 33.9 MPa fr = 0.24 Chapler 1 Basic Concepts Photo 1. usc ~vt. 165.. '" /. = 1..6 MPa A . Grand Banks. Mobile Research and Development Corp.034 MPa VJ.
024 kN PI = Atnfp< "" P.= 19.713 cm' WI) = 5. courtesy Robert Mas t. Chainnan) Cb = 45. = AJ M = 900 x 1034 Midspan selfweight deadload moment w/ 2 5.303 ::: 1. Washington.74cm S = 59. Seattle Was hington: a 1200ft long by 4Oft wide pier consisting of 20ftlong prestressed concrete deck panel supported by situcast concrete pile caps and prestressed concrete piles (Designed by BERGER/ADAM Engineers.5 em e.24 kN/ m W SD + WL = 6. 1 em C.16 Pier 37 Re build.13kN/ m 1 = 19.5 1'I Mo = = "" 249kNm 8 8 .1.1 08 cm' Sb = 20.290 kN = 1. Initial conditions at prestressing Ap< = 990 mm 2 990 x 1. Federal Way.5Im Solution: I.7 SI Working Load Stress Concepts 25 Photo 1. "" 15.Scm ec = 37.24 (19.
=P.5 x 45.0. 2002.5 MPa (C) From Equation l.5 x I(f N/ m2 "" 0.5 x 15. DcsignfBuild contrllctors.."'. San Francisco.K. ( 1 +. c: m Photo 1. 3'. Design Architects: ElkusiManfredi.(I _ec) _M.42 kN/cm1 = .!:!.1) 12 _ 2897 323 + 249 x lcrkN.8) _ 249 x 1(12 kN. (Courtesy Charles Pankow LId. 1. Executive Architect: Kwan Hcnmi.cm 2897 323 59. Owner: The Related Companies) .+Sb A< 2 ~ ___90 ( 1 + 37. .37 . </# in tension < Id' O. CA: the lirs! hybrid precast prestressed concrete mome ntresistant 39 noor highrise frame building in high seismicity zone. Inc.) At.I08cm1 = +0. Ae r S "" _ 1290 (I _ 37.1 7 Paramount Apartments. <c.1b. Structural Engineers: Roben Englckirk Inc.26 From Equation 1.. Chapter 1 Basic Concepts f' = _..1 a.cm ="20 ...0."'"= ::.
f. Final condition at service load W SDH.11..108 em) "" +0.18 Rendering of the New Maumee River Bridge. /' =_ P«I Ac _ ec) _ . single plane of stays..1 Mr S = _ 1024 (I 2897 _ 37.1. "" _ 1024 (I + 375 X 45. 2. "" .9 MPa.20 + 2. The design includes a unique single pylon clad with glass emitting LED arrays at night. From Eq. .92 kN/ em 2 =. O.13(1951 f 8 = 292 kNm Total Moment M r= 343 + 292 = 635 kN . and a main span of 612 feet in both directions.3 MPa (C) < From Equation 1.33 + 1.23 kN/ cm2 .7 51 Working Load 51ress Concepts 27 Photo 1.6 MPa.1) + 541 x IOZ kNcm 2897 323 20.6.16) x 101 N/ m2 = +4. K. = 6. '" Vi. 1.8) _ 323 541 X IOZ kNcm 59. FIGG Engineers of Tallahassee. allowf ~ '" 18.29 . Courtesy of the designer. Florida.7a.K. = 6.3 x l{f N/ ml =. = 6. 1 MPa (7) < allow.7 13cm3 = (2. O.4 MPa.6. Toledo.2.0MPa (C) < allowablcfrl = 19. 1 X l{f N/ m1 = 4.0 X 1(1' N/ m2 = I 1. I3kN/ m M SDH.7b. O.K.5 X 15.0.m.
Limit State Design of Prestressed Concrete.1 Freyssinet. John Wiley & Sons. K.10 Magnel. and BardhanRoy. 1..6 kN/m). "Patents and Code Relating to Prestressed Concrete.. B. G. G. 1942.713724.4 cm) deep. 1948. E.12 Nawy..000 psi (41. NJ: 2009. and Burns.13 Nawy.9 Institution of Structural Engineers. Prestressed Concrete Designer's Handbook. E. Prestressed Concrete. "Some Experience with Prestressed Steel in Small Concrete Units.1950. Y. 1. editorinchief. Its cross section is shown in Figure P1.4 m) and is 36 in. CRC Press. 2008.11 Abeles.28 Chapter 1 Basic Concepts SELECTED REFERENCES 1. New York. New York. McGraw Hill. 1560 p. Y. R. 1. Upper Saddle River.4 Lin. New York. Concrete Construction Engineering Handbook. London. FL. London: Cement and Concrete Association. HalstedWiley. 2nd ed. W. Fundamentals of High Performance Concrete. pp. 2nd ed." Journal of the Institution of Structural Engineers. E. 1. c. 1.591 p. 1972.dia stressrelieved sevenwire strands to resist the applied gravity load and the selfweight of the beam.1 .5 Nawy. E.7 Naaman.. Viewpoint Publications. Maximum permissible stresses are as follows: f. fe = 6.8 Dill. C. A. 3d ed. 1. N. Reinforced ConcreteA Fundamental Approach. The Birth of Prestressing. Boca Raton. G..2 Guyon. 1. vol. John Wiley & Sons. 1. 6th ed. assuming that the tendon eccentricity at midspan is ee = 13. 1981. 1982.12 in. T. New York." Journal of the American Concrete Institute 46. Prestressed Concrete Analysis and Design.. 1. 165168.600 plf (52.. (333 mm)." Journal of the American Concrete Institute 38. PROBLEMS 1. It is SUbjected to a liveload intensity W L = 3.6 Dobell. 1954. (91. 460. G.1.4 MPa) = 0. B.45f~ ~ 6" 3" 1'0" 3'0" 1'3" 6" 6" I 1'6" I Figure P1. 2001. September 1951.1 An AASHTO prestressed simply supported Ibeam has a span of 34 ft (10. "First Report on Prestressed Concrete. Construction of Prestressed Concrete Structures. Cement and Concrete Association. Design of Prestressed Concrete Structures. PrenticeHall. 1. WileyInterscience. H. 3d ed. Determine the required!in. P. 936 p. 1981. E. 1. London: Public Translation. Jr. 1. New York.3 Gerwick. E. 1993. 1.
7 m) span and a superimposed live load W L = 2.35 in.527 in3 W D = 384 plf W L = 3.621 in. 25.862 MPa) !pi = 189. 14'11 3/4" 2'10" rl=1 r 12'r 4' FS'8 7 18' ~I· .000 psi (1.96 in. and verify whether they are within the permissible limits.600 plf Solve the problem by each of the following methods: (a) Basic concept (b) Cline (c) Load balancing 1.4 MPa) !pu = 270.000 MPa) The section properties.3 m) and the geometrical dimensions shown in Figure P1.2 kN/m).303 MPa) !pe = 145.4 Cb c. and the prestressing tendon has an eccentricity at midspan of ec = 19.3 A simply supported pre tensioned pretopped double T beam for a floor has a span of 70 ft (21. I I S'8 7 18" : I ill I . It is subjected to a gravity liveload intensity = 480 plf (7 kN/m).1. 1.45 in. Compute the concrete extreme fiber stresses in this beam at transfer and at service load. Assume that all permissible stresses and materials used are the same as in example 1. are: Ac = 369 in2 19 = 50. = 930 psi (6. (494 mm).128 in. Sb = 3.3 TIl I . Figure P1.83 in. VIS 4274 in.000 psi (1.3.000 psi (1. The section properties are: WL Section Properties Ac 1185 in. 7'6" ~I( .700 psi (19.000 plf (29.2 Solve problem 1.979 in4 r Cb = lelAc = 138 in2 = 15. 3 1234 plf 82 psf 2. 2 19 109. . 3 13. 8.7 MPa) fr = 12y1j.Problems = 29 2.65 in.1 for a 45 ft (13.220 in 3 S' = 2.
9 MPa) fpe = 165.000 psi (1.4 iff e = 7. 4 Ie ? = leiAe = 73.6 in.000 psi (1.000 psi (34. It has a span of 36 ft (11 m). Sb = 2. Then given that f~ = 5.109 in.138 MPa) the section properties are as follows: Ae = = 504 in 2 37.7mmdia) sevenwire stressrelieved strands.5 MPa) It = 12~ = 849 psi (5. 2 Cb = 12. . sevenwire stressrelieved strands Aps = 24LT30 :If + ==~___~ll 6" 30" [. (244 mm).2'0"1 r=1 1'0" Figure P1.5 Solve problem 1.4 A Tshaped simply supported beam has the cross section shown in Figure Pl.3 MPa) andfpe = 160.5 kN/). twelve ~in.43 in. Use the three methods of analysis discussed in this chapter in your solution.30 Chapter 1 Basic Concepts Design the prestressing steel needed using !in.103 MPa). 3 Sf = 2. 1.500 plf (36.4 1. and is prestressed with twelve !in.dia (twelve 12.dia. 3 W D = 525 plf ee = 9. is loaded with a gravity liveload unit intensity W L = 2.dia stressrelieved sevenwire strands.5 in.981 in.000 psi (48.6 in. Compute the concrete fiber stresses at service load by each of the following methods: (a) Basic concept (b) Cline (c) Load balancing Assume that the tendon eccentricity at midspan is ee = 9.059 in.4.
is a major conSlit uent of all prestressed concrete elements. quality contfol.MATERIALS AND SYSTEMS FOR PRESTRESSING 2.1 CONCRETE 2. (COlirtesy. iI's st rength and longterm endurance have to be ach ieved through proper quality control and quali ty assurance al Ihe production stage.2 Parameters Affecting the Quality of Concrete St rength and endu rance arc two major qualities that are particularly importan t in prestressed concrete structures. and code requirements. Hence.) 31 . Inc.1 . Longterm detrimental effects can rapidly reduce the prestressing forces and could resu lt in unexpected failure .1. Arvid Grant and Associates. Segmentally assembled prestressed concrete cable·stayed bridge. spans 407981407 rt.1 Introduction Concrete. 2. Numerous texts arc available o n concrete production. The followi ng discussion is intended to highligh t the topics directly related to concrete in prestressed elements and systems. Hence. it is assumed that the reader is already fam iliar with the fundamenta ls of concrete and reinforced concrete. measu res have to be taken to ensure strict quality control and quality assurance at the various stages of production PascoKennewick Intercity Bridge. particu larly highstrength concrete.
32 Chapter 2 Materials and Systems for Prestressing Appropriate cement type: low C3 A. The following subsections present some details on these properties. and shear. as measured by the modulus of elasticity. Depending on the type of mix. and the time and quality of the curing. The longterm properties can be classified in terms of creep and shrinkage. homogeneous concrete High strength Wearresisting aggregate Good surface texture Good quality of paste Low w/c ratio Optimal cement content Sound aggregate. 2. and K 2 0 Resistance to weathering and chemicals Resistance to wear deterioration Appropriate cement type Low wlc ratio Proper curing Alkal iresistant aggregate Suitable admixture Use of superplasticizers or polymers as admixtures Air entrainment Low wlc ratio Proper curing Dense. free lime. low Na 2 0.1.1 Principal properties of good concrete_ and construction as well as maintenance.000 psi or more. Commercial production of concrete with ordinary ag . grading and vibration Low air content Large max i mu m aggregate size Efficient grading Minimum slump Minimum cement content Optimal automated plant operation Admixtures and entrained air Quality assurance and control Figure 2. compressive strengths of concrete can be obtained up to 20.1 Compressive Strength.1 shows the various factors that result in goodquality concrete. Figure 2.3. and stiffness. the properties of aggregate.1. MgO. The shortterm properties are strength in compression. 2.3 Properties of Hardened Concrete The mechanical properties of hardened concrete can be classified into two categories: shortterm or instantaneous properties. tension. and longterm properties.
The tensile strengt h of concrete is relatively low. highepoxycemcnl contcnt. the ACI code specifies using the average of two cyli nders from the same sample tested at the same age.2 Tensile Strength. rather than the tensile splitting strength /. or Brazilian. having a . specimen B. should not be the average cylinder strength. A good approximation for the tensile slrength / tl is 0. square in cross section. the most com· monly used method being the cylinder splitting.1 Concrete cylinders tested to failure in compression.1 Concrete 33 Photo 2. <In < 0. and (2) no individual stre ngth test (average of two cyli nders) falls below the requ i red/ ~ by more than 500 psi. by 12 in. A number of methods are avai lable for tension testi ng.000 psi level. and Sauer. For a strength test.3. by an amount that depends on the uniformity of plant production. but rather the minimum conceivable cylinder strength. (Tests by Nawy.000 psi. The average concrete strength for which a concrete mixture must be designed should exceed I.) gregale is usually in the range 4. cylinders cured under sta ndard laboratory conditions and tested at a specified rate of loading at 28 days of age. Sun. 2. lowepoxycemcnt contcnt. the value of the modulus of rupture /. The strength of concrete in the actua l structure may not be the same as that of the cyli nder because of the difference in compaction and curing cond itions.1. The compressive strength I. As fo r the frequency of testing. the code specifi es that the strength of an individual class of concrete can be con· sidered satisfactory if (1) the average of all sets of three consecuti ve strength tests equals or exceeds the required I~.20/. The standard specifica tions used in the United States are usually taken from ASTM C39. is based on standard 6 in.10/. test. is used in design. which is usua ll y 28 days. It is more difficult to measure tensile stre ngth than compressive strength because of the gripping problems with testing machines. The modul us of rupture is measured by testing to failure plain concrete beams 6 in. For members subjected to bending.2. Note that the design I. Specimcn A. with the most common concrete strengths being in the 6.000 to 12..
In most cases.2 Electron microscope photographs of concre te from specimens A and B in the preceding photograph.34 Chapter 2 Materials and Systems for Prestressing Photo 2. The modulus of rupture has a higher val ue than the tensile spJiuing strength. and loaded at their third poin ts (ASTM C78). The following are the code stipulations for lightweight concrete: .5 for Vi:: the modulus o f rupture of normalweight concrete.) span of 18 in . ligh tweight concrete has a lower tensile strength than does normalweight concrete.. The ACI specifics a val ue of 7. (Tests by Nawy el al.
5 v'j. Con trol of a structural design by shear strength is significan t only in rare cases. If fef is not specified. If the splitting tensile strength fel is specified.1 Concrete 35 Photo 23 Fracture surfaces in tensile splilling tests of concretes with different wlc contents. 2. varying from 20 percent of the compressive strengt h in normal loading to a considerably higher percentage of up to 85 percent of the compressive strength in cases where direct shear exists in combi nation with compression. . Shear strength is more difricull to determine experimentally than the tests discussed previously because of the difficulty in isolating shear from other stresses.85 for sandl ightweight concrete. hence more bond fai lures than specimen CV I. since shear stresses must ordinarily be limited to continually lower va lues in order to protect the concrete from failure in diagonal tension. (Tests by Nawy el at) 1. This is one of the reasons for the large va riation in shearstrength values reported in the literature.09/" s 7.75 for alllightweigh t concrete and 0.3 Shear Strength. /.3. (2.1 . use a factor of 0.2. Linear interpolation may be used for mixlUres of natural sand and lightweight fine aggregate. ~ 1. Specimens CI and elv have higher II'lccontent.1) 2.
The ACI building code gives the following expressions for calculating the secant modulus of elasticity of concrete. the material loses a large portion of its stiffness. (2) the length of the initial relatively linear portion increases with the increase in the compressive strength of concrete. cracks parallel to the direction of loading become distinctly visible. It can be observed that (1) the lower the strength of concrete. satisfies the practical assumption that strains occurring during loading can be considered basically elastic (completely recoverable on unloading). thereby increasing the curvilinearity of the diagram.2 Typical stressstrain curve of concrete. This value. and that any subsequent strain due to the load is regarded as creep. Figure 2.2a) where we is the density of concrete in pounds per cubic foot (1Ib/ft3 = 16.02 kg/m3) and f~ is the compressive cylinder strength in psi. the higher the failure strain. 2. Ee = 33w~·5~ for 90 < We < 1551b/ft3 (2. Young's modulus of elasticity can be applied only to the tangent of the curve at the origin.4 is curvilinear at a very early stage of its loading history. At ultimate load. can essentially be considered linear for all practical purposes. . and most concrete cylinders (except those with very low strengths) suddenly fail shortly thereafter.4 f~) determines the secant modulus of elasticity of concrete.2 shows a typical stressstrain curve obtained from tests using cylindrical concrete specimens loaded in uniaxial compression over several minutes.36 Chapter 2 Materials and Systems for Prestressing Strain. Figure 2.3 MODULUS OF ELASTICITY AND CHANGE IN COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH WITH TIME Since the stressstrain curve shown in Figure 2. For normalweight concrete. The first portion of the curve. to about 40 percent of the ultimate strength f~. and it is also possible to construct a tangent modulus at any point of the curve. The slope of the straight line that connects the origin to a given stress (about 0. termed in design calculation the modulus of elasticity. After approximately 70 percent of the failure stress.3 shows the stressstrain curves of concrete of various strengths reported by the Portland Cement Association. The initial slope of the tangent to the curve is defined as the initial tangent modulus.2 STRESSSTRAIN CURVE OF CONCRETE Knowledge of the stressstrain relationship of concrete is essential for developing all the analysis and design terms and procedures in concrete structures. and (3) there is an apparent reduction in ductility with increased strength. € Figure 2. E e. 2.
002 0...._____ Analytical 7000 •• . 8000 III cii 6000 ~ 2000 A 'II.002 Strain (in....T. ~ 4000 cii ~ 3000 .._ '. Co) .003 Strain (in... "....000 f~ = 11.~.. compressive 2000 strength (psi) 0...! Figure 2.!in.00_ Experimental f~.450 5000 10.ori~"~1 600_ Analytical f~.!in..... compressive strength (psi) 6000 12.000 ....3 Stressstrain CUNes for various concrete strengths...001 0.6.001 0.! f' = 1900 4000 ~} .... f' = 930 c / ~~ 0. c.. ..f.
3a) where f ~ =psi and we = Ib/ft3 or Ee (MPa) = [3. Steel cylinder molds size 4 in.700~ MPa) or (2. modifying the mixture components for the workability needed in concrete placement.32vr.000 to 12. € Figure 2.1 HighStrength Concrete Highstrength concrete is termed as such by the ACI 318 Code when the cylinder compressive strength exceeds 6. length have to be used.000 (138206 MPa).000~ psi (4.4 MPa).000~ + 106 ] ( 14~ W )1.11.35.5 mm) and pozzolamic cementitious partial replacements for the cement such as silica fume. Today. (9.38 Chapter 2 Materials and Systems for Prestressing Strain. It is also necessary to . For concrete having compressive strengths 6. For strengths in the range of 20. (diameter) x 8 in. + 6.3b) where f~ = MPa and we = Kg/m3. Such strengths can be obtained in the field under strict quality control and quality assurance conditions.000 psi (138 MPa) is easily achieved using a maximum stone aggregate size of i in.b) 2. 2. the expressions for the modulus of concrete (Refs.2. In all these cases.5 (2.000 psi (4284 MPa). Ee = 57.895] ( 23.000 psi (41. concrete strength up to 20.0 W )1. mixture design has to be made by several field trial batches (five or more).5 (2. other constituents such as steel or carbon fibers have to be added to the mixture. applying the appropriate dimensional correction.4 Tangent and secant moduli of concrete.38) Ee (psi) = [40. 2.000 to 30.3. 2.
. Water contained as part of the emulsion must be subtracted from the total water allowed. The general expression for the compressive strength as a function of time (Ref.1 2. and testing of the concrete at early ages. Corrective measures should be taken immediately.4a) Table 2.000 psi (84 MPa). R. or to apply the load directly to the ground ends of the cylinder or through a removable steel cap with a hard neoprene pad bearing directly on the ground specimen ends. Grace Dartard Mighty 40 150 (ozl100 Ib cement) 1872 1894 (1805) 1165 1165 (1100) 957 956 (950) 217 217 (w/c = 0. 2. with the design mixture values in parentheses.11. Prestressed concrete prisms of highstrength concrete were used in lieu of the normal mild steel bar reinforcement. it is important to determine the concrete compressive strength f~i at the prestressing stage as well as the concrete modulus Ec at the various stages in the loading history of the element. Washington (Ref. (100150 mm).2.0) 9. The mixture proportions in Ib/yd 3 were as shown in Table 2. age plot for the indicated mixture based on 4 in. x 8 in.) (Ib) Fine aggregate (paving sand) (Ib) Cement (Ib) Water (Ib) Silica fume (gal) W. The mixture was designed for a sevenday compressive strength of 12.2. A slump of 8 in. Concrete achieved in some of the mixtures a 7 day strength of 13. The prestressing strands were stressrelieved 270K (1900 MPa) 7 wire !in. cylinder tests is shown in Figure 2. The ratio of the cementations/fine/coarse aggregate was 1:1.3 Modulus of Elasticity and Change in compressive Strength With Time 39 grind the cylinder ends.37) on highstrength composite construction has resulted in considerable enhancement of the ductility of highstrength reinforced concrete beams.2 Initial Compressive Strength and Modulus Since prestressing is performed in most cases prior to concrete's achieving its 28 days' strength.1 Mixture Proportions for f~ > 18.1 (6.8 16. Mockup placement of the highstrength concrete is advisable in order to evaluate the construction procedures and performance of the concrete in field conditions and to identify potential problems with batching.06 and the slump varied between 4 to 6 in. then cap them with high strength capping compound for load testing. (9. 2.000 psi (138 MPa) at 56 days and a concrete modulus Ec = 7. Seattle. A typical compressive vs.5.8 X 106 psi (53.250 psi (91.18) is p _ J ci  a + I3t J c t f'I (2.4 (Up to 24) aWeight of solid silica fume only.22 resulted from the mix proportions indicated. 2.000 PSI Superplasticizer Coarse aggregate Oin.5 mm) diameter strands.22:2. Preparation of the cylinders should resemble as closely as possible the field conditions of concrete placement. placement.8 x 103 MPa) is the Two Union Square Building. Figure 2. Actual typical mixture obtained is listed in Table 2. with w/c = 0. 2.36.3.6 shows the cross section of the composite beams. Recent work at Rutgers (Refs.22) 13 13 (70 Ib)a 2.38). 2.2. The tested specimens were instrumented with a fiberoptic system developed by the author using Bragg Grating sensors both internally and externally. A good example of the use of highstrength concrete in the range 20.4 MPa).1.
00 for steamcured typeI cement and 0.:. . 12 11 Age at test (days) Figure 2.70 for steamcured typeIII cement 13 = factor depending on the same parameters for ex giving corresponding values of 0..98.92.00 + 0.00 for moistcured typeI cement and 2.000 Liquid super plasticizer (Grace) Water (1) (2) (3) (4) 288 (5) 180 (6) 1851 1 Jb/yd = 0. .000 PSI Fine aggregate (natural sand) Portland cement type III Powder silica fume force10.30 for moistcured typeIII cement = 1. f~i = t 1:' 4.85t c (2Ab) Table 2.0. where f~ = 28 days' compressive strength t = time in days ex = factor depending on type of cement and curing conditions = 4. E 0 c t: u ~ u .2 Coarse aggregate 3· a ln . respectively Hence. and 0.40 21 20 19 0 Chapter 2 Materials and Systems for Prestressing 0 18 17 16 15 14 13 x 'Vi c.59 Kg/m3 3 1100 720 54 .~ t: '" ~ > '" '" 5. for a typical moistcured typeI cement concrete. Mixture Proportions in Ib/yd3 For Composite Beams f~ > 13..85.95.5 Compressive strength versus age of highstrength concrete..0..
. ..~. C3) B~ (C4) Figure 2.. 2. "'" ..0· ( 2 2 • I~ N o ~ ~ 0 ~ b ~ AA (Cl) AA (C2) AA (C3.37).60 W 48" 48W B 4 #3@4w p B 6.0 W p I:·I~ 10B.6 (Ref...OW ~J... Highstrength flanged sections reinforced with prestressed concrete prisms instrumented with fiberoptic sensors .. g en BB (Cl. C4) ~I~ . C2. 2 rxrprism J 1#5 10B.Ow ·I~:I Jrn ( 6.
the water/cement ratio. and temperature.5) and the ultimate effec tive modulus is given by £ <II =~ I + "'it (2.25 ( 10065 100  11 ) (2.4 Scanning electron microscope photograph of concrete fractu re surface. the modulus o f elasticity needs to be determined from test results.42 Chapler 2 Materials and Systems for Prestressing Photo 2.) whe re "VI is the creep ratio defi ned as 'VI = ultimate creep strai n elastic stra in The creep ratio 1.6b) " ~ 0.6. .6c) where H is the mean humidity in percent. and tanks. and Sauer. (Tests by Nawy. It has to be pointed out that these expressions arc va lid only in generallenns. since the va lue of the modulus of elasticity is affected by factors other than loads. Sun. the agc of the concrete. such as mois· lU re in the concrete specimen. tunne ls. fo r special structu res such as arches.75 + 0. E~. The refore.) T he effective modulus of concrete.75 + 2. is £' = C stress elasl'ic strain + creep strain (2.75 ( 50 H) (2. has upper and lower limits as follows for prest ressed q uali ty can· crete: Upper: Lower: "11 = 1.
jin. The upper limit of the relationship cannot be determined accurately. t Figure 2. Figure 2. It is. since the initial recorded deformation includes few timedependent effects. .7 illustrates the increase in creep strain with time. and as in the case of shrinkage.jin. 2. Numerous tests have indicated that creep deformation is proportional to applied stress. or lateral material flow. 10 6 in. 10. Since creep is time dependent.6 in.jin.500 X 10. while the additional strain due to the same sustained load is the creep strain.4 CREEP Creep. This practical assumption is quite acceptable. the three types of strain discussed that result from sustained compressive stress and shrinkage.8 qualitatively shows. EE (elastic strain) Time. Ee Shrinkage strain after 1 year.2. Figure 2. The initial deformation due to load is the elastic strain. Ec = = = Et = 250 X 500 X 750 X 1. but the proportionality is valid only for lowstress levels. this model has to be such that its orthogonal axes are deformation. Total strain (Et) = elastic strain (Ee) + creep (Ec) + shrinkage (Esh) An example of the relative numerical values of strain due to the foregoing three factors for a normal concrete specimen subjected to 900 psi in compression is as follows: Immediate elastic strain. it can be seen that creep rate decreases with time. Esh Creep strain after 1 year. Although shrinkage and creep are not independent phenomena. however. Creep cannot be observed directly and can be determined only by deducting elastic strain and shrinkage strain from the total deformation.6 in. These relative values illustrate that stressstrain relationships for shortterm loading lose their significance and longterm loadings become dominant in their effect on the behavior of a structure. is the increase in strain with time due to a sustained load. hence. but can vary between 0.jin. and time.7 Straintime curve.6 in.2 and 0.5 of the ulti E. in a threedimensional model. stress.4 Creep 43 Limited work exists on the determination of the modulus of elasticity in tension because the lowtensile strength of concrete is normally disregarded in calculations. valid to assume within those limitations that the value of the modulus in tension is equal to that in compression. it can be assumed that superposition of strains is valid. 10.
. This range in the limit of the proportionality is due to the large extent of microcracks at about 40 percent of the ultimate load. As in the case of shrinkage. In a similar manner.9b illustrates a section parallel to the plane containing the time and strain axes at a stress f1. creep is not completely reversible.44 Chapter 2 Materials and Systems for Prestressing Figure 2.  (a) (b) Figure 2. mate strength f~. hence.9 (a) Section parallel to the stressdeformation plane.8 Threedimensional model of timedependent structural behavior. it shows the familiar relationships of creep with time and shrinkage with time. called creep recovery. (b) Section parallel to the deformationtime plane. . The extent of the recovery .8 parallel to the plane containing the stress and deformation axes at time t1 • It indicates that both elastic and creep strains are linearly proportional to the applied stress.9a shows a section of the threedimensional model in Figure 2. an immediate elastic recovery is obtained which is less than the strain precipitated on loading. If a specimen is unloaded after a period under a sustained load. Figure 2. Figure 2.~ o c: Total deformation under a stress '1 at a time t 1 ~ o Static strain E ~~T~~~~~+~' Stress 1 Time Shrinkage I Shrinkage i ti. The instantaneous recovery is followed by a gradual decrease in strain.
2. like shrinkage.. A spring and a dashpot in parallel form a Kelvin unit. leading to failure. This model simulates the instantaneous recoverable strain. as both phenomena are related to the hydrated cement paste. while residual strains or deformations become frozen in the structural element (see Figure 2.10 Creep recovery versus time...11 is shown since it can approximately simulate the stressstraintime behavior of concrete at the limit of proportionality with some limitations. Hence. and as a general rule. and the size of the specimen. 2. the aggregate induces a restraining effect such that an increase in aggregate content reduces creep.4. a. with older concretes presenting higher creep recoveries.4 Creep Specimen under a constant load Unloading E. resulting in the transfer of the compressive load from the concrete to the steel in the section. but principally creep depends on loading as a function of time. additional load has to be carried by the concrete. and aggregate and cement contents. delayed elastic strain.2 = immediate recovery Creep recovery Residual strain Time. a concrete that resists shrinkage also presents a low creep tendency.. In addition. the environmental conditions. depends on the age of the concrete when loaded.4. an increase in the water/cement ratio and in the cement content increases creep.. t Figure 2.. Two rheological models will be discussed: the Burgers model and the Ross model. resulting in overstress in the concrete. aggregate and cement types. the delayed recoverable . Creep is closely related to shrinkage. the resisting capacity of the column is reduced and the curvature of the column increases further. and in series they form a Maxwell unit. Consequently. irrecoverable strain.2.10).~. and the dash pots represent the proportionality of stress to the rate of strain. and time. Also. elastic strain. Therefore. The composition of a concrete specimen can be essentially defined by the water/cement ratio and water/cementitious ratio when admixtures are used.. Once the steel yields. the initial eccentricity of a reinforced concrete column increases with time due to creep. A model is basically composed of elastic springs and ideal dashpots denoting stress. as in shrinkage. creep is influenced by the composition of the concrete. The Burgers model in Figure 2.. creep increases the deflection of beams and slabs and causes loss of prestress.2 Rheological Models Rheological models are mechanical devices that portray the general deformation behavior and flow of materials under stress. E.1 Effects of Creep As in shrinkage.1 45 = immediate elastic deformation ~. The springs represent the proportionality between stress and strain.
A modification in the form of the Ross rheological model in Figure 2. generally called specific creep fei = stress intensity in the structural member corresponding to unit strain Eei The ultimate creep coefficient. such as Roll's. as shown in Figure 2.AJIIIitrJIIWv+4 D Figure 2. b. The weakness in the model is that it continues to deform at a uniform rate as long as the load is sustained by the Maxwell dashpota behavior not similar to concrete.. 1ItI\/IIIr~P(t) a d Maxwell unit Kelvin unit • Figure 2.7) where a and b are constants determinable from tests. One convenient expression due to Ross defines the creep C under load after a time interval t as C=_t_ a + bt (2.. have been used to assist in predicting the creep strains.19) has simplified creep evaluation. .9) or average Cu = 2. only those coils whose resistance equals the applied load P(t) are displaced. C u' is given by Cu = PuEe (2. c A B P(t) P(t) . Since each coil has a defined frictional resistance. c and d.. elastic strain in the spring. and the irricoverable timedependent strains in the dashpots.11 Burgers model. D is the dashpot.35.12 Ross model. A in this model represents the Hookian direct proportionality of stresstostrain element.18 and 2. it overcomes the spring resistance of unit B. Mathematical expressions for such predictions can be very rigorous. More rigorous models.7. 2.8) where Pu = unit creep coefficient. Work by Branson (Refs. and Band C are the elastic springs that can transmit the applied load P(t) to the enclosing cylinder walls by direct friction. where creep reaches a limiting value with time. the others remain unstressed.46 b Chapter 2 Materials and Systems for Prestressing c P ( t ) _ . The additional strain Eeu due to creep can be defined as (2. symbolizing the irrecoverable deformation in concrete. As the load continues to increase.12 can eliminate this deficiency. pulling out the spring from the dashpot and signifying failure in a concrete element.
a further multiplier correction factor of kc. creep corrcction fac tors have to be applied to Eq uations 2..'::.:"" 10 + . When cond itions are not standard ..118 (b) For stcamcured concretc loaded at an age of I to 3 days or more.. PostTensioning . is the time multiplier.) Energy Center.' (2. p.25.0067 JI (2.10) or. 12) kQ= 1.C 1°·6 10+/0. re lates the creep coefficient C.00 (2. verified by extensive tests.6 .5 tnstitute. = .:. Standard conditions as defined by Branson pe rtain to concretes of slump 4 in. .. 0. 10 or 2. (10 cm) or less and a relat ive humidity of 40 percen!.14) Photo 2. kQ = 1. (Cmmf!sy. aliernatively. (2. at any time to the uhimate creep coefficient (for standard conditions) as C.4 Creep 47 Branson's model.0.27 . .0.2.. New Orleans.13. Louisiana.6" (2.0.11) where 1 is the time in days and P. = 1. = .13) For greater than 40 percen t relative humidity.11 as follows: (Il) For moistcu red concrete loaded at an age of 7 days o r morc.
on the other hand. 2. Drying shrinkage is the decrease in the volume of a concrete element when it loses moisture by evaporation. occurs after the concrete has already attained its final set and a good portion of the chemical hydration process in the cement gel has been accomplished. . concretes with high aggregate content are less vulnerable to shrinkage. Several factors affect the magnitude of drying shrinkage: 1. However. the duration of shrinkage is longer for larger members since more time is needed for drying to reach the internal regions.13 Shrinkagetime curve. is termed swelling. It is possible that 1 year may be needed for the drying .. it will not expand to its original volume. Both the rate and the total magnitude of shrinkage decrease with an increase in the volume of the concrete element. In such cases. The aggregate acts to restrain the shrinkage of the cement paste. Plastic shrinkage occurs during the first few hours after placing fresh concrete in the forms.5 SHRINKAGE Basically.13. The rate decreases with time since older concretes are more resistant to stress and consequently undergo less shrinkage. In addition. Exposed surfaces such as floor slabs are more easily affected by exposure to dry air because of their large contact surface.14 is a typical plot relating aggregate content to water/cement ratio. Figure 2. t Figure 2. where H = relative humidity value in percent. shrinkage and swelling represent water movement out of or into the gel structure of a concrete specimen due to the difference in humidity or saturation levels between the specimen and the surroundings irrespective of the external load. Drying shrinkage. Size of the concrete element.13 relates the increase in shrinkage strain Esh with time. In other words. such that the shrinkage strain becomes almost asymptotic with time.12 and 2. Figure 2.. moisture evaporates faster from the concrete surface than it is replaced by the bleed water from the lower layers of the concrete elements. the degree of restraint of a given concrete is determined by the properties of aggregates: Those with a high modulus of elasticity or with rough surfaces are more resistant to the shrinkage process.' en Time." . Water!cement ratio. hence. the higher the shrinkage effects. Aggregate. The higher the water/cement ratio. 3. there are two types of shrinkage: plastic shrinkage and drying shrinkage. Shrinkage is not a completely reversible process. The opposite phenomenon. If a concrete unit is saturated with water after having fully shrunk.48 Chapter 2 Materials and Systems for Prestressing has to be applied in addition to those of Equations 2. that is. volume increase through water absorption. 2.~ r::.
used to accelerate the hardening and setting of the concrete. . while shrinkagecompensating cement minimizes or eliminates shrinkage cracking if used with restraining reinforcement. and 10 years to begin at 24 in. 5. Pozzolans can also increase the drying shrinkage. whereas airentraining agents have little effect. The environment temperature is another factor. below the external surface.u ) (2.. is dramatically reduced at relative humidities below 50 percent. 6.14 w!c ratio and aggregate content effect on shrinkage. The process of carbonation. 1200 .(E 35 + t t SH. Carbonation shrinkage is caused by the reaction between the carbon dioxide (C0 2) present in the atmosphere and that present in the cement paste.18) recommends the following relationships for the shrinkage strain as a function of time for standard conditions of humidity (H == 40 percent): (a) For moistcured concrete any time t after 7 days. Reinforced concrete shrinks less than plain concrete.7 0. increases the shrinkage. Carbonation.4 0.3 0.t  . less shrinkage develops. 4. Amount of reinforcement. If both phenomena take place simultaneously. E SH. An accelerator such as calcium chloride.c .~ Aggregate content by volume percent /~80 0''"''' 0. Medium ambient conditions..6 0. the rate of shrinkage is lower at high states of relative humidity. The relative humidity of the medium greatly affects the magnitude of shrinkage.u = 800 X 106 in.15) where ESH. Branson (Ref. Rapidhardening cement shrinks somewhat more than other types. 7. process to begin at a depth of 10 in. Admixtures. from the exposed surface.5 0. the relative difference is a function of the reinforcement percentage.lin.8 Water/cement ratio Figure 2. This effect varies depending on the type of admixture. if local data are not available. 8..5 Shrinkage 1~rr~rr~' 49 . The amount of the combined shrinkage varies according to the sequence of occurrence of carbonation and drying processes..2. 2. Type of cement. however. in that shrinkage becomes stabilized at low temperatures.
deformed wires.0.15 Various forms of ASTMapproved deformed bars. Ultimate strength.00 . I ESU J = 55 + ( Em". all of which arc manufactured in accordance with ASTM standards. (2. and welded wi re fabric.030H 2.16 as follows: (a) For 40 < H :s. Yield strength.fu 4. only deformed bars.6 NON PRESTRESSING REINFORCEMENT (2. in accordance with ASTM specifications. .50 Chapter 2 Materials and Systems for Prestressing (b) For steamcured concrete after the age of I to 3 days. a correction fac tor has to be applied to Equations 2. Size or diameter of the bar o r wire To increase the bond between concrete and stcel. Except for wire used in spiral reinforcement in columns. Es 2.16) For other than standard humidity. Figure 2. Deform ed wire has indentations pressed into the wire or bar to serve as deformations. 80 percent .17b) Steel reinforcement for concrete consists of bars.17a) (b) For 80 < H S. kSII = 3./.01011 (2. 3. projections called deformations are rolled onto the bar surface as shown in Figure 2. k m = lAO . The deformations shown must satisfy ASTM Specification A61676 for the bars to be accepted as deformed. wires.1 5 and 2. or wire fabri c made from smooth or deformed wire may be used in reinforced concrete under approved practice. Young's modulus.15. Steel grade designation 5. The most important properties of reinforcing steel are: 1. 100 percent.0.
and 100. and 690 N/mm2).000.Q15 Figure 2.005 for grades 40 and 60 steels. bar diameter. 60.000 90. The ultimate tensile strengths corresponding to the 40. and 75 steels.000 60. and some steel types are given in Table 2..000 65. 621.000 60. and 517 N/mm2. and 75.000 . 600 80 60 40 400 en ~ 200 20 0 0. fu (psi) 1982 Standard type Billet steel (A615) Grade 40 Grade 60 Axle steel (A617) Grade 40 Grade 60 Lowalloy steel (A706): Grade 60 Deformed wire Reinforced Fabric Smooth wire Reinforced Fabric 40.000 75. The percent elongation at fracture.000 60. These have corresponding yield strengths of 40.16 Typical stressstrain diagrams for various nonprestressing steels.000 75.3 Reinforcement Grades and Strengths Minimum yield point or yield strength.5 to 12 percent over an 8in.000 85. Welded wire fabric is increasingly used for slabs because of the ease of placing the fabric sheets. 60..000 70. For steels that lack a welldefined yield point. (203.000. respectively) and generally have welldefined yield points. ranges from 4. respectively.6 Nonprestressing Reinforcement 140 120 100 800 51 : . 345.70.2mm) gage length.000.000 90.000 80.000.0035 for grade 80 steel.000 psi (276.000.3.000 70.. the control over reinforcement spacing.000 80. and the better bond.16 shows typical stressstrain curves for grades 40.000. and 80 grade steels are 70. 60.56. 90. and manufacturing source. fy (psi) Ultimate strength. Figure 2.000 psi (483. which varies with the grade.000 80.000 70.000 70.01 Strain [in/in or mm/mmJ 0. the yieldstrength value is taken as the strength corresponding to a unit strain of 0. and 0.000 40. The fabric reinforcement is made of smooth or deformed wires which run in perpendicular directions Table 2.005 0.2.
170 0.32 9.36 0.32 0.065 0.084 3 1.4 Standard Wire Reinforcement u.160 0. 21ft of width for various spacings) Nominal weight (Iblft) Centertocenter spacing (in.612 0.312 0.187 0.27 0.24 1.30 0.36 0.255 0.024 0.38 0.30 0.465 0.544 0.028 8 0.21 0.042 6 0.20 0.065 0.48 0.934 0.18 0.36 0.043 0.54 0.045 0.03 0.195 0.15 0.88 0.03 0.12 0.02 0.014 1.24 0.80 0.068 0.18 0.09 0.48 0.Table 2.13 0.329 0.052 0.075 0.390 0.178 0.66 0.28 0.60 0.085 0.33 0.68 1.306 0.06 0.62 0.336 0.07 0.366 0.216 0.030 0.087 0.298 0.16 0.192 0.309 0.017 0.264 0.252 0.52 0.680 0.035 0.5 WlO W9.28 0.24 0.17 0.356 0.056 4 0.11 0.180 0.272 0.05 0.22 0.366 0.24 0.204 0.12 0.42 0.075 0.220 0.126 0.5 W3 W2.238 0.100 0.12 0.529 0.058 0.135 0.260 0.32 1.102 0.029 0.06 0.08 0.211 0.348 0.20 0.Q25 0.15 0.20 0.19 0.48 0.44 0.120 0.264 0.07 0.22 0.067 0.240 0.105 0.102 0.280 0.5 W9 W8.748 0.) en I\) W&Dsize Smooth Deformed Nominal diameter (in.288 0.72 0.45 0.221 0.27 0.097 0.157 0.096 0.5 W7 W6.12 0.18 0.085 0.476 0.5 W2 W1.5 W6 W5.44 1.08 0.225 0.44 0.30 0.116 0.255 0.20 1.020 0.142 0.055 0.105 0.357 0.105 0.21 0.12 0.114 0.192 0.78 0.09 0.96 0.24 0.17 0.504 0.57 0.478 0.36 0.14 0.9 W2.30 0.40 0.10 0.029 0.31 0.315 0.575 0.72 0.2) 2 1.408 0.105 0.60 0.276 0.165 0.) Nominal area (in.40 0.21 0.42 0.10 0.036 0.050 0.06 0.16 0.16 0.095 0.021 10 12 W31 W30 W28 W26 W24 W22 W20 W18 W16 W14 W12 W11 WlO.18 0.135 0.040 0.080 0.4 D31 D30 D28 D26 D24 D22 D20 D18 D16 D14 D12 D11 DlO D9 D8 D7 D6 D5 D4 0.422 0.300 0.078 0.84 0.21 0.075 0.072 0.45 0.319 0.132 0.03 0.18 0.136 0.06 0.952 0.72 0.27 0.34 0.108 0.049 0.374 0.195 0.15 0.12 0.24 0.323 0.084 0.045 0.24 0.54 0.020 0.035 0.S.112 0.628 0.48 0.451 0.56 0.84 0.816 0.Q25 0.11 0.66 0.340 0.09 0.18 0.045 0.075 0.374 0.42 0.055 0.08 0.14 0.39 0.93 0.042 0.12 0.63 0.014 .30 0.42 0.140 0.618 0.119 0.159 0.39 0.372 0.56 0.05 0.054 1.12 1.20 1.310 0. customary Area (in.10 0.22 0.26 0.597 0.5 W8 W7.60 0.09 0.090 0.035 0.33 0.066 0.26 0.28 0.225 0.144 0.054 0.33 0.338 0.285 0.90 0.09 0.110 0.51 0.36 0.098 0.24 0.5 W4 W3.127 0.80 1.14 0.289 0.085 0.15 0.095 0.070 0.86 1.082 0.153 0.200 0.04 0.04 0.06 0.168 0.037 0.135 0.048 0.288 0.165 0.04 0.240 0.060 0.553 0.96 0.08 0.5 W5 W4.56 1.64 0.
7 Prestressing Reinforcement Table 2.502 2. Area.44 0.2.65 13.000 psi or more ( 1.313 7.6 Prestressed concrete Valdez flooting dock.000 (25) 1.31 0.60 53 Ba.20 0.) . and Perimeter of Individual Bars Weight per foot (Ib) 0.7 PRESTRESSING REINFORCEMENT 2.00 Perimeter (In.356 2.3 presents the reinforcementgrade strengths.500 (13) 0.544 3. 2.2J 0.670 3.749 3.5 Weight.430 5. Tacoma.668 1.400 4.25 4.963 2. A b (In. Table 2.1 28 (29) 1.27 1. Table 2.410 (36) 1.09 10 " " 18 and are welded together at intersections.625 ( 16) 0. built in two pieces in Tacoma.4 presents geometrical properties for some standard wire rei nforcement.7. d b [in.693 (43) 2.990 4. (Cou rtesy.5 presents geometrical properties of the various sizes of bars. the behavior is assumed to be elastoplastic and Yo ung's modulus is take n as 29 x 1(1) psi (200 x 1(1) MPa). Washington.56 2.270 (32) 1. designation number 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Standard nominal dImensions Diameter.142 3.862 MPa or higher). and Table 2.044 2.178 1. then towed to Alaska by deployment.00 1. For most mild stee ls.571 1. Washington.303 5. Designed by ABAM Engineers. e ffective prestressing can be achieved by usi ng very highstrength steels in the range of 270.875 (22) 1.60 0. Such highstressed steels are able to cou nterbalance these losses in the Photo 2.376 0.32 7.79 1.750( 19) 0.043 1. ABAM Engineers.11 0.375 ( 10) 0.1 Types of Reinforcement Because of the high creep and shrinkage losses in concrete. (mm)) 0.257 (57) Crosssectional area.) 1.
000 204.8. this is opposed to the standard 7 wire strand in Figure 2.000 psi (414 MPa) would have little prestressing stress left after losses.000 Source: PostTensioning Institute .17(b). Table 2. strands composed of several wires twisted to form a single element.000 199.7. The magnitude of normal prestress losses can be expected to be in the range of 35. Prestressing reinforcement can be in the form of single wires.54 Chapter 2 Materials and Systems for Prestressing surrounding concrete and have adequate leftover stress levels to sustain the required prestressing force. From the aforementioned magnitude of prestress losses.241 to 1. it can be inferred that normal steels with yield strengths fy = 60. stressrelieved strands conform to ASTM standard A 416. respectively.500 204. stress at 1% extension (psi) Type SA TypeWA 212.000 to 60.000 250. ASTM standard A 779 requires the minimum strengths and geometrical properties given in Table 2.to 16wire diameter around a slightly larger. tensile strength (psi) Type SA TypeWA 250. • Uncoated stressrelieved strands and lowrelaxation strands. Three types commonly used in the United States are: • Uncoated stressrelieved or lowrelaxation wires. the standard wire can be drawn through a die to form a compacted strand as shown in Figure 2.000 psi (241 to 414 MPa).196 0. The geometrical properties of the wires and strands as required by ASTM are given in Tables 2. To maximize the steel area of the 7wire strand for any nominal diameter.000 Nominal diameter (in. Consequently.000 240.500 204.750 212.276 Min. 2. while Figure 2.18(a) shows a typical stressstrain diagram for wire and strand prestressing steels. Wires or strands that are not stressrelieved.000 240. obviating the need for using very highstrength steels for prestressing concrete members. exhibit higher relaxation losses than stressrelieved wires or strands.6 Wire for Prestressed Concrete Min.250 0.18(b) shows values relative to those of mild steel. Stressrelieving is done after the wires are woven into the strand.6 and 2.000 to 220. The initial prestress would thus have to be very high.000 235. it is important to account for the appropriate magnitude of losses once a determination is made on the type of prestressing steel required. • Uncoated highstrength steel bars. such as the straightened wires or oiltempered wires often used in other countries. straight control wire.17(a).750 240.000 199. on the order of 180.517 MPa).000 235.2 StressRelieved and LowRelaxation Wires and Strands Stressrelieved wires are colddrawn single wires conforming to ASTM standard A421. The strands are made from seven wires by twisting six of them on a pitch of 12.000 psi (1. and highstrength bars.192 0. Figure 2.7.) 0.
000 psi = 689.600) *100.375) 9. (b) Compacted strand section.080 0.17 Standard and compacted 7wire prestressing strands.000 31. by 1.500 20.115 0.) Nominal weight of strands (Ib per 1000 ft)* Minimum load at 1% extension (Ib) Nominal diameter of strand (in.7 55 SevenWire Standard Strand for Prestressed Concrete Breaking strength of strand (min.000 30. Cold drawn in order to raise their yield strength.600 0. 1 in.058 0.5 MPa 23. with a minimum yield strength of 85 percent of the ultimate strength for smooth bars and 80 percent for deformed bars.lb) Nominal steel area of strand (sq in.550 26.085 0. (a) (b) Figure 2. =2.600) MO.3 HighTensileStrength Prestressing Bars Hightensilestrength alloy steel bars for prestressing are either smooth or deformed.2. these bars are stress relieved as well to increase their ductility. (19 mm) to Ii in. 2 =645 mm2 weight: mult.144 0.300 17.250) &(0.000 54.000 14. They must conform to ASTM standard A 722.000 23.600 45.300 58.350 35.54 mm. Stress relieving is achieved by heating the bar to an appropriate temperature.7 Prestressing Reinforcement Table 2.000 0.000 psi (1. 1.500) HO. (a) Standard strand section. (35 mm).900 k(0.000 27.650 12.036 0.000 lb = 4.1 in. .375) 122 197 272 367 490 737 7.448 Newton Source: PostTensioning Institute 2.7. generally below 500°e.800 0.100 49.500) H0.313) i(0.438) HO.000 36.108 0.216 GRADE 270 i(0. Though essentially the same stressrelieving process is employed for bars as for strands.153 0.000 41.438 !(0.) GRADE 250 t(0. the tensile strength of prestressing bars has to be a minimum of 150.000 m.217 290 390 520 740 19.034 MPa). and are available in nominal diameters from i in.49 to obtain weight in kg per 1.
Where t = time.18a Stressstrain diagram for prestressing steel. It is identical to creep in concrete.0 X 106 psi (1B6. except that creep is a change in strain whereas steel relaxation is a loss in steel stress.03 0.) 0.9 lists the geometrical properties of the prestressing bas as required by ASTM standard A 722. Grade 270 strand 270 250 200 x .256 0.7 47. 2.346 600 873 1176 *1000 Ib = 4.2 X 103 MPa) 1% Elongation o 0.7. = 27.448 Newton Grade 270.01 0.18 shows a typical stressstrain diagram for such bars.4 Steel Relaxation Stress relaxation in prestressing steel is the loss of prestress when the wires or strands are subjected to essentially constant strain.000 ftIb) Nominal diameter (in.6 0. = 27. strength (1.862 MPa) 1 in.56 Table 2.430 0.04 Strain 0.8 Chapter 2 Materials and Systems for Prestressing SevenWire Compacted Strand for Prestressed Concrete [ASTM A779] Nominal Breaking strength of strand (min.174 0. =25. and Figure 2.000 psi ult.0 X 106 psi Bar Ep .5 X 106 psi Wire Ep .05 0. 1 in.02 0.06 0. Ib)* Nominal steel area (in.000 67.~ 150 Ii cii 100 ~ Grade 160 alloy bar 50 Strand Ep . 2 =645 mm 2 Table 2.2) Nominal weight of strand (per 1.440 85.07 in/in Figure 2.fpu = 270.4 mm. = 29. .
. (in....000 1.227 1..!in.. after prestressing.601 0.852 1. .250 1.2 = 645 mm 2 . 40 0 0..2) Bar type* Smooth Alloy Steel Grade 145 or 160 (ASTMA722) Deformed Bars 0.000 psi (1. I CIl CIl 140 120 100 fs fy  en "".103 MPa) 1 in. ..06 Strain Figure 2.875 1.375 0.fpu = 145.625 1.7 Prestressing Reinforcement 57 C"J 0 x '00 c.000 MPa) Grade 160:.18(b) StressStrain Diagram for Prestressing Steel Strands in Comparison with Mild Steel Bar Reinforcement.2..442 0....u = 160. .000 psi (1.750 0.04 0.. .) in hours...785 0.0. 1 in. = 25.280 0. ~ ..t.02 0.55 ) (2.000 1..) Nominal steel area (in.485 0.250 0..4 mm. .. the loss of stress due to relaxation in stressrelieved wires and strands can be evaluated from the expression log t (!Pi aIR = !pi ill !py Table 2.295 *Grade 145...18) Steel Bars for Prestressed Concrete Nominal diameter (in..9 0..125 1.994 1.
Also.74 fpu for pretensioned..19 Relaxation loss vs.. protection against corrosion is provided by the concrete surrounding the tendon. Low·relaxation   ~~ . provided that adequate concrete cover is available. In pre tensioned members. 2.55 ) V. concrete.. Another form of wire or strand deterioration is stress corrosion..82 fpy immediately after transfer but fpi ::. fpi == 0.7.000 1..19 shows the relative relaxation loss for stressrelieved and lowrelaxation steels for 7wire strands held at constant length at 29... The expression for stress relaxation in lowrelaxation prestressing steels is ilfR = fpi log t 45 (bi . and 0.5°C... In general.55 and fpy == 0..70 fpu for posttensioned..) provided that fplfpy :?: 0. Such precaution is necessary since the strength of the prestressed concrete element is a function of the prestressing force.19) Figure 2... The prestressing steel thus produced is termed lowrelaxation steel and has a relaxation stress loss that is 25 percent of that of normal stressrelieved steel. (Courtesy.. PostTensioning Institute.000. In posttensioned members.. 0.5 Corrosion and Deterioration of Strands Protection against corrosion of prestressing steel is more critical than in the case of nonprestressed steel.58 Chapter 2 Materials and Systems for Prestressing .85 fpu for stressrelieved strands and 0..0.90 for lowrelaxation strands. (2.000 100... 10 100 1..70 fpuIt is possible to decrease stress relaxation loss by subjecting strands that are initially stressed to 70 percent of their ultimate strength fpu to temperatures of 20 0 e to lOOoe for an extended time in order to produce a permanent elongationa process called stabilization. which in turn is a function of the prestressing tendon area..000 10.000 Time (hours) Figure 2.. fpi = 0. Reduction of the prestressing steel area due to corrosion can drastically reduce the nominal moment strength of the prestressed section. protection can be obtained by full grouting of the ducts after prestressing is completed or by greasing.. time for stressrelieved lowrelaxation prestressing steels at 70 percent of the ultimate. which can lead to premature failure of the structural system. which is characterized by the formation of microscopic cracks in the steel which lead to brittleness and fail ..
94 fpy but not greater than the lesser of 0. ... . Stresses in concrete at service loads (after allowance for all prestress losses) shall not exceed the following: (a) Extreme fiber stress in compression due to prestress plus sustained load.. .. . . ..45 f~ 0. . ........ .... ... . . . . .. .. ..... if the live load is transient . ... (b) Immediately after prestress transfer. . . .8..1 Concrete Stresses in Flexure Stresses in concrete immediately after prestress transfer (before timedependent prestress losses) shall not exceed the following: (a) Extreme fiber stress in compression ..... Tensile stress in prestressing tendons shall not exceed the following: (a) Due to tendon jacking force. ..82 fpy 0. 0.. . . . . . ... . . .. immediately after tendon anchorage . (c) Extreme fiber stress in tension at ends of simply supported members . .. .... ... 2. though infrequent.. .... .60 f~i 3~ 6~ Where computed tensile stresses exceed these values.. where analysis based on transformed cracked sections and on bilinear momentdeflection relationships shows that immediate and longtime deflections comply with the ACI definition requirements and minimum concrete cover requirements . 0....... 2.. .70 fpu .... . in psi fpu = specified tensile strength of prestressing tendons.. . . . . . .. . . ... ... ...... in psi fy = specified yield strength of non prestressed reinforcement. . .. but not greater than 0.. in psi f~i = compressive strength of concrete at time of initial prestress 2..8 ACI MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE STRESSES IN CONCRETE AND REINFORCEMENT Following are definitions of some important mathematical terms used in this section: fpy = specified yield strength of prestressing tendons. . .. . This type of reduction in strength can occur only under very high stress and.. .. . .... ..2 Prestressing Steel Stresses 0. . ... . ..... . . . ... . . . . ... .. 0... .8.. ... . .. . .. (b) Extreme fiber stress in tension except as permitted in (c) ........ . . .. .... .. where sustained dead load and live load are a large part of the total service load . . ... . (d) Extreme fiber stress in tension in pre compressed tensile zone of members (except twoway slab systems)... ... .8 Aci Maximum Permissible Stresses in Concrete and Reinforcement 59 ure.. .80 fpu and the maximum value recommended by the manufacturer of prestressing tendons or anchorages. .. ..... .. . ... . ..... . . .. .. .. . . .. .60f~ 6v7: 12vJ.. . ... .. . bonded auxiliary reinforcement (nonprestressed or prestressed) shall be provided in the tensile zone to resist the total tensile force in concrete computed under the assumption of an uncracked section.74 fpu" (c) Posttensioning tendons. . .. (b) Extreme fiber stress in compression due to prestress plus total load.. . is difficult to prevent.. (c) Extreme fiber stress in tension in precompressed tensile zone . at anchorages and couplers... in psi f ~ = specified compressive strength of concrete..2... . ..... .. .. .. . .... .. ....
. . . ... .......3~ 5. such as coastal areas ... .. bonded reinforcement shall be provided to resist the total tension force in the concrete computed on the assumption of an uncracked section. .... .80 fpu (b) Immediately after prestress transfer .. .. . . .. . ...8.. . .. . (b) For members without bonded reinforcement ... . . .. .. 0... .. 0. .2 AnchorageBearing Stresses 7.. . .. . . .. For normalweight concrete..9.70 x 270.40 f~ 6Yt.55 f~i Tension Precompressed tensile zone ... .. . . .. .... 7.. ...... .. ..9. .... . . .....90 fpu) Hence for 270 K tendons used in the book.. .... . 200 psi or 3 ~ Where the calculated tensile stress exceeds this value.3 Prestressing Steel Stresses (a) Due to tendon jacking for . .......70 fpu fpy "" 0...000 psi (but not to exceed 0. . . . . 0. .. .fpy = 0.60f~i Posttensioned members .. . .5~ 6. . ......1 Cracking Stresses... . . . 0. .. . . 0. No temporary allowable stresses are specified. . ....2.... .2. .. . .. .... .. . For severe corrosive exposure conditions... . . . .... .. . ...... Modulus of rupture from tests or if not available.... .. ....60 Chapter 2 Materials and Systems for Prestressing 2... .. . ..94 fpy ::.20 gives the mean annual relative humidity values for all regions in the United States in percent...9 AASHTO MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE STRESSES IN CONCRETE AND REINFORCEMENT 2. .4 Relative Humidity Values Figure 2. . .. ... . .... .. ..9 f~J 2.1. .2 Concrete Stresses at Service Load after Losses Compression . . . . ..... . 2.. .. . ... .. ........ ... ... .74 fpu (c) Posttensioning tendons at anchorage.... . . . .. . For all other lightweight concrete. ... ... The maximum tensile stress shall not exceed .. 0.000 = 189..85 fpu (for lowrelaxation. . .. . . .... . . ..... .. . .. . .... . . .. .... .... .....1 Concrete Stresses before Creep and Shrinkage Losses Compression Pretensioned members .. .. . .... . .. .... .... 0.... ...... .. .. . . .. . .9... . .... ...... .. . . ..... .. ....5~ 2. .. fpi at transfer = 0. .... .... . . ... .. 3. 0. . immediately after tendon anchorage. .. .... 3~ o Tension in other areas is limited by the allowable temporary stresses specified in Section 2.. . .. to be used for evaluating shrinkage losses in concrete.... .. . For sandlightweight concrete.. . ...... ... . . . .9. . ..... .. .. . ..82 fpy ::.. . . .. . Other Areas In tension areas with no bonded reinforcement .. .. ... ...... . . ... .... .. . . .. .... .. 2. .9. 2. . . .. ... . . .5~ Posttensioned anchorage at service load. . . .000 psi (1300 MPa) is applied for uniformity. . ... . .. Tension in the precompressed tensile zone (a) For members with bonded reinforcement . .. . .. ..... ... ..9. . .. . . . . .
The term "pretensioning" means pre tensioning of the prestressing steel. the prestressing bed is provided with holddown devices as shown in Figure 2. not the beam it serves. Prestressed Concrete Institute. while a posttensioned beam is one in which the prestressing tendon is tensioned after the beam has been cast and has achieved the major portion of its concrete strength. or all the strands at one jacking operation.10 Prestressing Systems and Anchorages 61 Figure 2.10 PRESTRESSING SYSTEMS AND ANCHORAGES 2. several precast prestressed elements can be produced in one operation. For harped tendon profiles. Pretensioning is normally performed at precasting plants. and the exposed prestressing strands between them can be cut after the concrete hardens. Pre tensioning . where a precasting stressing bed of a long reinforced concrete slab is cast on the ground with vertical anchor bulkheads or walls at its ends. Since the bed can be several hundred feet long.10. which are designed to resist the large eccentric prestressing forces. Prestressing can be accomplished by prestressing individual strands. The steel strands are stretched and anchored to the vertical walls.21.) 2.1 Pretensioning Prestressing steel is pretensioned against independent anchorages prior to the placement of concrete around it.2. a pretensioned beam is a prestressed beam in which the prestressing tendon is tensioned prior to casting the section. Such anchorages are supported by large and stable bulkheads to support the exceedingly high concentrated forces applied to the individual tendons. (Courtesy.20 Mean annual relative humidity. Consequently.
23. the strands. PostTensioning Institute. where applicable.22.2 PostTensioning In posttensioning. is used for anchoring tendons in posttensioning.62 Chapter 2 Materials and Systems for Prestressing 1~"q. Supreme Products anchorage chucks have been used together with the Freyssinet jack. strand [ h . (e).24(d).) several elements in a prestressing bed is represented schematically in Figure 2. 2.1 0. a chuck system by Supreme Products.27 shows the dimensional details of the system.25 and 2.S t r a n d chuck Center hole hydraulic jack ~Strand chuck ~>O~"""~ Holddown anchors Harped strand group Figure 2. 2. (Courtesy. The gripping mechanism of this system is illustrated in Figure 2.. A prestressing bed for moderately sized pretensioned beams up to 24 ft (7. In pretensioning.32 m) long was developed and used by the author in Ref. while Figure 2.31 for his continuing work on the behavior of pretensioned and posttensioned structural systems. strands and single wires are anchored by several patented systems.24(c). or bars are tensioned after hardening of the concrete. One of these. while harping of tendons in a prestressing bed system is shown in Figure 2. Figures 2. wires. The strands are placed in the longitudinal ducts within the precast concrete ele . and (f). Other anchorage systems and ductile connections are shown in Figure 2.26 give details of the prestressing bed system also used for posttensioning developed by Nawy and Potyondy at Rutgers University.21 Holddown anchor for harping pretensioning tendons.
. 2. Such A force is applied through the use of hyd raulic jacks of capacity \0 to 20 tons and a stroke from 6 to 48 in . depending on whether pretensioning or posttensioning is used and whether individual tendons are being prestressed or all the tendons are being stressed simultaneously. largecapacity jacks are needed .22 Schematic of pretensioning bed.10 Prestressing Systems and Anchorages Hllplng hold ·down PO. the cost will be higher Ihan sequential tension ing.10. The tendons of strands should /Jot be bonded or grout ed prior to fu ll prestressing. Figure 2. with a stroke of at least 30 in. FIgure 2. In the latter case.3 Jacking Systems One of the fundamental components of a prestressing opera tion is the jacking system applied.OI 63 P~. the manner in which the prestressing force is transferred to the steel tendons. i.24...28 shows a 500ton multislrand jack for simultaneous jacking through a cente r hole. Of course. (762 mm). concrell elemenl FIgure 2.2.e .23 Harping of tendons in a prestressing bed system. The prestressing force is transferred th rough end anchorages such as the Supreme Products chucks shown in Figure 2. men!.
(b) Monoslrand anchor. Portland Cement. 2.4. (a) Strand anchor. Portland cement should conform to one of the following specifications: ASTM e 150.10.) .24 (a) Stress Strand Anchor. (Courtesy. or III.4 Grouting of PostTensioned Tendons In order to provide permanen t protection for the posttensioned steel and to develop a bond between the prestressing steel and the surrounding concrete. (e) Supreme Products anchorage chuck. Type I.64 Chapter 2 Materials and Systems for Prestressing 2. PostTensioning Institute. the prestressing ducts have to be filled unde r pressure with the appropriate cement grout in an injection process. II . (e) Figure 2.10. (b) Mooosirand anchor.1 Grouting materials 1.
10. See also details In Figures 13.9 and 13.10 Prestressing Systems and Anchorages 65 (d) (e) (I) Figure 2. . (f) Oywidag ductile connectors (~OC) for ductile precast beamcolumn connections in seismic zones. couplers and ductile connectors (Courtesy Dywidag Sysems Intematlonal): (d) Multiple anchorage.2. (e) Coupler.24 (continued) Multiple anchorages.
Forming. assumi ng I lb of admixt ure per sack of cement).11.4. Cement used fo r grouting should be fresh and shou ld not con lain any lumps or other indications of hydration or "pack set. (8) Formed Ducts. They should transfer bond Figure 2. and free of injurious quantities of substances known to be harmful 10 portland cement or prestressing steel.25 Prestress tensioning arrangement (Nawy et al. Ducts formed by sheath left in place should be of a type that does not permit the entrance of cement paste. Water. sulphi les. The water used in the grout should be potable.38).2. 2. or any other approved gasevolvi ng material wh ich is well dispersed through the other admixture. fl uorides. may be used to obtain 5 to 10 percent unrestrained expansion of the grout (see Refs. 3." 2.26 Intermediate connections between frames of the prestressing sys· tern for continuous beams (Nawy el al. Admixtures.66 Chapter 2 Materials and Systems for Prestressing Figure 2. minimum bleed.). Their formu lation should con tain no chemicals in quantities Ihal may have a harmful effect on t he prestressi ng steel or cement.10. Alum inum powder of the proper fi neness and quantity. o r nitrates should not be used.2 Ducts 1. Admixtures containing chlorides (as Cl in excess of 0. good flow. Admixtures. . shou ld impart the properties of low water content.). and expansion if desired. clean. 2 . if used.5 percent by weight of admixture.
f  ~ 'kE~ t =t..0 " ...2. II I ~~. (b) AA Figure 2........1'0"to''''''1+>+++I".....1 2 ' .. extra strong pipe LA 1" It 2" X 16" X 32" 1" 2"1" It 1" X 16" X 32" 1" 2" 1" 1" j f. f .27 Dimensioning details of the pretensioning or posttensioning laboratory system used for research at Rutgers (Nawy et al. Cored ducts should be formed with no constrictions which would tend to block the passage of grout. All coring material should be removed.1·24'2"  f.. .~~~ I  1 . Metallic sheaths should be of a ferrous metal. (a) r f. (b) Cored Ducts. and they may be galvanized.10 Prestressing Systems and Anchorages 67 3" dia. stresses as required and should retain their shape under the weight of the concrete.).+H1+><+~I+·1'0"1 r..
Grou l openings and ven ts must be securely anchored to the duct and to Photo 2. reinforcement. All holes o r openings in the duct must be repai red prior 10 placemen t of concrete. 3. such as in continuous slabs.28 Stresstek Multistrand 5OOton jack. all high points should have a grout vent except where the cable curvature is small . bars. (Courtesy. After the placement of ducts. Grout vents or drain holes should be provided at low points if the tendon is to be placed. For draped cables.68 Chapter 2 Materials and Systems for Prestressing Figure 2. A ll ducts should have grout openings at both ends. the duct d iameter should be at least iin. or strands.) 2. and grouted in a fre ezing climate. and forming are complete. Placement of Ducts. All grout openi ngs or vents should include provisions for preventing grout leakage. an inspection should be made to locate possible duct damage. or strand. PostTensioning Institute. For tendons made up of a plurality of wi res. bar. bar. Ducts should be securely fastened at close enough intervals to avoid displacement during concreting. For tendons made up o f a single wire. Grout Openings or Vents.7 Prestress conduit fo r a bridge deck. Duct Size. stressed. larger than the nom inal diameter of the wire. or strand. . 4. the duct area should be at least twice the net area of the prestressi ng steel.
2. at which time the vent should be capped o r otherwise closed.29. the grout sho uld be immediately flushed o ut of the duct with water.4. The tempe rature of the concrete shou ld be 35°F or higher from the time o f grouti ng until jobcured 2in. Grout should be pumped through the duct and continuously wasted at the outlet pipe untit no visible sl ugs of water or air are ejected. the mixing water should be cooled. Figure 2. Ducts with concrete walls (cored ducts) should be flu shed to e nsure that the concrete is thoroughly wetted . or va lves thus required should not be removed or opened until the grout has set. The effl ux time of the ejected grout should not be less than the injected grout. ducts should be kept free of water to avoid damage due to freezing.29 Prestressing of preload circular tank. caps..10. Inc. 4. Additional details and specifica tions o n grouting are given by the PostTensioning Institute in Ref. 7. If necessary.) . 6. Grout should be allowed to flow from the first vent after the in let pipe until any residual (]ushing water o r entrapped air has been removed. 3. The pumping pressure at the tendon inlet should not exceed 250 psig.3 Grouting Process 1. Plugs. NA Legates. cubes of grout reach a min imum compressive strength of 800 psi. To ensure that the tendon remai ns fill ed with grout.10 Prestressing Systems and Anchorages 69 either the forms o r the reinforcing steel. 5_ In temperatures below 32°F. Preload Technology. Remaining vents s ho uld be closed in sequence in the same man ner. All grout and highpoin t vent openi ngs should be o pen when grouting starts. the ou tlet and/or inlet sho uld be closed. New York. 2. When oneway flow of grout cannot be main tai ned.2. to prevent displacement during concreteplacing ope rations. 2. Grout should nOl be above 90°F during mixing or pumping. (Courtesy.
You cannot have everything. Concrete and Mineral Aggregates. MI. 2. New York: McGrawHill. Such tension results in uniform radial compression that prestresses the concrete cylinder or core and prevents tensile stresses from developing in the concrete wall section under internal fluid pressure. (The latter may lead to theoretical calculations which are not always correct in practice. The important question is how good. (While it is important to ensure sufficient safety.29 shows a preload circular tank being prestressed by the wirewrapping process along its height. You cannot have something for nothing.) SELECTED REFERENCES 2. unproved appliances may have to be replaced. including prestressed water tanks and pipes. (This is in direct connection with the previous principle indicating the necessity of tests. or to adjust or even change principles previously employed in the light of increased knowledge and experience). The proof of the pudding is in the eating.) 7.3 ACI Committee 221. to strengthen a structure before it collapses. (Nothing is achieved instantaneously. ConcreteMaking Materials.g. It is never too late (e. but only by stepbystep development.) 9. (One has to pay in one way or another for something which is offered as a "free gift" into the bargain. 4. Simplicity is always an advantage.12 TEN PRINCIPLES The following ten principles are taken from Abeles (Ref. "Selection and Use of Aggregate for Concrete.70 Chapter 2 Materials and Systems for Prestressing 2.2 Popovices. 1994.32) and applicable not only to prestressing concrete but to any endeavor that the engineer is called upon to undertake: 1. to alter a design. There is nothing completely new. cheap. (A cheap price given by an inexperienced contractor usually results in bad work." Journal of the American Concrete Institute. (It is always possible to increase one's knowledge and experience. Figure 2. There is no progress without considered risk.) 5.) 3. notwithstanding a solution's being optimal for the problem. 1992. 1997. or to a failure to cover all conditions. (Each solution has advantages and disadvantages that have to be tallied and traded off against each other. . 2. Philadelphia: ASTM.11 CIRCULAR PRESTRESSING Circular prestressing involves the development of hoop or hugging compressive stresses on circular or cylindrical containment vessels. but beware of oversimplification. in which the concrete pipe or tank is wrapped with continuous hightensile wire tensioned to prescribed design levels.) 10. 1979. 2. We live and learn.1 American Society for Testing and Materials. Do not generalize.) 2. Annual book of ASTM Standards: Part 14. It is usually accomplished by a wirewound technique. Farmington Hills. (Serious misunderstandings may be caused by unreserved generalizations.. similarly. not how cheap an item is.) 6. overconservatism can never lead to an understanding of novel structures. 2. but rather qualify the specific circumstances.) 8. S.
" in Proceedings of the Conference on Nonmetallic Brittle Materials." In PostTensioning Manual. 6th ed. 4th ed. Skokie. "Guide Specifications for PostTensioning Materials." Journal of the Structural Division. 2.9 ACI Committee 211. Proc. 1992. London. Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges. N. and Young. 936 p. Phoenix." Journal of the American Concrete Institute. Interscience Publishers. MI. 23072322.6 ACI Committee 212. G. 2. S. ACI. ASCE. Upper Saddle River. Philadelphia. 2nd ed. 2.References 71 2. 442. 2. "High Strength Field Modified Concretes.C. 54.. A6 1579.21 Nawy. 2. 2.11 Nawy. 1980. Farmington Hills.30 AASHTO. 555559. 5th ed.. M. Deformation of Concrete Structures. American Concrete Institute.22 Mehta. M. 60761l.19 Branson. 2009.. NJ. Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures. "High Strength Concrete. "Standard Practice for Selecting Proportions for Normal. MI. and Mass Concrete. "Standard Specification for LowAlloy Steel Deformed Bars for Concrete Reinforcement.29 PostTensioning Institute. 2. Creep and Shrinkage of Concrete. Institution of Structural Engineers. 68. E. A. A61679." ASTM. Materials. 1980. 2. 154157. MI. N. G. F.17 Ross. Concrete. 1958.1 R81.7 Nawy. 2009." ASTM. ST12.13 American Society for Testing and Materials. Heavyweight. McGrawHill. Philadelphia. Farmington Hills. 2. 1995.28 ACIASCE Committee 423... August 1971. "Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 31808) and Commentary (318 R08) American Concrete Institute. 2. 1994. PCA. 2. M. Farmington Hills. F.8 American Concrete Institute. Ill. Farmington Hills.27 American Society for Testing and Materials. 2005." Chapter 5 in Handbook of Structural Concrete. "Standard Specification for Deformed and Plain BilletSteel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement. Ukadike. Farmington Hills.. 103. No. 2008. 17th ed. pp. A. "Standard Specification for RailSteel Deformed and Plain Bars for Concrete Reinforcement. 2.. London. 600605. "Compression Steel Effects on Long Term Deflections. and Materials. 1977." ASTM.5 Portland Cement Association. "Standard Practice for Selecting Proportions for Structural Lightweight Concrete. Concrete InternationalS (1983): 6176." ASTM. "Standard Specification for ColdDrawn Steel Wire for Concrete Reinforcement. MI.192. Pitman Books. Upper Saddle River. MI. ASTM. June 1958. Special Technical Publication 169B. 1980.15 Neville. "Admixtures for Concrete. Prentice Hall. D. McGrawHill. 2. Ariz. Reinforced ConcreteA Fundamental Approach. and Balaguru. "Creep and Creep Recovery of Concrete under High Compressive Stress. J. "Recommendation for Concrete Members Prestressed with Unbonded Tendons" (ACI 423. Kumar.. 2. American Concrete Institute. ACI 212." Journal of the American Concrete Institute.20 Mindess. Inc. 2.192. Inc. Properties.14 Ross." in ACI Manual of Concrete Practice 1983. ConcreteStructure. Significance of Tests and Properties of Concrete and Concrete Making Materials. 2. PostTensioning Institute.3R83). D. PrenticeHall. Farmington Hills. M. New York. and Roll.. ACI Manual of Concrete Practice. 2. P. 2002. American Concrete Institute. P. G. MI. 2. D. 13th ed.. Philadelphia.314326. E. 1978.. Farmington Hills.18 Branson. 1983. 2. A.4 American Concrete Institute. Upper Saddle River. 51 to 533. Proc. 2. 1993. 1996. 2. 2. A70679. D.. 1979. MI. "Standard Specification for Axle Steel Deformed and Plain Bars for Concrete Reinforcement. 11111142. 755760.10 ACI Committee 211. A. 2. Superplasticizers in Concrete. December 1977. Philadelphia. 2. J. Philadelphia. Washington." ACI 211. London: Pitman Books. Farmington Hills. PrenticeHall. "Creep Concrete Data.16 Freudenthal.J. London." Proceedings. Philadelphia. pp. D. 1937. "The Elasticity." ASTM.J..26 American Society for Testing and Materials. A61779.23 American Society for Testing and Materials. MI. 2000. ACI. 2.25 American Society for Testing and Materials. E. 588599. Properties of Concrete. 1981. E. New York.24 American Society for Testing and Materials. 1980. ACI Special Publication SP62." ACI 211. A. . and Sauer. A8 279. 1980. N. E. 2. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.12 ACI Committee 318..
. Dec. the main 440 ft. Victory Bridge over the Raritan River. New Brunswick. N.. Nawy. PreJ·tre.8 Route 35." Proceedings. A CI Slfllcfllra/ Journal. 2. pp. Park Ridge. 2. Rutgers University. 1995. 2. B.17 p. John Wiley & Sons. FL: CRe Press. K. G. 1970. 2. pp. connecting Perth Amboy and Sayerville. E. M. 2. pp. 1998. 2. "Concrete:' In Corrosion lind Chemic(l/ Resistant M flsonry Mflferitl/S /1(11ulbook. New York .72 Chapter 2 Materials and Systems for Prestressing 2. 2. London: Viewpoint Publications.35 ACI Committee 435. G . EditorinChief. American Concrete Institute. G . (Courtcsy of FIGG. 2.97. "Moment Rotation. Cracking.34 Nawy. G. and Oenection of Spirally Bound Pretensioned Prestressed Concrete Beams. E.36 Chen.37 Chcn. G. M I. and Potyondy. H .Fiber Optic Bragg Grating Sensor for NonDestructive Evaluation of Compositc Beams'' Proceet/illgs." Ellgilleeri/ig Resellrcll B/llletin No. 1. and Nawy. span being the longest precast cantileversegmental construction in the United Statcs. B.J. ". G. W. pp. G. G. P. 198!. Dcc. the bridge designer) .v~·ed COl/crete Desigller's U//Ildbook. Prentice Hall. Fannington Hills. New York. J. 460. Concrete Construction Engineering Ham/book.32. E. New Jersey. 1250 p. . A variable depth prccast segmental concrete bridge with spans of 330'440'330' built in balanced cantilevcr. Simplified Reinforced COllcrete. Photo 2. A SCE JOII"wl of tile Stfllcfllml Division. Abeles.31 Nawy. 2001.mdmnclIlals of High Performtmcc Concrete.. 2nd ed. E. G . 3d ed.39 Nawy. 1986. E.J..• and Nawy.38 Nawy. B. Maher. pp. 1994... NJ. E. and BardhanRoy. E. Boca Raton. E. MI.: Noyes. 7087 18. American Concrcte Institute. I994. "Control o f Denection in Concrete Structures:' ACI Committee Report. N.. 5773. "Structural Behavior Evaluation of High Strength Concrete Reinforced with Prestressed Prisms Using Fiber Optic Sensors. Chairman. 51.33 Nawy. 1986. American Society of Civil Enginccrs. Upper Saddle River.: Bureau of Engineering Research. FarminglOn Hills. 34563470.
since they depend o n a multiplicity of interrelated factors.PARTIAL LOSS OF PRESTRESS 3. and those due to temperature ef· fec ts and steel relaxation. Essentially. the red uction in the prestressing force can be grouped in to two categories: • Immediate elastic loss during the fabrication o r construction process. all o f which are determinable at the serviceload limit state of stress in the prestressed concrete element . Empirical methods of estimating losses differ with the different codes of practice or Executive Center.1 INTRODUCTION It is a wellestablished fact that the initial prestressing force applied to the concrete e lement undergoes a progressive process of reduction over a period of approxi mately five years. PostTensioning Institute. it is important to determine the level of the prestressing fo rce at each loading stage. Hawaii. from th e stage of transfer of the prestressing force to the concrete. (Counesy. shrin kage.is not feasible . Conseq uently.) 73 . including elastic shorten ing of the concrete. up to the ultimate. and fricliona llosses . 10 the various stages of prestressing available at service load . Honolulu. anchorage losses. • Timedependent losses such as creep. An exact determination of the magnitude o f these lossesparticularly the timedependen t ones.
The degree of rigor of these methods depends on the approach chosen and the accepted practice of record. prestress level. the ACIASCE joint committee approach. standard conditions of loading. the Comite Eurointernationale du Beton (CEB). creep. and shrinkage. or in very dry or very wet exposure conditions. recommendations. particularly in routine designs and under average conditions. Such lumpsum losses can be summarized in Table 3. the total loss in prestress can be calculated for pre tensioned and posttensioned members as follows: (i) Pretensioned Members (3. The table values do not include losses due to friction. A very high degree of refinement of loss estimation is neither desirable nor warranted.1 of AASHTO and Table 3.000 psi (221 N/mm2) 22. and the importance and magnitude of the system. From this table. lumpsum estimates of losses are more realistic.3. Consequently.000 (138 N/mm2) Note: This table of approximate prestress losses was developed to provide a common posttensioning industry basis for determining tendon requirements on projects in which the magnitude of prestress losses is not specified by the designer. and they are applicable only to routine. These loss values are based on use of normalweight concrete and on average values of concrete strength.000 psi (310 N/mm2) 33.000 (241 N/mm2) 25. in which the subscript i denotes "initial" and the subscript j denotes the loading stage after jacking. psi Posttensioning tendon material Stressrelieved 270K strand and stressrelieved 240K wire Bar Lowrelaxation 270K strand Slabs 30.000 psi (228 N/mm2) 23.6 N/mm2) f~ = 5. the AASHTO lumpsum approach.000 (172 N/mm2) 20. Source: PostTensioning Institute. because of the multiplicity of factors affecting the estimate. quality control.000 psi (152 N/mm2) 45. Such losses should be computed according to Section 6.2 of PTI.000 psi (27.5 N/mm2) 32.000 (103 N/mm2) Beams and joists 35.000 psi (159 N/mm2) aLosses due to friction are excluded.2 Approximate Prestress Loss Values for PostTensioning Prestress loss. normal concrete.74 Table 3. Actual values of losses may vary significantly above or below the table values where the concrete is stressed at low strengths.1 AASHTO LumpSum Losses Chapter 3 Partial Loss of Prestress Total loss Type of prestressing steel Pre tensioning strand Posttensioninga wire or strand Bars f~ = 4. A summary of the sources of the separate prestressing losses and the stages of their occurrence is given in Table 3. construction procedures.000 (138 N/mm2) 15. They include elastic shortening. and the FIP (Federation Internationale de la Precontrainte).S of the AASHTO specifications. Detailed analysis has to be performed if these standard conditions are not fulfilled.1a) Table 3.000 (207 N/mm2) 20. and exposure conditions. and environmental conditions. relaxation in the prestressing steel.000 psi (34. . where the concrete is highly prestressed. such as those of the Prestressed Concrete Institute.
as shown in Figure 3. then (3. and not simultaneously. t) t:..fpSH t:.1c) where alpES is applicable only when tendons are jacked sequentially.520 h). then t2 = ts = 17.3 Types of Prestress Loss Stage of occurrence Type of prestress loss Pretensioned members Posttensioned members Tendon stress loss During time interval (ti1 tj) Total or during life 75 Elastic shortening of concrete (ES) Relaxation of tendons (R) Creep of concrete (CR) Shrinkage of concrete (SH) Friction (F) Anchorage seating loss (A) Total At transfer Before and after transfer After transfer After transfer At sequential jacking After transfer After transfer After transfer At jacking At transfer Life t:. so .520 hand t1 = 18 h. Hence (3. say.1 Pretensioned Elements For pretensioned (precast) elements. The unit shortening in concrete is EES = aEsIL. t) t:.fPT(tj) t) where AlpR to ttr ts = AlpR(to.fpR(t.fpES t:.fpF t:. the compressive force imposed on the beam by the tendon results in the longitudinal shortening of the beam. if Ipi is the initial prestressing stress that the concrete element is subjected to and Ip ] is the jacking stress in the tendon.fpT Life t:. If the next loading stage is between transfer and 5 years (17.3. Then.1b) (ii) Posttensioned Members (3. computations for steel relaxation loss have to be performed for the time interval t1 through t2 of the respective loading stages.ttr) = = + NpR(ttr> ts) = time at jacking time at transfer time at stabilized loss Hence. 3. As the tendons that are bonded to the adjacent concrete simultaneously shorten.fpR t:.2 ELASTIC SHORTENING OF CONCRETE (ES) Concrete shortens when a prestressing force is applied.2.1d) 3.. when losses are considered stabilized.fPCR t:.fps(t. As an example. tj) t:. In the posttensioned case.1. computation of relaxation loss starts between the transfer time t1 = ttr and the end of the time interval t2 under consideration.2 Elastic Shortening of Concrete (ES) Table 3.fpc(t. the transfer stage. they lose part of the prestressing force that they carry. at 18 h would result in ttr = t2 = 18 hand to = t1 = O..fpA t:.
000 psi (1.53 in. as shown in Figure 3.2a) Since the prestressing tendon suffers the same magnitude of shortening.2b) The stress in the concrete at the centroid of the steel due to the initial prestressing is fes =:A e Pi (3. 3.i = Aps = ~in dia. 2 27 106 psi (1.500 psi (31 MPa) 10 X X !pu = !.1 Elastic shortening. (b) Longitudinally shortened beam. the stress the concrete undergoes at the midspan section at the level of the prestressing steel becomes fes =  Pi ( e Ae 1 + .1 A pretensioned prestressed beam has a span of 50 ft (15. (a) Unstressed beam.153 = 10 Eps = = 1.1 has an eccentricity e at the beam midspan and the selfweight moment M D is taken into account.2 through 3.4) where Pi has a lower value after transfer of prestress. The small reduction in the value of PJ to Pi occurs because the force in the prestressing steel immediately after transfer is less than the initial jacking prestress force PJ. EES =  fe Ee = Pi AeEe (3.000 psi (41.1. it is possible to use the initial value of Pi before transfer in Equations 3.862 MPa) 4. sevenwirestrand tendon 0.3) If the tendon in Figure 3.4 MPa) 270. or reduce it by about 10 percent for refinement if desired. !~ = 6. since it is difficult to accurately determine the reduced value of Pi' and since observations indicate that the reduction is only a few percentage points.2.2 2 ) +T MDe (3.862 MPa) .2. !1fpEs = EsEEs = EsPi A E e e = Aei nP = nfes (3.2 m).4. However.76 Chapter 3 Tendon Partial Loss of Prestress Figure 3.1 Elastic shortening loss in pretensioned beams Example 3. For this beam.
415 = 4.226.000 X 1.( e MDe ) r +y.12 From Equation 3.06 Eel 3.4 = 11 in . = Ie = 75m.75 X 270.000Y6.500 = 3. the jacking force on the tendon was 75% fpu' Solution: Ac I = 15 X 30 = 450 in.3. 2 C = .4 = 8.50 MPa) We also have Initial Ed = 57.fpES = nfcs = 7.757.7 MPa) .53 in. (15.825 lb MD = 8 wl 2 = 15 X 30 (50)2 144 X 15~ X 12 = 1.153 = 1. Calculate the concrete fiber stresses at transfer at the centroid of the tendon for the midspan section of the beam.= 33750in.2 psi (59.757. Assume that prior to transfer.813 X 11 450 75 33.000 = 4. assuming that Pi == PJ' is fcs=A:\I+ P. 2 ee = 30 .2 Beam in Example 3.813 in.1 D TH ~ T 30" 62mm ) 15" (381 mm) Section 11 Figure 3.415 27 X 106 X 106 X 106 psi = 6.4.226.824 X 10 X 106 psi 28 days' strength Ec 28 days' modular ratio n = 57.4 12 ' ..3 + 572.750 = 1.2 m) r 1 50'~ .= 6 = 7.lb From Equation 3. 2 Pi = 0.53 = 309. and the magnitude of loss in prestress due to the effect of elastic shortening of the concrete.000Y4.1 .799. the concrete fiber stress at the steel centroid of the beam at the moment of transfer..824 Es 27 X 106 Initial modular ratio n = .75fpuAps = 0.9 = 1.4 psi (8.659.1.825 1 + 112) + 1. the loss of prestress due to elastic shortening is !:J.000~ = 57.2 Elastic Shortening of Concrete (ES) 77 +i~2+ I. 2 Ac 15(30? r2 Aps = 10 X 0.06 X 1.2b. 2 = _ 309.
1 if the beam is posttensioned and the prestressing operation is such that (a) Two tendons are jacked at a time.659.330 psi (29.2) = 4.78 Chapter 3 Partial Loss of Prestress 3. but also on the ratio . If n is the number of tendons or pairs of tendons sequentially tensioned.2. the loss due to elastic shortening in the posttensioned beam is l1!pEs = 4/4 + 3/4 + 2/4 + 1/4 5 (8.659.659.2 psi. Clearly. the elastic shortening loss varies from zero if all tendons are jacked simultaneously to half the value calculated in the pretensioned case if several sequential jacking steps are used. (c) All tendons are simultaneously tensioned.659.2) = l1!pEs = ~~ x (8.659.659.5) where j denotes the number of jacking operations. while the tendon that was tensioned first suffers the maximum amount of loss.2) 45 .2 Solve Example 3. 3. such as jacking two tendons at a time.. = 90 x (8.1.5. + 1/9 10 (8.2 psi.330 pSI (29.2) = 4. as discussed in Chapter 2.2. l1!pE = 8. Note that the tendon that was tensioned last does not suffer any losses due to elastic shortening.. The magnitude of the decrease in the prestress depends not only on the duration of the sustained prestressing force.3 STEEL STRESS RELAXATION (R) Stressrelieved tendons suffer loss in the prestressing force due to constant elongation with time.9 MPa) In both cases the loss in prestressing in the posttensioned beam is half that of the pretensioned beam.1 Elastic shortening loss in posttensioned beam Example 3. So only the first four pairs have losses. (c) l1!pEs = 0 3.2 PostTensioned Elements In posttensioned beams. Solution: (a) From Example 3.2. the last tendon suffers no loss of prestress due to elastic shortening. then (3. From Equation 3. with the first pair suffering the maximum loss of 8.9 MPa) (b) 9/9 + 8/9 + . (b) One tendon is jacked at a time.
. A plot of Equation 3.6 is given in Figure 3. fpi = 0. An approximation of the term (log t2 . but not greater than the lesser of 0. (Courtesy.log t1)(fpi _ ) r. hours 10.70 fpu' The range of values of fpy is given by the following: Prestressing bars: fpy = 0.74 fpu' (c) In posttensioned tendons.3.3 Stressrelaxation relationship in stressrelieved strands... Q. c. In that case. but not greater than 0.i is the initial stress in steel to which the concrete element is subjected.8 70 0. (b) Immediately after prestress transfer. 100 90 . PostTensioning Institute. the stressrelaxation loss becomes afpR = ) log t (f.80 fpu Stressrelieved tendons: fpy = 0.000 Figure 3.55 10 (3.6 ~ .t1..6 so that log t = log(t2 . 0.6) In this expression. the following ex pression defines fpR for stress relieved steel: fpR _ _ (lOg t2 .) ..80 fpu and the maximum value recommended by the manufacturer of the tendons and anchorages.log t1) can be made in Equation 3. log t in hours is to the base 10.3.rfpy .94 f py.7) where f."Q.90 fpu If fpR is the remaining prestressing stress in the steel after relaxation.000 100. for lowrelaxation steel.t1) without significant loss in accuracy. the denominator of the log term in the equation is divided by 45 instead of 10.7 0.. Such a loss in stress is termed stress relaxation.3 Steel Stress Relaxation (R) 79 fp/fpy of the initial prestress to the yield strength of the reinforcement. . 80 fpy '.0. f p] = 0.9 60 50 10 100 1000 Time..82 f py.1 10 r 0.i f. fp/fpy exceeds 0.85 fpu Lowrelaxation tendons: fpy = 0. The ACI 31805 Code limits the tensile stress in the prestressing tendons to the following: (a) For stresses due to the tendon jacking force.55. c: f· ~ =0.55 Jp' Jpy (3. Also. and t = t2 . at the anchorages and couplers immediately after force transfer = 0.
and C are given in Tables 3.4 CREEP LOSS (eR) Experimental work over the past half century indicates that flow in materials occurs with time when load or stress exists.2 ACI·ASCE Method of Accounting for Relaxation Loss The ACIASCE method uses the separate contributions of elastic shortening.3.162.606 psi (80.!pR = !~{io !py . f. the divider is 45 instead of 10 in Equation 3. and from longterm loss due to creep and shrinkage over this period is 20 percent of the initial prestress.000 hours l:l.l:l. Assume also that the yield strength!py = 230.571 MPa).000 .1 Relaxation Loss Computation Example 3.55 .5.0.4 and 3. Solution: From Equation 3.9.000 _ ) 10 230000 0.8.500 psi (1. creep.000 X 0. the loss increment at any particular stage can be defined as f:jJ JpR = ft (lOg t2 pI .80 Chapter 3 Partial Loss of Prestress If a stepbystep loss analysis is necessary.1. 3. .0 MPa) _ log 44.) = 0. A more detailed discussion is given in Ref.3. 3. This lateral flow or deformation due to the longitudinal stress is termed creep..000 (162.4643 X 3. as shown in Equation 2. For low relaxation steel. and shrinkage in the evaluation of the steel stressrelaxation loss by means of the equation ilfpR = [Kre  Jil(fpES + fpCR + fpSH)] X C The values of K r & J.396 MPa) The reduced stress for calculating relaxation loss is !~i = (1 .20) X 202. It must be emphasized that creep stresses and stress losses result only from sustained loads during the loading history of the structural element.0.!pR(tO.log t1) (f~i 055) 10 F' Jpy _ (3.7.8) where t1 is the time at the beginning of the interval and t2 is the time at the end of the interval from jacking to the time when the loss is being considered.19.000 psi (1.3 Find the relaxation loss in prestress at the end of 5 years in Example 3.000 = 202. = 162. 3.75 X 270.1543 = 11. X 365 X 24 2:: 44.500 = 162. assuming that relaxation loss from jacking to transfer.55 log f (!~i ) 0. from elastic shortening.170 MPa) The duration of the stressrelaxation process is 5 From Equation 3.000 psi (1.1b for this stage !Pi = !pJ .
66 0.00 0.69 0.49 0.037 0.400 6.90 0.65 0.15 0. and environmental conditions.45 0.4 Creep Loss (CR) Table 3.66 0.11 1.000 18.37 0.62 0.58 0.3. it is feasible to relate the creep strain ECR to the elastic strain EEL such that a creep coefficient Cu can be defined as Table 3.000 4.73 0.22 1.78 0. the age of the element at first loading.27 1.00 0.33 Source: PostTensioning Institute.28 1.040 0.5 Values of KRE and J KRE Type of tendon 8 J 0.500 17.05 1.000 aIn accordance with ASTM A41674.71 0.63 0.630 4.600 5.83 0. .78 0.70 0. curing conditions.75 0.89 0. or ASTM A72275.70 0.61 0.36 1.4 81 Values of C Stressrelieved strand or wire Stressrelieved bar or lowrelaxation strand or wire fp/fpu 0. The deformation or strain resulting from this timedependent behavior is a function of the magnitude of the applied load. Source: Prestressed Concrete Institute.64 0.68 0.72 0.45 1.79 0.16 1.95 0.63 0.80 0. Since the stressstrain relationship due to creep is essentially linear.05 270 Grade stressrelieved strand or wire 250 Grade stressrelieved strand or wire 240 or 235 Grade stressrelieved wire 270 Grade lowrelaxation strand 250 Grade lowrelaxation wire 240 or 235 Grade lowrelaxation wire 145 or 160 Grade stressrelieved bar 20. the properties of the concrete including its mixture proportions.61 0.41 0.77 0.53 0.60 1.14 0.035 0.57 0.94 0.18 1.85 0.68 0.67 0.09 1. ASTM A42176.73 0. its duration.75 0.49 1.80 0.13 0.53 0.74 0.76 0.
The loss in prestressed members due to creep can be defined for bonded members as (3. Ee = 57.5 kN/m). 60 Ct = 10 + to.4 X 103 MPa) n = Es = 27.10) where fes is the stress in the concrete at the level of the centroid of the prestressing tendon.000 = 6 4.82 Chapter 3 Partial Loss of Prestress C u =EEL ECR (3. is 375 plf (5.35 for ultimate creep. nonbonded members.9b) As discussed in Chapter 2.9a) Then the creep coefficient at any time t in days can be defined as to. this loss is a function of the stress in the concrete at the section being analyzed. with an average of 2. the loss can be considered essentially uniform along the whole span.12 Ec 4. Hence. viz.0 X 10 = 6.11a) or (3.1 given that the total superimposed load. (3.415 X 106 MSD = 375(50? 8 X 12 = 1.1 Computation of Creep Loss Example 3.60 for posttensioned members (both for normal concrete) fes = stress in concrete at level of steel cgs immediately after transfer lesd = stress in concrete at level of steel cgs due to all superimposed dead loads applied after prestressing is accomplished n = modular ratio = = Note that KCR should be reduced by 20 percent for lightweight concrete.0 for pretensioned members 1. In general.60 Cu (3.415 X 106 psi (30.lb (158.11b) where KCR 2. the value of Cu ranges between 2 and 4.4 Compute the loss in prestress due to creep in Example 3. In posttensioned.9 kNm) .250 in.406. Solution: At full concrete strength.000 \/6. The ACIASCE Committee expression for evaluating creep loss has essentially the same format as Equation 3. 3.10. an average value of the concrete stress fes between the anchorage points can be used for calculating the creep in posttensioned members.4.. excluding the beam's own weight after transfer.
= T MSDe = 1. type of aggregate.406. If ESH is the shrinkage strain after adjusting for relative humidity at volumetosurface ratio VIS.73 Source: Prestressed Concrete Institute. so from Equation 3.4 psi (8.0(1.226. days 1 0. Sec.1. 3.458. . type of cement. time between the end of external curing and the application of prestressing.3.3 pSI (3.80 7 10 20 0. curing time.58 60 0.85 5 0.RH) V) (3. and concrete composition. The average value of ultimate shrinkage strain in both moistcured and steamcured concrete is given as 780 x 106 in.06 S (100 .14) where RH = relative humidity Table 3. and the environmental conditions.6 "ISH (3. 2.11a.0. temperature. To take such effects into account. This average value is affected by the length of initial moist curing. the PCI general expression for loss in prestressing due to shrinkage becomes IlfpsH = 8.5 MPa) Also. (Ref. l1!pcR = = nKCR (fes . KCR = 2. The Prestressed Concrete Institute stipulates for standard conditions an average value for nominal ultimate shrinkage strain (ESH)u = 820 x 106 in. ambient relative humidity.6 Values of KSH for PostTensioned Members Time from end of moist curing to application of prestress.250 x 11 33.lin.lesd) 6. the average value of shrinkage strain should be multiplied by a correction factor "ISH as follows ESH = 780 X 10. (mm/mm) .2 MPa) les = 1.5 psi (64.12 x 2.8 MPa) 3.401. for normal concrete use.5 Shrinkage Loss (SH) 83 !esd From Example 3.5 SHRINKAGE LOSS (SH) As with concrete creep. They include mixture proportions.45 0. 3. the magnitude of the shrinkage of concrete is affected by several factors.2 x 10 6 KSH Eps ( 1 . volumesurface ratio.3) = 9.92 3 0. the loss in prestressing due to shrinkage is somewhat less since some shrinkage has already taken place before posttensioning. the loss in prestressing in pre tensioned member is (3. in ACI 209 R92 Report.4 . Approximately 80 percent of shrinkage takes place in the first year of life of the structure.12) Components of "ISH are factors for various environmental conditions and tabulated in Ref. Size and shape of the member also affect shrinkage.64 30 0. 458.0 (pretensioned beam).750 = . If the relative humidity is taken as a percent value and the VIS ratio effect is considered.226.12.lin.77 0.13) For posttensioned members. size of the member.4).
. A lso. Assume that the relative humidity RH is 70 percent and the volumetosurface ratio is 2. 15b) It sho uld be noted that separating creep from shrinkage ca lcu lations as presen ted in this chapter is an accepted engineeri ng practice.0. = 55 + ( (ESI/). South San Jose. significan t va riations occur in the creep and shri nkage values due to variations in the properties of the constituent materials from the various sources.15. after 7 days (3. (b) Steam curing. 3. Adjustment of shrinkage losses for standard conditions as a function of time ( in days after 7 days for moist curing and 3 days for steam curing can be obtained from the fol lowi ng expressions (a) Moist curing. eve n if the products are plantprod uced such as pretensioned beams.14 and the time.1 Computation of Shrinkage Loss E"ample 3.1 and 3. large spantodepth ratio cases and/or if loading is unusually heavy. (3.5.150) = where (ES").2 at 7 days after moist curing using both the ultimate K SIf method of Equation 3. is the ultimate shrin kage strain.6 gives the values of K SI/ for posttensioned members...S Compute the loss in prestress d ue to shri nkage in E"amples 3.1 1011280/680 interchange connectors. after I to 3 days I (= time in days after shrinkage is con (ESI/). Table 3. Hence it is recommended that information from actua l tests be obtained especially on manufactured products. sidered. where K SII 1.84 Chapter 3 Partial l oss 01 Prestress Photo 3. Cali fornia.dependent method o f Eq uation 3.0 for pretensioned members.
14.1 Curvature Effect As the tendon is pulled with a force FI at the jacking end. since ducts or sheaths cannot be perfectly placed.6 x 1.0 MPa) Solution B Timedependent method From Equation 3. ESHt .6 LOSSES DUE TO FRICTION (F) Loss of prestressing occurs in posttensioning members due to friction between the tendons and the surrounding concrete ducts. = _ t _ ESH = .0)(100 .6.15a.0.70) = 5.6 106 = 3. called the curvature effect.77 X 5.2 X 10.3 MPa) (b) Posttensioned beam.510 psi (24.845 = 4.16b) .16a) Integrating both sides of this equation yields loge FI = JLa (3.6. assuming that IL denotes the coefficient of friction between the tendon and the duct due to the curvature effect. the wobble effect is the result of accidental or unavoidable misalignment. it will encounter friction with the surrounding duct or sheath such that the stress in the tendon will vary from the jacking plane to a distance L along the span as shown in Figure 3. called the wobble effect. then. KSH = 0.77: I1fpsH = 0.3 5 35 + t u +7 = ESH.6 Losses Due to Friction (F) 85 Solution A KsHmethod (a) Pretensioned beam. KSH = 1. and the local deviations in the alignment. we have or  dFI FI = JLda (3.3.4. I1fpsH = 8.845. 3. It should be noted that the maximum frictional stress loss would be at the far end of the beam if jacking is from one end. Whereas the curvature effect is predetermined.t Es = 130 X 7 X X 780 27 X X 10. from Table 3.06 x 2.0 x 27 x 106(1 . The values of the loss coefficients are often refined while preparations are made for shop drawings by varying the types of tendons and the duct alignment.0 MPa) 3. Hence frictional loss varies linearly along the beam span and can be interpolated for a particular location if such refinement in the computations is warranted.5.6 = 130 X 10.7 psi (31. The magnitude of this loss is a function of the tendon form or alignment. If an infinitesimal length of the tendon is isolated in a freebody diagram as shown in Figure 3.6 in/in I1fpsH 10.500.0: From Equation 3.0 psi (40.
(3. Then by the same principles described in developing Equation 3. dOl F~t~F F. dOl (b) (c) Figure 3. then (3. = F.2 Wobble Effect Suppose that K is the coefficient of friction between the tendon and the surrounding concrete due to wobble effect or length effect. '~~' do F.17) 3. (a) Tendon alignment.18) Tendon id (a) P.6.4 Frictional force stress distribution in tendon.86 Jacking end Chapter 3 Tendon / Partial Loss of Prestress ~L~=/~d~ fL+1 Distance along tendon Figure 3. . (b) Forces on infinitesimallength where Fl is at the jacking end. (c) Polygon of forces assuming Fl = F2 over the infinitesimal length in (b). Friction loss is caused by imperfection in alignment along the length of the tendon.16.5 Curvature friction loss. If ex = LlR. <¢:J F. regardless of whether it has a straight or draped alignment.
19) Superimposing the wobble effect on the curvature effect gives F2 = F1elLaKL or.6 Assume that the alignment characteristics of the tendons in the posttensioned beam of Example 3. Assuming the curvature of the tendon to be based on that of a circular arc. compute the frictional loss of stress in the prestressing wires due to the curvature and wobble effects. Equation 3.6.7 gives the design values of the curvature friction coefficient fJ. a m 2m tan==2 x/2 x If 1 Y == m 2 and a/2 = 4y/x then a = 8y/x radian (3.21) Assuming that the prestress force between the start of the curved portion and its end is small (= 15 percent). the central angle a along the curved segment in Figure 3.2 are as shown in Figure 3.lLa .21.6 Approximate evaluation of the tendon's central angle.3 Computation of Friction Loss Example 3.6 Losses Due to Friction (F) 87 or F2 = F1e. 3.7.23) Table 3.KL ) (3. it is sufficiently accurate to use the initial tension for the entire curve in Equation 3. Since the ratio of the depth of beam to its span is small. If the tendon is made of 7wire uncoated strands in flexible metal sheathing.12 = /1(1 . in terms of stresses. . and the wobble or length friction coefficient K adopted from the ACI 318 Commentary. Hence.21 can thus be simplified to yield (3. (3.KL (3.22) where L is in feet.20) The frictional loss of stress I:1lpF is then given by I:1lp F = /1 .3. ~x~ Figure 3.e. it is sufficiently accurate to use the projected length of the tendon for calculating a.6 is twice the slope at either end of the segment.
use K friction is = 0.00100.23... 202.500 pSI From Equation 3.150.2 m J .0002 0.825lb !pi = 309.5 0 ' . From Equation 3. = ~ = 8y 8 X 11 50 X 12 = .0020 and = = IL = 0.88 Table 3.150. . 0..00100. Ci.500 0. Tendons in flexible metal sheathing Wire tendons 7wire strand Highstrength bars Tendons in rigid metal duct 7wire strand Masticcoated tendons Wire tendons and 7wire strand Pre greased tendons Wire tendons and 7wire strand Source: Prestressed Concrete Institute. Kperfoot Partial Loss of Prestress Type of tendon Curvature coefficient.7.20 X 0.!pF !pi (/La + KL) X 202.7 ANCHORAGESEATING LOSSES (A) Anchorageseating losses occur in posttensioned members due to the seating of wedges in the anchors when the jacking force is transferred to the anchorage.7 Prestressing tendon alignment. 3 = . fA..0020 X 50) = 202.. 3.25 0. (15.1293 = 26.15 0.825 51.. the prestress loss due to !l.0020 0.15 Solution: Pi = 309.J Figure 3.7 Chapter 3 Wobble and Curvature Friction Coefficients Wobble coefficient.050. 0.0.0015 0.22.500(0.25 0.6 MPa) This loss due to friction is 12.080.0006 0.0020 0....30 0.050.25 0. They can also occur in the prestressing casting beds of pre tensioned members due to the adjustment R = 140' 1 ..93 percent of the initial prestress.20.150..1467 + 0.0020 0.1467 radIan From Table 3.00010.00030.00050.191 psi (180.
35 mm and 9.7 Compute the anchorage·seating loss in the posttensioned beam o f Example 3.. (Courtesy. and t in..2 if the estimated slip is lin.25 in.25 No . Generally.250 psI (77. and the manufacturer is expected to supply the data on the slip expected due to anchorage adjustment. = 27 X l(f psi 4 04 = 0.3. = 404 0. PostTensioning Institute. I'hoto 3. The magnitude of the overstressing that is necessary depends on the anchorage system used since each system has its particular adjustment needs. Denver. (6.. A remedy for this loss can be easily dfected during the st ressing operations by overstressi ng.24) 3. it becomes difficult to posttension such beams with high accu racy. In such cases.7 AnchorageSeating losses (A) 89 expected when the prestressing force is transferred to these beds.35 m). L is the tendon length . and Eps is the modulus of the prestressing wires.11. " =I: E.2 Termccntrc. the magnitude of anchorageseating loss ranges between ! in. Colorado. then the prestress loss due to anchorage slip becomes (3. Solution: E. If 6" is the magnitude of the slip. (6..53 mm) for the twopiece wedges.) .6 MPa) Note tha t the percentage of loss due to anchorage slip becomes very high in shortbeam elements and thus becomes of major significance in shortspan beams. 50 x 12 x 27 x h. Ill .7..1 Computation of AnchorageSeating Loss EXllmple 3.
lightweight (34.8. (51 mm) normalweight concrete cast at 30 days.520 cm3) S' = 5. Figure 3.5 cm) 2. and the eccentricity at midspan is 18. diameter (twelve 12.10 is prestressed by twelve !in. Given f~ = f~i = 5.98 in.9 presents a flowchart for stepbystep evaluation of timedependent prestress losses without deflection. (b) Due to external load. (25.49 X 106 cm4 ) Cb = 21.500 psi (24. Compute the prestress loss at the critical section in the beam due to dead load and superimposed dead load.670 cm3 ) .8 Change in beam longitudinal shape.8 A simply supported pretensioned 70ftspan lightweight steamcured double Tbeam as shown in Figure 3.5 MPa) 3.98 in.720 in. (a) Due to prestressing.02 in. (55. 3.90 Chapter 3 Partial Loss of Prestress p p (a) (b) Figure 3.968 cm2) Ie = 59.73 in. Suppose also that prestress transfer occurred 18 h after tensioning the strands.1 MPa) and the following noncomposite section properties.7 mm dia) 270K grade stressrelieved strands.717 in? (44. as is usually the case. (330 mm). Ac = 615 in. 3 (97.8 cm) = = d Sb 10. (a) stage I at transfer (b) stage II after concrete topping is placed (c) two years after concrete topping is placed Suppose the topping is 2 in.40 L of the span considering that it can sometimes govern in cases of moving loads and also in continuous spans. as shown in Figure 3.000 psi. 4 (2. 3. (476 mm) and at the end 12. it becomes convex or concave depending on the nature of the load. 2 (3. Assume the critical section to be at 0. The strands are harped.960 in.8 CHANGE OF PRESTRESS DUE TO BENDING OF A MEMBER (MpsJ As the beam bends due to prestress or external load.9 STEPBYSTEP COMPUTATION OF ALL TIMEDEPENDENT LOSSES IN A PRETENSION ED BEAM Example 3. Note that any loss due to bending need not be taken into consideration if the prestressing stress level is measured after the beam has already bent. If the unit compressive strain in the concrete along the level of the tendon is Eo then the corresponding change in prestress in the steel is a/PB = EcEps where Eps is the modulus of the steel.
6(X 0. VIS.. .7.!.35 ( . 'put 'pi' fpYI Ep. + t .9 StepbyStep Computation of All TimeDependent Losses in a Pretensioned Beam 91 ( START ~ Input Act leI Sbt Sf. ApI' W0' Wso' WL' anchorage seating AAo e. ex + KL) =8elL or ex ='=R Anchorage·seating loss AfpA = AA T Eps . Friction loss. RH.8 for lightweight concrete) Posttensioned KCR = 1.9 Flowchart for stepbystep evaluation of prestress losses. Pretensioned Af pES =  Eps fes Ee.8 for lightweight concrete) . t 060 Alternative factor KCR = 2.1 L. = Pj can be used for refinement since PJ at elastic shortening stage ='" 0.90 P. Posttensioned Sequential jacking Af ES p =.3. .AfpA Net fp. Figure 3. time t. /"1 (AfpES)i .. only if posttensioned MpF = fpi (fLex fL and kfrom Table 3.' f.90P. =fpj Elasticshortening loss f es Pi =Ae ( 1+. ) o60 10.£ n Creep loss Pretensioned KCR = 2(X 0. pretensioned or post·tensioned stress· relieved or low·relaxation steel f.2 t?) +Moe Ie where 0.
fpSH = 730 x 106 (t +t 55) Ep. .l l f pF ..0. log t 1) (fpi _ 1 0 .55) 10 fpy where log t = log (t2 .(l .0.06 V/S)(l 00 . pI log t (fpi .2 X 106 K sH Ep ..0.9 Continued .log t 1) term for pretensioned and the (log t) term for post·tensioned by a denominator value of 45.l l fpR fpJ . t'r) (to.6 for post·tensioned Alternatively MpSH =800 x 106 (_t_) Ep. Add aII losses II fpT (j) Pretensioned llfpT = llfpES + llfpR + llfpCR + llfpSH + llfpF + llfpES + llfpR + llfpCR + llfpSH (ij) Post·tensioned llfpT = llfpA where llfpES is applicable only when tendons are jacked sequentially and not simultaneously !J.55 where t2 and t1 are in hours Post·tensioned fpi = fpJ .steam curing Relaxation of steel loss (i) Stress·relieved strands Pretensioned fpi = fpJ . t + 35 moist curing !J.t 1) (ij) Low·relaxation strands Replace the denominator (10) in the (log t2 .. py 0.fpESare subtracted from the total jacking stress fPi Calcu late % of each type of loss Add % of all losses Figure 3.fpFand !J.llfpES where f pES is for case of sequential jacking ll' pR = f.fpi (log t2 . ttr) llfpES =.RH) KSH = 1 for pretensioned KSH from Table 3.l l fpR (to.90fpJ ) _ IlfPR .92 Chapter 3 Partial Loss of Prestress Shrinkage loss llfpSH = 8.
82fpy 0. " ' 1 10'0" H.40 x 70 = 28 ft.500 psi X X = 1151.85fpu fpi = = 230.862 MPa) fpy = 0.000 psi (1. Deadload moment M D at 0.5(33 \/3.65 kN/m) W L = 40 psf (1.1 X 103 MPa) Assume that posttensioning is applied in 18 hours after concrete curing.589 MPa) = 0.000 psi (1. t 1·5.85fpu:= 0..8(18.7}" (476 mm) 18 .98 + 0.915 Pa)Transient fpu = 270.'. e at critical section = 12.3 m) (a) " I roo "fj · .i Eci = 3.40 of the span is .3. Solutiou: f.58 in.000) = 2.70fpu = 189. (a) Elevation.41 106 psi 106 psi Ec = 115L5(33Y5.70f pu = 0.303 MPa) Eps = 28 X 106 psi (193.9 StepbyStep Computation of All TimeDependent Losses in a Pretensioned Beam 93 12JF = e.82 X 0. .0"(b) ~l j+4:" Figure 3.88 Stage 1: Stress Transfer (a) Elastic shortening.500) = 2.000 psi (1.73 12.2 kN/m) WSD(2in. Given critical section distance from support = 0.10 section.98) = 17. #__~g_cyL31 ec = lB.ml I " 70'0" (21. HU· I~t "' 73" 4 2" I~ ~i . topping) = 250 pJf (3. (b) Pretensioned WD (no topping) = 491 pJf (7. DoubleT pretensioned beam.
042 psi.70 x 270.042 . Thus. fpy = 230.447 + 0 + 0 = 19.+ cs Ac r Ie = _ 313. (b) SteelStress Relaxation.62 2.18.62 X 1178. 171 000 + 1.405 psi (134 MPa) .20 1. Calculate the steel relaxation at transfer.708 ftlb = 3.000 psi fpi = 189.000 psi (or net fpi = 171.000  0.000 .70fpu = 0.fpi t2 0 log tl) (fPi _ 0.115.464. a small difference of 6 percent. then the net fpi = 189.1 +).3 = 13. = .3 pSI .000 = 189.3 = 12.7 MPa) n= Eps Eei = 28 X 10 = 11.2.496 X 17.956 1 + (17.000 psi.447 = 19.94 MD = Chapter 3 Partial Loss of Prestress WD~(L  x) = 491 C:}70  28) = 288.446.55 ) 1 Jpy F = 189.9 psi == 6.000 psi.000 ( log 18)(189.958 + 6.985 psi in the refined solution.135.000 w.9561b r = ~ = 59.447 psi !1fpES + !1fpR = 12.690 psi (94 MPa) vs. and Pi = Ap/pi = 12 X 0. an assumption of lOpercent loss at the beginning in estimating Pi == 0. then netsteel stress fpi = 189.lb (391 kNm) fpi = 0.230.000 psi Assume elasticshortening loss and steelrelaxation loss == 18.958 psi (85.3 psi (7.000 = 313.62 fes = .000 .000 psi could be used) t = 18 hours _ (log !1fpR .720 = 2. 2 Pi ( e MDe / .000 psi is used.9P] would have been adequate. !1fpES = nfcs = 11.55 ) = 6. and we have X 176.9 = 1.496 in.41 X 106 X 6 !1fpES = nIcs = 11.000 = 171.58?) + 3.4 MPa) If fpi = 189. 12.958 + 6.464.000 psi.135.405 == 18.2 + 1.115.90 = 1178.11 59.153 X 171.58 615 97.720 = 9711 in2 Ae 615 .I total losses are !1fpT = !1fpES + !1fpR + !1fpCR + !1fpSH = 12.019.. (c) Creep Loss !1fpCR (d) Shrinkage Loss = 0 The stage.019.958 = 176.12. assumed OK.
log 18) (169.58 59720 .000 in.269 + 6. normalweight concrete topping: 2 WSD = 12 X 10 X 150 = 250 plf The moment due to the 2in.0.6 X 1.3 pSl .1 MPa) dfpR = 169.69)(100 . Then.595 ) .091 = 20. Although 30 days' duration is short for longterm effects.169 MPa).28) 1. use KCR = 2.06f)(100 . dfpSH = 8.2 X 1O6KSHEp~ 1  0.190 + 5.550 psi (142 MPa) The increase in stress in the strands due to the addition of topping is . topping is MSD fesd = WSD G) (L .88 X 106 psi Eps = 28 X 106 psi n == Eps Ee = 28 X 106 2.000 X 17.0 for pre tensioned members. Then.14.70) 6.72 X 1.88 X 10 6 = 9.0 X 28 X 106(1 .6(1.3 psi Intensity of 2in.376 psi.3 .115. Stage II: Transfer to Placement of Topping after 30 Days (a) Creep Loss Ee = 2. sufficient approximation can be justified in stage II using the creep factor KCR of Equation 3.115.190 psi (42.19.RH) S = 364 = 1.764.lb (199 kNm) = 1.x) = 250e28) (70 . the prestress loss due to longterm creep is dfpCR = nKCR(Jes .3.0.55 = 5.3) = 9.2 = V 615 X 10. the prestress loss due to longterm shrinkage is dfpSH = 8.764. from Equation 3.519. X 12 = 1.000 .= e MSDe = 519.000 . giving Pi = 311. from Equation 3.595 psi (1.69 from geometry KSH = 1.091 pSl (35.!esd) = 9. For lightweight concrete.7 MPa) (c) Steel Relaxation Loss at 30 Days t1 = 18 hours t2 = 30 days = 30 = X 24 = 720 hours fps 169. Assume relative humidity RH = 70%.269 psi (63.6.3 MPa) (b) Shrinkage Loss.0 x 80% = 1.72 fes 1.10.595 psi from stage I log 720 .9 StepbyStep Computation of All TimeDependent Losses in a Pretensioned Beam 95 The strand stress fpi at the end of stage I = 189.06 X 1. 10 230.595 ( StageII total loss is dfpT = dfpCR + dfpSH + dfpR = 9. hence.11 to account for stage III as well (see stageIII creep calculations).405 = 169.
fpT + fSD = 169.000 12.A = 4" = 0. since the longterm values of KCR for creep and KSH for shrinkage were used in stageII computations.7 MPa) .55 = 2.093( ) log 17.091 + 2.l Percentages of total losses = 100 .033 MPa). the strand stress at the end of stage II is fpe = fps .70 fpJ Elastic shortening loss Creep loss Shrinkage loss Relaxation loss (6.093 psi (1.000 psi (fpJ = fpi of Equation 3.958 9.1 = 19.093 10 230.269 6.595 .9 3.045 MPa) 100.1d in this case).25" 1" L = 70 ft From Equation 3.563 pSI (17. Assume also that the anchorage seating loss is! in.5 2.fpA = L t:.563 = 151.000 . fpe = 154. So the strand stress fpe at the end of stage III == 154.t:. 106 == 8333 pSI (40.0.0 6.3 7.72 x 519. and that all strands are simultaneously tensioned in a flexible duct.093 .530 psi (1.80.10 STEPBYSTEP COMPUTATION OF ALL TIMEDEPENDENT LOSSES IN A POSTTENSIONED BEAM Example 3.8 MPa) Hence.101 5.3 = 5.8 assuming that the beam is posttensioned.24.9 4. 20% for this pre tensioned beam.190 14.fpR = 154.550 + 5.066 MPa) t1 t2 = 30 days = 720 hours = 2 years X 365 X 24 = 17.048 psi (34.20.25 Eps = 70 X 12 X 28 X . say.048 = 154.048 151.log 720)(154.7 80. Accordingly.2 MPa) .96 Chapter 3 Partial Loss of Prestress fSD = nlcsd = 9.9 Solve Example 3.447 + 5.520 .563) Increase due to topping Final net stress fpe 189.520 hours The steel relaxation stress loss is t:.093 psi (1. Also assume that the total jacking force prior to the friction and anchorage seating losses resulted in fpi = 189. the anchorage slip stress loss is t:. psi Percent After tensioning (0.2.062 MPa) Stage IlL' At End of Two Years The values for longterm creep and longterm shrinkage evaluated for stage II are assumed not to have increased significantly. Summary of Stresses Stress level at various stages Steel stress.A 0. 3. Solution: (a) Anchorage seating loss t:.530 psi (1.9%.
Assume that the para bolic tendon approximates the shape of an arc of a circle.7. Hence. Inc.10 StepByStep Computation of All nmeDependent Losses in a PostTensioned Beam 97 (b) Elas/ic shor/en"ng.376 lb in the pretensioned case of Example 3.000 .848 x 12 X 0. 0. Then. Then..8. now FIGG Engineers) . use K = 0.0.136 MPa) Hence. no elastic shortening stress loss takes place in the tendons.73 .. Tallahassee.(101 and = 0.I.000 psi ( 1. Inc.0 . (Courtesy..0548 15.22.25. Designed by Figg and Muller Engineers. the elastic shortening will precipita te during jacking. Photo 3. 153 = 296.23. Flgg and Muller Engineers.819:: 164. + KL ) 189. = \89..98) .726 Ib compared 10 P I::. From Table 3. 3 11 .303 MPa) From Equation 3.000(0.12. the net prestressing force is P I:: 164.25 x 0. pES (c) Frictional/ass.1.. A 90" cantilever and a to percent supere levation in one direc tion to a full to percent in the opposite di rection within ISO ft. Grandfather Mountain.15.8.8. As a result.= AfpF = 189. the stress toss in prestress due to friction is 1..3. Al = O. from Equation 3. 1".. Norlh Carolina.0548 radian 70 X 12 (. Florida. from Example 3.333 .848 psi ( 1.«(.. a = 8y x = 8{ 18.3 Linn Cove Viaduct.8 19 psi (109 MPa) + OJXH x 70) The stress remaining in the prestressing steel after all initial inslllntaneous losses is I". Since all jacks arc simultaneously posttensioned.
fpSH = 6.496 97.398 X 12 X 0.fpR = 164.0 MPa) Stage II: Total Losses t!.996.fpT = t!.450 psi (23.72 X 1.020.fpR = 161.016.2 psi (6.190 X 0.11 17.590 psi (24.55 == 3.000 .58 at 30 days.327 ( 615 1 + (17.fpR = 5.00 = .848 psi (b) Relaxation Loss t!.446 psi (93 MPa) .398 psi (1.3.fpCR = nKCRlfes . hence = 1.28(996.6.8 MPa) (c) Creep Loss (d) Shrinkage Loss t!.933 psi (41 MPa) (b) Shrinkage Loss.8 MPa) Here.fpSH = 0 So the tendon stress fpi at the end of stage I is 164.450 = 161. t!.3) == 5.0.153 = 296.fpCR + t!.519. the creep loss: For lightweight concrete.6 x 0.94 MPa) Hence.923 psi (27.398 psi The relaxation loss in stress becomes t!.58 59.000 0.720 = 2.log 18) (161.2 .327 lb Pi ( e fes = . the assumption is made that the major shrinkage occurred in 30 days.848 230.848 ( log 18) w. t!.113 MPa) Stage II: Transfer to Placement of Topping after 30 Days (a) Creep Loss Pi = 161.28. for KSH = 0.933 + 3. (c) Steel Relaxation Loss at 30 Days fps = 161.590 + 3.58 = 3.fpSH + t!.333 psi Net stress = 164.20 + 1.Ae 1 + r 2 ) +T MDe X = _ 296.80 = 1.8. From Example 3.398 ) 10 230.55 ) == 3.464.398 ( lOg 720 .923 = 13.(164. Table 3.58)2) + 3. KCR is reduced by 20%.98 Chapter 3 Partial Loss of Prestress Stage I: Stress at Transfer (a) Anchorage Seating Loss Loss = 8.!esd) = 9.848 .
000 0.000 psi (1.B.000 .144.7 79. the strand stress fpe at the end of stage III is approximately 153.520 .000 _ ) _ I1fpR .520 hours The steel relaxation stress loss is (log 17.000 . the strand stress at the end of stage II is fpe = fps .45. From Table 3.333 15.933 3.3. Solution for Example 3.590 9.I1fpT + I1fSD = 161.70fpJ Elastic shortening loss Anchorage loss * Frictionalloss* Creep loss Shrinkage loss Relaxation loss (3.log 720) (153.8 and 3. Steel stress psi 189. So the net final strand stress by this method is fpe = 189. 3.923 + 2.13.153.556 psi (1.1 1.55 == 2.446 + 5.0 4.000 psi (228 MPa).048 psi (34.0% . hence.4 8.10 Solve Examples 3.000 psi 720 hours t1 = t2 = 17.444 psi (16.4 3.556 *Frictional and anchorage seating losses are included in this table since the total jacking stress is given as 189.8.000 psi (993 MPa) Stepbystep fpe value = 151.048 150.444) Increase due to topping Final net stress fpe Percentage of total losses = 100 79.000 151.0 0.2.000 psi.000 10 230.8 MPa).048 = 153.7 = 20. and compare the results.8.000 Percent 100.530 .9 by the approximate lumpsum method.9 MPa) Using the same assumptions for stage III creep and shrinkage as in Example 3. the increase in stress in the strands due to the addition of topping.3% beam.817 +5.530 = 5. is fSD = 5.000 = 144.444 = 150.055 MPa) Stage III: At End of2 Years fpe = 153.2 +2. otherwise the tendons would have to be jacked an additional stress of such a magnitude as to neutralize the frictional and anchorage seating losses.11 LUMPSUM COMPUTATION OF TIMEDEPENDENT LOSSES IN PRESTRESS Example 3.530 Percent difference = 151. the total loss I1fPT= 45.11 LumpSum Computation of TimeDependent Losses in Prestress 99 From Example 3.450 + 3.1.7 o 8.9 5.819 5.038 MPa) Summary of Stresses Stress level at various stages After tensioning (0.398 .
062 MPa) 154.ft(ILa + 3.12 SI PRESTRESS LOSS EXPRESSIONS Il.u t + 35 where ESH.15a. moist curing for 7 days E SH.000 = 154.lIb) where for normal concrete KCR = 2.6 KSH Eps( 1 . From Table 3.t = 800 X 106 mm/mm Equation 3. the difference between the stepbystep "exact" method and the approximate lumpsum method is quite small.55 ) (3.2. The denominator 10 becomes 45 for lowrelaxation tendons.E SH. (3. standard cases both methods are equally reliable.22) where L.E SH.35. 3.fpF = .556 Percent difference = = 2. the total loss il pT = 35.000 Stepbystep fpe value = 150.06 ~)100  RH) (3.0.fpSH = KSH 10. steam curing 1 to 3 days max E SH. n = modular ratio 8. (3.14) = 1.t = 730 X 106 mm/mm Il.u t + 55 where ESH.0 for pretensioned = 1.. meter.0.24) .000 psi (241 MPa).15b.fpR = fpi ( lOg t2 10 log tl) (f~i fpy 0.t   t ] [ .149.45 (60 days) Equation 3..2 X = E Eps c Il. indicating that in normal.8) for stressrelieved tendons where t is in hours.t   t ] [ .000 .3 % In both cases. pre tensioned = range of 0. So the net final strand stress by the lumpsum method is fpe = 189.232 154.100 Chapter 3 Partial Loss of Prestress Solution for Example 3.000 .000 psi (1.92 (1 day) to 0.9.28KL) (3.6 for posttensioned reduced by 20% for lightweight concrete.
3 0.5 MPa !~i = 24.043 ~ w (lightweight) = 1830 Kg/m 3 .7!pu = 1.593 = N/m (in. 5 0. the elastic shortening will simultaneously precipitate during jacking. = w1.860 MPa !py = 0.300 MPa Eps = 193.(Eps) ~A = 193.580 MPa !pi = 0.3 m Aps = twelve tendons.11 = 0.000 = 58.64cm VIS = 1.64cm 21. = w1.69 Solution: (a) Anchorage seating loss ~A = RH = 70% 0.1 SI Prestress Loss Example Example 3.Ib) 3.64 X 1= 21. no elastic shortening loss takes place in the tendons.9 using SI units for losses in prestress.000 MPa Span 1= 21.188 mm2 Mso = Mo = 391 kNm ~A = 199 kNm O.3.12.006895 MPa (lb/ft) 14. 5 MPa = 106 N/m2 = N/mm2 = (psi) 0.968 cm2 97.82 X 0.85!pu = 1.7mm diameter (99 mm2 ) = 12 X 99 = 1.520 cm3 ? = IclAc = 626 Cb = 55.670 cm3 Ie = 2.1 MPa S' = Ac = 3.6 cm ee = 33.0 MPa (b) Elastic Shortening Since all jacks are simultaneously tensioned.043 Wf~ 0.12 81 Prestress Loss Expressions 101 Ec Ec. As a result.5 cm ee 47.113 = Nm Solve Example 3. considering selfweight and superimposed dead load only.3 m 100 X ~!pA = 1. .49 X 106 cm4 Sb = 44. 12.8 em = C' = 25.82!py = (0.0 cm !pu = 1. Data !~ = 34.85)!pu = 0.
6?] 3.3) 109MPa The stress remaining in the prestressing steel after all instantaneous stresses fpi = 1.0) 21. IlfpF = fpllLU = = + 3. K =0.log 0) (1.25 X 0.25.32 X 106 [ (44.4MPa (c) Creep Loss IlfeR = 0 (d) Shrinkage Loss IlfsH = 0 Tendon stress at the end of stage I fps = 1.133 _ ) .102 Chapter 3 Partial Loss of Prestress Hence IlfpES = O.28KL) 1.188 = 1.28 X 21.1.at tendons centroid ere eat 0.300(0.300 MPa From Equation 3.90 + 7.108 x 1.4 of span = 17.580 0. the net prestressing force is Pi = fpAps = 1.3 X 100 = 0. (c) Frictional Loss Assume that the parabolic tendon approximates the shape of an arc of a circle.7 cm 1.800 Kg/m3 .35 X 106 N Stage I: Stress at Transfer (a) Anchorage Seating Loss IlfA = 58 MPa (b) Relaxation Loss From Equation 3.6 N/mm2 1+.001.58 in.133 MPa Hence.6 .32 x 106 N 2 Pi ( e ) MDeb fes = .8.A 1 + '2 + . (log _ IlfpR .00 N/mm2 = 6.188 = 1.23.+ 3.7.33. fpi = 1.1 .4 == 1.001 X 3. = 44. Then. 8y U =~= 8(ee .300 .055 + 0.90 MPa at cgs w (lightweight) = 1.fpi t2 0 log t1) (f~i _ 0.055 radians From Table 3. fL =0.133 X 1.133 .49 X 106 F Jes  X 1 100 = 13. from Equation 3.ee) I 8(47.55 = 24.91 X 107 Ncm X 44.(58 + 0 + 109) = 1.22.55 ) 1 f' Jpy _ (lOg 18 .968 X 102 626 2.133 10 1.108 MPa Stage II: Transfer to Placement of Topping After 30 Days (a) Creep Loss Pi = 1.24.
15.103.70) = 24.11b.770 MPa Eps Ec = .244 .2.06 X 1.( 1 = 0.108 .7MPa (c) Relaxation Loss at 30 Days (720 Hrs) fps = 1.76 X 3.520 hrs.2 X 10.8 MPa Stage II: Total Losses !:lfpT = !:lfpCR + !:lfPSH + !:lfR = 52.020 MPa.7 2.1.0.90 .76 !csd = stress in concrete at cgs due to all superimposed dead loads after prestressing i~ accomplished.57) = 52.99 Ie X 10 Ncm X 44.9(4.5 = 19.8301.580 0.6 for posttensioned beam From Equation 3.6(6.5 = 1.000 19. 5 0.2 X 10.5 = 1.108 ( lOg 720 .7 + 26. _ (log 17.6 X 0.fesd) X = 9.25)0.039 .14.85 .039 MPa Stage III: At End of Two Years fpe = 1.5 + 34.1.6 == 1.8 MPa fps .151 = 26.12 81 Prestress Loss Expressions 103 Ec (lightweight) = wJ.3. t2 = 17.043V34.770 9.043V34.0.0 MPa From Equation 3.76 (b) Shrinkage Loss at 30 Days 1.520 .8(2.57 MPa KCR = 1.57 = 34.log 720) (1.55 = 110.6) !:lfpSH = 8.108 MPa !:lfpR = 1. !:lfpSH = 8. the stress in the tendons at end of stage III can approximately be fps = 1.108 ) 10 1.69)(100 .580 . /" Jesd = = MSDe = 1.0 + 24.58 X 193.06f) (100 .!:lfpT + !:lfSD = 1.5 n =  X 0.3. !:lfpCR = nKCR(Jes .55 = 103.108 = 15.000(1 .log 18) (1.58 (Table 3.6 KSH Ep.8 = 104 MPa Increase of tensile stress at bottom cgs fibers due to addition of topping is from before.= 193.49 X 106 7 X _1_ N/mm2 100 3.RH) KSH at 30 days = 0.039 10 1.039 MPa t1 = 720 hrs. . !:lfSD fpe = = nfCSD = 9.6 MPa On the assumption that !:lfpCR and !:lfpSH were stable in this case.857)0.039 _ ) !:lfpR .
"Time Dependent Loss and Dcncction in Prestressed Concrete Members:' JOllrnal of Ihe Prestresse(/ COl/crete Institute 20." In Dejleclioll of Strucfllres. American Concrete Institute.13. M[. the bridge designer) SELECTED REFERENCES 3. 446. Dordrecht.7 Tadros. span using balanced cantilever construction.2 ACIASCE Joint Committee 423. . Pa rtial Prestressing. Buillling Co(/e Reqlliremellfs for Structural COl/crele (A CI 31808) and Commentary (ACI 3IB R08).tO Cohn.8 Branson. The firsl of the twin 3. PostTensioning Mlmllal.3 AASHTO Subcommittee on Bridges and Structures. 3. Farmington Hills.2000. 3. connecting Perth Amboy and Sayerville. in Cooperation with NATO Scientific Affairs Division. W. M. Victory Bridge over the Raritan River.4 Route 35. 3. November [956. 77. From Theory to Praclice. G . pp. A. K. 3. 3. 3. M. pp.970' bridges was comple ted in just 15 months. MI. PCI. 6th cd. 3. ASCE. Chairman. T. "Control of Deflection in Concrete Structures. AZ. 936 pp. The speeding of construction was accomplished by erecting the approach spans with spantospan construction while simultaneously erecting the main 440 ft . 83128. NJ: 2009. Z.. Washington. 2008. Reinforced ConcreteA Flllulamelllal Approach. G . New York..104 Chapter 3 Partial Loss of Prestress Photo 3. "Recommendations for Estimating Prestress Loss. American Concrete Institute. 1975.U ACI Committee 435.Tensioning Institute. Y. Farmington Hills. Premice. 3.6 Lin.4 Prestressed Concrete Institute. New Jersey. E. D . Nawy. 5th ed. Farmington Hills. pp. Chic:lgo: 1999. NATOAS I Applied Science Series. (Courtesy of FIGG. American Concrete Institute. "Thc Deformation of Noncomposite and Composite Prestresscd Concrete Members. ''Tentative Recommendations for Prestressed Concrele:' Journal of the American COllcrete Illstitllte 54 (1957): 548578. Upper Saddle River. 1974. 1107." Journal of the Prestressed Concrete Institllfe 20 (1975): 4375. Ihis main span is the longest precast cantilever segmental construction in the United Slates.9 Nawy. "Cab[e Friction in PostTensioni ng:' l ou fllal of Structllral Division.. 1975. Ghali. 3. 3. At this time.H:lll. pp. 1995. 5th Ed. D. span erection scheme of [he approach spans. PCI Design Handbook.H ACI Committee 3 18. A va riable depth precast segmental concrete bridge with spans of 330'440'330' built in balanced cantilever. H. Phoenix.1 to 1107. E.1 PCI Committee on Prestress Loss. PostTensioning Inst itute. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. 1986. vols 1 and 2. E.5 Post. The photo shows the spanby. The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff. and Dilger. 3.C. 8698." ACI Committee Report R43595. IlIIerim Specifications Bridges.
" Keynote Address Paper. pp. (91. Assume SD load = 30% LL.C.9 cm).200 plf (17. Use RH = 70% and VIS = 3.Problems 105 3.2.9 if it was posttensioned using flexible ducts for the tendon. National Research Council. September 2006. Washington. by the detailed stepbystep method. "ConcreteThe Sustainable Infrastructure Material for the 21 st. the total losses in prestress of the lOft (3. PROBLEMS 3.862 MPa) fpi = 0. (8. It is subjected to a uniform gravitational liveload intensity WL = 1. All the data are identical to those of Example 3.. 3. the total losses of prestress in the AASHTO 36in.1 and which has a span of 34 ft (10.7 mm dia) 7wire strands.5 mm). G. Washington. 123. Transportation Research Board. Crystal City. ~1(76Cm)1 I~ 30" . (483 mm) f~ Relative humidity RH = 75 % VIS = 3. (9. dia (12. D. Century.000 psi.4 cm)deep beam used in Problem 1..1 which has a span of 64 ft (19. No.5 m) for a steel relaxation period of 7 years. 2007. 3.3 Compute. assume that the total jacking stress prior to the friction and anchorage seating losses is 189. 3. G. the critical section is determined to be at a distance 0.1. Proceedings. "ConcreteThe Sustainable Infrastructure Material for the 21 st. The First International Conference on Recent Advances in Concrete Technology.9 m) and the cross section shown in Figure P3.4 times the span from the face of the support.28m)wide flange double Tbeam in Example 1.1 A simply supported pretensioned beam has a span of 75 ft (22.1 (a) Elevation.000 psi (1.4 m) for both the pretensioned and the posttensioned case. "1' Figure P3. the total prestress losses of the simply supported double Tbeam of Example 3.C.000 psi (41. normalweight concrete f~i = 4.4 MPa).14 Nawy. by the detailed stepbystep method.0 in. In the posttensioned case.2 Compute. and compare them with the values obtained by the lumpsum method. by the detailed stepbystep method.500 psi (31 MPa) fpu = 270. and solve for both pretensioned and posttensioned prestressing conditions. D.1 f (a) T 50" Tr30"~ (b) +. pp. September 19. Assume also that all strands are tensioned simultaneously and that the anchorage slip LlA =i in. Use all the data of Problem 1.4 Compute. Century.1 in your solution. E. Determine the steel relaxation losses at the end of the first year after erection and at the end of 4 years. 3. 124.13 Nawy. Assume that the tendon profile is essentially parabolic. EC103.70fpu Relaxation time t = 5 years ec = 19 in. Take the following values as given: = 6. Compute the total prestress losses by the stepbystep method.. and assume that the relative humidity RH = 70% and the volumetosurface ratio VIS = 3. (7.." Keynote Address Paper. .8. (b) Section.5 in.62 cm) Assume SD load = 30% LL.5 kN/m) in addition to its selfweight and is prestressed with 20 stressrelieved hn. E.
The design process slans with the choice of a prel iminary geome try. Thereafter. The section satisfies the nexu ral (bendi ng) requ irements of concrete stress and steel stress limitations. denection. (CO!lrtesy. or imposed . Baltimore. bending moments. the basic mechanics of materia ls.FLEXURAL DESIGN OF PRESTRESSED CONCRETE ELEMENTS 4. As seen from the discussion in C hapte r 1. He nce.1 INTRODUCTION Flexural stresses are the result of external . While the input data for the a nalysis of sections differ from the data needed (or de ~ sign. Prestressed Concrete Institute. other facto rs such as shea r and torsion capaci ty.) 106 . a good understanding of the fundame ntal principles of analysis and the alternatives presented thereby significantly simplifies the task of designing the section. and elastic principles of superposition have to be adhe red to in all stages of load ing. One assumes the geometrical properties of the section to be prestressed a nd then proceeds 10 determ ine whethe r the section can safely carry the prestressing forces a nd the required external loads. every design is essentially an analysis. they control the selection of the geome trical dimensions of the prestressed concrete section regard less of whether it is prelensioned or postte nsioned. In most cases. a nd by trial a nd adjustment it converges to a final section wh h geometrical details of the concre te cross section and the sizes and alignments of the prestressing strands. and cracking arc analyzed a nd satisfied. principles of eq uilibrium of internal couples. Maryland Concert Center parking garage.
provided that other requirements such as serviceability. Note that a logical sequence in the design process entails first the serviceload design of the section required in flexure. shrinkage. a negative sign () is used to denote compressive stress and a positive sign (+) is used to denote tensile stress in the concrete section. at transfer. however. is applied to the member. In view of the preceding. In the design of prestressed members. All these checks are necessary to ensure that at service load cracking is negligible and the longterm effects on deflection or camber are well controlled. as well as the limit state at failure. These loading stages can be summarized as follows: • Initial prestress force Pi is applied. the force is transmitted from the prestressing strands to the concrete. with the failure load indicating the reserve strength for overload conditions. while a schematic plot of load versus defor() Compressive stress stress (a) (+) Tensile stress (b) Figure 4. a concave or sagging shape denotes positive bending moment. provided that the member is simply supported. the external dead load and partial live load are applied to the prestressed concrete member at varying concrete strengths at various loading stages. this chapter covers the major aspects of both the serviceload flexural design and the ultimateload flexural design check. shear capacity.l. (b) Positive bending moment. i.2. . and bond are met. leading to a reduced prestressing force Peo.e. and then the analysis of the available moment strength Mn of the section for the limit state at failure. A convex or hogging shape indicates negative bending moment. • The full selfweight WD acts on the member together with the initial prestressing force. The principles and methods presented in Chapter 1 for service load computations are extended into stepbystep procedures for the design of prestressed concrete linear elements. with longterm losses due to creep.1 Sign convention for flexure stress and bending moment. and strand relaxation taking place and leading to a net prestressing force P e· • Overloading of the member occurs under certain conditions up to the limit state at failure. as shown in Figure 4.. then. Unlike the case of reinforced concrete members. • Most shortterm losses in the prestressing force occur.4. taking into consideration the impact of the magnitude of prestress losses discussed in Chapter 3. • The full superimposed dead load W SD including topping for composite action. additional checks are needed at the load transfer and limit state at service load. • The member is subjected to the full service load. Throughout the book. there is no intermediate support. A typical loading history and corresponding stress distribution across the depth of the critical section are shown in Figure 4.1 Introduction 107 It suffices in the flexural design of reinforced concrete members to apply only the limit states of stress at failure for the choice of the section. (a) Negative bending moment.
A logical transposition is to define the minimum section modulus that can withstand all the loads after losses. has to be made first.2. a nonsymmetrical flanged section has the advantage of efficiently using the concrete material and of concentrating the concrete in the compressive zone of the section where it is most needed. The axial force due to prestressing is always present regardless of whether bending moments do or do not exist due to other external or selfloads.2.3 to be subsequently presented are stress equations that are convenient in the analysis of stresses in the section once the section is chosen. more accurately. a determination of the required minimum section modulus.3 for the various loading stages from the selfweight effect up to rupture. such as the midspan section in a simple beam and the support section in a continuous beam.2 Minimum Section Modulus To design or choose the section. (c) Selfweight and effective prestress. As seen from Chapter 1.2 SELECTION OF GEOMETRICAL PROPERTIES OF SECTION COMPONENTS 4. the beam is assumed to be homogeneous and elastic. beam sections are considered uncracked. As compared to a rectangular solid section. For design. Sb and st.108 Tension Chapter 4 Compression Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements Compression 1 ~ q H ~ Prestressing force I• I I~compressionI Compression (b) Compression could be zero (decompression) (d) ~ ~ fTension (e) (f) (a) (c) Figure 4. 4. If . (b) Initial prestressing stage. (f) Limit state of stress at ultimate load for underreinforced beam. Equations 4. and 4. (a) Beam section. it is necessary to transpose the three equations into geometrical equations so that the student and the designer can readily choose the concrete section. (e) Full service load plus effective prestress.2 Flexural stress distribution throughout loading history. or. a beam column.1 General Guidelines Under serviceload conditions. 4. (d) Full dead load plus effective prestress.2. mation (camber or deflection) is shown in Figure 4. 4. Stress analysis of prestressed beams under these conditions is no different from stress analysis of a steel beam. Since it is also assumed (because expected) that the prestress compressive force transmitted to the concrete closes the crack that might develop at the tensile fibers of the beam. it is advantageous to have the alignment of the prestressing tendon eccentric at the critical sections.1.
.l'e . f ~g..1a) . /r r.. Stress at Transfer (4. a summary of the equations of stress from Section 1.::.2 Selection of Geometrical Properties of Section Components Load 109 Including tolerable overload First cracking load Serv!celo~dlimit Decom~resslon "'.::. / i'" APi = APe = Ao = AD = AL Deformation A (deflection or camber) Initial prestress camber Effective prestress camber Selfweight deflection Dead load deflection = Live load deflection Figure 4. t// ~ m.::~~ 7.~ ~~~ .45 f~ or 0. it.~:::: Balanced "Ildud """ .(' : 0) 'er /ange h or h'Iger .L. Using the uncracked unsymmetrical section.. = maximum allowable tensile stress in concrete immediately after transfer and prior to losses = 3~ (the value can be increased to 6~ at the supports for simply supported members) fe = maximum allowable compressive stress in concrete after losses at serviceload level = 0.3 for the various loading stages is as follows. fei = maximum allowable compressive stress in concrete immediately after transfer and prior to losses =0.4.overload   Service load I....::~~ .60 f~ when allowed by the code it = maximum allowable tensile stress in concrete after losses at service load level = 6V1'c (the value can be increased in oneway systems to 12V1'c if longterm deflection requirements are met) then the actual extreme fiber stresses in the concrete cannot exceed the values listed..3 Loaddeformation curve of typical prestressed beam.L / .60f~.::.1~ LfTn l'(.
. Scotland.(1 A. England. While a more accurate value to use would be the horizontal component of Pi' it is reasonable fo r all practical purposes to disregard such refinement.2a) (4. I P'( fb=. Doris. ( MD + . (Colfrlesy.1 Ninian Central oil drilling platform.) <  J. 1b) where Pi is the initial prestressing force. 2 + Sb ec. Cheiron. (4.3b) where M T= M o+Mso+ML Pi = initia l prestress Pt = effective prestress after losses t denotes the top.) I" = . Gerwick. cgc fl = square of radius of gyra tion SIISb :::: top/bollom section modulus value of concrete section The decompression stage denotes the increase in stee l strain due to the increase in load from the stage when the effective prest ress p~ acts alone to the stage when the add i . Ben C.3a) (4.110 Chapter 4 Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements Photo 4.c. and C.2b) f' ~ 3.1 A~ P.A. ( (4. G. and b denotes the boltom fi bers e = eccentricity of tendons from the concrete section ccmer of gravity. Effective Stresses after Losses f' ~. (4.A c 1 Service·/oad Final Stresses P.
3).Pe = (1 . the chosen section should have section moduli values st~~~~~~ (1 .2.'Y) Sb (e) From Equations (d) and (e). The maximum eccentricity is usually at the midspan controlling section for the simply supported case.'Y)Pi (a) If the actual concrete extreme fiber stress is equivalent to the maximum allowable stress. the change in this stress after losses.'Y)(MD) fri + St atb (1 .4a) (4. the net stress at top fibers is t~ = fri  ar .1 Beams With Variable Tendon Eccentricity.(1 . At this stage.'Yfri ( 1 . Beams are prestressed with either draped or harped tendons.2.4. the change in concrete stress due to decompression is tdecomp = P A: ( 1 + e 2 ) . from Equations 4.2 Selection of Geometrical Properties of Section Components 111 tionalload causes the compressive stress in the concrete at the cgs level to reduce to zero (see Figure 4.'Y{tei + (b) = ~: ) (c) From Figure 4. as the superimposed deadload moment MSD and liveload moment ML act on the beam. Assuming that the effective prestressing force is Pe = 'YPi where 'Y is the residual prestress ratio.2 (4.1a and b. Pi .l' MD St .te ) or _ tnt .te (d) The net stress at the bottom fibers is or tbn = MD fr .3c) This relationship is based on the assumption that the strain between the concrete and the prestressing steel bonded to the surrounding concrete is such that the gain in the steel stress is the same as the decrease in the concrete stress. the loss of prestress is 4.'Ytei . is given by at t = (1 .4b) .4(a).'Y)MD + MSD + ML 'Yfri and !c (4.
. p.4d) where tensile stress is ffi and comprehensive stress is 8. is (4.112 Chapter 4 Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements Af' ~!4l~1 Mo t Mso + ML Sb iHofA_f_b++fSb~ f. such as the midspan section. The required eccentricity of the prestressing tendon at the critical section. (b) Support section of simplysupported beam (ee = 0 as tendon moves to cgc). (4. CD @ stresses Pi stresses p. (a) Critical section such as midspan. CD @ Pi stresses Pi + M0 stresses p. stresses ® @ + M 0 stresses + Mo + Mso + ML (a) (b) Figure 4.4(a) Maximum fiber stresses in beams with draped or harped tendons.4c) where lei is the concrete stress at transfer at the level of the centroid cgc of the concrete section and Thus.
fe (c') or where fes is the actual serviceload stress in concrete.4(b). Beams with constant tendon eccentricity are beams with straight tendons.'Yfci (d') From Equations (c) and (d).2. 4.4. as is normally the case in precast moderatespan simply supported beams.'Y)(fri) ar and (b') The net stress at the serviceload condition after losses at the top fibers is f~ = iti  ar . (a') = (1 . The net stress at service load after losses at the bottom fibers is or fbn = it .4(b) Maximum fiber stresses at support section of beams with straight tendons (stress distribution at midspan section similar to that of Figure 4. Because the tendon has a large eccentricity at the support.2 Selection of Geometrical Properties of Section Components 113 CD Pi stresses CD stresses p. for which the stress distribution at the support is shown in Figure 4. creating large tensile stresses at the top fibers without any reduction due to superimposed M D + MSD + M v in such beams smaller eccentricity of the tendon at midspan has to be used as compared to a similar beam with a draped tendon.2.4a). Figure 4. Hence. In other words.2 Beams with Constant Tendon Eccentricity. the controlling section is the support section. the chosen section should have section moduli values .
""" S'Ibh 2 0 1.5 Section moduli of flanged and boxed sections (adapted from Ref.12 0.4 l ~~/~ r 0..06 0.16 I I I I I I I I _ 1 1. /. '\.08 0.1011 0.4 0.. 4.0 oar IB.2011 0.02 0...05h 'v' hI =0.14 0.14 'yJ hI = 0.i~ T T h2 h2 To obtain Sb1bh2 interchange the values of hI and h2 ~b11Jb1_tJbj f. .08 hI = 0.10.16 o S'Ibh 2 Figure 4. .6 I ~ ~~ 0.3011 0...2 o o y hI = 0.12 0.E'T.16).10 0.0 1 0./J///IIIIIIII i 0.8 0.2 ~ ~ ~ ~ 0.04 0..b 4 0.
(in.731 16 32 3.1 Section Properties and Moduli of Standard PCI Rectangular Sections Designation 12RB16 12RB20 12RB24 12RB28 12RB32 12RB36 16RB32 16RB36 16RB40 Section modulus S.1 gives the section moduli of standard PCI rectangular sections. Table 4.3.) Depth.5b) The required eccentricity value at the critical section. It may be used as a speedy tool for the choice of initial trial sections in the design process.5a and b. It = 12yf.5 MPa) and that the concrete strength f~i at transfer is 75 percent of the cylinder strength. Table 4..12.5.456 16 36 4.2 and 4.3 SERVICELOAD DESIGN EXAMPLES 4.267 16 40 12 28 12 36 .4(b) gives girder properties of optimized sections used in different states.152 12 24 1. is (4.568 2.3 ServiceLoad Design Examples 115 (4. l I Table 4. 4. The beam has to carry a superimposed sustained service live load of 1.100 plf (16.5a) and Sb 2: '==. 4.000 psi (34.3 give the geometrical outer dimensions of standard PCI Tsections and AASHTO Isections. Additional details are presented in Refs. and Table 4.:==It .000 psi (1. such as the support for an ideal beam section having properties close to those required by Equations 4.1 kN/m) and superimposed dead load of 100 plf (1.5 kN/m). and has no concrete topping."Yici MD + MSD + ML (4.862 MPa) for stressrelieved tendons. Tables 4. 3) Width. b (in.1 Variable Tendon Eccentricity Example 4.592 2. and that fpu = 270.4(a) gives dimensional details of the actual "asbuilt" geometry of the standard PCI and AASHTO sections.5c) A graphical representation of section moduli of nominal sections is shown in Figure 4. respectively.9 and 4.048 12 32 2. Properties of bulb sections are given in Appendix C. Assume also that the timedependent losses of the initial prestress are 18 percent of the initial prestress. Assume the beam is made of normalweight concrete with f~ = 5. h (in. as well as the topsection moduli of those sections needed in the preliminary choice of the section in the serviceload analysis.) 512 12 16 800 12 20 1.1 Design a simply supported pretensioned doubleTbeam for a parking garage with harped tendon and with a span of 60 ft (18.3 m) using the ACI 318 Building Code allowable stresses.4.
630/556 2.5 9.5 9.340 13.333 2.476 1.) Bottom flange average thickness.960/2.27 24.) ?.5 9.390 12.5 8DT12 8DT14 8DT16 8DT20 8DT24 8DT32 10DT32 *12DT34 *15DT34 *Pretopped 1.5 12.235 16.27 224 583 54 8 29.307/429 1. in.013 521.619 20.807 12 6 560 125. tf (in.908 10.17 15.750 3. 9.070 6. t2 (in.5 12.) Bottom flange width.) Top flange average thickness.73 330 822 63 8 31.615 5.5 9.3 Sections Geometrical Outer Dimensions and Section Moduli of Standard AASHTO Bridge AASHTO sections Designation Type 1 Type 2 369 50. bf(in.5 12.96 514 1055 72 8 35.186 16 9 1.3 Flange width b" in.063/1. in? Top flange width.347 8.41 12.140/2. bw (in.83 132 384 45 7 24. Flange depth t" in.741 24.128/4.38 676 1130 c/cb (in. 2 Selfweight w D lb/ft . I .790 16.) Total depth.307 42 7 11 16 7 18 9 22 26 12 28 13 28 13 11 28 6 15.2 Chapter 4 Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements Geometrical Outer Dimensions and Section Moduli of Standard PCI Double TSections Designation Top/bottomsection modulus.04 31.180 61. in. Web width 2 bW' in.544 20 TypeS Type 6 1.2 Moment of inertia.62 36. I .73 20.527 3. in.116 Table 4.320/860 3.458/3.) Web width. b2 (in.717 10. 4 g(xx) Ill. 4 g(y_y). Top/bottomsection modulus.59 82 287 36 6 20.320 61. h (in.979 5.587 20.157 42 7 AreaAcin.352 1.274 96 96 96 96 96 96 120 144 180 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 12 14 16 20 24 32 32 34 34 Table 4.320 12 8 Type 3 Type 4 789 260. Total depth h. Ill.001/315 1.5 9.085 733.224 5.217 5.) 276 22.
) ~b'~ h 28 36 45 54 63 72 rb.) 5 6 7. Since the tendon is harped.4(a) Geometrical Details of AsBuilt PCI and AASHTO Sections 117 b.400.75 4.5 6 7 7 16 18 22 26 28 28 X2 b2 X3 (in. the critical section is close to the midspan.5 9 10 10 (in.000 plf (14.75 bw2 h b (in. where L is the beam span. and assume a selfweight of approximately 1.) 3 3 4.75 7.) 4 6 7 8 5 5 (in. where deadload and superimposed deadload moments reach their maximum.75 X 5.75 7.40 L from the support.6 kN/m). .75 3.9 MPa) as the maximum stress in tension.75 4.000 = 3.) 12 14 16 18 20 24 32 32 34 34 b.75 3.4.000 m.000 = 849 psi (5.) 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 120 144 180 h.lb (610 kNm) .40L and not necessarily at midspan. From Equations 4. The value 0.75 5.75 5. Designation AASHTOI AASHT02 AASHT03 AASHT04 AASHT05 AASHT06 (in. Then the selfweight moment is given by MD =8 = wl 2 1.9 MPa) Use It = 12V5.75 7.75 3.jf Actual I sections = Solution: "y = 100 . and the superimposed load moment is MSD + ML = (1.) 5.100 + 100) (60)2 8 X 12 = 6.) (in.75 (in.75 3.000 m.75 7.000(60)2 8 X 12 = 5.) 5 6 7 8 8 8 X4 (in.750 psi (25.3 ServiceLoad Design Examples Table 4.) 6 6 7 8 8 8 bw h (in. Designation 8DT12 8DT14 8DT16 8DT18 8DT20 8DT24 8DT32 lODT32 12DT34 15DT34 (in.75 5.75 3.lb (732 kNm) . the critical section can be at 0.75 5.75 5.) 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 60 60 90 Actual doubleT sections (in.40L is used to indicate that under moving load.4a and b.) 12 12 16 20 42 42 Xl (in.) 3.75 4.) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 bW1 (in.75 4. (in.480.18 82 % t:i = 0. The critical section is in many cases taken at 0.
432 13.612 12.36 27.380 28.38 36.516 0.59 35.33 33.66 25.546 0.942 0.585 0.417 6.72 40. 1 in? = 16.915 20. (in.993 268.64 30.722 484. = 25.077 392.) Agency Web Width (in.12 36.894 733.538 0.340 9.2 10.64 36.023 0.587 18.122 8.166 13.049 1.88 37.038 785 843 901 1.82 35.64 26.983 0. 4 = 416.5 6.088 159.911 1.527 0. (in.509 PCI AASHTO Washington Colorado Nebraska Florida Texas 1 in.095 12.521 638..545 0.550 0.996 1.7 94.44 22.844 8.999 12.82 38.74 48.522 0.968 12.548 0.042 15.554 0. 3 ) 5.67 34.191 256.9 5.042 1.829 659.56 27. 3 ) Sb p a 0.512 0.5 10.549 12.9 5.619 15.9 5.24 30. 1 in.765 458.4) y.638 545.505 849.12 31.994 9.) (in.01 30.68 35..037 242.9 78.553 10.517 0.877 12. 1 in.945 16.985 9.051 1.157 18..223 18.40 35..159 17.588 15.96 45.592 426.931 0.586 0.5 54 63 72 54 54 557 629 701 659 713 767 1.76 27.502 534.606 10.90 22.940 0.575 494.544 16.11 32.118 177.914 0.091 13.501 0.943 0.4(b) Girder Properties of Optimized Sections Girder Type Depth (in. Type VI 80/6 100/6 120/6 14/6 G54/6 G68/6 1600 1800 2000 2400 BT54 BT63 BT72 U54A U54B 48 60 72 54 63 72 72 72 50 58 73.854 27.36 34..264 10.323.558 0.985 311. Table 4..895 17.54 24..941 0.736 308.878 23.526 0.20 26.) Yb (in.534 0.702 12.5 73.715 15.) 6 6 6 6 6 6 8 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5.297 22.62 35.548 15.871 5.12 34.co .2) Inertia (in.224 14.99 35.47 30.549 0.992 0.275 13.2 = 645 mm2 .30 27.154 13. .572 0.37 30.4 mm.556 0.894 0.943 0.029 CTL BT48 BT60 BT72 BT54 BT63 BT72 Type VI Mod.908 0.89 30.18 37.53 29.48 7.672 379.934 0.022 1.807 7.924 0.560 475.9 6.5 6.300 19.582 0.966 0.390 mm3 .991 0.857 403.63 32.565 1.01 37.893 0.925 0.41 36.320 671.99 32.106 11.000 mm4 .36 23.60 36.421 20.2 area (in.166 12.5 54 68 63 70.549 0..84 28.085 941 513 591 688 736 631 701 852 898 944 1.959 20.
~: I ~~ " 48... "~.2.5 2 ~28i 6 9j 71 R = 7..5. 48 1 .2JJA41K.1' I I n 10 I n R=8+ 16._.<~~.26 t illEr ~ FL BT72 i I" }24i F~ 72 10 ...5t1.5 ~" I! 4 . .r""q'''''''''~:' .._~ ___ ..~~~.5+.6 Cross Sections of Optimized Bridge Girder Sections [See Table 4..•~ "..9 11...3?j!%'44RLW..: WA 14/6 L:J BT54 U54B }26t Type VI .~~~.. 42 10 I 51Ec I 10 8 3 6 4..4(b)] .ftJ. 73.(' 6 }...5 F 68 . BT72 CO G68/6 NU 1800 ~~ I'~' =..25 4. CD Figure 4.. ~"" . 72 ~ CTL BT72 .$ .~_____~.75 16.9+ .
000 P e = 2. tendons..502.688 kN) . 3 3 3.330 cm) From the PCI design handbook.82) 5.250) 2.120 Chapter 4 Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements (1 + MSD st 2:.i = 184 psi __ ~ ( _ 22.000 = 154.77 in.000 = 5.y)MD.400. 2 Ct Cb = = 8. select a noritopped normal weight concrete doubleT 12 DT 34 168D1.lb .16) .480.980 psi (a) Analysis of Stresses at Transfer. 25.672lb (2. Design of Strands and Check of Stresses.82 X 189.448 X 154.153 X = 2.391lb (1. since it has the bottomsection modulus value Sb closest to the required value.600 184 .1 3 978 1.77 in.la. The section properties of the concrete are as follows: Ac = 978 in.340 in? f MD = 2.+ ML yf.019 1.0.66 zIll.448 189.0 in.860 cm ) Sb 2:. 47.yfci >  (1 .. From Equation 4.70 fpe = 270.i .000 X X 5. (1 . 1" dia. dJa.400.058 kN) Pi = 2.4 r2 = ~ = 88.104 III (50.fe >  (1 .. 3 3 849 _ 0.448 in 2 (15.400.82fpi 0.82(2.980 = 379.82)5. Ie = 86.000 + 6..y)MD + MSD + ML f..000 0.23 in.502.458 Pi = (184 + 526. . fpi = 0.3 cm2 ) = 462. WD = 1.Ae 1  Pi ( eCt) MD 7 S "5.000 = 189. = 22.072 in.978 1 88..000 = .0 Required number of tendons = Try sixteen ~in.82 x 184 _ (2.223 00 0 5 189. The assumed selfweight is close to the actual selfweight of Fig..766 Ill.0 X .600 Ill.. 2 Ae ee = 22.480. f.39 in.0. 655.. .02 X 8.0 10. .000 + 6. (45. strands for the standard section: Aps = 16 X 0. use = 1.223 lb.6 = 655.019 plf st = 10.250) = . ee = 12.23) _ 5. Hence.000 psi = 0.458 in? Sb = 3.02 in. f' Then = .
0 3.7 DoubleT Section (12 DT34) (b) Analysis of Stresses at Service Load at Midspan Pe = 379.~~: =1 +1 34" 1 3" Chamfer j Figure 4.1146 = 735 psi < fe = 2.Ib (1. 8 = 540.982.0 10.3 ServiceLoad Design Examples 121 12'0" 6'0" F .3b.600 in.02 X 8.i = 6~ = 6V\750 == 367 psi f.391 1 _ 22. fb Pe ( = Ae 1 eCb MT + ) +  r Sb = _ 379.3a.~~o(3'0" ~~.600 + 6.982.354 kNm) From Equation 4.250 psi.600 978 88.3911b MSD = 100(60?12 .K.480.000 in.340 = 2. From Equation 4.23) _ 11. O. (324 mm) f.600 978 88.587 = +698 psi (T) < f.000 = 11.K.000 = 849 psi .982. = +849 psi.889 + 3.77) + 11.Ib (788 kNm) Total moment M T = MD + MSD + ML = 5.02 X 25. (c) Analysis of Stresses at Support Section ee = 12. O.77 in.000 m.458 = +411 . f t =_ ~ Per 1 _ ec t) _ MT r2 st = _ 379.502. = 12Y5.Ib (61 kNm) ML = 1.100(60)212 8 = 5.4.391 (1 + 22. = 12v1".940.
3.2 Variable Tendon Eccentricity with No Height Limitation Example 4.77 in. (560 mm) and end eccentricity e~ = 12.250 psi . O.~ 1+ 12.02 in.1 .~ 1+ 88.77 x 25.672 f =. = 849 psi.391 ( 12. O. Adopt the section for servicetoad conditions using sixteen iin.1840' lei . r 379. < tel = If i" > frl' the support eccentricity has to be changed.77) 88.77 x 8.2.122 (i) At Transfer Chapler 4 Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements 462.2 Design an Isection for a beilm having a 65ft ( 19. .77 X 25.0 + = .570 in 3 (58. (324 mOl).250 psi.7 mOl) strands with midspan eccentricity ec '" 22.940 em)) Photo 4.+ 9' . pSI < f~ = . O.!91(1 _ 1 2. 4. Required S' "" 3.2 Crack development in prestressed Tbeam (Nawy et a\.77) 0 = .672 ( J I>=.12. psI (C) 2.8 01) span to satisfy the following section mod ulus values: Use the same allowable stresses and superimposed loads as in Example 4.23) .).535 em)) Required Sb = 3.0  r 462. (ii) AI Service Load f' =_ 37:.7~~08. K.780 in3 (61.0 2240· + 0 =.0 . K.( I 978 1 . (1. (1) 'pSI 88.K.23)_O = +75PSi {7) Jb < f.
851 kN) MD = 393(65)2 8 12 = 2.153 = 14. a symmetrical section is adequate.1a f' =  Ac 1 Pi ( ? . Ap = 1.3.5 in.2.2 Number of strands = 0. strands.340 + 2.84 in. _ Pi _ 416. From Equation 4.3 wo= 393 plf 40" 6" 4" f18"1 Figure 4.f. 416..000 x 1.32 in. and an actual Pi = 189. 2. st = 3340 in.189000 .490.99 = 376.2081b (1. Solution Since the section moduli at the top and bottom fibers are almost equal. 2 2 ReqUIred area of strands Ap .490.8 cm2).4() (+184 + 2.688 in. .673 kN).638 in.110 lb (1.98 = = 16.4c.34 + 5.75 in.208 _ .S' ect) MD .3 ServiceLoad Design Examples 123 Ie = 70.2 cm ) pi .0 in.208 416. Next. try ec = 18.: .84 .8 chosen by trial and adjustment. Analysis of Stresses at Transfer.8 Ibeam section in Example 4..208 10. = 21.99 in. (381 mm). From Equation 4. the eccentricity required at the section of maximum moment at midspan is = (184 + 1104) 3. 2 (12.6 MPa) Aclci = Pi = 377 X X 1.4d.104 = 416.104 pSI (C) (7.16in.75 == 15.16 .4 (2= 187.4.2 III (14.3 cb = 18.2 ct =21.638 . analyze the section in Figure 4. Sb = 3750 in.250 ) == 1.2 Ae= 377 in.84 in. (415 mm) Since cb = 18. +184 .2.38 Try thirteen !in. and assuming a cover of 3.lb (281 kNm) From Equation 4. and check the concrete extreme fiber stresses.
5 3.3 + 664.638 377 1 187.500 = 2.110 (1 + 15 X 18.2 .16) _ 10.225 ( _ 15.0 X 18.371 kN) MSD+M L = (100 + 1100)(65? 8 X 12= 7.16) _ 2.5 .255 lb (1.638 in.000 = 2.250 psi. = 930 psi (a) At Transfer.095.095.837 psi (C) Analysis of Stresses at Service Load. fe = 0.1 + Ae r2 P ( eCb) + MT = 308.2.1b = _ 376.340 = + 566.638 + 7.0 x 21.750 = 2.2 = 642 psi (7).692.000 = 10.84) + 2.501.255 ( 1 + Sb 377 15.050 + 2.153 X 154. From Equation 4. no tension at transfer.000 = 4.000 psi.700 psi h! = 6 vj.K.5 3. Support section compressive fiber stress. < fei = 2.500 psi 4.2.45 X 6.490.3.095.5 3. Check Support Section Stresses Allowable f:i = 0.605. O.K.110 ( _ 15. either enlarge the depth of the section or use higher strength concrete.6 = .638 377 1 187. .0 X 21.7 = 55 psi (C). O.456 psi (C) f~ = > fe = .2.124 Chapter 4 Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements = _ 376.750 = .250 psi Hence.45I: = 2.745.638 377 187.141 kNm) I __ f  308.2 = 1.700 psi = 201 psi for midspan hi = 3 ~ hi = 6 ~ = 402 psi for support fe = 0.. From Equation 4. Using 6.638 + 187.340 = +691. O.000mlb Total moment MT = MD + MSD + ML = 2.84) 10.980 = 308.3a MT SI fl =  Pe Ae (1 _eCI) _ r2 P e = 13 X 0.5 3.490.022.K.K. e fb = .700 psi.60 X X 6. = 465 psi h2 = 12 vj.lb (1. O.75 fei = 0.490.605.
2.16) _ 0 187. Potyondy. < . = 5.308. (l02cm)deep Isection prestressed beam of I. 308.5 in. tendons having midspan eccentricity er :: \5. use mild steclllt the top fibers at the support section to take all tensile stresses in the concrete. et a1.49 x 18.844 psi (q Hence.0 in .376.K. bu t change the number of strands and eccentricities. 187. (b) At Service Lomi f'= .K.4 MPa) normalweight concrete with thirteen iin.5 + 0 = . An alternative to this solution is to conti nue using /. (38 1 mm) and end section eccentricity e. try e. Note crushing of concrete o n top fibers (Nawy. adopt the 4O1n. O.255 377 (1 _ 12.98 in. = 16. or use a higher strengt h concrete for thl: section.= 12.4.700 psi.255 I" = yj7 ( I + 12. or reduce the eccentricity.49 in.5 so that e. To ensure II tensile stress at the top fibers within the allowable limits.700 "" yj7 1 + 187. equal to 6.110 (1 377 = 409 psi (7) _ 12.1. (7] 187.5 > II> = 402 psi II> = .).16) _ 0 = 335 .5 ps1 < 930 psi.84) .: f' =_ 376.84) 2.110 ( e X 18. (3\ 8 m).110 Ib 125 376. . . = 12.000 psi (41.2250 psi Thus.3 Prestressed beam at failure.49 x 21.000 psi.3 ServiceLoad Design Examples PI .49 x 21. Photo 4. O .
030 in3 20. MD + MSD + ML ReqUired Sb = f. = 4.250 psi f~i =  3. from Equation 4.3. which is greater than the available S' in Example 4.82 X 2. as shown in Figure 4.2.298.298.126 Chapter 4 Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements 4.164 kNm).250 psi (15. Use = 5.lb (859 kNm) Thus.2.823 in (62. the deadload and superimposed dead.700 in 4 r C.693.5a.and liveload moments at the support section of the simply supported beam are zero.82 10.438 in.000 in. choose the next larger Isection with h = 44 in.000 psi Q4.420 in3 Sb WD = 422 plf .5 MPa) normalweight concrete. = 12Yf: = 849 psi. Then MD = MSD + ML = 425 X 8 (65f X 12 = 2.82 Required S' = 0.2 assuming that the prestressing tendon has constant eccentricity.lb (1. The required section modulus at the support.5 MPa) 367 psi fr = +849 psi 'Y = 0. the support section controls the design. = = = SI Cb 4.9 in2 Ae = 405 in2 = 23.713 cm3 ) First Trial.438 .3 f~ Solve Example 4.9.605. is Assume WD = 425 plf.750 psi = fa = 6~ for support section fe = 2.03 in.{". I 'VJe! 3 = 3. The section properties are: Ie = 92. = 228.lb (304 kNm) 7.210 cm3 ) X 184 + 2. and we also have Allowable fei = .3 Constant Tendon Eccentricity Example 4.97 in 4.289 m 3 (72. Solution: Since the tendon has constant eccentricity. Since the required S' = 4. the total moment M T = 10. _ .289 in3 . permitting a maximum concrete tensile stress/.250 .438 849 + 0.298. Hence.250 10.438 in.
15/0.002 = 405. From Equation 4. (12. f  .838 ( _ 13.60 X 23.60 in.030 e = (367 + 1.fei) P where 23.810 = 13.4 em) pI . strands tendon.810 lb (1.: = 189000 = 2. As a result.03) _ Ac 1 r S' 405 1 228.3.i .153 X 189. ) _ MD __ 404. use fourteen Hn.1a.03 = 367 .002) 405. From Equation 4.15 III (14.K. Pi = 14 X 0. Accordingly. (346 mm) The required prestressed steel area is Ap = AJci = 405 X 1.5c.250) = 1. the required eccentricity at the critical section at the support is _ Sf I ee = (f. The required number of strands is 2.7 mm) tendons.9 0 = + 368. 2 2 So we try Hn.002 pSI. 4.05.810 .9 MPa) and Pi Hence.838lb (1. O.801 kN) (a) Analysis of Stresses at Transfer at End Section. __ Pi ( _ ec.3 ServiceLoad Design Examples 127 6" 44" (112 em) Figure 4.9 Ibeam section in Example 4.153 = 14. (6.i = 367. . Pi 405.2 psi (7) == f.~ (367 + 2.805 kN) = f.4.000 = 404.
O. (345 mm) for the fourteen !" (12.153 X 154.841 + 2. In the majority of simply supported beam designs.250.330 pSI (T) (16. < It = 849 pSI.0 .97) + 0 fb = Pi ( 1 + . the final midspan fiber stresses are t' = + 302 .97) + 405 228. MT "'" 10.477 kN) Total moment MT = MD + MSD + ML = 0 From Equation 4.838 ( 1 + 13.245 psi (C) == fei = 2. hence.438 .2.K.2 MPa) (C) < fe = 2. eCb MD = 404.42 Hence.K. O. . the distance between the cgc and cgs lines.555 = .9671b (1.967 (1 _ 13.298.841 psi (12.2.967 (1 + 13.253 psi (C) == fe = .438 in. viz.438 in.6 X 20. fIb = = 0 = +2. In most cases.Ib is sufficiently accurate.60 X 23.3a.302 pSI This is also applicable to midspan since eccentricity e is constant. From Equation 4.) + Ae (2 Sb 405 228.2.330 = +489 psi (T) < It = 849 psi. From before.1 General Guidelines Unlike steelrolled sections.60 X 20.03) . (T) 405 228.128 Chapter 4 Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements From Equation 4.) tendons.4. is proportional to the required prestressing force. (b) Analysis of Final ServiceLoad Stresses at Support Pe = 14 X 0. __ 331.1b. So the extreme concrete fiber stress due to M Tis f{ = S' = MT 10.K.298. (c) Analysis of Final ServiceLoad Stresses at Midspan. the design engineer has to select the type of section to be used in the particular project. 4. the total moment M T = MD + MSD + ML = 10.980 = 331. Consequently.4 PROPER SELECTION OF BEAM SECTIONS AND PROPERTIES 4. accept fb = 1.298.250 psi. t' =  ~: (1 _~t) .7 mm dia. MT 10.9 0 = 1.438 4030 = 2.60 in. prestressed sections are not yet fully standardized.250 psi. O.1 MPa) Sb 4.9 ..9 = 2.K. Revised w D= 422 plf= assumed W D= 425 plf.6 MPa) .298. accept the trial section with a constant eccentricity e = 13.555 psi (C) (17. the eccentricity e.3b = _ 331. O.~. .Ib.
a large concrete area at the top fibers is needed. however. are used as shortspan supporting girders or ledger beams. a Tsection or a wideflange Isection becomes suitable. These segmental girders have large torsional resistance. This section adds the advantages of the singleT section to its own ease of handling and erection inherent in its stability. Note that flanged sections can replace rectangular solid sections of the same depth without any loss of flexural strength. Figure 4.10 Typical prestressed concrete sections. hollow box girders are used as bridge girders for very large spans in what are known as segmental bridge deck systems. particularly because of the composite action advantage of the top wide flange. (h) End part of beam in (d). DoubleTsections are widely used in floor systems in buildings and also in parking structures. and prevent anchorage zone failures. Large. such as that in Figure 4. (e) DoubleTsection. D[g I I I (a) l I I I (b) (c) n T I I I I (d) (e) } (f) I II (9) II (h) } I (i) t f Figure 4. are generally used in bridge structures. For a large eccentricity. (f) End part of beam in (b). The end section is usually solid in order to avoid large eccentricities at planes of zero moment.10 shows typical sections in general usage. (a) Rectangular beam section.10(d). and consequently the more economical is the design. Other sections such as hollowcore slabs and nonsymmetrical sections are also commonly used. which is 10 to 15 feet wide in many cases. (g) End part of beam in (c).4 Proper Selection of Beam Sections and Properties 129 Since the midspan moment usually controls the design. and also in order to increase the shear capacity of the support section. Another popular section in wide use is the doubleT section.4. Hollowcore cast and extruded sections are shallow oneway beam strips that serve as easily erectable floor slabs. (i) End part of beam in (e). . (c) Tbeam section. Rectangular sections. (d) Tsection with heavy bottom flange. the larger the eccentricity at midspan the smaller is the needed prestressing force. Tsections with heavy bottom flanges. (b) Ibeam section. Hence. and their flexural strengthtoweight ratio is relatively higher than in other types of prestressing systems. I sections are used as typical floor beams with composite slab topping action in longspan parking structures.
since positive eccentricity is positive downwards. In posttensioned beams.e.3 Envelopes for Tendon Placement The tensile stress in the extreme concrete fiber under serviceload conditions cannot exceed the maximum allowable by codes such as the ACI. i.6a) for the prestressing force part only.lb.) .) (4. Hence. Hence.4. AASHTO. e = r2 /e". 4. where ducts are grouted.4 Super elDs offshore platfo rm under lOW to A rctic. we have f. PCI.. (4. from Equation 4. From Equation 4. It is only in cases of largespan bridge and industrial prestressed beams.130 Chapter 4 Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements 4. While some designers prefer refining their designs through the use of the transformed sect ion in their solu tions. and the Presence of Ducts In general. the Transformed Section. It is therefore important to establish the limiting zone in the concrete section. the accuracy ga ined in accounti ng for the contribution of the area of the reinforcemen t to the stiffness of the concrete section is normally not warranted. Gcrwick. givi ng e = r 21e. (Collrtesy. where the negative sign represents measurements upwards from the neutral axis. ( ec. that the transformed section or Ihe net concrete area excl uding the duel openings has 10 be used. the gross crosssectiona l area of the concrete section is adequate for use in the serviceload design of prestressed sections.4.. the IIpper kerrl poil!l k " .6b) Photo 4. or CEBFIP. Ihe laiC Ben C.A c I . the gross cross section is still adeq uate for all practical design considerations. if I" = 0. = 0 = . Global Marine Development.T P. the lower kerrl poilll Similarly..la. ~c. an envelope within which the prestressing force can be applied without causing tension in the extreme concrete fibers.2 Gross Area. where the area of the prestressing reinforcement is la rge.
4 Advantages of Curved or Harped Tendons Although straight tendons are widely used in precast beams of moderate span. it is clear that (a) If the prestressing force acts below the lower kern point. used in beams sub jected primarily to uniformly distributed external loading. Figures 4. the use of curved tendons is more common in insitucast posttensioned elements. Hence. In other words.13. draped. undesirable tensile stress in the concrete is shown at the top fibers. kern points can be established for the right and left of the vertical line of symmetry of a section so that a central kern or core area for load application can be established. used in beams subjected primarily to concentrated transverse loading. and 4.11 shows for a rectangular section. Another advantage of draped and harped tendons is that they allow the prestressed beams to carry heavy loads because of the balancing effect of the vertical component of the prestressing nonstraight tendon.14 are smaller at the midspan than the force required in the straight tendon of Figure 4.13 and 4.2 and 4. Section 11 in Figures 4. the required prestressing forces Pp for the parabolic tendon in Figure 4. 4. . respectively.12. tensile stresses result at the extreme lower concrete fibers of the section.3 again. and sometimes smaller concrete sections can be used with the resulting efficiency in the design.14 shows the uniform compression if the tendon acts at the cgc of the section at the support. at section 11. 4.12. (b) Harped: inclined tendons with a discontinuity in alignment at planes of concen trated load applications.11 Central kern area for a rectangular section.12. (Compare Examples 4. for the same stress level.) Figure 4. Nonstraight tendons are of two types: (a) Draped: gradually curved alignment such as parabolic forms. as Figure 4.13 and Ph for the harped tendon in Figure 4.4. In Figure 4.14 describe the alignment bending moment and stress distribution for beams that are prestressed with straight. (b) If the prestressing force acts above the upper kern point. These diagrams are intended to illustrate the economic advantages of the draped and harped tendons over the straight tendons. a smaller number of strands are needed in the case of draped or harped tendons.4. In a similar manner. tensile stresses result at the extreme upper concrete fibers of the section.4 Proper Selection of Beam Sections and Properties 131 From the determination of the upper and lower kern points. and harped tendons.
4.132 Chapter 4 Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements t=~tL::=J·J. (d) Prestressing force bending moment diagram.3). the controlling eccentricities have to be determined at the sections that follow along the span. 1 2 3 (a) t 1 t t t 2 3 t t t Uniform load wlft t t + t t t pretensioned tendon .12 Beam with straight tendon.15 with the draped tendon.5 LimitingEccentricity Envelopes It is desirable that the designed eccentricities of the tendon along the span be such that limited or no tension develops at the extreme fibers of the beam controlling sections.4. and 3 (Equation 4. (e) Typical stress distribution in sections 1. X e ()Y / (d) 1 2 3 ~ 2 (e) Figure 4. 2 (b) (e) P. If it is desired to have no tension along the span of the beam in Figure 4.FR ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! j ~P' R wL . (a) Beam elevation.8: j w P. (b) Freebody diagram. (c) External load balancing moment diagram.. If MD is the selfweight deadload moment and MT is the total moment . 2.
(e) Typical stress distribution on sections 1. (d) Prestressing force bending moment diagram. R I I I I I I I ! I ! • (b)  • • R ~.3).f i. (a) Beam elevation.4. due to all transverse loads. then the arms of the couple composed of the centerofpressure line (Cline) and the center of the prestressing tendon line (cgs line) due to MD and MTare amin and a max . = wL 2 (e) ()y (d) ~ 2 3 2 (e) Figure 4. and 3 (Equation 4. The minimum arm of the tendon couple is amin = PI MD (4.=.4 Proper Selection of Beam Sections and Properties 1 133 2 t 8 + + t 2 Uniform load wlft + T + t T T 3 (a) =small angle w P. Lower cgs Envelope.13 Beam with parabolic draped tendon. as shown in Figure 4.15.7a) .Pp =. respectively. Pp sin 8 . (b) Freebody diagram. (c) External load bending moment diagram.P. 2.
The maximum arm of the tendon couple is amax = p MT e (4. This defines the maximum distance below the bottom kern where the cgs line is to be located so that the Cline does not fall below the bottom kern line. (a) Beam elevation. (a) R (b) R=Q 2 PL (c) ============= y (d) 3 2 2 (e) 3 Figure 4.14 Beam with harped tendon. and 3 (Equation 4. (b) Freebody diagram. (d) Prestressing force bending moment diagram.1.7c) . the limiting bottom eccentricity is eb = (amin + k b ) (4. 2.Ll4 1 () = small angle .134 Chapter 4 Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements 1 2 3 ± 14~·i2:·r~~i\t I 1 ~Q I+. (c) External load bending moment diagram.3).7b) Upper cgs Envelope. 2 L/4 l 3 Harped posttensioned tendon Y. thereby preventing tensile stresses at the top extreme fibers. Hence. (e) Typical stress distribution in sections 1.
is superimposed on the cgsline envelope that results in limited tensile stress at both the top and bottom extreme concrete fibers. (c) Limiting cgs envelope.15 Cgs envelope determination.16 Envelope permitting tension in concrete extreme fibers. (a) One tendon location in beam. the limiting top eccentricity is (4. the additional top stress f(l) and bottom stress feb) would be f(t) = Piehel Ie (4. This defines the minimum distance below the top kern where the cgs line is to be located so that the Cline does not fall above the top kern.4 Proper Selection of Beam Sections and Properties 135 IIIYII (a) (b) (e) Figure 4.7d) Limited tensile stress is allowed in some codes both at transfer and at serviceload levels. If an additional eccentricity e~. e.7a and c. thereby preventing tensile stresses at the bottom extreme fibers. zero tension Upper limit permitting tension Lower limit permitting tension Lower limit .4. it is possible to allow the cgs line to fall slightly outside the two limiting cgs envelopes described in Equations 4. (b) Bending moment diagram. . In such cases. Hence.8a) Upper limit.zero tension Figure 4.
Solution: The design moments of the Ibeam in Example 4. Consider the midspan.095.571.423 lb.423 lb (2. Hence.9a) (4.136 Chapter 4 Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements and (4. (537 mm) = 18.Ib (856 kNm) . quarterspan.536 cm2) t~ = 6.095.000 in.2 can be summarized together with the section properties needed here: Pi = 549. Assume that the magnitude of prestress losses is the same as in Example 4.000 psi .4.526Ib.210 cm2) C.5 in 2 (1.867. Cb = 21.141 kNm) Ac = 377 in2 (2.490.638 in.2 = 187.979 in. and ee = 6 in.638 in. Pe = 450. = 6000 psi. A change in eccentricity or prestressing force improves the design.16 in.6 Prestressing Tendon Envelopes Example 4.Ib (859 kNm) MT = MD + MSD + ML = 10.' and = '''Pi t(t)Ackb (4.4 Suppose that the beam in example 4. (479 mm) Since bending moments in this example are due to a uniformly distributed load.Ib (281 kNm) MSD + ML = 7. the shape of the bending moment diagram is parabolic. It should be noted that the upper envelope is outside the section.75 X 2.490. Determine the limiting envelope for tendon location such that the limiting concrete fiber stresses are at no time exceeded.16. and beam ends as the controlling sections.8b) where t and b denote the top and bottom fibers.2 but that Pi = 549. but the stresses are within the allowable limits.638 = 7. quarterspan moments are MD = 0. ec = 13 in.431 kN) Pe = 450.7b and d would be e. the additional eccentricities to be added to Equations 4.004 kN) MD = 2. From Equation 4.638 = 1.Ib (211 kNm) MT = 0.75 X 10. respectively.9b) The envelope allowing limited tension is shown in Figure 4. t.2 is a posttensioned bonded beam and that the prestressing tendon is draped in a parabolic shape.84 in.5261b (2. 4.729 in.6.Ib (1.605. indicates a noneconomical section. with the moment value being zero at the simply supported ends.
2.85 in. giving e2 = 8.6a and b.39 in.638 .26 in.5 .53 m. (86 mm) 1.5 kb = . = Cb 137 r = 18. (340 mm) vs ec = 15 in. Note that e1 cannot exceed cb otherwise tendon is outside the section. (225mm ) C. the kern point limits are k. 4.40 m. (427 mm) .80 m.095.86 + 3.40 = 12.95 in.= ~6 = 8. (316 mm) Clear minimum cover = 3. ( ) r 187.0 in. (225 mm) Upper Envelope From Equation 4.80 .638 . (311 mm) (iii) Support amin = 0 giving e3 = 8.2 allow ing tension at top at transfer (ii) Quarter span amin = 549. 450526 = 22. ej k.95 = 6. = 22.423 = 3. (ii) Quarter span a max 7.46 in. (569 mm) .84 = 9.9.979 . 253 mm 187.86 in. the maximum distance that the cgs line is to be placed below the bottom kern to prevent tensile stress at the top fibers is determined as follows: (i) Midspan amin = T MD t = 549423 = 4.53 = 13. = 450526 = 16.95 = 9.9.86 + 4.729 . (174 mm) (iii) Support e3 = 0 .= e a max  MT 10. used in Ex.95 = 12. e2 = 16. giving ej = kb + amin = 8.95 in.867.86 + 0 = 8. 21. the maximum distance that the cgs line is to be placed below the top kern to prevent tensile stress at the bottom extreme fibers is determined as follows: (i) Midspan a max = = p.490.86'm.7a.4 Proper Selection of Beam Sections and Properties From Equations 4.4. above cgc line) .7b. (115 mm) .41 .95 m.41 m. (253 mm) (9.571.9.1 Lower Envelope From Equation 4.
18(a).2.86 3. Hence.95 Actual midspan eccentricity ec = 13 in.39 +2.9a.2.82 Figure 4.59 15.3 and Sections 4. as shown in Figure 4. < 16.4.4. in.86 Support Lower envelope +2. Two common and practical methods of reducing the stresses at the support section due to the prestressing force are: 1.99 11. Midspan Lower envelope 13. p = 450526 = 3. Hence.17 illustrates the band of the cgs envelopes for both zero and limited tension in the concrete. I kb _ 465 X 377 X 8. from Equation 4. Actual support eccentricity ee = 6 in.22 8.69 13. This reduces the moment values.22 in. 16.18(b). tendon is inside envelope at midspan. Changing the eccentricity of some of the cables by raising them towards the support zone.4. Sheathing some of the cables by plastic tubing towards the support zone. the additional eccentricity to add to the upper cgs envelope in order to allow limited tension at the bottom fibers is e( = f(b)Ac k t 465 X 377 X 9. theoretically discontinuing part of the tendons where they are no longer needed . From Equation 4.87 6. < 11. This eliminates the prestress transfer of part of the cables at some distance from the support section of the simply supported prestressed beam.95 . 72 mm . as shown in Figure 4.26 Upper envelope 3.83 8.46 3. Increment Allowable tension.9b. since f~ = 6.83 12.69 in. (98 mm) e .87 Upper envelope 9.000 psi from Example 4. straight tendons in pre tensioned members can cause hightensile stresses in the concrete extreme fibers at the support sections because of the absence of bending moment stresses due to selfweight and superimposed loads and the dominance of the moment due to the prestressing force alone. We thus have the following summary of cgs envelope eccentricities: Zero tension. 4.7 Reduction of Prestress Force Near Supports As seen from Example 4. ( ) 549423 .83 Upper envelope 12. in.87 Quarter span Lower envelope +2. 2. tendon is also inside envelope at support. Similarly.3 and 4.138 Chapter 4 Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements Now.86 _ .09 2.5.87 m. assume for practical purposes that the maximum fiber tensile stresses under workingload conditions for the purpose of constructing the cgs envelopes does not exceed It = 6~ = 465 psi for both top and bottom fibers both at midspan and the support.83 m. this additional eccentricity to add to the lower cgs envelope in order to allow limited tension at the top fibers is I _ f{t) Ac eb  p. Note that raised cables are also used in longspan posttensioned prestressed beams.
5.5 END BLOCKS AT SUPPORT ANCHORAGE ZONES 4. 4.17 egsline envelopes for the prestressing tendon (1 in. = 25. by raising them upwards.4 mm).4.(b) 3 tendons sheathed ~ l Figure 4.18 Reduction of prestressing force near supports. Additional frictional losses due to these additional curvatures have to be accounted for in the design (analysis) of the section. (b) Sheathing part of the tendons. both in pretensioned and Raised tendons (a) . ~~ I j ~ p 9 tendons I.5 End Blocks at Support Anchorage Zones Zero tension envelope 139 Limited tension envelope Figure 4. . (a) Raising part of the tendons.1 Stress Distribution A large concentration of compressive stress in the longitudinal direction occurs at the support section on a small segment of the face of the beam end.
In fac l. longitudinal bursting cracks develop at the anchorage lone.19(a)).5 Three·dimensional instrumentation ror endblock stress determinalion (Nawy et al. stirrups. some or all of the tendons in the posttensioned bea ms afC raised or draped towa rds the top fibers th rough Ihe web parI of the concrete section. and has no effect on reduci ng the transverse tension in the concrete. both test results and the theoretical analysis of this th reedimensional stress problem demonstrate that the tensile stresses could increase. in order to accom modate the raised tendons [see Figure 4. Also. to preventi ng bursti ng or spalljng cracks. When the stresses exceed the modulus of rupture o f the concrete. If the design has to fo llow AAS HTO requiremen t's fo r bridges. however. it is essential to provide the necessary anchorage rein forcement in the load transfe r zone in the form of closed ties. or anchorage devices enclosing all the main prestressing and mild nonprestressed longitudinal reinforcement. It is sometimes necessary to increase the area of the section towards the support by a gradual transmission of the web to a width at the support equal to the fl ange width. Conseq uently. In posf. due to the large tcndon prestressing forces.140 Chapter 4 Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements pOSH ensioned beams. . properly rei nforced end blocks are required. In the pretellsioned beams the concent rated load tra nsfer of the prestressi ng force to the surrounding concrete gradually occurs over a length I.). the end block has to split (crack) longitudin ally unless appropriate vertica l reinforcement is provided. However.(ellSioned beams. Such an increase in the crosssectional area does not cont ribute. it is at the same lime advisable to insert reinforcing vert ical mats and confining hoops close to the end face behind the bea ring places in the case of posttensioned beams. As the nongradual transition of the longitudi nal com pressive stress from concentrated to linearly dist ributed produces high tra nsverse tensile stresses in the vertical (transverse) d irection. Typical stress contours of equal vertical stress based on threedimensional • Photo 4. from the face of the support section unti l it becomes essentially un iform. The location of the concretebursting stresses and the resulting bursti ng cracks as well as the surfaces pall ing cracks would thus have to depend on the location and distribu tion of the horizontal concent rated fo rces applied by the prestressing tendons to the end bearing plates. th is man ner o f gradual load distribution and transfe r is not possible since the force aCls directly on the face o f the end of the beam through beari ng plales and anchors.
analysis and test results from Refs. support (a) Cracks spalli ng Bursting crack (b) Figure 4.21. (a) Transition to solid section at support. lOa) . 4. (178 cm) develops a stress of 206.000 psi (1. As an example fodin. The interlock or adhesion between the prestressing tendon circumference and the concrete over a finite length of the tendon gradually transfers the concentrated prestressing force to the entire concrete section at planes away from the end block and towards the midspan.5.241 MPa).2 Development and Transfer Length in Pretensioned Members and Design of Their Anchorage Reinforcement I As the jacking force is released in pre tensioned members. the higher is the prestress developed.5. The length of embedment determines the magnitude of prestress that can be developed along the span: the larger the embedment length. it is plain that the embedment length Id that gives the full development of stress is a combination of the transfer length It and the flexural bond length If' These are given respectively by 1 __ 1 t  1000 (fpe) db 3 (4. 4.4.28. an embedment of 40 in. (102 cm) develops a stress of 180. 7wire strand. whereas an embedment of 70 in.000 psi (1. 4. 4. (b) Endzone bursting and spalling cracks.420 MPa).20.19 End anchorage zones for bonded tendons.5 End Blocks at Support Anchorage Zones Concrete cover 141 Transition fl <t. From Figure 4.7. An idealization of the tensile and compressive stress paths is shown in Figure 4. the prestressing force is dynamically transferred through the bond interface to the surrounding concrete.
1Ob) and (4. or (4.10c) Distance from free end Transfer length It Flexural bond length If Full development length Id +l ~ Figure 4.20 Idealized tensile and compressive stress paths at end blocks.142 Chapter 4 Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements Tensile stress path Compressive stress distribution p Compressive stress path Figure 4. .21 Development length for prestressing strand.
Solution: Pi = 376.10d) Equation 4.2 Reinforcement Selection in Pretensioned Beams Example 4.000 psi. we have It = 3000 .12.. empirical expressions developed by Mattock et al. ~ 20.~00 (fps .11 gives At = Yh 0.5 End Blocks at Support Anchorage Zones 143 where fps = stress in prestressed reinforcement at nominal strength (psi) fpe = effective prestress after losses (psi) db = nominal diameter of prestressing tendon (in. the stress transfer in that zone is eliminated and an increased adjusted development length Id is needed./ I is t (4. the transfer length is It = (fp/3.2. Yh At = 0.000)d b • So since t. Substituting this for F in Equation 4. then F =!Atis. Now. e = 154.2. 154. P db = .000 psi (138 MPa) for crackcontrol 4. Combining Equations 4.5. pretensioned.83 m.4. give the total stirrup force F as P·h F = 0.5. Based on laboratory tests. If the average stress in a stirrup is taken as half the maximum permissible steel is.021 .021 "I Js t From Equation 4.~ fpe )d b (4.980 psi and 1 . 0.(4. m.673 kN) From Equation 4.).0106 .021 P·h f" I Js t So since Is ~ 20.5 Design the anchorage reinforcement needed to prevent bursting or spaUing cracks from developing in the beam of Example 4.5 = 25. (66 cm) At = 0.2. If part of the tendon is sheathed towards the beam end to reduce the concentration of bond stresses near the end.1 Design of Transfer Zone Reinforcement in Pretensioned Beams.10d gives the minimum required development length for prestressing strands.980 X .1101b (1.lOb and 4.11) It where h is the pre tensioned beam depth and It is the transfer length. 4.1Ob.10c gives Min Id = 1.12) where At is the total area of the stirrups and is purposes. we get .
This zone is thus composed of two parts: 1.7. is the total anchorage zone. . 0 r stIrrups = 0. Its length extent along the span is therefore equal to the section depth.30). The enti re prism which would have a tra nsfer length.he stress becomes uniform at an approximate distance ahead of the anchorage device equal to the depth . Venant's principle.11 = 0.144 Chapter 4 Flexural Design 01 Prestressed Concrete Elements A.22(c) and its magnification in Fig. Local Zone: Th is zone is the insert prism of concrete surrounding and immediately ahead o f the anchorage device and the con fining reinforcement it con lains.5 mOl dial tics ' 0.6 End block of post. General Zone: The general extent of the zone is identical to the tolal anchorage zone. Wrap the tendons with helical stcel wire through the development length. h.22(a).). See the shaded area in Figure 4.61 M· no. Use three 1t31ics to provide the envelope for all the main longitudinal reinforcement. h. 10 4. /" in order effect good transfer.5.22 = 278 to . The length of this zone follows S1. 4. h. Also shown are the dist ribution of tensile and com pressive stresses in the local zone and their stress Photo 4.000 376.3 PostTensioned Anchorage Zones: linear Elastic and StrutandTie Theories The anchorage zone can be defi ned as the vol ume of concrete through which the concen trated prestressing force at the anchorage device spreads transversely to a linear distribu~ tion across the entire crossseclion depth along the span (Ref. 2 X 0.~ (9. = 0. 4.12. of the section.021 20.tensioned Ibeam at ultimate load (Nawy et al. namely. 4.110 x 40 x 25. that t. 2. in standard cases.5. 4.22 in. 4.83 Trying 1t3 closed tics.
7).2 linear Elastic Analysis Method for Confining Reinforcement Determination The anchorage zone is subjected to three levels of stress as seen in Figure 4.3. 4. checks have to be made of the bearing stresses on the concrete in the local zone due to these high compressive forces to ensure that the allowable compressive bearing capacity of the concrete is never exceeded. contours obtained from the finite element analysis of the Rutgers tests (Ref. three methods are applicable to the design of the anchorage zone. L.30).4. appropriate assumptions can always be made to get reasonable re· suits. 4. In addition. .22(a) and the stress contour zones: (II) High bearing stresses ahead of the anchorage devices. 3.Tie Models: The strutandtic method provides for idealizing the path o f the prestressing forces as a truss structure with its forces followin g the usual equilibrium principles. T he confining reinforcement throughout the entire anchorage zone has to be so chosen as to prevent bursting and splitting which are the result of the high concentrated compressive fo rces transmi tted through the anchorage devices.22(b).7 Anchorage block instrumentation (Nnwy et al. Equilibrium ·Basel/ Plasticity A. Approximate Methods: These apply to rectangular cross sections without discontinuities. Proper confinement of the concrete is necessary in order to prevent the compressive failure of the compressive segment shown in the darkly shaded area o f Figures 4.5.1 Design Methods for the General Zone Essentially.3.22(a) and 4. 2. The applicalion of the finite element method is somewhat limited by the difficulty of developing adequate models that can correct ly model the cracki ng in the concrete (Ref. The method usually gives conservative results for this application. Linear E/(lSfic Stress Analysis Approach illc/lUling Use of Finite Elemems: This involves computing the detailed state of stresses as linearly elastic.5 End Blocks al Support Anchorage Zones 145 Photo 4. T he length of the local zone has to be considered as the larger of either its maximum wid th or the length of the anchorage device confining reinforcement. 4.5. Nevertheless.). 4.Jproach sitch as the Smlfalld. The ultimate load predicted by this method is controlled by failure of anyone of the component struts or lies.
(a) Contours of stress.). above base. inches (a) 6 p~_k_i_n_(a_) ~ ____ Compression (c) (b) Figure 4. (Nawy et aI. normal to the ten don axis as shown in Figures 4. (b) Stress distribution at 4. (c) Segment of beam elevation.7. Refs.22(a).28) (b) Extensive tensilebursting stresses in the tension contour areas. (c) High compression in the stress fieldareas marked D and E in Figure 4. 4.22(a) and (b) and in Figure 4.146 Chapter 4 Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements 9 B A A= 0 psi B=50psi C = 100 psi D=150psi E = 200 psi F = 250 psi cgc = center of gravity of section 3 o 2 4 Distance from loaded face.. 4.23(b).22 Principal tensile stress contours of equal vertical stress at anchorage zone (eccentricity ee = 6 in.5 in. The following discussion illustrates that a linear elastic stress analysis can predict the cracking locations and give a reasonably reliable approximate estimate of the flow of .
:. Yet. the design engineer expects less rigor and faster answers in the routine daytoday office applications.:.23 Posttensioned beam endblock forces.L 1 I I I I I .h. In compressive stress regions. the provision of additional compressive reinforcement would become necessary. A nonlinear finite element analysis to predict the postcracking response could resolve this discrepancy.22 results in more accurate determination of the state of stresses in the anchorage zone. On a parallel approach.. The . Figure 4.. (a) Beam elevation.!C (d) J. stresses after cracking. However.n.. showing transfer length II" (b) Freebody diagram ABeD... (c) Fiber stress distribution across beam block depth. (d) Moment values on crack surface AB for all possible locations yacross beam block depth.23 schematically illustrates the linearly elastic end block forces. The area of the tensile reinforcement is computed to carry the total tensile force obtained through integrating the tensile stresses in the concrete.\ (e) Y ~~~ Figure 4.. the process of computation is timeconsuming and costly.5 End Blocks at Support Anchorage Zones 147 rS j~I~y (a) I rT I I I I . if the compressive force is very high.4. The results can be limited because of the difficulty of developing adequate models that can correctly model the cracking in the concrete.l·1 (b) 1. a linearly elastic finite element analysis as shown in Figure 4.me crack I L ___  e A   8T~ c DL....cgc I. It shows the endblock forces and the fiber stresses due to the prestressing force Pi' as well as the bending moment value for each possible crack height y above the beam bottom CD.
evaluation of the compression strut nominal strength. From practical observations.3. Figure 4. A detailed discussion is presented in the author's Ref. This moment is resisted by the couple provided by the tensile force T of the vertical anchorage zone reinforcement and the compressive force C provided by the endblock concrete. and ensuing nodes.5. and the range of applicability of this fully plastic approach. These struts would become part of truss units where the principal tensile stresses are idealized as tension ties in the truss unit with the nodallocations determined by the direction of the idealized compression struts. 4. Figure 4. 4. The tension tie in the ensuing truss analogy can be reasonably assumed to be at a distance hl2 from the anchorage device. particularly . From equilibrium of moments. This assumption is essentially consistent with the approximated location of the tensile force T in Figure 4. Venant's principle. the procedure outlined can reasonably though less precisely give a detailed anchorage design as given in Example 4.26 summarizes the concept of the idealized struts and ties in the anchorage zone.23 can vary between hl3 and hiS.27 sketches standard strutandtie idealized trusses for concentric and eccentric cases both for solid and flanged sections as given in ACI 318 Code.148 Chapter 4 Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements maximum moment value Mmax determines the potential position of the horizontal bursting crack.13) A=I Is t (4. the Band D regions.000 psi (138.2S(a) shows the development of a strut and Figure 4.17) illustrates the flow of the concentric and eccentric prestressing forces P ahead of the point of application of these forces through the anchorage device towards the end of general zone where the stresses become uniform by St. Figure 4.3 StrutandTie Method for Confining EndBlock Reinforcement The strutandtie concept is based on a plasticity approach approximating the flow of forces in the anchorage zone by a series of straight compression struts and straight tension ties connected at discrete points that are called nodes to form truss units.2S(b) sketches the resulting strutandtie trusses for multiple anchorage in a flanged T section (Ref.S MPa) for crackwidth control purposes.23 of the elastic stressanalysis approach. Figure 4. It is clear from all these diagrams that the designer has to make an engineering judgment on the number of paths of struts. 4. After significant cracking is developed.14) where the steel stress is used in the calculation should not exceed 20. The compressive forces are carried by the plastic compression struts and the tensile forces are carried either by nonprestressed reinforcement such as mild steel bars as confining ties or by prestressing steel reinforcement. T = Mmax hx and the total required area of vertical steel reinforcement becomes (4. In summary and in lieu of a linear elastic finite element analysis.6 part (a).29).2 of the principles governing the strutandtie modeling procedures. while the horizontal shear force Vat the crack split surface is resisted by the aggregate interlock forces. compressive stress trajectories in the concrete tend to congregate into straight lines that can be idealized as straight compressive struts in uniaxial compression. The yield strength of the anchorage confining reinforcement is used to determine the total area of reinforcement needed in the anchorage block.24 (adapted from Ref. resulting ties. the vertical anchorage zone stirrups that provide the force T should be distributed over a zone width hl2 from the endface of the beam such that x in Figure 4. 4.
~~~~~~ 1h L.P/2 1 I I I (a) Centrally located bearing plate P [' 'r[ : // I I I I I / I "_ _ _ _ _i+ / / / P / ...~:.. / / ..".' r P/2 P/2  h/2 i 1 1 1 l/ /lJ+/ P/2 I " ========== _....P T . \ \ I I I \ / _:>....1.4.      [ '.::..>"/ .. ". P..24 Schematic of Compression StrutandTie Force Paths (Adapted from Ref.=.~ '". l +P i \i C = T I ~h/2i (d) Bearing plate at bottom P P P ~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~.. ~... .._+T .....5 End Blocks at Support Anchorage Zones Actual Idealized 149 P .jj~~l: .. ") ' > .. .. . '>r7I / 7r /L C = T 1/ / 1/ I II (c) Bearing plate at top / "" .11 ~ .P P (b) Bearing plate at top and bottom P " / / / r P 1+.17)...... . 1 ~~~=~ h (l P/~ I P/2 typical I I H h/2 11:. 4.________ I+ typlca I (e) Three symmetrically located bearings Figure 4.
The member has to have a rectangular crosssect ion with no discontinuities . Tburst and its centroid distance. 4. from the major bearing surface or the anchorage (Ref. . .::::::::J'c • C.25 StrutandTie Development.aI2 TaI2+j I aI2 (a) Strut Development T (iii) Section (I) Plan / T " c.. Anchorage devices are treated as closely spaced if their cent erlacenter spacing does nol exceed J... . C.150 Chapter 4 Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements _"I t t r r.. c.t.4 Approximate Method for Confinement of End Block Reinforcement Simplified equations can be used to compute the magnitude of the bursling force.  T. T. d burst . Part (b) of Example 4.30).3. in the usual case of multiple anchorage devices.6 illustrates the assumed idealized paths for the anchorage zone in the Ibeam under consideration.  C.:0.5. (ii) Elevation (b) StrutandTie Development in Multiple Anchorage Flanged Section Figure 4.5 times the wid th of the anchorage device 4.~ >" ' C. .
4...26 Typical StrutandTie Models For EndBlock Anchorage Zones.32 (b) Large Eccentricity ~P/2 + T P/2 F6'_h P : 1 P/2 .___ __.5 End Blocks at Support Anchorage Zones 151 oI+T \ \ \ \ P/2 P/2 P/2 P/2 (a) Concentric or Small Eccentricity \1\ .compression L4~ +P/2 tendon (f) Inclined and Curved Tendon Figure 4.. .6_ _...~ P P/2 v (c) Multiple Anchors (d) Eccentric Anchor and Support Reaction shear stress distribution  ++P/2 "" "" " V 1 l~P/2 V1+i1 ~~P~ V2+~ tendon deviation force (e) Inclined and Straight Tendon ..
in. h = depth of the crosssection in the direction considered.50 P Figure 4. For stress . The bursting force. The beam cross section would usually be the depth. of the section times the width b. along the span.80 fpu for lowrelaxation strands at the short time interval of jacking. The ACI 318 Code requires that the design of confining reinforcement in the end anchorage block of posttensioned members be based on the factored prestressing force Fsu for both the general and local zones described at the outset of Sec.50 P h/2 r h r 1 T E Tburst dburst ~~ (c) Flanged section Eccentric P T0.15a) (4.70 fpu for the total group of strands at the completion of the jacking process. which can reduce to an average value of 0. h. ACI 318.4.25 P (b) Flanged section Concentric P T0. Tburst' and its distance.5(h . 4.3.2 is to be applied to an end anchorage stress level fpi = 0. dburSI' can be computed from the following expression: = = 0. e = eccentricity (always taken positive) of the anchorage device or group closely spaced devices with respect to the centroid of the crosssection.2e) *) (4. in. lb a = plate width of anchorage device or single group of closely spaced devices in the direction considered.15b) where 2 Fsu = the sum of the total factored prestress loads for the stressing arrangement considered. in.152 Chapter 4 Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements r h/2 1 r h/2 1 (a) Rectangular section Concentric P TO. A load factor of 1.252 Fsu (1 0.27 StrutandTie Idealized Trusses in Standard Concentric and Eccentric Cases.
4.16 (b) h::::.. Solve the problem using (a) the linear elastic stress analysis method.5 + 5 X13 + 3 X 11.2.4.16(a) and 4. (a) Solution by the Linear Elastic Stress Method: 1.7 f~. 4.15c) The AASHTO Standard.ee = 6.000 psi (34.4 Design of End Anchorage Reinforcement for Posttensioned Beams Example 4.49 in. (b) the plastic strutandtie method.i = concrete compressive strength at stressing A = maximum area of portion of the supporting surface that is geometrically similar to the loaded area and concentric with it. P u' divided by the effective bearing area Ab f.0 in. Ag = gross area of the bearing plate Equations 4.84 in. from the beam bottom fibers. giving the size. 2.16(b) are valid only if general zone reinforcement is provided and if the extent of concrete along the tendon axis ahead of the anchorage device is at least twice the length of the local zone.VA/Ag 4. hence distance from the beam bottom fibers = cb .5 I (Pus sin ex)] to Equation (4. a lower fpi = 0.2.15a) and 5e(sin ex) to Equation (4. contained wholly within the section. cb = 18.5 Allowable Bearing Stresses The maximum allowable bearing stress at the anchorage device seating should not exceed the smaller of the two values obtained from Equations 4. K .000 psi lowrelaxation steel. fpu = 270.70 fpu is advised.35 in.! in.5 End Blocks at Support Anchorage Zones 153 relieved strands. The maximum force Psu stipulated in the ACI 318 Code for designing the confining reinforcement at the endblock zone is as follows for the more widely used lowrelaxation strands: (4. Establish the configuration of the strands to give eccentricity ee = 12.0 =. Assume that the beam ends are rectangular blocks extending 40 in. (317 mm) From Example 4.5 in.15b).5. adds the term [0.5 in. For horizontal PsuJ sin ex = O.5. .5 . 0 .35 in. for the case where P su acts at an inclined angle ex in the direction of the beam span. try the following row arrangement: 1st row : 5 strands at 2.. . with the upper base being the loaded surface area of the concrete and sloping sideway with a slope of 1 vertical to 2 horizontal.. (161 mm) For a centroidal distance of the 13 .16(a) and 4.6 Design an end anchorage reinforcement for the posttensioned beam in Example 4. 0. Sketch the truss model you determine. 2nd row: 5 strands at 7.5 MPa) normalweight concrete. where fb = maximum factored tendon load. size tendons = 6. 7. (104 cm.) into the span beyond the anchorage devices then transitionally reduce to the 6in. distance of the centroid of tendons = 5 X 2. type.3.635 m. 3rd row : 3 strands at 11. and distribution of reinforcement. thick web.16(b) as follows: fb::::.25f. Use f~ = 5.16 (a) 4.
the maximum net moments are +Mmax = 0.35 0.117 X 4 X 18 X (6m.lb at the horizontal plane 24 in.) = 304.856 in.::.5. increments to get the values tabulated in Table 4..·lb 256 I'='\.12 X 106 in..lb = 0..lb (56. from the bottom fibers is Me8 = 376. and assume that the concrete stress at the center of each increment is uniform across the depth of the increment.62 X 106 in.) = 1.!2o. (c) Net anchorage zone moments on potential horizontal cracking planes along the beam depth.582 in.. The net maximum moment will determine the position of the potential horizontal bursting crack and the reinforcement that has to be provided to prevent the crack from developing.1=_ _>". above the beam bottom fibers (bursting potential crack effect) and Mmax = 0. (a) Posttensioned endblock zone.6 kNm) at the horizontal plane 6.lb = 0. From Figure 4.12 x 106 .. increments of height as shown in Figure 4.3 X 10 in. the concrete internal moment at the plane 4 in. from the bottom fibers is Me4 = 2. (2m. from the bottom fibers is Me8 = 2.62 X 106 = 0. we can find the net moment for all the other incremental planes at 4in.16 28 24 276 0.6.75 x 106 in.4 kNm) and that at the plane 8 in. (b) Transfer concrete stress distribution across depth. Then calculate the incremental moments due to these internal stresses and due to the external prestressing force Pi about each horizontal plane in order to determine the net moment on the section. From the table.851 X 4 X 18 + 10 2 X .0:.121.673 kN)..75 X 106 in.2.110 X (8 .154 Chapter 4 409 psi Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements 40" 36 32 21.10 1_ _.. from Example 4. Using a plus (+) sign for clockwise moment. .lb = 1. In a similar manner.35) = 620.28.28 Anchorage zone stresses and moments in Example 4..1'.:1.""58""5'_'1.28.20 x 106 in.:13:. Elastic analysis offorces Divide the beam depth into 4in.:.110 lb (1.1 kNm) The net moment is then 1. 2. + 1.) .:.lb (127 kNm) The prestressing force moment at the plane 8 in.lb (70.lb (34.848in.·lb 1_ _. is Pi = 376.:1..cgc 20 16 12 8 4 0 1054 9 1_.6.17'_ _ _'\2" 2250 psi (15. 22 l .50 X 106 in.117 X 4 6 X 18 X (2 in.5 MPa) (a) (b) (e) Figure 4.lb (84..2 X 106 in.6 kNm).85::.. (61 cm) above the beam bottom fibers (spalling potential crack effect)._ _'\14 1 1_. the initial prestressing force before losses.6.35 in.0.
50 m.40 0.000 8.144 0 19. (6)col.30 +0. plane in col.75 +0.20 000 .15 ' 6 Allowing a maximum steel stress.3 closed ties (As = 2 x 0.75 +1.Tb _ 30.851 1.12 0.09 0.12 +2. .319 1.3 10 6 6 6 6 6 6 18 18 0 4 6..62 2.5 End Blocks at Support Anchorage Zones Table 4.Ib x 106 (7) (2) 18 18 13.50 = 6.22 in2 ) Required no. 968 mm ) Js .82 0.5 Moment plane dist.25 +3. (5) in.13 6.75 X 10 = 30000 lb (133 kN) 40 .000 _ .= 0.000 152.65 0 +0.44 +7.528 6.04 0.054 788 522 256 0 +276 +409 162. (the Code allows 0.250 2.2.117 1.02 0 *d =distance from plane about which moment is taken less half the depth of one slice (in this example slice 3. (1) Anchorage Zone Moments for Example 4.54 +4.000 2 2 Hence.656 25.x = +0.50 +0.1.Ib x 106 (6) 155 Section width in. The spalling zone force Ts = So As =  0.65 11.11 = 0.15 12.13 3.22 Use seven No.13. d from bottom in. (4) about horiz.99 +9.30 +0.400 31.Ib x 106 (5) Moment Me of concrete in col.656 63.60 fy = 36. assuming that the center of the tensile vertical force T is at a distance x '" 15 in.64 8. Stress at plane (d. (1) in.872 29.6 Moment Mp for a Pi about horiz.19 0.15 0. plane in col. Req no.3 ties in addition to what is required for shear. (1) in. 2.14 9.296 18.22 = 1.912 12.585 1.Mp) col.000 lb Ts is = . Design of anchorage reinforcement From Equation 4. So Try No. of No.). of stirrups = 1.61 +11.40 in (250mm) 20. we have .3 stirrups = 0. is = 20.0)* Ib (4) Net moment (Me.424 103.66 0 +0. 2( 2 t F .35 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 depth =4 in.2.4.2 X 106 40 _ 15 = 8.448 0 0 0 0.20 0.94 +6.63 5.000 psi.0)* psi (3) Concrete resistance force at (d.000 psi) The bursting zone reinforcement is A . we obtain T = Mmax h .82 .13 +12.
35 in .. = 6.200'" 198.. from the beam boUom fibers.5+5x7. 2.'" 0.he cOl/cre/e From Equation (4.~ M~/hod: I.5 in. F(lctored forces in tendon rows and bearil/g capacity of .153 x 259. hence distance from the beam fibers '" c& .545 lb.200 '" 198. 2nd row: 5 tendons at 7.. Also.!".96fp" Api" = 0.286+ 118.973".0 in.3 closed ties.3 '" 3 x 0. (529 kN) Total ullimate compressive force".. (3 17 mm) From Example 4.35 In ...2 ( 11 3 cm 2) . . try the following row arrangement of tendons with the indica ted dis tances from the bottom fibers: 1st row: 5 tendons at 2. 515. (882 kN) I 2nd row force P.3 bars 10 in. from the beam end.8 Typical bursting crack of the anchorage zone (Nawy el al. Extend the stirrups into the compression zone in Figure 4.K..80 ft.80 fp'" The factored jacking force at the short jacki ng time inlcrval is: p. Then Total number of stirrups = 6.64 Use 13 NO. since cracking can occur vertically and horizontally..3 closed lies al3 in. = 0. = 1.. il would have been advisable 10 usef". center to center wi th the fi rst stirrup starting 3 in. Add spiral rei nforce ment under the a nc hors if the manufacturer specifics that such a reinforcement is useful. long at 3 in.) =O. (b) Solutio" by th ~ Plastic Slrul·Dnd·T.973 lb.200 '" I 18. . 198. center to center each way 2 in. 12.23.156 Chapler 4 Flexural Oesign of Prestressed Concrete Elements • Photo 4. provide fo ur No. 3rd row: 3 te ndons at 11 .0+3xl 1.2.96 x 270.70f".2 '" 5 x 0.82 + 4 .153 x 259..49 in.• Btablish rh~ configllration of the strands to gil'e eccemricity e. (882 kN) 3rd row force P.5 . Next. ( 161 mm) For a centroidal distance of the 13·I·in. check the bearing plate stresses. = 12. dIstance of the centrOId of te ndons'" 13 iii 6.e.2 AI" (0.3 additional stirrups.35 in. So use two No.82 + 1.size strands = 6. O .200 Api" psi.15c) for lowre laxation strands.).286+ 198. If stressrelieved strands are used. 5x2. from the end face at the anc hor tOCaiion.153 x 259.2861b. 1st row force PN = 5 x 0.000 AI" = 259.286 lb. (2290 kN) Total area of rigid bearing plates supporting the Supreme 13chucks anchorage devices = 14 x I I + 6 x 4 = 178 in. c& = 18. Space the No.5 in.84 in.
29 gives the member forces as follows: .5 in. O.405 required number of stirrup ties = 11. O.3041b to concentrate additional No.5 13 15. 20) = 7.880 For the tension tie abc in Figure 4.29.5.7 mm @ 32 mm) center to center with the first tie to start at H in.5 mm @ 57 mm) center to center .5 respectively.75 fe = 0.000 = 3750 psi Concentric area. the rectangular dimension of the beam end.4 closed ties @ 1 hn.5. 0.5 = 9.11) = 11. and the corresponding concrete pyramid base area A within the end block assumed to receive the bearing stress. of concrete with the bearing plates == (14 + 4)(11 + 4) + (6 + 4)(4 + 4) = 350 in. fb = 0.K.4051b ( ) 904 kN = 166. giving a tensile strength per tie = <I> fy Av = 0.tVA/A g 2. :=.3 closed ties.P u3 = 11.000 X 2(0.4 vertical ties ahead of the anchorage devices. as in Figure 4.7 X 3750&.5 . truss analysis in Figure 4.3.0115.973 = 198. Construct the strutandtie model assuming it to be as shown in Figure 4. As defined in Section 4. Try No.4 ties. . 3.5/15.75 X 5.9 MPa) From Equations 4.0 in.5 and 13. use the force Pu = 166.896 psi.286 X 26. Draw the strutandtie model Total length of distance a.8801b 203.5 = 203. The geometrical dimensions for finding the horizontal force components from the ties 12 and 32 have cotangent values of 26. The bearing stress from Eq.25 f~i Assume that the initial concrete strength at stressing is f~i = 0. are purely determined by engineering judgement. tIe tenSIon.7 f.3041b ( ) 699 kN X Use the larger of the two values for choice of the closed tension tie stirrups. and the arrangement and spacing of the strand anchorages in contact with the supporting steel end bearing plates. Allowable bearing stress.3.25 between forces P u1 .7 X X l I Use eight No.0/2 = 4.90 X 60.304 600002 ( . the maximum allowable bearing pressure on the concrete is the lesser of fb fb :=. (9. as defined for the concrete pyramid base in Section 4. 12 . from the end rigid steel plate transferring the load from the anchorage devices to the concrete. (12. The areas are based on the geometry of the web and bottom flange of the section. 32 = 11 8. = 3.5 End Blocks at Support Anchorage Zones 157 Actual bearing stress fb = ~ 515. A. Only thirteen ties in lieu of the 15.4. Hence depth al2 ahead of the anchorages = 9.0 calculated are needed since part of the zone is covered by the No. From statics.29.545 = 2896 psi (19. Number of tIes = 0 .5. 2 . Start the first tie at a distance of I! in.= 17.90 166.5. > 2. 4.14 (b) does not control.16(a) and (b).1 . ahead of the anchorage devices. it should be noted that the area Ag of the rigid steel plate or plates.3 closed ties @ 2~ in.681 psi. tIe tenSIOn. Use 13 No.2.5 15.
7 and Figure 4.31. Note that this solution requires a larger number of confining ties than the semielastic solution in part (a). Figure 4.9731b ./~ l"<t c 20" 2" 1 1189731 cV>/ ~'I 118..286 Ib 4112" / g  f 1 18" 7.286 Ib 4112" b 198.. the slab weight acts only on the composite section.. Adopt this design of the anchorage zone.. a more conservative solution with more confining reinforcement area results.32.Compression Strut Figure 4. the concrete stress calculations have to take this situation into account in the design. 3 199 _~ ___ '412 01( .286 C') 198. Composites have the advantage of the precast part becoming in many cases the falsework for supporting the situcast top slab and topping in bridges and industrial buildings. Hence.2".6 beyond the last No.29 StrutsandTies in Example 4. 2.. It should also be noted that the idealized paths of the compression struts for cases where there are several layers of prestressing strands should be such that at each layer level a stress path is assumed in the design.. which has a substantially larger section modulus than the precast section. .198286 Tension ties = solid lines Compression struts = dashed lines Truss nodes = 1. In such a case. prestressed element is shored during the placement and curing of the situcast top slab. which is not necessarily justified.5" 198.~ j 18" 2 i h = 40" 26.39(b).158 r r Chapter 4 Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements Rectangular Anchor BIOCkj h/2 = 20" ·1 .... The concrete stress distribution due to composite action can be seen in Figure 4. prestressed supporting elements over which sit situcast top slabs that act integrally with them. Tension Tie . If layers are combined.4 tie so that a total distance of 40 in. (104 cm) width of the rectangular anchor block is confined by the reinforcement closed ties. Sometimes the precast.. as shown in Figure 4.. This can be seen in Example 4..6 FLEXURAL DESIGN OF COMPOSITE BEAMS Composite sections are normally precast.0" . in part (e) of which the load taken by the cured composite section is the sum of W SD + W L ../ ~/ COl / M ~ Tj. 4..30 shows a schematic of the anchorage zone confining reinforcement details resulting from the strutandtie analysis.
The concrete fiber stress counterparts to Equations 4.31 Composite prestressed concrete construction.32( e) are (4.18a and b for the extreme top and bottom fibers of the precast part of the composite section (level AA in Figure 4.6. with the cgc line moving upwards towards the top fibers..19a) Situcasl concrete slab Figure 4. 4..1 Unshored Slab Case From Equations 4. l.. After the situcast slab hardens and composite action takes place...13 #3 ties @ 2W'c/c 1112"1 M 1<1 ~I Closed ties as required by shear in addition to anchorage zone ties 40" (10 2cm) I  1 .6 Flexural Design of Composite Beams 159 (8 #4 ties @ 11/4"C/C t .2a and b. t 1<1 40" Elevation ~I Web CrossSection Figure 4. .s. MD + MSD +r2 Sb (4.30 End anchorage reinforcement in Example 4.t c. new higher moduli S~ and Scb are available.17) and fb e = .4.35" I Tendon c..18) where Sf and Sb are the section moduli of the precast section only.6. (b) Beam cross section.g.c. (a) Anchorage zone..g.. \ < . the extreme concrete fiber stress equations before casting the top slab are (4.r I L..::.P ( Ac 1 eCb) + "'':.. 6. and MSD is any additional superimposed moment such as the wet slab concrete.
32 ~Ibl .+WD . + WD + W $I) P.e. ea. 4. (e) Final serviceload stress due to all loads. The fi ber stresses at the level of the lOp and bottom fibers of the silucast slab (leve ls BB and AA of Figure 4.1 Ac + ec. (4.32(e» are r = _ M esD + M L 5' 0 and M csD  (4.)+ rl M D + M SD S" . ".). W.. (c) Concrete stress distribution with precast beam shored.. of Fig. (b) Concrete stress distribution. .... and f" = P.9 Jacking tendons of posttcnsioncd beam (Nawy et al..203) f".. w.""CS~D'. ( .20b) Pholo 4.M = + . (d) liveload stress lor shored case..2) p. or live load plus superim posed dead load for unshored case. .160 Chapler 4 Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements + w.. respective ly.. (a) Composite beam . of the precast seclion. + MI. al service . i. and Sc' and Scb are the section moduli of the composi te section at the level of the top and bottom fibers.19b) where M esD is the additional composite superimposed dead IOlld afte r erection. Flexural stress distribution in composite beams. = S . '" .+_ML Scb (4. Figure 4..
6 give the ACI and AASHTO requirements for determining the effective top flange width of the composite section.18 and 4.6. (4.2 Fully Shored Slab Case In cases where the situcast slab is fully shored until composite action develops. a determination has to be made of the slab width that can effectively contribute to the stiffness increase resulting from composite action. of the slab in Figure 4. the width b has to be modified to account for the difference in the moduli of the two concretes in order to ensure that the strains in both materials at the interface are compatible. from Equations 4. The modified width of the composite topping for calculating the composite Icc is (4.=.21b) After the top slab is situ cast and full composite action is developed when the concrete hardens..22b) Note that adequate check has to be made for the horizontal interface shear stresses between the situcast and the precast beams.22a) and fb = P e ( 1 Ac eCb) + MD + ===:. as will be discussed in Chapter 5.23) ~Lc++_Lc Figure 4. the concrete fiber stresses before shoring and top slab casting become. 4.33 and Table 4. (4. If the topping concrete is of different strength than that of the precast section. Figure 4.2 + Ac r Sb (4.6 Flexural Design of Composite Beams 161 where MCSD + ML are the incremental moments added after composite action has developed.3 Effective Flange Width In order to determine the theoretical composite action that resists the flexural stresses.. ..19. 4. respectively.6. Equations 4. and S~b and Sbcb are the section moduli of the composite section for the top and bottom fibers AA and BB.19a and b become. for the beam shored after erection. MSD + MCSD + ML +r2 Sb Scb (4.21a) and fb eCb) MD = P e ( 1 + .::.33 Effective flange width of composite section.4.32( e).
Find the minimum required section modulus of the minimum efficient section for evaluating the concrete fiber stresses at the top and bottom fibers.I1fpT 5. where nc = Ec/Ec when flange concrete is of different strength from that of the precast web) End beam Intermediate beam b w + 16hf bw+Lc L 4 b w+ 12hf bw+Lc L 4 ACI b w+ 6hf bw+!Lc L b+w 12 AASHTO b w+6hf b w+!Lc L b w + 12 L = span of end or intermediate beam where E et = modulus of the topping concrete Ee = modulus of the precast concrete Once the modified width bm is defined. fe = 0.45 f. (a) For harped or draped tendons. for the midspan section.. the entire composite section is considered to be of the higher strength concrete. as allowed and fc = 6~ to 12~.'Y)MD + MSD + ML 'Yfc. 4.'Yfd 'Y = Pe P.7 SUMMARY OF STEPBYSTEP TRIALANDADJUSTMENT PROCEDURE FOR THE SERVICELOAD DESIGN OF PRESTRESSED MEMBERS 1. = 3~. f~. and whether the prestress type is pretensioning or posttensioning. Assume the intensity of selfweight W D.6 Chapter 4 Values of Effective Flange Width Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements Width b as the least of the tabulated values (Modify to b M = n. 3. the type of concrete. use the endsupport controlling section: . fc. = 0. Calculate f p. Given the superimposed deadload intensity W SD ' the liveload intensity Wv the span and the height limitation. fei = 0.60 f. . Calculate the prestress losses I1fpT = I1fpEs + I1fpR + I1fpsH + I1fpcR + I1fpE + I1fpA + I1fpB for the type of prestressing used. and fc.fe Sb where ~ ''''''== (1 .b. or 0.60 f~. (b) For straight tendons. use the midspan controlling section: st~ ~~~~~ (1 .. . M SD ' and M L. f~. fc and fe' where fp.162 Table 4..'Y) MD + MSD + ML fc . the material strengths fpu. 4.. Determine net stresses fpe = fp. 2. and calculate moments M D..70 fpu.
::. where fit) and fib) are the extreme fiber stresses calculated to be in the concrete.2 + eCb) MT Ae r Sb =  where M T = MD + MSD + M L· If the stresses exceed the allowable values. analyze the concrete fiber stresses expected at stress transfer immediately before such transfer: f fb t _ Pi eCt) M D A ( 1 . 10.. 9.. 7. where fpe is in psi units. Determine the minimum development length of which the transfer length It = 3~~0 db. establish the envelopes of limiting eccentricities for zero tension eb = (kb + amin) and et = (a max .4. . or change the eccentricity ee or ee' or both. Analyze the concrete fiber stresses for the serviceload conditions. as in step 7: p fb =  ~: (1 . and design the necessary reinforcement to prevent bursting or spalling cracks. If the tension in the concrete is used in the design. (b) the controlling section at the support. where amin = MDIPi and a max = M TIPe. For cases where many strands have to be used. enlarge the section.~t) . enlarge the section or change the eccentricity ee or ee' or both.7 StepByStep TrialandAdjustment Procedure for the ServiceLoad Design of Prestressed Members 163 st~ MD + MSD + ML 'Yfri . and (c) any other section along the span if both straight and draped tendons are used.'Yfei 6. S.St e Pi ( 1 + .k t ). respectively. For (a) the controlling section in the span (usually the midspan or at 0.=Pi and to the bottom and top envelopes.4 of span). Select a trial section with section modulus properties close to those required in step 5 to be checked later for composite section fiber stress requirements. MD + MSD + ML fr . . add f(t)Aekb ef.fe Sb ~ =.~tT Pe ( 1 + . Investigate the endblock anchorage zone stresses.2 + eCb) MD Ae r Sb =  If the stresses exceed the allowable values.z .
(a) Unshored Slab Case. the stresses at top and bottom fibers of the precast part of the composite section will be fb = . and revise the section if these stresses exceed the maximum allowable concrete fiber stresses both in the precast section and the situcast top slab. Pe ( 1 Ac ec MD + MSD + . . and before the topping is situcast. Pretensional Prestress Transfer Zone At = 0. The fibers stresses at the level of the top and bottom fibers of the situcast hardened slab are r t =  MCSD + ML ====S~s where S:s and Scsb are the section moduli of the composite section at the level of the top and bottom of the situcast slab. Use the modified effective width bm = (Ec/E)b for the top composite flange when calculating the section modulus of the composite section.z Js t 11. Before shoring. Also. Determine the composite action stresses.b) + ===r2 Sb After the top slab is cast and cured to develop full composite action.021 Ph . Pe ( 1 Ac eCb) MD + MSD MCSD + ML ++ + ====r2 Sb Scb where S: and Scb are the section moduli of the composite section at the level of the top and bottom fibers of the precast section. M L includes M[ if impact stresses exist. Before the top slab is situ cast: t fb =  Pe Ac (1 _ ect ) r2 _ MD + MSD st = . (b) Fully Shored Slab Case.164 Chapter 4 Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements Posttensioned Anchorage Design the anchorage block reinforcement. Use the strutandtie plastic truss units to compute the ultimate tension force in the tie for confining reinforcement selection.
to carry ( START ) (2) Read fpu..34 Flowchart for serviceload flexural design of prestressed beams. =6~ At service: Extreme fiber stress in compression fe Extreme fiber stress in tension f. The width of the bridge is such that the exterior beams are 28 ft (8. = 12 v'f: Figure 4. of bearings. Extreme fiber stress in tension f. Design the supporting interior posttensioned beams..7 A twolane simply supported bridge has a 64 ft (19. = 0.4. . Wo. f.34 shows a flowchart for the serviceload flexural design of prestressed beams. = 0.5 m) span.6f. WL • £.8 DESIGN OF COMPOSITE POSTTENSIONED PRESTRESSED SIMPLY SUPPORTED SECTION Example 4.54 m) center to center.. MSD = moment due to situcast slab and any other construction load.45f. Figure 4. with deck slab unshored during construction. f.. and MCSD = moment due to additional composite superimposed load.8 Design of Composite PostTensioned Prestressed Simply Supported Section 165 After the situcast slab is cured and full composite action develops. 12. Proceed to determine the strength of the section for the limit state at failure and for shear and torsional strength. Wso. center to center.'Y Straight or draped tendons 0 Compute moments: Mo Mso = Wo £2/8 = Wso £2/8 ML = WL£2/8 Mr = Mo + Mso + ML Compute permissible linear stresses At transfer: Extreme fiber stress in compression fe. MD = moment due to selfweight of the precast element. 4. The spacing of the interior beams is at 7 ft center to center.2 _ MD _ st MSD + MCSD + ML s~ The effective width of the top flange of the composite section is determined in accordance with the applicable ACI or AASHTO specifications. t =  Pe Ac (1 _ ect ) ..
_. Select fr<lm rectangular section according to Sb or St controlling Select from I section according to Sb or St controlling Select from T section according to Sb or S.._.5? Yes No CD ....'\ Yes \V ro( Constant eccentricity? No No .= st > 0.166 Chapter 4 Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements ~ ~ ~ \V r ...1.34 (continued) ...( Are the concrete dimensions to be selected? >+1 f. controlling Difference between assumed and calculated selfweight ~ 10%? No Goto (0 Figure 4.
Permissible concrete fiber stresses . .::.'.ec.Actual concrete fiber stresses Figure 4. Print: .4.34 (continued) ....) top stress = Ac r2 S' Po ( 1 + ) ecb bottom stress = Ac r2 +Sb Mr Go to G) ~ ~~. Compute range of initial prestressing force and its eccentricity: p.' 1 + Ae r2 +Sb Mr Mo At service Pe (1 .==~ (fel (1 + MoISb)Ae + ecb1r2) and f13\.8 Design of Composite PostTensioned Prestressed Simply Supported Section 167 (§)r~__. \:J Input·chosen PI and corresponding dp @ At transfer Actual fiber stresses PI (1 . < (ftl (1 + MoISt)Ae + ec tlr2) or PI <  .ect) _ Mo top stress = Ae r2 S' po ( ecb) bottom stress = ..
2. cast integrally with the deck slab. deck  5. (13. . Use a liveload moment value inctuding impact due to AASHTO HS2044 loading for one interior beam of the 64 ft span bridge:: 9.40/. Pus/rasing Steel a = 3Vj: 6 V[.000 psi (1. Solulion: B~nding Momt!nts and N~w Allowab/~ Strt!SSt!S (SUps 14). We have: . (122 cm) deep.200 psi (15.200 psi (1 . 4.90/"" "" 243. .675 MPa) {pO" 0. = 151.0Cl0 psi normalweight concrete f: .70/". = .) Iii. 3.10 Photo layout of bridge deck prestressing tendon. precast panels lind 4 in.8 MP.2 MPa) I..000 psi (1.000 in.000 psi (27.000 psi normalweight concrete / ci. Assume a deck slabS! in.. 0 in.168 Chapter 4 Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements Photo 4. 6 in..55/:' = ...2. Since the beam spacing and span length are known.000 psi (1.862 MPa) /'" = 0.300.. 212 psi f. given the following information: COfl CTf!te Precast beam I. = 270. AASHTO HS2044 loading: establish the tendon eccentricities and tcndon envelopes: and design the anchorage block and reinforcement.043 MPa) Locale and draw the disuibution of tendons in both the midspan and end sections.6 MPa) In  0..303 MPa) 1f1" after losses  0. (14.801. (20cm) thick at midspan and 45 in. ::: 189. =: 424 psi fl'. the moments due to situcast slab and diaphragms can be initially determined.05 1 kNm). situ·cast lOpping and a diaphragm 8 in. 5~ in.6 cm) thick made of 1J in. = 6 ft. The clear distance between the webs of the beams is 7 ft.000 "'.6 in..lb (1.0.
300. Diaphragm weIght 8 12 45 12 169 = X X 6.370 cm3) X Ie = 125. . 3 3 .80(212) _ (2.0.880 2. So choose the precast element based on Sb = 6.Ib Mcsv = composite superimposed dead load = 0 M SD2 =4+8= = PL W SV L2 X 2. 8 X 12 = 940.070 in? (83. We have as in Figure 4.200) + 9.000 _ .082 cm 3) Sb = 6.3 kN) 150 3 .480 940. 14 in.390 in.581.952 + 3.80(2.35. 3 AASHTO type III is chosen as the closest trial section for Sb = 6.215 m.150. (102.558.75 = 12 X X X = 153 plf ( kN m ) 2.80)3.2 / 4 4 in.4.8 Design of Composite PostTensioned Prestressed Simply Supported Section .558.2 106 cm4) Ae = 560 in.Ib (403 kNm) Total MSD = M CSD = 0 in this case Minimum Section Moduli and Choice of Trial Section (Steps 56) 151.300.952 + 3.400 + 2.186 in? (101.6.6.5 X 150 7 = 2.032 12) + '8'''= = 350(64f (12) + 2.1 kN/m) MSDl = 153~4f .952 in. _ (1 .440 lb (11.'Y/ei Assume that the selfweight of the precast beam element is approximately 583 plf (8.613 cm2) .912 in.4 (5.Ie Sb 2: ''=' (1 . situcast topping weight = 12 7 X 150 = 350 plf (5.581.581.257 m.535 cm ) .912 + 9. (101.80)3.hi .618. Then MD = 583(64)2 8 X 12 = 3.200 "I = 189000 = 0.215 in.'Y)MD Msv ML 2: '' + + 'Y.0.000 _ .912 Mm Sb 424 _ 0.Ib 3.000) . 3 3 0. 2 (3.Ib (405 kNm) • I _ Mm S  (1 . precast formwork panel weIght 1. SI (1 .558.032 m.440 (64 4 468.215 in? since AASHTO type IV has a much larger section modulus.80 .846 cm ) The expected actual section modulus for the top fibers is usually considerably larger than the section modulus for the bottom fibers of the composite section. SI = 5.h .'Y)MD + Msv + ML .618.880 in.5 kN/m).
7. ? = 223.73 = 11.73 in.27 in. (413 mm) ee = 10 in. = amax = p MT 16. = Cb 24. (b) Composite section properties.63 Ill. Using 4 in. hence sectIOn can be Improved) = eb = amin + kb  = = 5.27" cgc t I (b) (a) Figure 4.27 L 16.000 636.lb (1. 2 (1.300. hence O.445 cm2) C.000 = 16.952 + 3.584.80 X 636.830 kN) P e = 0.7 cm2 ) = Aps!pi = 3.36 . = . (28.8 cm) 20.70 X 270.0 cm .584 in.589. .471.581.4. giving a maximum ec with tension = 14.940 lb (2.05/636.K.4.05 21.69 = 16. 5.174 = 508.69 in.581.37 in.632 + 9.174 = 1. e£ = t AcKb / P. = amax k.9 in. dia (12.153 = 3.05 in.05 Ill.861 kNm) = = 22 X 0.1741b (2. Stresses at Transfer MT Aps Pi = 3.27 . ) 9. .35 Example 4. ou~slde sectIOn.7 mm) 7wire stressrelieved strands.27 in.= amin = p. 2 = (21.264 kN) r2 223.366 X 0..0 = 16.471. = 212 X 560 X 9. e .5 cm) 583 pJf (8. as the tendon is within the band.69 +1. kb =  r2 C. 32..80Pi = 0.11. = e.91 24. cover gives ec = cb .0 = 20.170 Chapter 4 Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements 4" 45" 20.31 in.1 cm) . (23. = Cb 20.37 in.36 Ill. (Upper e~velope.68 in.2 kN/m) = = WD Try Aps = twentytwo Hn.63 + 9. (62.91 = k. (254 mm) . Try ec = 16.952 636 174 .366 in. (51.05 = 14. = I MD 3. 508940 = 32. (a) Section (AASHTOIII).27 223.
952 223.43 in. 3 (19.714 Ill.68 + 5.186 = 2.288 Ill.75 X 65)(47.27)2 + 65(5.77 X = 65 in.044 in.77 Effective flange width Modified effective flange width 84 in.K. (5.230.68 . O.32 Ill.12 in.706. 3 13.164.8 Design of Composite PostTensioned Prestressed Simply Supported Section 171 = _ 636.4 .32 ? Scb 5. 20.044 _ .7 psi (T) Ac < 212 psi. (213 cm) 84 = 0.174 ( 560 = 1 + 16. = 125.21.75 = = _ 19.952 223.044 _ .581.19.75? 12 + 65 X I.4.174 (1 _ 10 x 24.91 5.43 _ 4) .390 + 560(31.0 2.K.000 7 ft = Composite Section Properties Ec (topping) '''== Ec (precast) = = = 0.15.56)2 = 297.68 in.9 psi (T) < 212 psi.714 in.  297.174 ( 560 1 _ 16.5 = 198.27 x 24.251 Ill.490 in.4 psi (C) < 2. 3 19.73) 560 223.K. (b) Support Section 1= _ I = Pi (1 _ eeCI) Ac ? = _ 636.91 + 118.91 6.3 (C) (15. O. 4 = 318.000 57.200 psi.9 = 2.581. 3 at top of precast section Precast cl = 45 .3 + 579. 2 = 9.200 psi. 10 Ib = _ Pi (1 + eeCb) = _ 636.4 MPa) ~ lei = 2. (165 cm) Cb = .000Y5.32 = 13.000Y3. at bottom of slab _ Sbcs  . O.K. 3 S~ = 21.27 x 20.75)(65) + 560 = 31.875) + (560 X 20.27) + 3.31. Sc slab top d S cs I 1_ 297. 13.174 (1 + r2 560 x 20. at top of slab 297.75(16.43 .809. Pi eCCb) MD Ib=.+ Ac r2 Sb = _ 636.73) _ 3.27) 223.27) (5. 57. O.( 1 + .044 _ .070 = 905.
4 + 1.904 ( _ 16. 10 X 20.521.984 560 1 223. O. O.000 psi (7.649.070 .940 ( + 16. O.940 (1 _ 16.414.171.247.171.) _ MD + MSD r2 S' = MD + MSD 3.172 Chapter 4 Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements Stresses After IUn.070 = +724.516.73) _ 4.952 + 940.27) .5 = 690.186 = 2.K.521.000 psi.4 + 731.lb 560 223. no tension. WSD (Step 11a) Before Diaphragm and Slab Are Cast. Stresses Immediately After Casting Concrete Slab Topping: Midspan Section (Slab Concrete Not Hardened) f '=  Pe ric (1 _ ecc..9 6.508.581.9 = 1.584 f = 724.171.9 5. = 508.3 .1 psi (C) < = 2.5 MPa < 13.0 = 1._ .9 = 94. (b) Support Section r = 56() 1  508.984 + 2.6 psi (C).9 6.984 560 1 223.940 ( 10 X 24.600 = 7.27) + 4. (a) Midspan Section f '= =  Pe ric (1 _ ecc.K.K.1.) _ MD + MSD r2 S' MD + MSD = 4. Pe fb = .8 MPa).000 psi.9 = 167.73). 223.27 X 24.186 = 2.521.( 1 ric = _ eCcb) + ==''MD + MSD + r Sb 508. = ..000 psi.MD + MSD + r Sb = _ 508.3 .984 in.27 X 24.K. Precast Panel Is Erected As Formwork.27 X 20.731.088. 424 pSI. 508.940 ( fb = 56() 1 + 223. eCcb) + .9 5.6 pSI (11.9 pSI (T) < f.521.3 = 1.27) + 7. O.73) _ 7.584 in.940 ( + 16.584 560 1 223.032 4. O. Stresses at Service Load (Step 11) Add the Effect of MSD2 Due to Unshored Slab (a) Midspan Section .247.2 psi (C) e fb = P ( 1 ric < 2.9 MPa)( C) < 2. O.4 psi (C) < 2.159.27 X 20.lb f  .891.K.K.
.000 _ _ .37 for the stress distribution.2 psi (C).1. amin = 5.731. See Figure 4. (b) Quarter Section M D = 2. Same kind of calculations as in previous step.8 = . O.464 amin = = MD .1 + 979.28 Ill. Result isf' = +94.K.248 MT p e amax = = 24.300.714 .3 pSI C Modular ratio n = 0.2 .( ) 108.77 .355.36 Prestressing tendon envelope.000 From the previous stage.584 in.428.4.690.690.5 pSI C fbe 1088.6 psi (C).22 Ill.73" kb = 9. 24.300.1 < 2000 pSI.171.38 gives the anchorage zone stresses and the net moments along the depth of the beam.21.3 .000 19251 .36 in. . X 0.05" Figure 4.lb 0 + ML + 9. Stress at top fibers of . p.300. 372 pSI (C) (b) Support Section.77 from before. = 690. = + 9. Stress at top fibers of slab after concrete hardened is f~s = 9. = 4._ 9.000 = 1088.36 for the tendon envelope and Figure 4.2 . Tendon Envelope (a) Midspan Section amax = 32.63 in. I MT 12.300.300.77 = . . fb precast section in composite action is t = 1088.8 Design of Composite PostTensioned Prestressed Simply Supported Section 173 MD + MSD MCSD = = 7.000 = 9. stress at bottom fibers of the slab is fbes = 9.300.( ) fe . = 468 pSI (C) .118. Figure 4.9 psi (1) andfb = 1.000 15288 X 0.492 9.686.1 psi (C).
(b) Erection. All stresses are psi (1000 psi = 6.37 Midspan concrete fiber stresses in Example 4.174 Chapter 4 Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements 5~ in.7. (a) Transfer.1741b ee = 10 in. + = tension T 707 45" + ~ +724 2809 +579 (a) MPi + Mo 892 + 2247 +731 1516 522 + 1516 +428 (c) MPe + Mo + Mso + MCSD (fresh concrete) 1088 428 + 1088 +980 (d) 108 Figure 4.164 psi (C) (i) Bursting Crack Reinforcement h = 45 in.895 MPa) ~ +905 e = compression. (c) Topping cast. Design of EndBlock Anchorage (a) Solution by Linear Elastic Method: Pi = 636. . (d) Serviceload stage. f' fb = = + 119 psi (7) 2.
4. (41. Use a 2 in.65 = 9.1.. The anchorage zone moments at the various planes at 5in.13 0.8 Design of Composite PostTensioned Prestressed Simply Supported Section 2.35" 175 +0.65 in2 (23.20 . Eccentricities are: ec = 16. (ii) Spalling Crack Reinforcement Tsp = M min h x +0.15 X 106 Tb = h _ x = 45 _ 15 = 71..000 .·lb t~ 2037 (22) 2164 (22) psi (section width) Figure 4. depth intervals. Use x = h/3 = 15 in.5 cm2) 3.20 X 2 Try #4 vertical reinforcement (12.000 . . 2 2 As .7. x 2 in.27 in. N urn b er reqUIred = Arrangement of Strands. 4.7 mm dia.39(a).~ . 2 s .670 lb (316 kN) _ Tb _ 71.0. Bracketed values are section widths (in.04 X 10 45 .04 X 106 in.): .4 em) The arrangement of the strands to develop the required tendon eccentricities are shown in Fig.07 m Total reinforcement = 3.58 + 0.3 em) ee = 10.1 em ) Js .38 Anchorage zone elastic stresses and net moments in Example 4.3.0 in.58 m (23. (25. (a) Anchorage zone stresses.20000 .. M m• x 2.670 _ .330 _ .20 .07 = 3.) along which anchorage stresses are acting.Me) at 5in.7. intervals along the height of the section are given in Table 4. (25 mm x 25 mm) grid for arranging the distribution of strands.15 6 = 133 ' 0 A . (b) Net bursting or splitting moments (Mp .
d from bottom (in. (5) (in.276 1.77) = 10.2.27 in.19 +0..2 Aps (0.41 +0. (2) determine concrete bearing capacity at the anchorage devices plane: From Equation (4. = 4(2) + 6(4) + 4(6) + 3(15.27 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 22 22 15 7 7 7 7 12 16 16 2. (a) Midspan (e c = 16.).783 1.5) (psi) (3) Concrete resist.15 +1. (1) (in.520 0 0 0 3.200 Aps Ib row forces: P u1 .7 Moment plane dist.06 .880 +9.37 12.56 +2.27" .01 6.07 +0.42 +7.81 +0.~'t/> tendons at 2" X 2" grid 'Ti' cgc +_.Mp) col. plane in col.09 0 +0.).39(a) Strand arrangement in Example 4.164 2.153)(259.cgs + + + + + + + (b) + + + + + + + Figure 4.022 769 515 216 +119 0 237.200) = 158.9361b Table 4.15c).037 1. used in the design.~20'27" I ".8) + 2(20.80 +18. (6)col.660 35. (b) End section (ee= 10.750 20.0 in.000) = 259.80 x 270.530 1.Ib x 106 ) (5) Moment Me of concrete in col.2 Aps (0.15 +4.7.19 9._+ + + + +++++++ + + + + • + + + + + + + ++ + + (a) J 2" 16.73 18.176 Chapter 4 Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements + + + t 7.80 +12.43 +0. force at (d.) (2) Stress at plane (d.) (1 ) Anchorage Zone Moments for Example 4.770 26.15 0 +0.27) + 3(27. P su = 1.040 133.725 53.04 +0.Ib x 106 ) (7) (6) 0 5 10.915 25.5" 22 .76 +15.2.550 44.200) = 237.7 Moment Mp of force Pi about horiz.91 22.80 fpul = 1.55 15.00 +9.6301b P u2 = 6(0.33 in. (4) about horiz.56 +2. (1) (in.153)(259.Ib x 106 ) Section width (in. (b) Solution by the Plastic StrutandTie Method: (1) compute distance of the centroid of strands: 22 which is close to ec = 10 in.95 +22. P u3 = 4(0.5) (Ib) (4) Net moment (Me. plane in col.
1" t d' 9.16(a) and (b).457lb Total area of rigid bearing plates supporting the anchorage chucks: Ab = 20 X 12 + 7 X 16 = 352 in. > 2480 psi. 2480 pSI From Equations 4.5.6301b @ 237 936 Ib (2) 158 630 Ib (l) 2" 2".17" 11.936) ~158.8 Design of Composite PostTensioned Prestressed Simply Supported Section 177 2" t T 118.c~_ b r43.7 X 3750 ~ = 3439 psi..973lb Pus = 2(0.37" 79.a' . A..4. 1/ /.936 + 2(118. 2. of concrete with the bearing plates == (20 + 4)(12 + 4) + (7 + 4)(16 + 4) = 604 in. P u4 .23" ® 7. 2.000 = 3750 psi Concentric area.630::j 45" 32. 2 tb = 3s2 = 872. the maximum allowable bearing pressure on the concrete is tb ::.457 ..315lb Total ultimate compressive force =2(158. The bearing stress from Eq.3.17" 158.25 t :i Assume that the initial concrete strength at stressing is t:i = 0.315 ( //////. as defined for the concrete pyramid base in Section 4.6" 2" 1B'~ 221/2" h =45" t • .973) + 79.36" 9.75 t: = 0.7041b {. Note that the bearings are acting against the rectangular end block section. Allowable bearing stress tb = 0.200) = 118.3151b @ 118..730 Ib a .7981b L b' ..Compression Strut Beam Elevation Figure 4. 48.~ ~32..tt /' /' /' /' /' e l11.9731b @ 5.14 (b) does not control.K.e' _9 _ 118'973~ 158. O.5" '( 4.75 X 5.39(b) StrutandTie Forces in Example 4.63) 237.9441b 2" t :==118 9731 15.9731b f /' /' /' /' /' /' f97. 4.200) = 79.154Ib c r___________} ___ }4...2" 4" ·1 y. P u6 = 3(0.630 + 237.153)(259.153)(259. Tension Tie .5.7.315 =872. .5" 79.
then continue with the nine stirrups at 5 in. and the rise in the compressive . In other words.23/18. This stage of stress is called the limit state of decompression: Any additional external load or overload results in cracking at the bottom face. = 11. At this stage. as in Figure 4.90 X 60.50) = 97. It should be noted that if a smaller number of path lines are assumed in the idealization of the compression strut paths. depth al2 ahead of the anchorages = 7~5 = 3. from the beam end: Use five No.39(b) between two forces P u5 .973 (15. where the modulus of rupture of concrete Ir is reached due to the cracking moment Mer caused by the first cracking load.9441b and using No. Pf/ = 118.P u6 = 7. Choosing the larger value of 97.944 lb. hence.9. Tensile strength of one No.8801b .600 = 4. Comparing solutions (a) and (b).4 confining tie = 0.40 relates load to steel stress at the various loading stages. reqUired number of stIrrup tIes 60. on centers. .3.3 closed Usturups 97. a sudden increase in the steel stress takes place and the tension is dynamically transferred from the concrete to the steel.5 in. on centers over a distance of 40 in. say 4 in. use mne No.1 CrackingLoad Moment As mentioned in Chapter 1.600 lb. Construct the strutandtie model assuming it to be as shown in Figure 4. It shows not only the loaddeformation curve.90 . a loading stage is reached where the concrete compressive stress at the bottomfibers reinforcement level of a simply supported beam becomes zero.944 lb. the moment arm of the internal couple continues to increase with the load without any appreciable change in the stress Ipe in the prestressing steel.4 closed Ustirrups.4 closed UStirrups in the compression zone adjacent to the anchorage devices plane. but also the dynamic dislocation in the loadstress diagram at the first cracking load after decompression in a bonded prestressed beam.154 and 97.5. used five No.4 closed Ustirrups starting at 1 !in. Figure 4. one of the fundamentals differences between prestressed and reinforced concrete is the continuous shift in the prestressed beams of the compressive Cline away from the tensile cgs line as the load increases.000 X 2(0.9 ULTIMATESTRENGTH FLEXURAL DESIGN 4. the tension tie forces would have been larger resulting in more confining reinforcement. from the anchorage devices plane and spaced at Hin. adopt the following confining reinforcement in the anchorage zone over a distance h = 45 in.000 X 2(0.20) = 21..3 closed Ustirrups confining reinforcement within the anchorage zone area: tensile strength per tie = <!> fy Av X = 0.880 = 8.75 in. Beyond that dislocation point the beam can no longer be considered to behave elastically. As an example.944 lb. Trying No.39 (b).944 number of ties = 21. 4.11) = 11.944.178 Chapter 4 Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements (3) Draw the strutandtie model and select the anchorage reinforcement choose distance a. induding its abrupt change of slope at the first cracking load. As the flexural moment continues to increase when the full superimposed dead load and live load act. the applicable force can also be assumed in this case to be approximately 97. The tension tie forces range between 32.. 97.
.2 Partial Prestressing "Partial prestressing" is a controversial term. ... 4.""" ..40 Prestressing steel stress at various load levels. Consequently. since it is not intended to denote that a beam is prestressed partially.. Cline stabilizes and stops so that the section starts to behave like a reinforced concrete section with constant moment resistance arm. partial prestressing describes prestressed beams wherein limited cracking is permitted through the use of additional mild nonprestressed reinforcement to control the extent and width of the cracks ... _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Steel stress after cracking ...9 UltimateStrength Flexural Design Stress 179 ~ fp$ ~_. since the section stiffness is reduced and hence an increase in deflection has to be considered..9. the crack width has to be controlled in order to prevent reinforcement corrosion or leakage in liquid containers. From Eq. such as at the bottom fibers at midspan of a simply supported beam.24) where the modulus of rupture Ir = 7.. The concrete fiber stress at the tension face is (4... as might seem to be the case. Also.4. 4.25) Note that the term r2/c b is the upper kern value k t so that Per2/cb denotes the elastic moment required to raise the Cline from the prestressing steel level to the upper kern point giving zero tension at the bottom fibers. the term IrSb is that additional moment required to cause the development of the first crack at the extreme tension fibers due to overload. Mer = IrSb + Pe(e + ::) (4.cracking to failure range ~ Load Figure 4..5Vfc and the cracking moment Mer is the moment due to all loads at that load level (MD + MSD + ML). It is important to evaluate the first cracking load. \ """ Unbonded fpe Unbonded o ~ Range of zero tension in concrete ~ s!~:~e ~ Post... Rather.24..
or in members that are concentrically prestressed with small amounts of steel. say.490. determine what safety factor the beam has against cracking due to overload.Ib (281 kNm) 0 whereMSD ML = 7.095.8 Calculate the cracking moment Mer in the Ibeam of Example 4.2.509 kNm) MT = MD + MSD + ML = 2.7 MPa).3 cm) Sb = 3. Two major advantages of partial prestressing are the efficient use of all constituent materials and the control of excessive camber due to the longterm creep of concrete under compression. Reinforced concrete beams always have to be designed as underreinforced to ensure ductile failure by yielding of the reinforcement. using a large percentage of steel. 2. Givenisfr= 7.180 Chapter 4 Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements and to assume part of the ultimate flexural moment strength.6 cm) in this example. Also. where Mer approximates the nominal moment strength Mn of the section. 4.84 = 9.141 kNm) Overload moment = MT .605. or in hollow members. Another type of. or essentially overreinforced.750 in? (61. premature failure occurs at the first cracking load level.638 = 0.95) 530 X = 9.490. P e = 308.371 kN) r/Cb = 187. This type of failure can occur in members that are prestressed and reinforced with very small amounts of steel. Prestressed beams can be either underreinforced using a relatively small percentage of mild nonprestressed steel.431 in.638 + 7. as the design in Example 4.207 = 725. (25.2 presupposed.Mer = 10. The safety factor against cracking is given by 9.Ib (1. and evaluate the magnitude of the overload moment that the beam can tolerate at the modulus of rupture of concrete.9.638 .605.638 in.3 Cracking Moment Evaluation Example 4.225 lb (1.00 in.9.095.207 10.370.000 = 530 psi (3.95 in.451 cm3) ee = MD + MSD = = 14 in.Ib (83 kNm) Since M T > Mer' the beam had tensile cracks at service load.5Y5. Mer = = frSb + Pe(e + ~) 3750 + 308.2.Ib (1.095. (35.5/18.000 = 10. leading to rupture of the tensile steel at failure.370. It is generally advisable to evaluate the magnitude of the cracking moment Mer in order to determine the reserve strength and overload limits that the designed section has. resulting in crushing of the concrete at the compression top fibers in a somewhat less ductile failure.Ib (859 kNm) From Equation 4.638 in. Solution: From Example 4.25.93 .207 in.5v1l = 7.255(14 + 9.370.
24) proposed a simplified method of safety factor determination. Results of failure: 1.1 Reliability and Structural Safety of Concrete Components Three developments in recent decades have majorly influenced present and future design procedures: the vast increase in the experimental and analytical evaluation of concrete elements.0.0 2.0 Cast in place Precast "factory manufactured" 3. results of failure. The method takes into consideration that different weights should be assigned to the various factors affecting a design.0 to 4.F. Baker (Ref.10 Load and Strength Factors 181 If the service load MT is less than Mer' the safety factor against cracking will be greater than 1. The safety factor against failure is S.0 1. Until recently. 4.0 to 2. Warning of failure 6. The weighted failure effects W t for the various factors of workmanship. As additional experience is accumulated and more knowledge is gained from failures as well as familiarity with the properties of concrete. for the worst combination of conditions affecting structural performance. Workmanship: 0. In other words.F. factors of safety are adjusted and in most cases lowered by the codifying bodies.0 (high for simple spans and overload possibilities.0 0.0 0. the total factored moment <l>Mn.0 Serious.0 S.4.5 Total = LWt = 10.5 to 2.0 + 10 LWt (4. and resistance capacity are tabulated in the table. = 1.10.5 1. = 1. Depreciation of strength ~Wt 0. as shown in Table 4. Importance of member in structure (beams may use lower value than columns) 5.0.::: 1. as in nonpartially prestressed members. the safety factor S. loading conditions. and the digital computational tools available for rapid analysis of safety and reliability of systems. most safety factors in design have had an empirical background based on local experience over an extended period of time. based on probabilistic evaluation. = 2. only the exposure of nondamageable material 2.5 2. Load conditions: 1. Note that where nonprestressed reinforcement is used to develop a partially pre" stressed section. low for load combinations such as live loads and wind) 4. 4.0 + 10 .2Me as required by the ACI code.0 Maximum Wt 4. This method expects the design engineer to make critical choices regarding the magnitudes of safety margins in a design. either human or economic Less serious.8.8 Baker's Weighted Safety Factor Weighted Failure Effect 1. In 1956. the probabilistic approach to the interpretation of behavior.26) where the maximum total weighted value of all parameters affecting performance equals 10.10 LOAD AND STRENGTH FACTORS 4. Table 4.P.
26. .26).1I Post·tensioning bridge deck conduits. (4. then (4. They are intended for use in proportioning structu ral members on the basis of load types such that the resisting strength levels are greater than the factored load or moment distributions.4J(c) gives the two distri butions superi mposed and intersecting at point C. live . It is recogn ized that safety and reliable integrity of the structure can be expected to exist if the load effect W fa lls at a point to th e left of in tersection C on the W curve. or timedependent effects.25 and 4. 4.28) Photo 4.4I(c).8.182 Chapter 4 flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements This method assumes adequate prior performance data similar to a design in progress. Another method wi th a smaller number of probabilist ic parameters dea ls primarily with loads and resistances.27) where i represents the load in question. If R" is the nominal resistance of the concrete element and Wi represents the load effect for various lypes of superimposed load . 4. earthquake. Figures 4. Additionally. As these approaches are basically load orien ted. Its approaches for stee l and concrete structures are generally simi lar: both the loadandresistancefactordesign method (LRFO) and fi rstorder secondmoment method (FOSM) propose general reliabili ty procedures for evaluating probabilitybased fac tored load design criteria (see Refs. if the weighted fac tors arc numerous. a probabilistic determi nation of them is more difficult to codify. Assume that 4>. such as those listed in Table 4.4I(a) and (b) show a plot of the separate frequency distributions of the actual load Wand the resistance R wi th means values Rand w. Such data in many instances arc not readily avai lable for determining safe weighted values WI in Eq. Failure. such as dead. wou ld be expected to occur if the load effect o r the resistance fa ll within the shaded area in Fig. on the other hand. wind. Hence. they reduce the number of individual variables that have to be considered. 4. and to the right of intersection C on the resistance curve R. represents the resistance facto rs of a concrete element and that ·'Ii represents the load factors for the various types of load. If ~ is a safety index. an undue valuej udgment burden is probably placed on the design engineer if the full econom ic benefi t of the approach is to be achieved. Figure 4.
hurricane.4. thereby reducing the shaded area under intersection C in Fig. particularly since types of risk other than load are an accepted matter.10 Load and Strength Factors 183 rRW. (a) R Load. It is economically unreasonable to design a structure for zero failure. One can observe that such a probability is reduced as the difference between the mean resistance R and load effect W is increased.41 Frequency distribution of loads VS.l I I I 2oR I +2o R I I I I Resistance.W) or decreasing the degree of scatter of ITR or IT w is naturally dictated by economic considerations. or the variability of resistance as measured by their standard deviations ITR and ITw is decreased. resistance. respectively. where ITR and ITw are the standard deviations of the resistance and the load.42. volcanic erup . 4. A plot of the safety index 13 for a hypothetical structural system against the probability of failure of the system is shown in Fig. such as the risks of severe earthquake. U (b) rRWj I I I I I I Load. 4.41(c). The extent of increasing the difference (R . U (c) Figure 4.
42 Probability of failure vs. tion. In spite of this. A safety index (3 having the value 1. and overstress whose probability of occurrence is very low.8.~ ~ '0 103 >:is ~ 4 ~ 10 105 106 2.2. <Pi Rn ::::: 'Y i Wi ::::: Vi max' as follows: V= <PiRn = Maximum [1. a typical Vi value recommended in the ASCE7 Standard (Ref.Jo~ + o~ Figure 4. If the factored external load is expressed as Vi' then L 'YiW = Vi for the different loading combinations.2 for concrete structures is suggested where the lower value accounts for load contributions from wind and earthquake. In cases where other load combinations.5 Safety index 4. 4.75 to 3.1 General Principles The general concepts of safety and reliability of performance presented in the preceding section are inherent in a more simplified but less accurate fashion in the ACI code.14) and IBC 2000 (Ref. and reserve strength evaluation of structural components will be more universally accepted and extended beyond the treatment of the component elements to the treatment of the total structural system. such as described in Table 4. 4. it is still possible to achieve reliable safety conditions by choosing such a safety index value (3 through a proper choice of Rn and Wi using the appropriate resistance factors <Pi and load factors 'Yi in Equation 4.6LJ (4. The load factors 'Y and the strength reduction factors <P give an overall safety factor based on load types such that . and fire. Safety factors and corresponding load factors would thus have to disregard those types or levels of load. safety index. such as snow or lateral pressure are not present.0 4.0 RW = ~~== . that is.5 5.11 ACI LOAD FACTORS AND SAFETY MARGINS 4.2D + 1. stress.27.0 2.0 3.29) As more substantive records of performance are compiled.184 Chapter 4 Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements 101 102 . safety.17) for maximum Vi to be used in Equation 4. 4.5 3.a ~ . the details of the foregoing approach to reliability.11.
the current ACI design loads U (fa ctored loads) have to be at least eq ual to the values obtained from Eq uations 4. namely.4. The effect of one or marc loads not acting simultaneously has to be investigated. Hence. 4. Therefore.j R" where q. a single common factor is used for dead load and another for live load.3 1(g). depending on the type of stress being considered in the design. it has to conform to the International Building Code. Thc dead 101ld.31(a) through 4. which constitutes the weight o f the structu re and o ther relatively permanent features. As such..11. eaTl hquakc. rae. The live load is estimated using the weight of nonpermanent loads. the method is a simplified em pirical a pproach to safety and the reliability of structural performance that is not economica lly efficient for every case and not fully adequate in other instances.6 for live load. such as a coefficient of 1. with the basic combination o f vertical gravity loads is dead load plus live load. The ph ilosophy used for combi ning the va rious load components for earthquake loading is essen tially the same as that used for wind loadi ng. Structures are seldom subjected to dead and live load alone. such as people and furniture .25). The estimated scrvice or worki ng loads arc magnified by the coeffici ents. or lateral pressures due to earthfill or Ouids should be considered: . nexure or shear or compression. as they restrict the estimation of reserve strength to the loads only as compa red to the other parameters listcd in Tablc 4.11 ACt Load Factors and Safety Margins 185 I'hofo 4. 4. such as combinations of dead and wind loads. Thus. is the strength reduction factor and "I! and "12 are the respect ive load factors for the dead load D and the live load L Basica lly.12 Tendon stressing with Frcyssinct jack.2 for dead loads and 1. SF = "I!D + "I2L D+L X ~ <I> (4. and be consistent with the ASCE7 Standard o n Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and O thc r Structures ( Ref. Variatio n in resistance ca pacity is accounted for in q. is a strength reduction facto r. can be estimated more accurately than the live load. etc.8. The following equations present combinations of loads for situations in which wind.2 AClload Factors Equations The ACI 3 18 Building Code for concrete structures is an inte rnational code. a higher load fa cto r is normally used for li ve loads then for dead loads. These two standards contain the sa me probabil is tic val ues for the expected safety resistance facto rs q. The transient nature of live loads makes them difficu lt to estimate more accurately. The AC I fac tors are termed load fllclorl'.30) where q.
Lr = roof load.3W in place of 1.2D U (4. Where lateral earth pressure provides resistance to structural actions from other forces.9D U = 0. F = lateral fluid pressure load & maximum height.3lc) (4. and all areas where the live load L is greater than 100 Ib/ft2. In cases where special circumstances require greater reliance on the strength of particular members than encountered in usual practice. E = earthquake load.6H = 0.25 + 1.3le) (4.3lg) + F + 1) + 1. 1. The load combinations with 0.3lb) (4. as one type of loading may produce effects of opposite sense to that produced by another type. (b) Where wind load W has not been reduced by a directionality factor.11.0E in Eq.3l(e) and 4.0(Lr or 5 or R) + 1. 4.3l(c) to 4. W = wind load. H = load due to the weight and lateral pressure of soil and water in soil. L = live load. such as strength for combined flexure and axial load or shear strength in members with axial load.6W + 1. the ACI Code allows some reduction in the stipulated strength reduction factors </>.3la) (4.0E + 1. 4.2D U = 1.2 m2) or more can be designed for a reduced live load from the following equation: . Consideration also has to be given to various combinations of loading to determine the most critical design condition.3l(f).186 Chapter 4 Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements u = l. it is reasonable to assume that the full intensity of live load does not cover the entire floor area.0L + 0.1 Reduction in Live Loads For large areas. or an increase in the stipulated load factors U. 4. the code permits to use 1.8W) + 1.SL + 1.3ld) (4. areas occupied as places of public assembly. (c) Where earthquake load E is based on servicelevel seismic forces. R = rain load.3l(g) if the structural action due to H counteracts that due to Wor E.0L or 0.4(D + F) U = 1.31f) (4.2D U = 1.6W + O. particularly when strength is dependent on more than one load effect. Exceptions to the values in these expressions (a) The load factor on L in Eq.6H + 1. 4. members having an influence area of 400 ft 2 (37.3l(d) and 4.3l(e) is allowed to be reduced to 0. Hence. Due regard has to be given to sign in determining U for combinations of loadings.9D where D = dead load.6(L + H) + O.5(Lr or 5 or R) + 1.3l(f) and Eq. It should be noted that the philosophy used for combining the various load components for earthquake loading is essentially similar to that used for wing loading.6(Lr or 5 or R) + (1.3l(g).4E shall be used in place of 1.2(D U = 1.5 except for garages.9D are specifically included for the case where a higher dead load reduces the effects of other loads. (d) The load factor on H is to be set equal to zero in Eq. it should not be included in H but shall be included in the design resistance. T = selfstraining force such as creep.0E + 1. shrinkage and temperature effects. 4.6W in Eq. 4.2. 5 = snow load.
and to guard against progressive collapse and brittle failure with no advance warning of collapse. the design moment strength <l>Mn should be at least equal to. no reduction can be made for areas used as places of public assembly. Live loads in all other cases not stipulated by the code cannot be reduced except as accepted by the jurisdictional authority. on the other hand. Hence. for instance. Equation 4.3 Design Strength vs.25 + ~) (4.9 summarizes the resistance factors <I> for various structural elements as given in the ACI code. La.57) La ( 0.32b) where L. Table 4. Beams. This nominal strength is reduced using a strength reduction factor <I> to account for inaccuracies in construction. La = Unreduced design live load per square foot of area. are designed to undergo excessive deflections before failure.9. The factor <I> varies for the different types of behavior and for the different types of structural elements.11. or equal area for a twoway slab (Ref. slightly greater than. wind.31 becomes L = 4. For beams in flexure. .65. as well as the load factors of Equation 4.24 indicates that the <I> values in this table. and AI are in square meters of area. 4. are in some cases more conservative than they should be. except that in the case of garages for passenger cars a reduction of up to 20 percent can be made. or better. and hence a higher coefficient of variation than the other types of loading. and shear forces. in the case of a beam.25). the resisting moment capacity of the section calculated using the equations of equilibrium and the properties of concrete and steel is called the nominal strength moment Mn of the section.11 ACI Load Factors and Safety Margins 187 L where = La (0.79 kN/m2) or less.31. For tied columns that carry dominant compressive loads. Nominal Strength: StrengthReduction Factor <I> The strength of a particular structural unit calculated using the current established procedures is termed nominal strength. For example. In cases of earthquakes. 4. the external factored moment Mu for the worst condition of factored load U.32a) L = Reduced design live load per square foot of area supported by the member. such as in the dimensions or position of reinforcement or variations in properties.25 + ~ (4. AI = Influence area: For other than cantilevered construction. The smaller strengthreduction factor used for columns is due to the structural importance of the columns in supporting the total structure compared to other members. For a beam. A comparison of these values to those given in Ref. AI is the tributary area for a column. 4. <I> is 0.4. The reduced strength of the member is defined as the design strength of the member. For live loads of 100 Ib/ft2 (4. The reduced design live load cannot be less than 50 percent of the unit live load La for members supporting one floor or less than 40 percent of the unit live load La for members supporting two or more floors. the probability of load magnitude and reliability of performance are subject to higher randomness. In SI units. the inherent capability of the beam for advanced warning of failure permits the use of a higher strength reduction factor or resistance factor. the factor <I> equals 0. AI is tributary area for beams.
9 0. a decompression strain Edeeomp = E2 results such that .3 and 4.12. the prestressed concrete beam starts to behave like a reinforced concrete beam when the value of the flexural moment is well beyond the cracking moment Mer and the total service load moment M T . suppose that the effective prestress fpe at service load due to all loads results in a strain El such that El = Epe = E fpe ps (4. A detailed fundamental treatment of this subject is given in chapter 5 of Ref. 4.5Yt::.90 See LRFD and Standard AASHTO other factors in Chapter 12. the overload causes the compressive stress in the concrete at the level of the prestressing steel to continually decrease until it becomes zero at a load level termed the decompression load. such as the bottom midspan fibers of a simply supported beam. Prior to attaining this level.0 For posttensioned castinplace concrete members. modified to reflect the characteristics of the different reinforcing materials and the geometry peculiar to prestressed concrete. A minor difference results in the analysis using this definition of the decompression load.75 0.188 Table 4. Cracking develops when the tensile stress in the concrete at the extreme fibers of the critical section exceeds the maximum stress level fr == 7. <I> = 0.2. i.1 Introduction As discussed in Section 4.750. The ultimate theory in flexure and the principles and concepts underlying it are thus equally applicable to prestressed concrete.e..9.12 LIMIT STATE IN FLEXURE AT ULTIMATE LOAD IN BONDED MEMBERS: DECOMPRESSION TO ULTIMATE LOAD 4. Some investigators define the decompression load as the load at which the first crack appears at the extreme fibers of the critical section.33a) At decompression.650. <I> = 1. 4.9 Chapter 4 Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements <!> Resistance or Strength Reduction Factor Structural Element Factor <I> Beam or slab: bending or flexure Columns with ties Columns with spirals Columns carrying very small axial loads (refer to Chapter 9 for more details) Beam: shear and torsion 0.9.1.43).75 AASHTO STRENGTHREDUCTION FACTORS Flexure: For factoryproduced precast prestressed concrete members. <I> = 0. or 0. The stress level in the tendons is correspondingly termed the decompression stress (see Figures 4.65 0.9 0. To follow the loading stepbystep states. The same fundamental format of equations will be given here.95 Shear and Torsion: Reduction factor for prestressed members. when the compressive stress in the surrounding concrete at the level of the prestressing tendon is neutralized by the tensile stress due to overload.
Consequently.44(b).44 illustrate the stress distribution at and after the decompression stage where the behavior of the prestressed beam starts to resemble that of a reinforced concrete beam. concrete in the tension zone of . As the load approaches the limit state at ultimate. Consequently.003 in. the additional strain E3 in the steel reinforcement follows the linear triangular distribution shown in Fig. (d) Decompression stage with zero stress in the concrete at the level of the prestressing reinforcement. Concrete is weak in tension. (c) Tension at the lower fibers below the modulusofrupture level.12 Limit State in Flexure at Ultimate Load in Bonded Members: Decompression to Ultimate Load 189 Compression Compression Decompression 1f. the steel strain increment due to overload above the decompression load is E3 d = Ec ( . (b) Entire section in compression. 4.c  c) (4.33b) Figures 4.lin. The following assumptions are made in defining the behavior of the section at ultimate load: 1.12. This assumption is based on Bernoulli's hypothesis that plane sections remain plane before bending and perpendicular to the neutral axis after bending. as discussed in Chapter 1.1 through 4. the total design would have to incorporate the moment strength of the prestressed section in addition to the serviceload level checks described in detail in Sections 4.7.'>6 yTc If' t _ (d) (a) (b) (c) Strain in the concrete up to the decompression stage at the tension reinforcement level. the total strain in the prestressing steel at this stage becomes (4. The strain distribution is assumed to be linear.43 and 4.4. 2. Figure 4.33c) where c is the depth of the neutral axis. where the maximum compressive strain at the extreme compression fibers is Ec = 0.2 The Equivalent Rectangular Block and Nominal Moment Strength It is important to be able to evaluate the reserve strength in the prestressed beam up to failure. 3. Hence.43 EZ = Edecomp = A~~c (1 + .:) (4. 4. In such a case. The strain in the steel and the surrounding concrete is the same prior to cracking of the concrete or yielding of the steel as after such cracking or yielding. (a) Cross section. It cracks at an early stage of loading at about 10 percent of its compressive strength limit.33d) The corresponding stress ips at nominal strength can be easily obtained from the stressstrain diagram of the steel supplied by the producer.
.o CO . (d) Assumed equivalent stress block.g~ 4 b (a) 1 [ d h p _. (a) Beam cross section.I ! ~ 2 r .. (b) Strains.85f:_ r.. • T= Aps fps c ~ (d T p  Tension side ~SE~ (b) 1 i) (e) (d) Figure 4. (c) Actual stress block.44 Stress and strain distribution across beam depth. l_o. . c T = Apsfps T = Apsfps Compression side T" a = /3.
such as in compression members.005 corresponds to reinforcement ratio p/pb = 0.lin.35a) . Tied Sections: 0.34) d = depth of the beam measured from the extreme compression fiber to the cen troid of steel area h = total depth of the beam 4. and the tensioncontrolled strain limit St = 0. with ample warning of failure as denoted by excessive cracking and deflection. will have an intermediate or transitional value between the two strain limit states.005 can be linearly interpolated to give the following expressions. between the compressioncontrolled strain limit St = fyl Es = 60. Therefore. It also stipulates that when the net tensile strain in the extreme tension steel. and the tension reinforcement is assumed to take the total tensile force. the compressive force C in the concrete and the tensile force T in the steel should balance each otherthat is. as discussed in the previous section. Variation of'P as a Function of Strain.12 Limit State in Flexure at Ultimate Load in Bonded Members: Decompression to Ultimate Load 191 the section is neglected in the flexural analysis and design computations.005 in.90 (4.1 General Principles In this approach. However.3 Strain Limits Method for Analysis and Design 4. but large bending moments. To satisfy the equilibrium of the horizontal forces. such as those subjected to small axial loads. with little warning of such an impending failure.005 result in a <J>factor value lower than 0.65 ::5 [ <J> = 0.::: 0. St' . namely.lin. If the net tensile strain in the extreme tension fibers. the nominal flexural strength of a concrete member is reached when the net compressive strain in the extreme compression fibers reaches the ACI codeassumed limit 0.003 in. High reinforcement ratios that produce a net tensile strain less than 0. The net tensile strain St = 0. a brittle mode of failure is expected.3. Variation of the 'P value for the range of strain between St = 0. Compression members are usually compressioncontrolled. some sections. Flexural members are usually tensioncontrolled. C=T The terms in Figure 4. sometimes referred to as the "unified method. Sf' in the extreme tensile fibers.44 are defined as follows: b = width of the beam at the compression side (4.005 for a tensioncontrolled state is a single value that applies to all types of reinforcement regardless whether mild steel or prestressing steel..63. For the tensioncontrolled state. St' is small.005 in. Figure 4.000/29 X 106 = 0.002 and St = 0.002)e~0)] ::5 0. The concrete beam section is characterized as tensioncontrolled. the behavior is fully ductile.005.65 + (St  0.lin.U.4.002 in.90. at a value equal to or greater than 0.. is sufficiently large. the net tensile strain. the strain limit St = 0.12. resulting in less economical sections.002 in the extreme tensile reinforcement. being equal to or less than a compressioncontrolled strain limit." being equally applicable to flexural analysis of prestressed concrete elements. where Pb is the balanced reinforcement ratio for the balanced strain St = 0.lin.45 delineates these three zones as well as the variation in the strength reduction factors applicable to the total range of behavior. St. it is more efficient to add compression reinforcement if necessary or deepen the section in order to make the strain in the extreme tension reinforcement.
i] 0. ' OTHER SPIRAL" " " " (: ~ tP=0."L\.£ = 0.45 Strain limit zones and variation of strength reduction factor <I> with the net Tensile Strain sf Spirallyreinforced sections: 0..192 Chapter 4 Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements tP = 0.002)e~0)] ::5 0. ~J) ::5 0.90 t t (4.000 ) 87.000 + fy (4...£ = 0.35b) Variation of <l> as a Function of Neutral Axis depth Ratio ddt.375 dt Interpolation on c/d( Spiral cp = 0.65 ::5 ( <I> = 0..005).i] Figure 4.75 + (£t.37) In summary.36b) For balanced strain. where ample warning of failure with extensive deflection occurs.2{ d C. the neutral axis depth ratio for a limit strain 8 t = 0. .36a) Spirallyreinforced sections: 0.Transition +l+:C:Oon:tro::lIed.75 + 0. Tied sections: 0.15 Other tP = [c1t .15[C.002 in. Equations 4.65 Compression Tension IC=on:..005 .002 £t = 0..25 [c1t .75 + (8 t  0.. can be defined as Cb ( dt = 87..d ~J) ::5 0.90 (4.troIIed++.35(a) and 4.lin.002\2~J tP 0.0.75::5 (<I> = 0..65 + 0.. 0.75::5 [<I> = 0.65 + (£t.90.35(b) can be expressed in terms of the ratio of the neutral axis depth c to the effective depth d t of the layer of reinforcement closest to the tensile face of the section as follows. when the net tensile strain in the extreme tension reinforcement is sufficiently large (equal or greater than 0.002)t2 O 0.600 dt .70 .65 + 0. the section is defined as tensioncontrolled.0.75 + 0. where the reinforcement at the tension side yields at the same time as the concrete crushes at the compression face (fs = fy)...t gj.90 (4.i Et =0.
the maximum allowable moment redistribution = 1000 B f = 8.2%.c 10 (.~ . giving 20% redistribution. so that the net tensile strain is within the range of B t = 0. Redistribution is inapplicable in the case of slab systems proportioned by the direct design method (DDM).005 0.46 Allowable redistribution percentage for maximum rotational capacity . B( = 0. as shown in Figure 4.0088 in.020.1) (4.12.) C Q) a.003 (~t . Figure 4.0075 in. at the section at which the moment is reduced.005 for the tensioncontrolled state is comparable to a reinforcement index wp = 0.. A minimum strain of 0. and neutral axis depth c = 5. In many cases.lin > 0.015 Net tensile strain 0. this neutral axis depth ratio should be considerably lower. This corresponds to neutral axis depth ratio c!dt = 0..4 Negative Moment Redistribution in Continuous Beams The Code permits decreasing the negative elastic moment at the supports for continuous members by not more than [1000 Btl percent.£ 15 Q) Cl . A maximum strain 0.lin. The reason is that for ductile members. to be used in computing the design strength of flexural members.46 shows the permissible moment redistribution for minimum rotational capacity.0075 in.5% redistribution. 25 r~25 C Q) E 20 0 E .90 for tensioncontrolled bending.8) = 91.46.8.02 5 0.36131 as described in the Code commentary. with a lower c!dt ratio recommended. For a useful redistribution of moment in continuous members. In this case. minimum value for inelastic redistribution to be applied. giving a 7. and 0.0075.003 (. if dt =20 in. The tensile strain at the extreme tensile reinforcement has the value B = t 0. the result is a reduction of the negative moment and a corresponding increase in the positive moment. The redistribution of the negative moment as permitted by the code can only be used when B t is equal or greater than about 0.0075 at the tensile face is comparable to the case where the reinforcement ratio for the combined prestressed and mild steel reinforcement has a reinforcement index of w not exceeding 0. Q) ~ 5 0 0 0.8% This gives a net reduction in the negative moment value = (100 . The ACI 318 Code stipulates a maximum strength reduction factor <I> = 0.01 0.375 for a strain B t = 0.lin.1) = 0.38a) As an example.24131 as an upper limit for ductile design.32131 or wT= 0.1) = 0.003 (~.003 (~t .005. plastic hinge regions develop at points of maximum moment and cause a shift in the elastic moment diagram.  1) zone 15 10 c: ctl .4.120 t:t = 0.025 t:t l l Figure 4.1 in.12 Limit State in Flexure at Ultimate Load in Bonded Members: Decompression to Ultimate Load 193 4. with a maximum of 20 percent.
44(d). 4. equating C and T.85f~. unbonded posttensioned slabs. the ACI 31805 code stipulates that a redistribution (reduction) of the moments at supports of continuous flexural members not to exceed 1000 lOt percent.12. It should be noted that the total amount of prestressed and nonprestressed reinforcement should be adequate to develop a factored load of at least 1. One can easily deduce that the compression force C can be written 0. including the trapezoidal. The behavior of the steel is assumed to be elastoplastic.aI2).. and (b) Flexural members with shear and flexural strength at least twice the load level causing the first cracking moment Mer.24131' as in previous codes.85f~ bathat is.38b) Although the code allows a maximum redistribution of 20% or 1000 St' it is more reasonable to limit the redistribution percentage to about 10. Even though several forms of stress blocks. As seen from Figure 4. a maximum allowable strain of 0. the value of a = 131c is determined by using a coefficient 131 such that the area of the equivalent rectangular block is approximately the same as that of the parabolic compressive block. Using all the preceding assumptions. This provision in ACI 318 Code is permitted to be waived for (a) Twoway. resulting in a compressive force C of essentially the same value in both cases.15 percent. The value 0. An equivalent rectangular stress block due to Whitney can be used with ease and without loss of accuracy to calculate the compressive force and hence the flexural moment strength of the section. the equilibrium Equation 4.0075 at the section for which moment is reduced. have been proposed to date.46.34.lin. with a maximum of 20 percent. Based on exhaustive experimental tests.85f~ for the average stress of the equivalent compressive block is based on the core test results of concrete in the structure at a minimum age of 28 days. But inelastic moment redistribution should only be made when St is equal or greater than 0. was adopted by the ACI as a safe limiting value.5 Nominal Moment Strength of Rectangular Sections The actual distribution of the compressive stress in a section at failure has the form of a rising parabola. as seen in Figure 4.39) A little algebra yields (4.194 Chapter 4 Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements A 20 % maximum redistribution is approximately = 0. can be rewritten as (4. as shown in Figure 4. Summarizing. the volume of the compressive block at or near the ultimate when the tension steel has yielded (Es > Ey).44(d). shear and bar cutoffs.44(c) can be redrawn as shown in Figure 4.003 in. thus. It is timeconsuming to evaluate the volume of the compressive stress block if it has a parabolic shape. the stress distribution diagram shown in Figure 4.44(c).40) The nominal moment strength is obtained by multiplying C or T by the moment arm (dp . An adjustment in one span should also be applied to all the other spans in flexure.2 times the cracking load computed on the basis of the modulus of rupture f. This limit can be represented by a reinforcement index relationship for bonded prestressed concrete members as follows: Wp + : (w p Wi) ::::. This equivalent stress block has a depth a and an average compressive strength 0. The tensile force T can be written as Apsfps. while increasing the positive midspan moment accordingly. 0.24131 (4. yielding . the simplified equivalent rectangular block is accepted as the standard in the analysis and design of reinforced concrete.
fo r rectangular sections but wit h mild tension steel and no compression steel accounted for. <I ( C c) 0.4 1(b).44) f: .(1 .4 l a) where dp is the d istance from the compression fibers to the ce nter o f the prestressed reinforce ment.59 (4. (4. The steel percentage Pp = Ap/btlp gives nom inal strength of the prestressing steel only as follows M.42a) a= 0. b If c = al f3 l> the strai n at the level of the mitd steel is (Fig. ~) (4./pt + A . bd( I  0.12 limit State In Flexure at Ultimate Load in Bonded Members: Decompression to Ultimate Load 195 Photo 4.4lc) The contribution of the mild steel tension rei nforcement should be simila rly treated.41 b becomes Mil = pp/p$ bd.4 Ib) If wp is the rei nfo rcement index: = Pp(fp//..). = f: . so that the dept h a of the compressive block is Ap.43a) or can be rewri tten as either . = .59wp) (4..4./"bd. /. Equation 4. becomes M" = pp / p. 4.(1  0.85/.bt~ I  ~) (4. Potyondy).42b) Equation 4.13 flexu ral cracks at fa ilure of prestressed T·beams (Nawy. (4.59Pp~) + P/.59.O.
48(c) and (d).0.196 Chapter 4 Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements O. the section can be treated as a flanged section as in Figure 4.1 Nominal Moment Strength of Flanged Sections.43b becomes Mn = Aps/ s ( dp p ~) + As/y(d .~) + A~ty(~  d l ) (4.48a) or .46. f.48.47) giving (4. stress.85f. or (4.45) 4.47.46) where Tp = total prestressing force = Apstps Ts = ultimate force in the nonprestressed steel =Asfy Tpw = part of the total force in the tension reinforcement required to develop the web = Apwfps Apw = total reinforcement area corresponding to the force Tpw Tpf = part of the total force in the tension reinforcement required to develop the flange = Cf = 0.ab ApI '+0 • A. (b) Strain.5.12. Taking moments about the center of gravity of the compressive block in Figure 4.bw)hf Summing up all forces in Figures 4. Tp + Ts = Tpw + Tpf (4. we obtain Tpw = Aps/ps + Ash . (c) Stresses and forces.85 t~(b .85t: (b . (a) (b) (e) Figure 4. the nominal moment strength in Equation 4.85t~ bwa Substituting in Equation 4. where w = p(f/t~).bw)hf Cw = 0.43c) The contribution from compression reinforcement can be taken into account provided it has been found to have yielded. When the compression flange thickness hf is less than the neutral axis depth c and equivalent rectangular block depth a. and forces across beam depth of rectangular section.44) where b is the section width of the compression face of the beam. (4.47 Strain. From the figure. (a) Beam section. we have (4.
0. and forces in flanged sections.12. 4.50a) ps Approximate determination is allowed by the ACI 318 building code provided that fpe = Ae < 0. h f ~m Tp T. Another method of determining whether the section can be considered flanged is to calculate the value of the equivalent rectangular block depth a from Eq.85fXb .50b) with separate equations for fps given for bonded and nonbonded members_ . Otherwise. stress. If Tp + Ts in Figure 4.85f~ (b .4. Such a procedure is required if (4. In order to determine whether the neutral axis falls outside the flange. one has to determine. 2 ~ ~ 1O.5. a= Apslps + Asly .48b) Eq. The value of the stress fps of the prestressing steel at failure is not readily available.2 Determination of Prestressing Steel Nominal Failure Stress fps. thereby determining the neutral axis depth c = a1131. (c) Web stress and forces.b.. requiring a flanged section analysis.50fpu e Aps 2: 0.45 for a beam with compression reinforcement can be rewritten to give the nominal moment strength for a flanged section where the neutral axis falls outside the flange and a > ht as follows. (d) Flange stress and force. where the total compressive force Cn is larger or smaller than the total tensile force Tn. it can be determined by strain compatibility through the various loading stages up to the limit state at failure. as discussed in Ref.12 Limit State in Flexure at Ultimate Load in Bonded Members: Decompression to Ultimate Load 197 b b .85f:~ Ec L Mn = T.2.50fpu P fpe P = (4.90 for flexure.49b) where <I> = 0. the neutral axis falls outside the flange and the section has to be treated as a flanged section. (b) Strain.48 Strain. it should be treated as a rectangular section of the width b of the compression flange.49a) The design moment in all cases would be <l>Mn (4. ) (4.bw)ht ( dp . 4.48 is larger than Ct.48b.bw)ht (4. (a) Beam section. taking moments about the center of the prestressing steel: Apwfps(dp  ~) + Asly(d Mu = dp) + 0.. However. (a) [ dpdL ~ T a Tpw Cf Ep. 4. 4. Ey Tpf (b) (e) (d) Figure 4.
0. Note that the AASHTO expressions for the ultimate design strength.000 + . 4.53) Minimum Reinforcement.90 The value of the factor 'Yp is based on the criterion that fpy = 0. For a spantodepth ratio of 35 or less. f~ 100pp (4.51 and 4. from Ref.15dp" Also.w')] should not be less than 0. If the percentage of reinforcement is too small.3. the term [pp(fp)f~) + (dJdp)(w . Figure 4.40 for fpy/fpu not less than 0. f~ 300pp (4.3. This reinforcement has to be uniformly distributed over the precompressed tensile zone as close as possible to the extreme tension fibers. as shown in Section 12.52b) where fps shall not be greater than fpy or (fpe + 30.85 = 0. the concrete section will be too weak to resist the tensile stress level after cracking and the section will behave almost as a plain section. a minimum percentage Pmin with a minimum wp min has to be observed in the design in order to prevent such a failure.12.28 for fpy/fpu not less than 0. If the compression reinforcement is taken into account when calculatingfps by Eq.{31 Pp f~ + d (w . the minimum area of bonded nonprestressed reinforcement in beams in accordance with the ACI code has to be computed as MinAs = 0.198 Chapter 4 Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements Bonded Tendons. with premature abrupt failure through rupture of the reinforcement. For a spantodepth ratio greater than 35. The empirical expression for bonded members is Yp [ fpu d fps = fpu ( 1 .90 for lowrelaxation strands. is given by wp = Apsfps fps bd f' = PPfl pee (4.000 + . The total amount of prestressed and nonprestressed reinforcement required by the ACI should not be less than that required to develop a factored moment Mu = <!>Mn such that Mu. Also.80 fpu for highstrength prestressing bars. .5Vf'c.49.004At (4.80 = 0. fps = fpe + 10.w ) p I ]) (4.::: 1. fps = fpe + 10. An exception can be made where the flexural member has shear and flexural strengths at least twice those of the factored loads in Equations 4.3 Limiting Values of the Reinforcement Index.85 for stressrelieved strands.000).52.51. 'Yp = 0.2Mcr (4.31. 4.55 for fpy/fpu not less than 0. Hence.5.000). Unbonded Tendons.51) where the reinforcement index for the compression nonprestressed reinforcement is w' = p'(fJf~).17 and d' should not be greater than 0.54b) where At is that part of the cross section between the flexural tension face and the center of gravity cgc of the gross section (in?).9. fpS' differ from Equations 4. and 0. The reinforcement index wP' a measure of the percentage of reinforcement in the section.52a) where fps shall not be greater than fpy or (fpe + 60. 4.54a) where Mer is based on a modulus of rupture fr = 7. shows seating losses for typical unbonded tendons.
500 psi = 0.OOOpsi=0.85fpu 216.85fpu Initial stress = 0.~~\o 0.5 MPa) . .80fpu 2nd pull  ~ _. 0.. ~ 174.49 Stress diagram for un bonded tendons with various values of initial stress and seating loss (100.70f u p ~ 181.720 psi = 0.\ _   199.380 psi ~ inch seating loss . 199.83' (38.788fpu 205.80f pu _<_ _ _  ¢3'\.08 ex= 1.550 psi jl=O.800 psi = 0.000 psi = 689. ..680 psi = 0.74fpu ~  212...74fpu 183.__ 229. co co .~~\oss ~ \~c" ¢3'\. &£ ·t?5 ~~¥4 tM¥Ak J3t4 gi.pt .: ¥ <t..7oopsi=0.. 189.\ A .74fpu 1st pull __ '\ \(\c" A _..000 psi = 0.762fpuI ~ >.4 m) K = 0.950 psi Initial stress = 0.85fpu 0..840 psi  164.198rad Figure 4.80fpu / L = 125.0014 .
200
Chapter 4
Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements
In twoway flat plates, where the tension stress in the concrete at service load exceeds 2~, bonded nonprestressed steel is required such that
A =s
Nc 0.5fy
(4.55a)
where fy ::; 60,000 psi Nc = tensile force in the concrete due to unfactored dead plus live loads (D + L).
In the negativemoment areas of slabs at column support, the minimum area of nonprestressed steel in each direction should be
As
=
0.00075hl
(4.55b)
where h = total slab thickness l = span length in the direction parallel to that of the reinforcement being determined. The reinforcement As has to be distributed with a slab width between lines that are 1.5h outside the faces of the column support, with at least four bars or wires to be provided in each direction and a spacing not to exceed 12 in. Maximum Reinforcement. If the percentage of reinforcement is too large, the concrete section behaves as if it were overreinforced. As a result, a nonductile failure would occur by initial crushing of the concrete at the compression fibers since the reinforcement at the tension side cannot yield first. Reinforced concrete beams always have to be designed as underreinforced with a minimum strain B t = 0.005, as discussed in Sections 4.12.3 and 4.12.4. In prestressed beams, however, it is not always possible to impose an underreinforced condition. The prestressing forces Pi and Pe at transfer and service load also control the value of the area of the tensile reinforcement needed, including the area of the nonprestressed reinforcement. Additionally, the yield strength, and in turn the yield strain value of the prestressing steel is not well defined. Consequently, the prestressed beam designed to satisfy all the serviceload requirements could behave as either underreinforced or overreinforced at the limit state of ultimateload design, particularly if it is a partially prestressed beam. In order to ensure ductility of behavior, the percentage of reinforcement should be such that the reinforcement index, wP' does not exceed 0.36131 noting that 0.32131 is comparable to 0.005 in.iin., as discussed in Section 4.12.4. The ACI Code, in an indirect measure to limit the reinforcement percentage, requires determining the tension zone in Fig. 4.45 that applies to the analyzed beam section in order to choose the applicable <l> factor for the design moment Mu' This is established by finding the ratio c!dt at the ultimate limit state, hence the controlling <l> value for Mu ,= <l> M n, where c is the depth of the the neutral axis = ail31' and a is the depth of the equivalent rectangular block. Also, M)Mer has to be ~ 1.2 in order to prevent abrupt flexure failure immediately after cracking.
0.05(f~
131
=
0.85 
 4,000) 1,000
2:
0.65
(4.56)
for a rectangular section with prestressing steel only,
fps
Wp
=
Pp
f~
:::; 0.32131
(4.57a)
for rectangular sections with tensile and compressive mild steel,
[ wp
+
~ (w  W')] :::; 0.36131
(4.57b)
4.12 Limit State in Flexure at Ultimate Load in Bonded Members: Decompression to Ultimate Load
201
where
and
A~fy
w' = bdf;
finally, for flanged sections, (4.57c) where wpw' Ww' and w~ are computed in the same manner as in Equation 4.57a, b, except that the web width bw is used in the denominators of these equations. Note that the terms wp' (wp + (d/dp)(w  w'», and (w pw + (d/dp)(w w w~) are each equal to 0.8Saldp' where a is the depth of the equivalent rectangular concrete compressive block as follows:
(a) In rectangular sections and in flanged sections in which a :5: hI'
Apsfps + Asfy  A;fy bdp 'f;
0.8Sa dp
(b) In flanged sections in which a > hI' let CF be the resultant concrete compression
force in outstanding flanges. Then,
d [ wpw + dp (w w  w w)
I]
=
[(Aps/ps  CF ) d (As fy A; fy)] bwdp/; + dp bwd' f;  bwd'
n
Aps/ps + As/y  A;fy  CF bwdpf;
(4.57d)
compression force in web
bwdpf; 0.8Sf; bwa bwdp/; 0.85a dp
An exception can be made in Equations 4.57a, b, and c, provided that the design moment strength does not exceed the moment strength based on the compression portion of the moment couple. In other words, unless a strain compatibility analysis is performed, the overreinforced prestressed beam moment strength should be determined from the empirical expression (4.58a) for rectangular sections, and (4.58b) for flanged sections. These equations can be modified as follows:
202
Chapter 4
Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements
(a) For the overreinforced rectangular section,
Mn
=
n bd~ (0.36131 
0.0813D
(4.59a)
(b) For the overreinforced flanged section,
Mn
=
t: bw tt;(0.36131  0.0813D
+ 0.85t: (b  bw)hf(dp

0.5hf )
(4.59b)
In summary, the maximum reinforcement index w to be allowed should not exceed 0.85 a/dp (or 0.85 a/dt ) in order to ensure ductile behavior through limiting the reinforcement percentage. However, the ACI 318 Code as previously discussed, indirectly stipulates limiting the reinforcement percentage by setting a <1> value in the tensile zones of Fig. 4.45 from the ddt ratio corresponding to low tensile strain at the limit state at failure.
4.12.5.4 Limit State in Flexure at Ultimate Load in Nonbonded Tendons. The discussion presented in Sections 4.12.1 and 4.12.2 defines the design and analysis process for pre tensioned beams, where the concrete is cast around the prestressed tendons, thereby achieving full bond, as well as for posttensioned beams, where the tendons are fully grouted under pressure after the tendons are prestressed. Posttensioned tendons that are not grouted or that are asphalt coated (many in the United States) are nonbonded tendons. Consequently, as the superimposed load acts on the beam, slip results between the tendons and the surrounding concrete, permitting a uniform deformation along the entire length of the prestressing tendon. As cracks develop at the critical highmoment zones, the increase in the steel tensile stress is not concentrated at the cracks, but is uniformly distributed along the freely sliding tendon. As a result, the net increase in strain and stress is less in the nonbounded case than in the case of bonded tendons as the load continues to increase to the ultimate. Hence a lesser number of cracks, but of larger width, develops in non bonded prestressing (Ref 4.4). The final stress in the prestressed tendons at ultimate load would be only slightly higher than the effective prestress tpe. In order to ensure a structure with good serviceability performance, a reasonable percentage of nonprestressed steel has to be used, within the limitations mentioned in Section 4.12.5.3. The nonprestressed reinforcement controls the flexural crack development and width, and contributes to substantially increasing the moment strength capacity Mn of the section. It undergoes a strain larger than its yield strain, since its deformation at the postelastic range has to be compatible with the deformation of the adjacent prestressing strands. Hence, the stress level in the nonprestressed steel will always be higher than its yield strength at ultimate load. Figure 4.50 shows a typical stressstrain diagram for a 270K 7wireHn. prestressing strand, while Fig. 4.51 schematically illustrates the relative stresses of the prestressed and the non prestressed steel and seating losses. From this discussion, it can be concluded that the expressions presented for the Mn calculations of the nominal moment strength for bonded beams can be equally used for nonbonded elements. Note that while it is always advisable to grout the posttensioned tendons, it is sometimes not easy to do so, as, for example, in twoway slab systems or shallowbox elements, where the concrete thickness is small. Also, consideration has to be given to the cost of pressure grouting in cases where there is a congestion of tendons. 4.13 PRELIMINARY ULTIMATELOAD DESIGN If the preliminary design starts at the ultimateload level, the required design moment Mu = <\>Mn has to be at least equal to the factored moment Mu The first trial depth has to
be based on a reasonable spantodepth ratio, with the top flange width determined by whether the beam is for residential floors or parking garages, where a doubleTsection or a hollowbox shallow section is preferable, or whether the beam is intended to support
4.13 Preliminary UltimateLoad Design
28orrrr~r__r~r__r~_r~
203
1500 210
'b x
I
'w Co
140
[ ~"diam. (12.7 mm)  7wire strand Area = 0.153 in. 2 (98.7 mm 2 ) [ ~"diam. (9.5 mm)  7wire stress relieved strand Area = 0.080 in. 2 (51.6 mm 2 ) Fracture at strain of 6%
1000
.. ...
~
en
~ ...
70
500
L~~~~~~~~~~~O
0.01
0.02
€.
0.03
0.04
0.05 .
=
strain, in./in.
Figure 4.50 strand.
Typical stressstrain relationship of 7wire 270K prestressing
a bridge deck with spacing decided by load and the number of lanes, where an Isection might be preferable. As a rule of thumb, the average depth of a prestressed beam is about 75 percent of the depth of a comparably loaded reinforced concrete beam. Another guideline for an initial trial is to use 0.6 in. of depth per foot of span. Once a firsttrial depth is chosen, a determination is made of the other geometrical properties of the section.
(b)
M
~
fpe
x 'w Co
I :g
~
~
140 120 100
> f,
fy
.... .......... (a)
40
0
nfc
0.02
Strain (in./in.)
Figure 4.51 Stressstrain diagrams for reinforcement. (a) Nonprestressed steel. (b) Prestressed steel (100,000 psi = 689.5 MPa).
204
Chapter 4
Flexural Design 01 Prestressed Concrete Elements
Assume that the center of gravity of the prestressing stcel is approximately 0.851 11 from the rniddepth of the flange. Then the lever arm of the moment couple jd =: 0.8011. Assume also that the nomin al strength of the prestressed steel is J • p area ApI o f the prestressing tendons is
A"
::
0.90 f pu' Then the
~ =M "I,, ~ $=
0.9[, "(0.801.)
(4.600)
Aps =
M" 0.72[, )'
(4.60b)
If the com pressive block depth a equals the flange thick ness hfl lhe volume of the compressive block of Figure 4.44(d) in terms of the area ba = A ; is
c=
T
From the equili brium of fo rces, C
=
O.85f; A ~
M" O.9/p.,Aps = 0.8h
=T. Hence, the area of the compression flange is
M"
=
A' =
<
Mil
0.85[;(0.81.)
0.68[;1.
(4.61 )
Once the width of the fl ange is chosen for the first trial and the beam depth is known, the web thickness can be chosen based on the shear requiremen ts to be discussed in Chapter 5. T hereafter. by trial and adjustmen t. one can select the ideal section for the particular design req uirement conditions and proceed to analyze the stresses for the serviceload condit ions.
4.14 SUMMARY STEPBYSTEP PROCEDURE FOR L1MITSTATEATFAILURE DESIGN OF THE PRESTRESSED MEMBERS
1. Determine whether or not partial prestressing is to be chosen, using an effect ive percentage of non prestressed steel. Choose a trial depth II based on ei ther 0.6 in. per ft o f span or 75 percent of the depth needed fo r reinforced concrete sections after calcu lating the required nomina l strength Mn = Mjip.
Photo 4.14
Bridge deck prestressing reinforcement set up prior to concreting.
4.14 Summary StepbyStep Procedure for limitStateatFailure Design of the Prestressed Members
205
Photo 4..15 Fullscale bridge test (Nawy, Goodkind).
2. Select a trial flange thickness such that the total concrete area o f the fla nge A ~:: MjO.68/;h, based on choosing a flan ge width dictated by planning requi rements and spacing o f beams. Choose a preliminory area of prestressing steel A,,= M,IO.72/,j" 3. Use a reasonable value for the steel stress IpI at failure for a first trial. If II"" < O.5Ipu, st rai n compatibility analysis would lhereafter be needed. Determine whether the tendons are bonded or non bonded. Use the value of the effective prestress I".. from the serviceload analysis if that design was already made. If I".. > O.5lp .. ' use the approximate values from the following applicable cases by ACI procedures:
(a) BOllded lelidoliS
,,{ I; d Ips = Ipli ( 1  i." Pp I,. + d p (w (b) NOllbofll[ed telldolls, spalildepth rmio s.35
w')
})
Ips = I".. +
10,000 +  
I;
loop p
(c) NOllbollded le"dolls, spa1l/depth "'liD > 35
Ips
=
II"" +
10,000 + 300pp
I;
Note that AAS HTO stipulates different expressions for Ips as shown in Section 12.3.3. 4. Determine whether the trial section chosen should be considered rectangular or nanged by determining the position of the neutral axis, C =alp,. If rectangular.
Ap1 Ip1 + As/,  A;fi
a=
If flanged .
a=
O.85I; b
Ap..,IpI
0.85/; b.
where Ap"'/PI = Apl/PJ + All ,  O.85I ~(b  b..,)ht 5. If h, is larger than c and a, analyze the element as a rectangular section singly or doubly reinforced.
206
Chapter 4
Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements
6. Find the reinforcement indices wP' w, and w' for the case a < hf (neutral axis within the flange; hence, use for a rectangular section). (a) Rectangular sections with prestressing steel only:
(b) Rectangular sections with compression steel in addition to nonprestressed tension steel:
wT
=
wP
+!! (w d
p
w')
If the total index in (a) or (b) is less than or equal to 0.36131, then the moment
strength is
7. Find the reinforcement indices w pw ' Ww and w ~ for the case a > hf (neutral axis outside the flange), with the total index
The indices are calculated on the basis of the web width bw . If the total index W T < 0.36131' then
where
and
If the total index W T > 0.36131' the section is overreinforced and the nominal strength
is
8. Check for the minimum required reinforcement As > 0.004A. Also, check whether Mu;::: 1.2Mcr to ensure the use of adequate nonprestressed tension steel, particularly
in non bonded tendons. 9. Select the size and spacing of the nonprestressed tension reinforcement, and compression reinforcement where applicable. 10. Verify that the design moment Mu = <!>Mn is equal to or larger than the factored moment Mu. If not, adjust the design.
4.14 Summary StepbyStep Procedure for LimitStateatFailure Design of the Prestressed Members
207
(
START
)
I
Input: Formatting type, section shape (T, I, or rectangularl, b, d, dp , f;, 'P.' 'pur fpy, 'PI' E,l Ep ,
Yes
/
,
~
J
'"
(
fpI known?
lNO
fpo ~ 0.5 fpu ?
No
Determine fpI from strain compatibility
L
I
r
Span·todepth ratio ~ 35?
~
'NO
JYes
Yes Bonded element? ~ Determine fpI
fpI
J
+ d
(ww'l ])
fpI  fpo
+ 10,000 +
,
= fpu
(
1
'Yp 13;
[fpu p P
f:
dp
1~Pp
II
fpI
= fpo + 10,000 +
3~Pp I
I
pI 80.85f:b., Ap.,f
a = AplfpI + A,fy  A; fy
0.85f:b
J
No
(
No
 0.85f:(b  b.,lhf
/
Flanged section? Yes
a Sh f ?
Yes
where:
Ap.,fpI
Design asa rectangular section
= Ap,fPI + A,fy
I
)!:..
~
L.....o
[wp.,
+ dldp(w.,
f
 w:'ll <0.36jj,?
~
~
~
[w p
+ dldp(w 
w'll <0.36/I,?
Overreinforced
M• • f:b ..d: (0.36/1,  0.0fltI~1 + 0.85 f: (b  b.,1 h f (dp  0.5h,1
Overreinforced
,
J
M.
= f:bd: (0.36jj, 
0.08/l~1
Compute
Compute
+A,fy(ddpl M.
M.Ap.,fpI(dp~)
= Ap,fPI (dp 
~)
+ A,fy
(d 
~)
+A;fy
(~
 do)
+ 0.85f., (b  b.,1 h f ( p  f ) d h 2"
where:
Ap.,fpl • Ap,fpI
+ A,fy
 0.85f:(b  b.,lh f
(
END
(
END
)
Figure 4.52 Flowchart for flexural analysis of rectangular and flanged prestressed sections based on cgs profile depth.
208
Chapter 4
Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements
(
START
Input: Formatting type, section shap~ dimensions, no. of prestressing layers, no. of nonprestressed steel layers, A., A p., d; to di , dp; to dpi' fy, fpu' fpy, f p., E., Ep., fpe' q,
l
Compute iJ l , A e, Ie'
~
,2
I
c =O.Olh
Compute strains and stresses for each of prestressed and nonprestressed steel
j I
Yes Compute resultant forces acting on the section
I
l
I <1%?
I
c = c + O.OOlh
Resultant force Comp. stress block
No
I
Yes
/
Compute for each layer
Mn = Apwfp.(dp  a/2) + A.fy(d  dp ) + 0.85f; (b  bw)h,(dp  h,/2)
J
Section flanged?
I
\ /
No
Compute for each layer
Mn = Ap.fp.(dp  a/2) + A.fy(d  a/2) + A;fy (a/2  d')
~
where
Apwfp. = Ap,fp, + A,fy  0.85f;(b  bw)h,
Expression for "a" as in Fig. 4.40
Expression for "a" as in Fig. 4.40
l
Print: (iii) Total moments Mn, Mu and rotation q,
l
~
END
(i) Prestressing steel force p., A p,' dp' fp,< and Ep. for each layer (ii) Nonprestressed steel As, d, f., and E. for each bar layer
(
Figure 4.53 Flowchart for flexural analysis of rectangular and flanged prestressed sections using compatibility analysis for individual layers of strands and bars.
4.15 UltimateStrength Design of Prestressed Simply Supported Beam by Strain Compatibility
209
A flowchart for programming the stepbystep trialandadjustment procedure in analyzing the nominal flexural strength of rectangular and flanged prestressed sections taking dp as the singlelayer cgs depth of tendon is shown in Fig. 4.52. Similarly, a flowchart for programming the nominal flexural strength of prestressed beams using straincompatibility analysis of multilayered strand depths dp to dp is given in Fig. 4.53. Both . 1 n. charts are applIcable to fully prestressed beams that use no mIld steel and that allow no tension in the concrete, as well as to "partially prestressed" beams where limited tensile stress is permitted in the concrete through the use of nonprestressed reinforcement. A computer program based on the flowcharts in the two figures can be equally used for a single effective depth dp of the cgs tendon profile.
4.15 ULTIMATESTRENGTH DESIGN OF PRESTRESSED SIMPLY
SUPPORTED BEAM BY STRAIN COMPATIBILITY
Example 4.9 Design the bonded beam in Example 4.2 by the ultimateload theory using nonprestressed reinforcement to partially carry part of the factored loads. Use strain compatibility to evaluate fps, given the modified section in Fig. 4.54 with a composite 3 in. top slab and
fpu = 270,000 psi (1,862 MPa)
fpy = 0.85fpu for stressrelieved strands fy = 60,000 psi (414 MPa)
f~ =
5,000 psi normalweight concrete (34.5 MPa)
Use 7wire !in. dia tendons. The nonprestressed partial mild steel is to be placed with a Hin. clear cover, and no compression steel is to be accounted for. No wind or earthquake is taken into consideration. Solution: From Example 4.2, Service WL = 1,100 plf (16.1 kN/m) Service W SD = 100 plf (1.46 kN/m) Assumed WD = 393 plf (5.74 kN/m) Beam span 1. Factored moment (step 1)
Wu = 1.2(WD
=
65 ft (19.8 m)
+
W SD )
+
1.6WL
= 1.2(100 + 393) + 1.6(1,100) = 2352 plf (34.4 kN/m)
The factored moment is given by
Mu = 8 =
W)2 2352(65)212
8
= 14,905,800 in.Ib (1684 kNm)
and the required nominal moment strength is
Mn =
¢
Mu
=
14,905,800 0.9 = 16,562,000 in.Ib (1871 kNm)
2. Choice of preliminary section (step 2) Assuming a depth of 0.6 in.lft of span, we can have a trial section depth h = 0.6 x 65 == 40 in. (102 cm). Then assume a mild partial steel 4 #6 = 4 x 0.44 = 1.76 in. 2 (11.4 cm2). From Equation 4.61,
l
, _ Mn _ 16,562,000 _ . 2 2 Ac  0.68f:h  0.68 X 5,000 X 40  121.8 Ill. (786 cm )
210
Chapter 4
Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements
40"
#3 closed ties 13  7 wire ~" strands
Figure 4.54
Midspan section of the beam in Example 4.9.
Assume a flange width of 18 in. Then the average flange thickness = 121.8/18 == 7.0 in. (178 mm). So suppose the web b w = 6 in. (152 mm), to be subsequently verified for shear requirements. Then from Equation 4.60b,
Mn 16,562,000 _ . 2 2 Aps = O.72/pu h 0.72 x 270,000 x 40  2.13 m. (13.3 cm ) and the number oOin. stressrelieved wire strands = 2.13/0.153 = 13.9. So try thirteen !in. tendons. Aps
=
13
X
0.153 = 1.99 in. 2 (12.8 cm2)
3. Calculate the stressJ;,s in the prestressing tendon at nominal strength using the straincompatibility approach (step 3) The geometrical properties of the trial section are very close to the assumed dimensions for the depth h and the top flange width b. Hence, use the following data for the purpose of the example:
Ae
=
377 in. 2
c, = 21.16 in.
d p = 15
+ c, = 15 + 21.16 = 36.16 in.
r2
=
187.5 in. 2
e = 15 in. at midspan
e2 = 225 in. 2
e2/r2 = 225/187.5 = 1.20
Ee = 57,000Y5,000 = 4.03
Eps = 28
X 106
X
106 psi (27.8 MPa)
X
103 MPa)
psi (193
X 1~
The maximum allowable compressive strain Ee at failure = 0.003 in.!in. Assume that the effective prestress at service load is /pe == 155,000 psi (1,069 MPa).
(a)
E)
=
Epe
=
/pe
Eps
=
155,000 .. 6 = 0.0055 m./m. 28 X 10
4.15 UltimateStrength Design of Prestressed Simply Supported Beam by Strain Compatibility
211
Pe
= 13 x 0.153 x 155,000 = 308,295 lb
The increase in prestressing steel strain as the concrete is decompressed by the increased external load (see Figure 4.3 and Equation 4.3c) is given as
E2 = Edecomp =
AcEc 1 +
Pe
2
(
r2
e
)
:6
377
X
308,295 (1 4.03 x 10
+ 1.20) = 0.0004 m·/m.
.
.
(b) Assume that the stress Ips == 205,000 psi as a first trial. Suppose the neutral axis in
side the flange is verified on the basis of hf =3 + 4h 3! 12 = 9.25 in due to the 3 in. topping. Then, from Equation 4.42a
a=0.85n b
=
Apslps
+ AsI,
1.99 x 205,000 + 1.76 x 60,000 0.85 x 5,000 x 18
6.71 in. (17 cm)
<
hf
=
8.00 in.
Hence, the equivalent compressive block is inside the flange and the section has to be treated as rectangular. Accordingly, for 5,000 psi concrete,
131 = 0.85  0.05 = 0.8
a 6.71 . ( ) c = ~ = 0.80 = 8.39 m. 22.7 cm d = 40  (1.5 + ~ in. for stirrups +
it; in. for bar) := 37.6 in.
The increment of strain due to overload to the ultimate, from Equation 4.37(c) is
E3
=
Ec
(37.68.398.39) =. 00104'm.I'm. »0.005' I'm. 0 .K. d  c) m. ( c = 0.003
and the total strain is
= 0.0055 + 0.0004 + 0.0104 = 0.0163 in./in.
From the stressstrain diagram in Figure 4.50 the Ips corresponding to Eps = 0.0163 is 230,000 psi. Second trial lor Ips value Assume Ips
=
229,000 psi 0.85 7.34
X
a = 1.99 X 229,000
+ 1.76 X 60,000 5,000 X 18
=
7.34 in., consider section as a rectangular beam.
c
E3
= 0.80 = 9.17 m.
=
.
0.003e7.69~;·17) = 0.0093
= 0.0152 in.lin. From Figure
Then the total strain is Eps = 0.0055 + 0.0004 + 0.0093 4.50,fps = 229,000 psi (1.579 MPa); use As
= 4 #6 = 1.76 in. 2
4. Available moment strength (steps 6 through 10) From Equation 4.43c, if the neutral axis were to fall within the flange,
212
Chapter 4
Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements
7.34) Mn = 1.99 x 229,000 ( 36.16  2= 14,806,017
7 4 + 1.76 x 60,000 (37.6.32)
+ 3,583,008 = 18,389,025 in.lb (2,078 kNm)
>
required Mn = 16,562,000 in.lb, O.K.
A reduction in the area of the mild steel can be made to make the section relatively more efficient since its available moment strength is about 11 % larger than the required moment. 5. Check for minimum and maximum reinforcement (steps 6 and 9) (a) MinAs=0.004A where A is the area of the part of the section between the tension face and the cgc. From the cross section of Figure 4.8,
A = 377  18 (4.125 +
Min As = 0.004
X
1.~75) 
6(21.16  5.5) == 201 in.2
201 =0.80 in. 2
As checked in the following hence, the requirement of minimum reinforcement is satisfied for the combined mild and prestressing steel. (b) The maximum steel index, from Equation 4.57b, is
wp
< 1.76 used, O.K. for nonprestressed reinforcement. Example 4.10, Mu = 0.90 X 18,389 in.lb > 1.2 Mer;
+ d (w p
d,
W ) ::;
0.36~1
<
0.29 for
~1
_

0.80
and the actual total reinforcement index is
WT
= 18
1.99 X 229,000 37.6 ( 1.76 X 60,000 ) X 36.16 X 5,000 + 36.16 18 X 37.6 X 5,000
= 0.14 + 0.03 = 0.17
<
0.29,O.K.
Alternatively, the ACI Code limit strain provisions as given in Fig. 4.45 do not prescribe a maximum percentage of reinforcement. They require that a check be made of the strain £1' at the level of the extreme tensile reinforcement to determine whether the beam is in the tensile, the transition, or the compression zone, for verifying the appropriate <1> value. In this case, for c = 9.17 and d, = 37.6 in., and from similar triangles in the strain distribution across the beam depth,
£,
= 0.003 x (37.6  9.17)/9.17 = 0.0093>0.005.
Hence the beam is in the tensile zone, with <1> = 0.90 as used in the solution and the design is O.K. 6. Choice of section for ultimate load (step 11) From steps 15 of the design, the section in Example 4.2 with the modifications shown in Fig. 4.54 has the nominal moment strength Mn that can carry the factored load, provided that four #6 nonprestressed bars are used at the tension side as a partially prestressed section. So one can adopt the section for flexure, as it also satisfies the serviceload flexural stress requirements both at midspan and at the support. Note that the section could only develop the required nominal strength Mn = 16,562,000 in.lb by the addition of the nonprestressed bars at the tension face to resist part of the total required moment strength. Note also that this section is adequate with a concrete f~ = 5,000 psi, while the section in Example 4.2 has to have f~ = 6,000 psi strength in order not to exceed the allowable serviceload concrete stresses. Hence, ultimateload computations are necessary in prestressed concrete design to ensure that the constructed elements can carry all the factored load and are thus an integral part of the total design.
4.16 STRENGTH DESIGN OF BONDED PRESTRESSED BEAM USING APPROXIMATE PROCEDURES
Example 4.10 Design the beam in Example 4.9 as a partially prestressed beam using the ACI approximate procedures if permissible. Use the exact standard section used in Example 4.2 with (a)
4.16 Strength Design of Bonded Prestressed Beam Using Approximate Procedures
213
bonded prestressing steel, and (b) nonbonded prestressing steel. Neglect the contribution of the compressive non prestressed steel. Solution: 1. Section properties (steps 1 and 2) The width of the top flange in Example 4.2 is b = 18 in., and its average thickness from Figure 4.8 is
hf
= 42 + "2 = 6.25 III
1
3~
.
Try four #6 (four 12.7 mm dia) nonprestressed tension steel bars in this cycle in addition to the prestressing reinforcement. 2. Stressjps in prestressing steel at nominal strength (step 3) From Example 4.9,
fpe == 155,000 psi 0.5fpu = 0.50
X
270,000 = 135,000 psi
fpe> 0.5fpu
Hence, one can use the ACI approximate procedure for determining fps.
(A) BONDED CASE
If the position of the neutral axis is not known, analyze as a rectangular section as follows: From Equation 4.51,
fps =fpu(l ;:[pp;;
+
~ (w  WI)])
fpy 229,500 fpu = 270,000 = 0.85, use 'Yp = 0.40
Aps = 13 X 0.153 = 1.99 in2 As
=4
X
0.44
= 1.76 in2
Aps 1.99 Pp = bdp = 18 X 36.16 = 0.0031 As
W
= bd
X
f: =
fy
18
1.76 X 37.6
X
60,000 5,000 = 0.0312
Forw' =0, 0.40[ 270,000 fps = 270,000 ( 1  0.80 0.0031 X 5,000
+ 36.16 (0.0312)
37.6
])
= 270,000
1.99
a =
X
= 242,190 psi (1,670 MPa) 242,190 + 1.76 X 60,000 .
X
0.897
X
0.85
5,000
X
18
= 7.68 III > hf = 6.25 in
Hence, the neutral axis is outside the flange, and analysis has to be based on a Tsection. Using in such a case the web width b w •
Aps
Pp = bwdp = 6
As
X
1.99 36.16 = 0.0092
Ww = bwd fps
=
X
f: =
fy
6
X
1.76 37.6
X
60,000 5,000 = 0.0936
X
0.40 [ 270,000 ( 1  0.80 0.0092
270,000 5,000
+ 36.16(0.0936  0)
37.6
])
214
Chapter 4
Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements
= 189,793 psi (1,309 MPa)
Apwfps = Aps/ps + As/y  0.85f:(b  bw)hf
= 1.99
x 189,793 + 1.76 x 60,000  0.85 x 5,000(18  6)
318,750 .
x 6.25 = 377,688 + 105,600 a = 0.85
= 164,538lb
164,538 x 5,000
x 6 = 6.45 Ill. (16.4 cm)
3. Available nominal moment strength (steps 48)
Mn = Apwfps( dp =
~) + As/y(d 
dp) + 0.85f:(b  bw)hf ( dp  ; )
164,538 (36.16  6.;5) + 1.76(60,000)(37.6  36.16) 6.25) . + 0.85 (5,000)(18  6) x 6.25 ( 36.16  2 = 16,071,226 lll.lb
(1,816 kNm) < required Mn = 16,562,000 in.lb (1871 kNm), hence the section is inadequate. Proceed to another trial and adjustment cycle using more non prestressed reinforcement. Try four #8 bars (four 25 mm dia), As = 3.16 in. 2 (25 cm2). We have
Ww
3.16 60,000 = 6 x 37.6 x 5,000 = 0.17
givingfps = 179,068 psi and Ap,Jps = 227,195lb (1010 kN). So
a = 0.85
227,195 x 5,000
x6
=
. 8.9 Ill. (22.6 cm)
Mn = 227,195 (36.16  8:)
+ 3.16(60,000)(37.6  36.16)
6.25) + 0.85(5,000)(18  6) x 6.25 ( 36.16  2
= 18,007,283 in.lb (2035 kNm) > Required Mn = 16,562,000 in.lb, O.K.
Hence, use four #8 nonprestressed bars at the bottom fibers, and adopt the design for the bonded case.
(B) NONBONDED CASE
SpantoDepth ratio Hence, from Equation 4.52a, fps
=
=
65:a 12 = 19.5 < 35
x 1.99/(6 x 36.16)
5,000
f: fpe + 10,000 + 100p
p
=
155,000 + 10,000 + 100
= 170,451 psi (1,175 MPa)
Notice that b w = 6 in. is used here for Pp' since it is now known that the section behaves like aTbeam, as the neutral axis is below the flange. Thus, fps
=
170,451 psi (1,175 MPa)
1. Selection of nonprestressed steel Try four #8 nonprestressed tension reinforcements to resist part of the factored moment:
4.16 Strength Design of Bonded Prestressed Beam Using Approximate Procedures
215
Pboto 4.16
A,
Diaphragm anchorage.
=4
x 0.79
= 3.16 in 2 ( 19.8cm2)
A,.,/,.. =
1.99
x 170,451 + 3. 16 x 6O.<XXl  0.85 x 5.00)( 18  6)6.25
= 21O,047 Ib
Q ""
A"..,/,.. 210,047 . 0.85/;1>.. "" 0.85 x 5.000 x 6 = 8.24 m. (20.9 em)
2. A vail able moment streng1b (steps 48)
From Equation 4.48. Avatlable
.
M~
"" 2 10.047 36. 16 
(8.24) + 2
3. 16
x 60,000( 37.6  36. 16)
+ 0.85 x 5.000{18  6) x 6.25 x (36. 16 _
= 17,537.057 in .lb (1981 kNm)
6~5)
> Req. Mn ""
16,562.000 in .lb, O. K.
(e) CfI £CK FOR REINFORCEMENT LIMITS
I. Minimum reinroreemenl
From Equation 4.25. the cracking mo me nt. Me, is given by
Me. "" /,S/> +
p~ (e + ::)
From Example 4.2. /. "" 7.5 V 5,000 "" 530.3 psi (3.7 MPa). So since SI>:' 3,750 in.l, e:: 15 in.. ,lIe/> = 187.5118.84 '" 9.95 in., and P, = 308.255 Ib (1.371 kN). we get
Me. = 530.3 x 3.750
+ 308.295(15 + 9.95)
=0
= 9,680.585 in.lb ( 1,090 kNm)
1.2Mct = 1.2 x 9.680,585
11.616.702 in.lb ( 1.3 13 kNm)
216
Chapter 4
Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements
Mu = <j>Mn = 0.90 x 18,026,667
= 16,224,000 in.lb (1,833 kNm)
Finally, from Equation 4.54a,
Mu> 1.2Mcr Hence, the requirement for minimum reinforcement is satisfied for both the nonbonded and the bonded case.
2. Maximum reinforcement index Max. allow.
wp
= 0.36~1 = 0.36 x 0.80 = 0.288 = 0.85a/dp = 0.85 X 8.9 = O. 209 < 0.288, O.K. 36.16
(Bt =0.005 in.!in. minimum strain is comparable to 0.32~1)
F rom E q.. 5 7 d ' 4 , maXImum total w
Alternatively, the ACI Code limit strain provisions as given in Fig. 4.45 do not prescribe a maximum percentage of reinforcement. They require that a check be made of the strain lOp at the level of the extreme tensile reinforcement to determine whether the beam is in the tensile, the transition, or the compression zone, for verifying the appropriate <I> value. In this case, for c = a/I3I = 8.9/0.80 = 11.1 and and dt = 37.6 in., and from similar triangles in the strain distribution across the beam depth,
lOt
= 0.003 x (37.6 11.1) / 11.6 = 0.0072>0.005.
Hence the beam is in the tensile zone, with <I> = 0.90 as used in the solution and the design is O.K. Accordingly, adopt the design that uses the concrete section in Example 4.2 and include four #8 nonprestressed steel bars at the tension side. Note that the moment strength capacity of the nonbonded section for the same area of non prestressed steel is less than the moment strength capacity of the bonded section, which is expected.
If f~ = 6,000 psi would have been used in the strength design in this example, as it was in the serviceload design of this section in Example 4.2, less mild steel reinforcement would have been needed.
4.17 SI FLEXURAL DESIGN EXPRESSION
f~i
= 0.8f~
= 0.60f~i
fei fti
= ~Vfl (midspan)
= ~~ (support)
= 0.45f~ due to prestress + sustained load fe = 0.6n due to prestress + total load if it includes transient load
fe
Stress at transfer
(4.1a)
(4.16)
(4.2a)
4.17 81 Flexural Design Expression
217
fb Service load final stress
=  Ae
Pe
(
1
+7
eCb)
+ Sb
MD
:5
fe
(4.2b)
(4.3a) (4.3b) (4.3c) ( 4.4a) (4.4b) (4.5c)
(4.6)
(4.23)
Unshored case
(4.19a) (4.19b)
Shored case
(4.22a) (4.22b) Equation 4.51 for bonded tendons
_ ( 'Yp [ fpu d fps  fpu 1  131 Pp f ~ + d (w  w ) p
I
])
MPa
where 'Yp = 0.55 for fp/fpu = 0.40 for fp/fpu = 0.28 for fp/fpu
~
0.80 0.85 ~ 0.90
~
Equation 4.52 for nonbonded tendons
218
Chapter 4
Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements
i~
ips = ipe ips = ipe
+ 70 + 100p MPa for depth ::::; 35
p
span
+ 70 + 300p MPa for depth > 35
p
i;
span
MPa (lb) 4.448 (psi) 0.006895 (lb/ft) 14.593 (in.lb) 0.113 1 Kg force
= = =
N/mm2 N MPa
=
106 N/m2
= N/m = Nm
=
9.806 N
4.17.1 51 Flexural Design of Prestressed Beams
Example 4.11
Solve Example 4.10 using SI units. Tendons are bonded. Data:
Ae
=
5045 cm2
X
b = 45.7 cm
b w = 15.2 cm
Ie = 7.04
106 cm4 d = 32.5 cm
r
Cb
=
1,394 cm2 84.2 cm 78,707 cm
3 3
= 89.4 cm
= =
ee
Sb
WD
ee
SI
= =
60.4 cm 216,210 cm 3
WL
= 11.9 X 10 kN/m
WSD
= 1,459 N/m
=
= 16.1 kN/m
1= 19.8 m
f: = 34.5 MPa
fpu = 1,860 MPa
fpi
1,300 MPa
fpy = 1,580 MPa fy = 414 MPa
Prestress loss 'Y = 18%
Aps = 13 tendons, diameter 12.7 mm (Aps = 99 min 2)
= 13
X
99 = 1,287 mm2
X
Required Mn = 16.5
Solution:
106 in.lb = 1871 kNm
1. Section properties (Steps 1 and 2) Flange width b = 18 in. = 45.7 cm Average thickness hf = 4.5 +!(3.5) == 6.25 in. = 15.7 cm Try 4 No. 20 M mild steel bars for partial prestressing (diameter = 19.5 mm, As = 300
mm2 ).
As
=
4 X 300
=
1,200 mm2
2. Stress fps in prestressing steel at nominal strength and neutral axis position (Step 3)
fpe = "'Ifpi = 0.82 X 1,300 == 1,066 MPa Verify Neutral Axis Position
If outside flange, its depth has to be greater than a = Apwfp/0.85f~b w 0.5fpu = 0.50 x 1,860 = 930 MPa < 1,066, hence, one can use ACI approximate procedure for determiningfps' From equation 4.51,
"'Ip [ fpu d fps = fpu ( 1  ~ Pp f: + d (w  w ) p
I
])
4.5 X (45. a= Apwfps 0.375. Available nominal moment strength (Step 48) WT = wp + W = 0. . 4. ddt = alf31dt = 15.40 [ 1860 955 ]) 1.5 + 918 X 0.2 = 106(96. use 'Yp = 0. 3.5(45. and thus OK for the chosen reinforcement.7 .24 X 10'\91.14 34.2)15.85 X 34.2)15.5 MPa.91.85 X 34.1) = 1.6 + 1.5 cm 219 F = 1 860 = 0.240 kN 1.860 ( 1 .K.0.5 = 0.5 .7( 91.1.580 Aps 1.173 < 0. AVailable Mn = 27 7) 1.bw)hf Apwfps = 1.033 = 1. the beam is in the tensile zone of Fig.90 for determining the design moment Mu as assumed.85f: b w where Apwfps = ApJps + AJy  0.7 X 15.8 .+ 1.166 kNm > Required Mn = 1871 kNm hence.0.15.7 X 102 = 106(2.14 + 0. d = 37.4.80 0.40 Jpu . hence.2) Ncm = 2. hence.47a.7 cm Hence neutral axis is outside the flange and analysis has to be based on aTsection.00275 X 34.6 in.45 and did not exceed the maximum permissible reinforcement.17 81 Flexural Design Expression dp = 36.033 fy 414 w' = 0 For f~ fps = = 34.8 +.5 .15.7/(0. fpy 1.80 0.200 p = bd = 457 X 955 = 0.2) X 102 +0.8) 15. Hence.200 X 414(95.7 .240 X 10 a = 0.287 X 1.674 MPa From Equation 4. section is O.2. = 95. the ACI Code.674 + 1. O.00275 wp = bd p Aps As X f' = 0.36fjJ.00306 c fps X 1.83 + 118.85f~ (b .8 cm.200 X 414 .85 X 34.674 5 = 0.14) N = 1. w = bd X 1i = 0. maximum reinforcement index W is satisfied.00306 X .K.8) = <0.80 x 91.033 = 0. Alternatively.7 cm > hf = 15.85. = 91. fjl = 0.287 Pp = bd = 457 X 918 = 0.15 + 0. allowing <I> = 0.00306 p As 1.2 = 24.860(1 . .0.16 in.
"Anchorage Zone Stresses of Posttensioned Prestressed Beams Subjected to Shear Forces.C. AZ. W. Precast and Prestressed Concrete. 4. G." Journal of the American Concrete Institute. London. pp.... and Mattock. Washington. Boca Raton.." Journal of the Prestressed Concrete Institute Chicago.. P. 4. and Mitchell.23 Baker. 2008. E.: AASHTO.W. 1981. 3rd Ed. V.20 Marshall. Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. Galambos. Limit State Design of Prestressed Concrete. C. and Sozen. J. New York. Prestressed Concrete Designer's Handbook. 4.. G. Upper Saddle River. Vol. New Brunswick. H. McGregor.8 Nawy.11 Nawy. NJ: 2009. ASCE 108 (1982): 978997.. American Concrete Institute. No. E.. 4. Washington. G.18 Abeles.3 Nawy. H. pp. ANSIASCE 795..220 Chapter 4 Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements SELECTED REFERENCES 4.22 Gergely. London: Concrete Publications.7 Yong. "Moment Rotation.. .6 Nawy.. December 1985. 20062009. 4. 6th Ed..1995. NJ. N. 1982.5 PostTensioning Institute. 4. and BardhanRoy. CRC Press.21 Ezeldin. Rutgers University. G. L. Design of Prestressed Concrete Structures. Vol. Y.14 Lin. "Control of Horizontal Cracking in the Ends of Pretensioned Prestressed Concrete Girders.10 Gerwick B.13 Nilson. PostTensioning Manual. Phoenix." Engineering Research Bulletin No.15 Naaman. D. Upper Saddle River. 214. 1972. Prentice Hall. August 1997. D." Journal of the Prestressed Concrete Institute 7 (1962): 5674. A. 113. 4. and Balaguru. c. T. 4. 4. Y.2008. L.16 Federal Highway Administration. MI.. 4. John Wiley & Sons. 2006. H. D. Farmington Hills. E..1 ACI Committee 318. T. 1999." Paper presented at the First Canadian Conference on Computer Applications in Civil Engineering. G.. Supplements. A.156.. 4." Journal of the Prestressed Concrete Institute 12 (1967): 6375.C." Journal of the Prestressed Concrete Institute 25. 4. Gadebeku. AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges. K. "Flexural Design Equations for Prestressed Concrete Members. "Design of Anchorage Zone Reinforcement in Prestressed Concrete Beams. Prentice Hall.17 Collins. and Bums. Reinforced ConcreteA Fundamental Approach.J. Prestressed Concrete Analysis and Design. Prestressed Concrete Structures. 1766 p. Canada. B. P. pp. P. P. Viewpoint Publications. 4. J. New York..25 American National Standards Institute. 51. FL. 4. 465 4. "Longitudinal Crack in Prestressed Box Beam.. K. E." Journal of the Prestressed Concrete Institute 14 (1969): 6271. McGraw Hill." Journal of the Structural Division. Cracking. A. P. 936. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 31808) and Commentary. N. A. 4. (1969): 3842." Journal of the Prestressed Concrete Institute 22 (1977): 3047.8. T. 1970. 1981. 1991. C.Feb. RD95180.9 Prestressed Concrete Institute. 1956. August 1987. PCI Design Handbook. E. 4. "Probability Based Load Criteria: Load Factors and Load Combinations... and Nawy. 4. A. 17891805. M. pp.: Bureau of Engineering Research. Hamilton. MacMaster University. T. and Chiang. 4. 890900. 5th ed. and Goodkind. I." ASCE Structural Division Journal. H. pp. G. G. E. G. and Potyondy. 4. 4. "Serviceability Behavior of PostTensioned Beams. A. John Wiley & Sons. "Flexural Cracking Behavior of Pretensioned and PostTensioned BeamsThe State of the Art.. Ontario. The Ultimate Load Theory Applied to the Design of Reinforcement and Prestressed Concrete Frames.. "Crack and Deflection Control of Pre tensioned Prestressed Beams. Prestressed Concrete Institute. 4. "Analysis of Partially Prestressed Beams for Strength and Serviceability Using Microcomputers. J.. Y. B. "Optimized Sections for High Strength Concrete Bridge Girders. E. 197.19 Guyon. May 1986. and Huang. E. 4. Chicago. and Cornell. 3d ed. 6th Ed.24 Ellingwood. Design of Section. and Deflection of Spirally Bound Pretensioned Prestressed Concrete Beams. A. M.." FHWA Publication No. 4.. ACI 318R08. pp. pp.4 Nawy. 18th Ed. N. Y. Construction of Prestressed Concrete Structures. G.2 Nawy.12 American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. 1980: 7485. Chicago Jan. New York.
Design the anchorage zone reinforcement by the strutandtie method. and Wollman. Fundamentals of High Performance Concrete. 2nd Edition.95 kN/m) and a sustained service live load of 1." NCHRP Report 356. 2008. Sanders. G. "Cracking of ConcreteACI and CEB Approaches.. 77.. Nawy. E. Transportation Research Board..5 MPa) normalweight concrete 3.5 MPa) normalweight concrete for topping = 3. pp.2h.27 221 4. CRC Press. G.30 4. D.1 cm) concrete topping. and Gadebeku.000 psi (34. Boca Raton.31 4. Assume that the sectional properties are b = O. including the anchorage zone reinforcement and arrangement of strands for (a) straighttendon case.40b.000 psi (20.C. and sketch the reinforcing details including the anchorage zone strands. G." Proceedings. American Concrete Institute. "Design of PostTensioned Girder Anchorage Zones.. Washington. hf = 0. Use the appropriate percentage of nonprestressed mild steel for partial prestressing behavior at the limit state at failure. Also. International Conference on Advances in Concrete Technology.862 MPa) with a total prestress loss of 20 percent. Y.Problems 4. a pre tensioned symmetrical Isection beam to carry a sustained superimposed dead load of 750 plf (10. D.3 A doubleT pre tensioned roof beam is shown in Figure P4. ed. 1992. Malhotra.6 m) and carries superimposed service live and dead loads of 60 psf (2.. Burdet.5h.. PROBLEMS 4.2 Solve Problem 4. pp 203242." Proceedings of the International Conference on Structural Mechanics of Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete.. It has a simple span of 74 ft (22. 2001. V.90 kN/m) on a 50 ft (15.. Nawy. W. Farmington Hills. 1560. 4. draw the distribution of stresses for the various loading stages in your solution. Assume total prestress losses of 22 percent. f~i . 4.000 psi (1. Chinese Academy of Sciences.79 in. It also carries a 2in. "Anchorage Zone Stresses of PostTensioned Prestressed Beams. CANMET/ACI. 1996. John Wiley and Sons. J.5 X 106 psi (196 X 103 MPa) f: f. FL. Design the prestressing reinforcement and the appropriate eccentricities using 270grade prestressing strands (fpu = 1. K. Nawy E.500 psi (24. Breen J. "Control of Deflection in Concrete Structures.3. 4.000 psi.873 Pa. and (b) a harped tendon at the third span points with end eccentricity zero.862 MPa) 28 X Eps = 106 psi (193 X 103 MPa) f~ = f~ 5. E.204 p.. 460 pp. Use strain compatibility to determine the value of the tendon stress fps at nominal strength.1 Design. G. and Breen.862 MPa) Eps = 28.32 c.2 m) simply supported span. 1994. Nawy. 1995.26 Stone.7 MPa) normalweight concrete = 4. ACI Committee 435. E. 1986. using the following data: fpu = 270. Nawy. New York.1 if the beam is posttensioned bonded and the tendon is draped. Assume the strands to be harped at midspan. Farmington Hills. 2nd ed.29 4.1 MPa) 12 f~i = = Vii assuming deflection is not critical Sketch the design details. "Anchorage Zone Reinforcement for Posttensioned Concrete Girders. editorinchief. E.28 4. E." Journal of the Prestressed Concrete Institute 29 (1984): 64109. for serviceload and ultimateload conditions." ACI Committee Report. G.. MI. G. Sept. c. (5.000 psi (34. Roberts. pp... Nanjing Institute of Technology.000 psi VIS = 1. B. K. = 5. E. WSD part of load = 25 psf). M. 0.. Concrete Construction Engineering Handbook 2nd ed. stressrelieved strands (1. and b w = 0.500 plf (21. The following data are given: fpu = 270. Yong. Chairman.
4 if the draped tendons are nonbonded. 3. Assume the section to be constant throughout the span.4 A bridge girder has a simple span of 55 ft (16. 10.21 in.140 in? 591 plf 71.658 cm2) 55.222 Chapter 4 Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements 8'O"~ 7~" L Tl 2" 32" i Figure P4.71 in. 3 6. Sb S' WD 4. find the stressfps at nominal strength by (a) the ACI approximate procedure.000 psi (34. Design the section as a posttensioned bonded beam using an AASHTO standard section with parabolically draped tendons.4 23.952 in? 791 plf c. 4 21.8 m). and compare the two solutions.000 psi (27.464 in.5 MPa) normalweight concrete 3. situcast slab over the precast section and the following data: Beams spaced at 7' 6" c. and detail all the reinforcement including the anchorage zone steel and the non prestressed tensile steel. Design the anchorage zone reinforcement by the strutandtie method and compare the results with those obtained using the linear elastic analysis approach.7 MPa) normalweight concrete 4.5 Solve problem 4.000 psi stress relieved (1.34 in. 2 (3. for the limit state at failure analysis.615 in? 5. ee = 17. 4. Assume a 7 in. to c. fpu = 270. It is subjected to a total superimposed service load of 4.79 in.3 DoubleT cross section. Assume a total prestress loss of 20 percent. and (b) strain compatibility.862 MPa) Eps = 28 X 106 psi (193 x 103 MPa) f: = slab f: = f:i = 5. 2.038 in. and. Assume the tendons are harped at midspan.600 plf (67.66 in. Use the tieandstrut method to design the anchorage zone reinforcement.886 in. 10.6 MPa) Design the bridge section as unshored for serviceload and ultimateload conditions. .2 kN/m). Untopped Topped Ae Ie Cb 567 in.000 psi (20.
New York Office of General Services. Notice the curvelinea r plane of twist depicting torsional fai lure ca used by the imposed torsional moments. Such a stress can result in principal tensile stresses at the critical section which can exceed the tensile strength of the concre te. Albany. the shearing stresses in regular beams are ca used.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter presents procedures fo r the design of prestressed concrete sections to resist shear and torsional forces resulting from ex ternally applied loads. As will be discussed in subsequent sections. New York. Si nce the strengt h of concrete in tension is considerably lower than its stre ngth in compression. Ammann & Whilncy design.SHEAR AND TORSIONAL STRENGTH DESIGN 5. but by a combination of exte rnal Empire State Performing Arts Cenler. prestressed concrete shell ring. (Courtesy. not by direct shear or pure torsion. design fo r shea r and torsion becomes of major importance in alllypcs of concrete st ruct ures. The behavior of prestressed concrete beams at failu re in shea r o r combi ned shear and torsion is distinctly d i(ferenl from their behavio r in fl exure: They fail abruptly without sufficien t advance warning. Both shear and torsional forces result in shear stress. and the diagonal cracks that develop are considerably wider than the fl ex ural cracks.) 223 . Photos in th is chapter show typical beam shear failu re and torsion fail ure.
Al and A2 of a rectangular beam in Figure 5...1(b) shows the bending stress and shear stress distributions across the depth of the section. Figure 5.1) and v== VAy Ib VQ Ib (5. From the principles of classical mechanics.1(a) made of homogeneous.. Cross section Bending stress distribution (b) Shear stress distribution Figure 5.2 BEHAVIOR OF HOMOGENEOUS BEAMS IN SHEAR Consider the two infinitesimal elements.A.l!81 . Examples of such cases are corbels or brackets involving direct shear. the normal stress f and the shear stress v for element At can be written as f= My I (5. 5.+ Neutral axis \ f. in the member. or flexural shear stresses.. . This leads to diagonal tension. and linearly elastic material.1 Stress distribution for a typical homogeneous rectangular beam.. isotropic.224 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design loads and moments. or a cantilever balcony involving essentially a direct twist on the supporting beam.f'.. Only in special applications in certain structural systems are direct shear or pure torsion applied. The tensile normal stress It and the shear stress v are the values in element At across plane aCal at a distance y from the neutral axis. (a) :..2) where M and V = bending moment and shear force at section aCal A = crosssectional area of the section at the plane passing through the centroid of element Al 8  N.
(d) Mohr's circle representation. _ ++ . T • f+_ f.2 Stress state in elements AI and A:z.lcloo<. .xlmLim sherltrett.' She. 1111111 v f.tress. r ~.) .~tOt/ C = __ I___ I. element A:z.".1 I 1 Princ:iPlII_ile ItrHS.. (Test by Nawy ct al.5. vi M. (b) Mohr's circle representation.2 Behavior 01 Homogeneous Beams in Shear 225 Photo 5. /I Principal comprettive stress. A. element At. . Pt. Coordllllle:s II" vI I "~d Ibi Figure 5. v Plloe y Coordinates 10.r SlreU.1 Typical diagonal tension (Ocxurc shellr) fai lure III rupture load level. (c) Stress state in element ~. .. Normll. (a) Stress state in element AI. I.
V4 j _ .226 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design v .: (c) t I y x t A2 Shear stress.3a) (S.3b) fc(max)  principal compression and !tI2 v (S. 't(max) Figure 5. 'e(max) (d) I Principal tensile stress.3c) .2(b). V 'rN_~_+Ot~~____ ~_f_e.2 shows the internal stresses acting on the infinitesimal elements Al and A 2• Using Mohr's circle in Figure S..2 Continued y = distance from the element to the neutral axis y = distance from the centroid of A to the neutral axis I = moment of inertia of the cross section Q = statical moment of the crosssectional area above or below that level about the neutral axis b = width of the beam Figure S. the principal stresses for element Al in the tensile zone below the neutral axis become ft(max)  _ It + "2 _ It "2 )(1t)2 + v2 "2 )(1t)2 + v2 "2 tan 26 max = principal tension (S. v Plane x Coordinates ('e' v) Principal compressive stress.
2 Simply supported beam prior to developing diagonal tension crack in flexu re shear (load stage II). II Photo 5. The compression stress Ie in e lement A2 of Figure 5.3 Behavior of Concrete Beams as Nonhomogeneous Sections 227 Photo 5. as the maximum principal stress in thc elemen t is in com pression. hence ~.) 5.2(b) above the neutral axis prevents crack ing. the maximum principal stress is in tension. (Test by Nawy el al.3 Principal diagonal tension crack at failure of beam in the preceding photograph (load stage 12). For element At below the neutral axis. .3 BEHAVIOR OF CONCRETE BEAMS AS NONHOMOGENEOUS SECTIONS The behavior of reinfo rced and prestressed concrete beams differs from that of steel beams in that the tensile strength of concrete is about onetenth of its strength in compression.5..
V(fc/2)2 + v 2 principal tension principal compression (5.4c) . It is this diagonal tension stress that causes the inclined cracks. the inclined cracks develop as an extension of the flexural crack and are termed flexure shear cracks. As one moves toward the support.3b.4a) (5. diagonal cracking develops along planes perpendicular to the planes of principal tensile stresshence the term diagonal tension cracks. accompanied by a corresponding increase in the shear stress. To prevent such cracks from openings.4 CONCRETE BEAMS WITHOUT DIAGONAL TENSION REINFORCEMENT In regions of large bending moments.3. cracks develop almost perpendicular to the axis of the beam. Definitive understanding of the correct shear mechanism in reinforced concrete is still incomplete.2( c) and (d).3 Trajectories of principal stresses in a homogeneous isotropic beam. is assumed equal to zero. Solid lines are tensile trajectories. 5. special diagonal tension reinforcement has to be provided. From Figures 5. would be equal to the shear stress v on a 45° plane. and the principal tensile stress.4b) fc(max) = 2 and v tan 26 max = fc/ 2 (5. Figure 5.228 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design Figure 5.3. If it close to the support of Figure 5. the section is mostly in compression at service load. The principal stress it(max) in tension acts at an approximately 45° plane to the normal at sections close to the support. as seen in Figure 5. Because of the low tensile strength of concrete. the bending moment and hence it decreases. the element becomes nearly in a state of pure shear. the principal stresses for element A2 would be ft(max) = ~ + V(fcl2l + v ~ . cracking ensues. using Equation 5. In regions of high shear due to the diagonal tension. In prestressed beams. the approach of ACIASCE Joint Committee 426 gives a systematic empirical correlation of the basic concepts developed from extensive test results.4 portrays the types of cracks expected in a reinforced concrete beam with or without adequate diagonal tension reinforcement. dashed lines are compressive trajectories. These cracks are called flexural cracks. However.
5. This type of behavior gives ample warning of the imminence of collapse of the beam. and in excess of 16 for distributed loading. the stronger the tendency toward flexural behavior.4. The more slender the beam. as seen from the following discussion. additional cracks develop in the central region of the span and the initial cracks widen and extend deeper toward the neutral axis and beyond.5(b) and 5. as seen in Figure 5.5 demonstrates schematically the failure patterns for the different slenderness ratio limits. failure occurs in a ductile manner by initial yielding of the main longitudinal flexural reinforcement. followed by the destruction of the bond between the reinforcing steel and the surrounding concrete at the support. cracks are mainly vertical in the middle third of the beam span and perpendicular to the lines of principal stress.4 Crack categories. 5.5 for the case of concentrated loading. one of the diagonal cracks widens into a principal diagonal tension crack and extends to the top compression fibers of the beam.3 Diagonal Tension Failure [Flexure Shear. The shear spantodepth ratio is of intermediate magnitude.4 Concrete Beams Without Diagonal Tension Reinforcement External load 229 Simple and end support Continuous support Web Web Flexural and flexure~hear shear (OT) Flexural and flexureshear shear (OT) Figure 5. diagonal tension failure. Cracking starts with the development of a few fine vertical flexural cracks at midspan. two or three diagonal cracks develop at about 1~d to 2d distance from the face of the support in the case of reinforced concrete beams. Such beams can be considered of intermediate slenderness.5 and 5. and shear compression failure (web shear). a few very fine vertical cracks start to develop in the midspan area at about 50 percent of the failure load in flexure. As the external load increases. For distributed loads. that is. These cracks result from a very small shear stress v and a dominant flexural stress fwhich results in an almost horizontal principal stress h(max)' In such a failure mode. and usually at about a quarter of the span in the case of prestressed concrete beams. its shear spantodepth ratio.1 Modes of Failure of Beams Without Diagonal Tension Reinforcement The slenderness of the beam. The shear spantodepth ratio for this behavior exceeds a value of 5.5 in the case of concentrated loading. varying between 2. determines the failure mode of the beam. The shear span a for concentrated load is the distance between the point of application of the load and the face of support. As they stabilize. . Fundamentally.5(c). the shear span Ie is the clear beam span. Figure 5. 5.4. 5.2 Flexural Failure [F] In the region of flexural failure. If the beam is underreinforced. with a marked increase in the deflection of the beam. Thereafter.4. three modes of failure or their combinations occur: flexural failure. FS] Diagonal tension failure precipitates if the strength of the beam in diagonal tension is lower than its strength in flexure. without ample warning of impending failure.
depending on the magnitude of the prestressing force and the variation in its eccentricity. which has relatively small deflection at failure. (b) Diagonal tension failure (flexure shear). in addition to the vertical compression force of the beam reaction at the supports.5 Failure patterns as a function of beam slenderness. (c) Shear compression failure (web shear). In sum. It is best termed flexure shear in the case of prestressed beams. and noted by a combination of flexural and diagonal cracks. the critical location of the maximum principal stress in tension is not.1 (b) p d 1+. This is the reason why the stabilized diagonal crack is located further into the span. taking into account the balancing contribution of the vertical component of the prestressing force. the diagonal tension failure is the result of the combination of the flexural and shear stresses. discussed next. (a) Flexural failure. Notice that the flexural cracks do not propagate to the neutral axis in this essentially brittle failure mode.230 p Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design 1~·~8~~ d (a) p 1 8 d Ie f/.1 I e (e) Figure 5. Although the maximum external shear is at the support. with an average value of about onequarter of the span in flanged prestressed beams. and is more common to account for than web shear. . It is considerably reduced at that section because of the high compression force of the prestressing tendon.
a few fi ne nexura l cracks start to develop at midspa n and stop propagati ng as destruction of the bond occurs between the longi tudinal bars and the surro unding concrete at the support region. WS] Beams Ihat are most subject 10 shear compression fail ure have a small spanIodept h ra tio o f magnitude 2. Thereafter.5 fo r the case o f concen trated loading and less than 5.4.0 for distributed loading.5. 5. an incli ned crack steepe r than in the diagonal tension case sudden ly deve lops and proceeds to propagate towa rd the neu tral axis. The rate of its progress is reduced with the crushing of the con Photo 5.4 Shcar fa ilure in prestresscd Ibeam (Nawy et ol.4 Shear Compression Failure [Web Shear. As in the d iagonaltcnsion case.5 Installation of precast prestressed doubleT noor beams in a multinoor office structure. .).4 Concrete Beams Without Diagonal Tension Reinforcement 23' Photo S.
one cannot expect that a stabilized failure diagonal crack occurs at both ends of the beam. The vertical component of the prestressing tendon force reduces the vertical shear caused by the external transverse load.4. because of these properties. even in cases of straight tendons. the compressive force of the prestressing tendon.232 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design (a) (b) (c) Figure 5. Yet it is. It should be emphasized that most failures tend to occur by diagonal tension. The distribution of the maximum horizontal shearing stress in an uncracked flanged section is shown in Figure 5. The shearcompression type of failure. 5. This type of failure in prestressed beams can be better described as webshear failure. (b) Beam cross section. A concrete beam or element is not homogeneous. a check of the capacity of the section at critical locations along the span becomes necessary. so that the extent and magnitude of flexural cracking in prestressed members are reduced. Hence.5 SHEAR AND PRINCIPAL STRESSES IN PRESTRESSED BEAMS As mentioned in Section 5. in fact. considerably reduces the effect of the tensile flexural stresses. and the strength of the concrete throughout the span is subject to a normally distributed variation. and such a design should be avoided completely.6. which is a combination of flexure and shear effects. crete in the top compression fibers and a redistribution of stresses within the top region. This type of failure can be considered relatively less brittle than the diagonal tension failure due to the stress redistribution. with the resulting crushing of the top compressive area of the concrete and failure to resist the flexural forces. It is important to evaluate both the flexureshear capacity and the webshear capacity of each critical section in order to determine which type predominates in determining the shear strength of the concrete section. leads to separation of the tension flange from the web in the flanged section as the inclined crack extends towards the support. (c) Shear stress. Also.5(c). Crushing of the web of the section causes the beam to resemble a tied arch. particularly for webshear failure. flexure shear in prestressed concrete beams includes the effect of the externally applied compressive prestressing force that the reinforced concrete beam does not have. and the net transverse load to which a beam is subjected is markedly less in prestressed than in reinforced concrete beams. as illustrated in Figure 5. Sudden failure takes place as the principal inclined crack dynamically joins the crushed concrete zone. As a . a brittle type of failure with limited warning. overlapping combinations of flexurediagonal tension failure and diagonal tensionshear compression failure can occur at overlapping shear spantodepth ratios. Additionally. brittle failure of horizontal members can be eliminated with little additional cost.6 Maximum horizontal shear stress distribution across depth. Because of the abrupt change of section width at the corner A. If the appropriate amount of shear reinforcement is provided. (a) Beam elevation.
7 illustrates the contributions of the vertical component of the tendon force in counterbalancing part or most of the vertical shear V caused by the external transverse load.3 and 5.5) From Equation 5.7) and the principal tensile stress.5. The inclined stabilized crack at a distance d/2 from a flexural crack that develops at the first cracking load in flexure shear is shown in Figure 5.2. result. If the effective depth is dp ' the depth from the compression fibers to the . 5.Ie Ie (5. Consequently.8.5 Shear and Principal Stresses In Prestressed Beams 233 w wItt (a) (b) + (e) (d) Figure 5.5. it is necessary to determine whether flexure shear or web shear controls the choice of concrete shear strength Ve. all else being equal. (d) Internal shear vector V due to external load Won infinitesimal element dx. (c) Internal shear vector Vp due to prestressing force P on infinitesimal element dx.7 Balancing load to counteract vertical shear.1 FlexureShear Strength [Vc. the net unit shearing stress v at any depth of the cross section is VeQ ve=V. the basic equations developed for prestressed concrete in shear are identical to those developed for reinforced concrete and described in detail in Refs. (b) Beam with draped tendon.+  e Pe Peec MTc =f .4a. Figure 5. (a) Beam with harped tendon.8) 5. The net shearing force Ve carried by the concrete is (5. = . is (5. the shear forces and the resulting principal stresses in a prestressed beam are considerably lower than those same forces and stresses in reinforced concrete beams.] To design for shear.Ae . (5. from Equation 5.4.6) The compressive fiberstress distribution Ie due to the external bending moment is t.
6b wdp ~ is needed to fully develop the inclined crack in Figure 5. (a) Crack pattern and types.5).8 (Ref.234 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design (a) (b) (e) Figure 5.8 is . Hence. (b) Shear diagram due to external load with frictional shear force Vcr ordinate at section 2. Extensive experimental tests indicate that an additional vertical shear force of magnitude O.9a) or v= M/V .9b) where V is the shear at the section under consideration. (c) Moment diagram with first cracking moment Mcrordinate at section 2. the total vertical shear acting at plane 2 of Figure 5. centroid of the longitudinal prestressed reinforcement. 5. the change in moment between sections 2 and 3 is Vdp MM cr =2 (5.8 Flexureshear crack development.dp/2 (5.
11) :5 5. i. is given by (5.0 for normalweight concrete = = Vd = V ei = 0.5. This is because design for shear is based on the limit state at failure due to factored loads.10 is given in Figure 5. 5.:. ~ = fe/6. psi Yt = distance from centroidal axis to extreme fibers in tension.0~ v'jj bwdp where ~ = 1. the same design stipulations used for precast sections apply. Compare this plot with an analogous one in Figure 6..7 ~ if the value of the tensile splitting strength fet is known.6b wdp V f: + Vd p (5. Although the entire composite section resists the factored shear as a monolithic section.12 are calculated using the precast section geometry. Note that in shear design of composite sections. Sb may be substituted for Ijyl' A plot of Equation 5. fee is termed as fpe where fee = concrete compressive stress due to effective prestress after losses at extreme fibers of section where tensile stress is caused by external load.10.6 of Ref. Note that the value ~ should not exceed 100. At the centroid. calculation of the shear strength Ve should be based on the properties of the precast section since most of the shear strength is provided by the web of the precast section.12) In the ACI code.e.10) where Vd is the vertical shear due to selfweight.3 for reinforced concrete where an asymptotic horizontal value of shear is achieved along the span.5 Shear and Principal Stresses In Prestressed Beams 235 Mer • r.85 for sandlightweight concrete 0.75 for alllightweight concrete shear force at section due to unfactored dead load nominal shear strength provided by the concrete when diagonal tension cracking results from combined vertical shear and moment Vi = factored shear force at section due to externally applied load occurring simultaneously with Mmax' For lightweight concrete. V ei = 0. psi. fee and fd in Equation 5.9 with experimental data from Ref. fee = Ie fd = stress due to unfactored dead load at extreme fiber of section resulting from selfweight only where tensile stress is caused by externally applied load.6~ v'jj bwdp + Vd + ~(Mer) 2: 1.10 is the factored shear force Vi at the section under consideration due to externally applied loads occurring simultaneously with the maximum moment Mmax occurring at that section.6. The vertical component Vp of the prestressing force is disregarded in Equation 5.7~ v'jj bwdp Mmax (5. The value of V in Equation 5. . 5. The equation for Mer> the moment causing flexural cracking due to external load. Vei = M/V _ d /2 + 0. and Mer = that portion of the applied live load moment that causes cracking. Consequently. since it is small along the span sections where the prestressing tendon is not too steep. For simplicity.
+ 0. :.. = 3. • • . ~ .SVjJ (VI + !cI3.8.1:.13 gives Vew = f:Vl + !cIf: (S. :..14(a) becomes Vew = 3..f~ is termedfpe' The notation used herein is intended to emphasize that this is the stress in the concrete. as extensive tests to failure have indicated.. • o 234 Me. 5..236 9 8 7 6 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design • • • • Ve .9 Momentshear relationship in flexureshear cracking. ...5 Vf~) (S..14a) Using f. . If vew is substituted for ve and 10' which denotes the concrete stress fe due to effective prestress at the cgc level.2 WebShear Strength [Vew] The webshear crack in the prestressed beam is caused by an indeterminate stress that can best be evaluated by calculating the principal tensile stress at the critical plane from Equation 5.5.. as a reasonable value of the tensile stress on the basis of extensive tests.31e (S.14c) In the ACI code.. Equation S.Vd 5 b'dv'f: 4 3 2 . . is substituted for fe in the equation.. The nominal shear strength Vew provided by the concrete when diagonal cracking results from excessive principal tensile stress in the web becomes .l 6 (~  ~) bwdv'f: Figure 5. and not the prestressing steel.14b) which can be further simplified to Vew = 3..S vii. Solving for vew in Equation 5.. . The shear stress ve can be defined as the web shear stress vew and is maximum near the centroid cgc of the section where the actual diagonal crack develops.S vii. .... .13) where vew = Vew/(bwd p) is the shear stress in the concrete due to all loads causing a nominal strength vertical shear force Vew in the web.. the expression equating the principal tensile stress in the concrete to the direct tensile strength becomes (S.
(Eq. In case of composite sections.. and less for lightweight concrete d p == distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of prestressed steel.0.5.15.3 in the second term inside the bracket in Equation 5.15) where Vp == the vertical component of the effective prestress at the particular section contributing to added nominal strength 'A = 1. The code also allows using a value of 1.6'11.0 instead of 0.16) ::::. 3. A plot relating the nominal web shear stress Vew to the centroidal compressive stress in the concrete is given in Figure 5. whichever is greater._.5 Shear and Principal Stresses In Prestressed Beams 237 (5. and Vew for the Determination of Web Concrete Strength Ve The ACI code has the following additional stipulations for calculating Ve.10 Centroidal compressive stress vs. Note the similarity between the plots of Equations 5. Vjj bwd p p (5. a reduced prestressed value has to be considered when computing V ew ..14b and c.31. or 0.8h. .~. V1'c + 700 ~:p }wd ~ 2'11.r.5y'f Vcw vt: 6 5 .5. and Vew in order to choose the required value of Ve in the design: (a) In pre tensioned members where the section at a distance hl2 from the face of the support is closer to the end of the member than the transfer length of the prestressing tendon...". Vjj bwdp 10r.__.10.'" . nominal shear stress in webshear cracking. vcw = + _'_c] 3.5vt: 8 7 [j. 5. 9 Vcw = 3. The ACI code stipulates the value of Ie to be the resultant concrete compressive stress at either the centroid of the section or the junction of the web and the flange when the centroid lies within the flange.14c) 3 2 o 18 Figure 5.0 for normalweight concrete. showing that the approximation used in the latter linearized equation is justified. This value of Vew has to be taken as the maximum limit of Ve in the expression Vew = (0.5vt: + 0. 5'11. 5.=\ '"X .3 Controlling Values of Ve. Ie is calculated on the basis of stresses caused by prestress and moments resisted by the precast member acting alone.
1 Web Steel Planar Truss Analogy In order to prevent diagonal cracks from developing in prestressed members. unless a more detailed analysis is performed using Equations 5. T b . force Tb is the tensile force increment of the main longitudinal tension bar.16 or with the lesser of the two values of Vc obtained from Equations 5. Force Cc is the compression in the simulated concrete strut.11 for Vci and 5. It carries a portion of the external factored shear force Vu' 2. and Ts is the force in the bent bar. with the forces polygon having a vertical tensile force Ts instead of the inclined one in Figure 5. steel reinforcement has to be provided. The mode of failure in shear reduces the beam to a simulated arched section in compression at the top and tied at the bottom by the longitudinal beam tension bars. as seen in Figure 5. ideally in the form of the solid lines depicting tensile stress trajectories in Figure 5.6 WEBSHEAR REINFORCEMENT 5. It restricts the growth of the diagonal cracks. Also.15 for Vcw and choosing the lesser of these two as the limiting Vc value to be used as the capacity of the web in designing the web reinforcement. (5. the nominal shear resistance of the plain web concrete. 5. a reduced prestress has to be considered when computing Vc in accordance with Equation 5. with the polygon of forces Cc. whether due to flexureshear or webshear action. the shear reinforcement basically performs four main functions: 1.16 can be used in determining Vc for members where the effective prestress force is not less than 40 percent of the tensile strength of the flexural reinforcement. hence.15.6. and other forms of reinforcement are improvised to neutralize the tensile stresses at the critical shear failure planes. As can be seen from the previous discussion. However. is less than the nominal total vertical shearing force Vj<l> = Vn> web reinforcement has to be provided to carry the difference in the two values.16.6.11(c). If one isolates the main concrete compression element shown in Figure 5. 3.0.2 Web Steel Resistance If V c. practical considerations preclude such a solution.11(c).12(a) shows the analogy truss for the case of using vertical stirrups instead of inclined bars. it can be considered as the compression member of a triangular truss. and Ts representing the forces acting on the truss membershence the expression truss analogy.238 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design the value VudplMu cannot exceed 1. Figure 5. (b) In pretensioned members where bonding of some tendons does not extend to the end of the member. (d) The first plane for the total required nominal shear strength Vn = Vj<l> to be used for web steel calculation is also at a distance hl2 from the face of the support. It holds the longitudinal main reinforcing bars in place so that they can provide the dowel capacity needed to carry the flexural load. It provides some confinement to the concrete in the compression zone if the stirrups are in the form of closed ties. 5. (c) Equation 5.17) .11 and 5.11(b).11(a). as shown in Figure 5.3. the value of Vcw calculated using the reduced prestress must consequently be taken to be the maximum limit of Equation 5. 4.
18c) .) (S. (a) Failure pattern. becomes Ts Sl Ts ns Vs 1 sin 0/.lS. Here. then Sl = jd(cot 0/.5. where Sl = ns. Vc is the lesser of Vci and Vcw' Vc can be calculated from Equation S.J ~~ (b) ~ T. and Vs can be determined from equilibrium analysis of the bar forces in the analogous triangular truss cell.18a and b. d(cot 13 + cot 0/.Tb (a) _ _ _ _ '7=i.11 Diagonal tension failure mechanism. (c) Planar truss analogy. t. From Figure S.18a) where Ts is the force resultant of all web stirrups across the diagonal crack plane and n is the number of spacings s.6 WebShear Reinforcement 239 ___ C Main tension reinforcement ~=~rt::m~~~:LJT'""~""" . If Sl = ns in the bottom tension chord of the analogous truss cell.18b) Assuming that moment arm jd = d.11 or S. + cot 13) (S. (S.11(c). ex j (e) Figure 5. (b) Concrete simulated strut.V. the stirrup force per unit length from Equations S.
(c) Spacing of web steel. (b) Threedimensional view of vertical stirrups. . spacing) (e) Figure 5. (a) Truss analogy for vertical stirrups.240 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design Top compression cord Vertical stirrups (a) (b) Potential diagonal tension cracks Potential diagonal tension crack T d T ~ ~~~~~~~~~~1(Max.12 Web steel arrangement.
24 in. giving v='. (b) If Vs > 4Xbwdp' the maximum spacing in (a) shall be reduced by half. dp is the distance from the extreme compression fibers to the centroid of the prestressing reinforcement.19b) But it can be assumed that in the case of diagonal tension failure the compression diagonal makes an angle 13 = 45° with the horizontal.5.19b becomes V.6.ll(c).21a) (5..VJ. =  Avfyt d (sin a s + cos a) (5.Vc (sin a + cos a) (5. enlarge the section. maximum spacing limitations are to be applied for the vertical stirrups as follows: (a) Smax $.1' 1yt (5. where h is the total depth of the section. then v.~h $. = Avfyt sin a ::5 3. so Equation 5... 5. The value of dp need not be less than 0. In order for every potential diagonal crack to be resisted by a vertical stirrup. (c) If Vs > 8Xbwdp.6 WebShear Reinforcement 241 If there are n inclined stirrups within the length S1 of the analogous truss chord.0ylj.20 and 5. bwd If vertical stirrups are used. nAv = d· a (cot sm V.. or =  Avfytd [sin a(l s + cot a)] V. as shown in Figure 5. then (5..80h.21 give an inverse relationship between the spacing of the stirrups and the shear force or shear stress they resist.19a) Hence.20a) or. solving for s and using the fact that Vs = Vn . and d is the corresponding distance to the centroid of the nonprestressed reinforcement. angle a becomes 90°. and if Av is the area of one inclined stirrup.:. s S or Avfytdp (5.3 Limitation on Size and Spacing of Stirrups Equations 5. vIi'c vIi'c . with the spacing s decreasing with the increase in (Vn .21b) In Equations 5.V c' s Avfyt d = Vn . ns 13 + cot a ).20b) If the inclined web steel consists of a single bar or a single group of bars all bent at the same distance from the face of the support.21a and b.
s SOb.22b) which gives a lesser required minimum A v . b. This means that the stirrups or mesh should extend to the compression and tension surfaces of the section. Vn = . 5..7S Y f...whichever larger yt yt ~ . The shaded area is the envelope of excess shear Vs requiring web steel. A typical qualitative diagram showing the zone along the span of a uniformly loaded prestressed beam for which web reinforcement has to be provided is given in Figure S.. (S.22a) If the effective prestress force P e is equal to or greater than 40 percent of the tensile strength of the flexural reinforcement.1 ServiceLoad Level The maximum horizontal shear stress vh can be evaluated from the basic principles of mechanics and the equation ..242 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design <t.7._:)UPIPOn: face ~oHalfspan'~ I Figure 5. (d) If Vu = <I> Vn >~<I> V c' a minimum area of shear reinforcement has to be provided.7 HORIZONTAL SHEAR STRENGTH IN COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION Full transfer of horizontal shear forces has to be assumed at the contact surfaces of the interconnected elements.!!. may be used instead. 80fy dp \j h:.!. (e) The web reinforcement must develop the full required development length in order to be effective. envelope V I I 4l I ~_..13 Web steel envelope for uniformly loaded prestressed beam. less the clear concrete cover requirement and a 90° or 13So hook used at the compression side.13. the equation A v = Apsfpu s (J. This area may be computed by the equation Av = 0. 5.s (S. or Av = f. f.:.
26a) where Ae is the area of concrete resisting shear = bydpe . but the contact surface of the precast element is intentionally roughened. and minimum vertical steel in (b) is provided.75. in terms of the nominal vertical shear strength V IV V h n = . use (5..7. or width of section at which horizontal shear is being calculated. use (5.23) where V = unfactored design vertical shear acting on the composite section Q = moment of area about cgc of the segment above or below cgc Ie = moment of inertia of entire composite section by = contact width of precast section web.7 Horizontal Shear Strength in Composite Construction 243 Vh= VQ Ieby (5.24 can be modified such that the factored load Vu can be substituted for V to give (5. use V nh :::5 80b y dpe (c) If the contact surface of the precast element is roughened to a full amplitude of hn. In the limit state at failure. 5. has to be used: (a) When no vertical ties are provided.25c) The ACI code limits vnh to 80 psi if no dowels or vertical ties are provided and the contact surface is roughened.s)ljy.23 can be simplified to Vh =  V by d pe (5. with the following assumptions. V nh and the total nominal shear strength is (5.=  Vu/<I> by dpe Vn by d pe (5. Equation 5.25a) or. (b) When minimum vertical ties are provided.. In this case. but the contact surface of precast elements is not roughened. If V nh is the nominal horizontal shear strength.24) where dpe is the effective depth from the extreme compression fibers of the composite section to the centroid cgs of the prestressing reinforcement. otherwise the friction theory.26b) (d) If the factored shear Vu > <1>(500 bydp). Vnh can go up to 500 psi. where Ay = 50(b". the shear friction theory can be used to design the dowel reinforcement. Equation 5. then Vu::.5. all horizontal shear has to be taken by ties in the pependicular plane such that . or if minimum vertical ties are provided but there is no roughening of the surface of contact.25b) where <I> = 0.2 UltimateLoad Level Direct Method.
The maximum allowable spacing of the dowels or ties for horizontal shear is the smaller of four times the least dimension of the supported section and 24 inches . the shear friction theory is not normally necessary in designing the dowel reinforcement for composite action. Atop = • T Case 1 T Case 2 T L.0x. the shear stress vnh resulting from the factored shear force does not exceed 500 psi.244 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design Vnh = IJAvt/yt (5. 2 fy = design yield strength.27) where AVJ = area of shearfriction reinforcement.. in..85f:"A top C = total compressive force Case 1: C<Cc Fh = C = T Case 2: C> Cc Fh = Cc T= total tensile force = A. 0.f ~ast (b) T c ~f~ Figure 5. Note that in most cases.L.fps f. A. 800 Ace> where Ace is the concrete contact area resisting shear transfer. or A p . = factor for type of concrete. (b) Negativemoment section.20f~ Ace::. the nominal shear strength Vn ::.000 psi f.1 = coefficient of friction = 1. not to exceed 60.14 Composite action forces (Fh acts longitudinally along the beam span)./.f.f.60X.c = compressive strength of the topping Fh = nominal horizontal shear force (a) <T Situcast / T Dowel _+I~ A. .J effective area of the cast·in·place composite topping Cc = compressive force capacity of the composite topping = O... for concrete placed against intentionally roughened concrete surface = 0. (a) Positivemoment section. for concrete placed against unroughened concrete surface X. .. Hence. or Ap. In all cases.
31a) with a required area of shearfriction steel of (5. Basic Method.1 is the coefficient of friction.000h2 Ace (5.1e = 2. and is at least equal to the compressive force C or tensile force Tin Figure 5. The areaofcontact surface Ace is substituted for bvdpc in Equations 5.28) where V nh ~ Fh . whichever is less.h Simple span member • Continuous member Figure 5. multiple leg stirrups. 0.7. 5. respectively.14.7). The ACI code allows an alternative method wherein horizontal shear is investigated by computing the actual change in compressive or tensile force in any plane and transferring that force as horizontal shear to the supporting elements.1 are based on a limit shearfriction strength of 800 psi.29) where lvh is the horizontal shear length defined in Figures 5.30) The ACI values of f. and a maximum design shear force Vu ::::.0h.15(a) and (b) for simple span and continuous span members.1 = 1. 5.7 Horizontal Shear Strength in Composite Construction 245 Jr_ _ll II J[ I ~I Moment diagram « 2~.) The value of the contact area Ace can be defined as (5. 5.25b and c to give (5. a maximum f.30 for the value of Fh.9 instead of f. The Prestressed Concrete Institute (Ref.. then the nominal horizontal shear force Fh in Figure 5.5. or vertical legs of welded wire fabric. If f. the horizontal shear force. for concrete placed against an intentionally roughened concrete surface. The spacing cannot exceed four times the least dimension of the support element or 24 in. 1.3 Design of CompositeAction Dowel Reinforcement Ties for horizontal shear may consist of single bars or wires.8) recommends.14 can be defined as (5. (See Equation 5.15 Horizontal shear length in composite action. a quite conservative value as demonstrated by extensive testing (Ref.31b) .25h 2f~ Ac ::::.
3].SA vFc + 0.32) with f. If the average tensile splitting strength fet is specified for lightweight concrete.60A V f~ + • r. (b) Detailed analysis where Ve is the lesser of Vci and Vew Vci Vew = 0. whichever is larger. <I> = 0.8h.7S.0 and Vu is calculated at the same section for which Mu is calculated.40 fpu Ve = ( 0. Calculate the nominal shear strength Ve that the web has by one of the following two methods.60A V'jJ bwdp + Vd + = :i max (Mer ):2: 1. SA ~bwdp and where V ud/Mu:5.fd) or Mer = Sb (6A ~ + fee .7A V'jJ bwdp :5 S. 700Vu dp ) Mu bwdp where 2A ~bwdp :5.7~ with ~ not to exceed a value of 100.9 where bJvh = Aee' The minimum reinforcement is (S.Jb wdp + Vp using dp or 0. Determine the required nominal shear strength value Vn = VJ<I> at a distance hl2 from the face of the support. fee becomes for the stress at the centroid of the section.fd) Vi = factored shear force at section due to externally applied loads occurring simultaneously with Mmax fee = compressive stress in concrete after occurrence of all losses at extreme fibers of section where external load causes tension.31c becomes Fh :5 f.8 WEB REINFORCEMENT DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR SHEAR The following is a summary of a recommended sequence of design steps: 1.1efyt (S. (a) ACI conservative method if fpe > 0. Equation S. 1.OA V'jJ bwdt (3.33) 5.246 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design or Vnh A f =v f.000A2 bv1vh Fh :5 2.31c) Using the PCl less conservative values. Ie . and where Mer = (Ijyt) (6A ~ + fee .1efy Fh f. then A = fj6.1e = 1. 2.1eAvtfyt :5 Vnh (S.:. V e :5.
5.8 Web Reinforcement Design Procedure for Shear
247
3. If V)<!> :s;~ V c' no web steel is needed. If Vj<!> >~Vc < VC' provide minimum reinforcement. If V)<!> > Vc and Vs = V)<!>  Vc :s; 8A. Vf::bwdp, design the web steel. If
Vs = V)<!>  V c > 8A. fwdp, or if Vu > <!>(Vc + 8A. yljibwdp), enlarge the section. 4. Calculate the required minimum web reinforcement. The spacing is s:S; 0.75h or 24 in., whichever is smaller.
Vi'c
Min.
If fpe
~
Av
=
• r,:; bwS 0.75 y f; F Jyt
or Av
=
50bwS
I'
Jyt
whichever is larger.
0.40 fpu' a less conservative Min Av is the smaller of
A v
=
ApJpus (d; 80fy dp\j h:,
where d p ~ 0.80h, and
yt 5. Calculsue the required web reinforcement size and spacing. If Vs = (Vj<!>  VJ :s; 4A. V bwdp, then the stirrup spacing s is as required by the design expressions in step 6, to follow. If Vs = (V)<!>  VJ > 4A. yIji bwdp' then the stirrup spacing s is half the spacing required by the design expressions in step 6. Av
=
50b w yt or Av s/f
=
0.75
• r,:; bws
y
f;
I
n
6.
s
Avlyd p
= ()
Av<!>fydp
=
V u<!>  Vc
Vu  <!>Vc
:S
0.75h
:S
24 in.
2:
minimum s from step 4
7. Draw the shear envelope over the beam span, and mark the band requiring web steel. 8. Sketch the size and distribution of web stirrups along the span using #3 or #4size stirrups as preferable, but no larger size than #6 stirrups. 9. Design the vertical dowel reinforcement in cases of composite sections. (a) V nh :s; 80b vdpc for both roughened contact and no vertical ties or dowels, and nonroughened but with minimum vertical ties, use
50bws 50bvlvh fyt fyt (b) Vnh:S 500b vdpc for a roughened contact surface with full amplitude ~ in. (c) For cases where V nh > 500b vd pc' design vertical ties for V nh = Av[fy /1, where Av[ = area of frictional steel dowels /1 = coefficient of friction = l.0A. for intentionally roughened surface, where A. = l.0 for normalweight concrete. In all cases, Vn :s; V nh :s; 0.2f~ Acc :s; 800 Ace' where Acc = b)vh'
=
Av
An alternative method of determining the dowel reinforcement area Av[ is by computing the horizontal force Fh at the concrete contact surface such that
Fh
:S
/1e Av[ fy
:S
V nh
where
Figure 5.16 outlines the foregoing steps in flowchart form.
248
Chapter 5
Shear and Torsional Strength Design
START
)
FYI fpel 'PUI
L Given:
A = 1 for normal concrete, 0.S5 for sandlightweight concrete, 0.75 for all·lightweight concrete
b W1 dp , h,
f;, A,
t
VuJ
l
</>=0.75
Detailed design method dp = dp or dp = O.Sh, whichever is larger. Ve lesser of Vc; = O.SA Jt;bwdp M '
~
cwp
OAfpu
t t<
I
A = 1 for normal concrete, 0.S5 for sandlightweight concrete, 0.75 for all·lightweight concrete
fp.?
~
Alternative design method
dp =dpor dp = O.8h whichever is larger
Ve = bwdp O.SA
~
dp Jr! + 700 ""'ii;' ) Vu fe
+
Vd
+ V;Me, > 1 ]A../fib d
mox
~ 2)" Jt;bwdp :5 5A v!f;bwdp
Vudp :51.0 Mu
and
Vew = (3.5A Jt; + 0.3t.)b wdp
Mu = IelV, (SA Jt; + fee  'd)
,
A
b
+
Vp
Ves
t
Vul<i>';:;~Ve?
Next section
No web steel
l
Given 5
Use min req'd web steel
Ves
\
J
Vul</>';:;Ve?
fl
No
5
l
Enlarge section lves
J
Vs
=

Vu </>
 V e
>SAvt;bwdp Or
J
:5 0.75h ::;; 24 in.,
Select web steel compute (A,)m;n = 50b"slfy If fpo ~ 0.40fpu ' A (,)m;n  SO( dApsfpu S
J No
A,f",dp = (Vul<i> Ve) ::;; 0.75h ::;;24 in.
~
min. req. 5
'" p or (A,)m;n = 50b"slf"" whichever is smaller, where dp
~
w A, = 0.75vt; b"slf",
O.SOh
LJ
No
orA,=
(Vul</>  Ve )· ~ (A,. .)min fytdp
(
Next section
,
J
Vu V =   Ve >4Avt;b w dp , </>
~
I
IUse
5
=
512 for same
A, computed above
(
Figure 5.16
1
END
)
Flowchart for shearweb reinforcement
5.9 Principal Tensile Stresses in Flanged Sections and Design of DowelAction Vertical Steel
249
5.9 PRINCIPAL TENSILE STRESSES IN FLANGED SECTIONS AND DESIGN
OF DOWELACTION VERTICAL STEEL IN COMPOSITE SECTIONS
Example 5.1 A prestressed concrete T beam section has the distribution of compressive service load shown in Figure 5.17. The unfactored design external vertical shear V = 120,000 lb (554 kN), and the factored vertical shear Vu = 190,000 lb (845 kN).
(a) Compute the principal tensile stress at the centroidal cgc axis and at the reentrant cor
ner A of the webflange junction, and calculate the maximum horizontal shearing stresses at service load for these locations. (b) Compute the required nominal horizontal shear strength at the interaction surface AA between the precast web and the situcast flange, and design the necessary vertical ties or dowels to prevent fracture slip at AA, thereby ensuring complete composite action. Use the ACI direct method, and assume that the contact surface is intentionally roughened. Given data are as follows:
f: for web = 6,000 psi normalweight concrete f: for flange = 3,000 psi normalweight concrete
fyt
=
fy
=
60,000 psi
Effective width of flange bm = 60 in. (152.4 em) where bm is the modified width to account for the difference in moduli of the concrete of the precast and topping parts.
Solution:
ServiceLoad Horizontal Shear Stresses.
The maximum horizontal shear stress is
Now,
QA = 60 X 12(19.32  6) = 9,590 in.3 (157,172 cm3)
Qcgc
= 60
X
12(19.32  6) +
12
X
(7.32? 2
= 9,912 in. 3 (162,429 cm3)
So the horizontal shear stresses at service load are
Situ·cast 1350 psi
''I.~
..... 2160
1831
.......
..... 235 psi
1i243
~
II
I
A. = 1296 in? I. = 408.240 in~
Compressive stress f.
Horizontal shear
stress
vh
Figure 5.17
Beam cross section in Example 5.1.
250
Chapter 5
Shear and Torsional Strength Design
Vh
120,000 x 9590 . at A = 408,240 x 12 = 235 pSI (1.6 MPa)
and
Vh
at cgc =
120,000 X 9,912 . 408,240 x 12 = 243 pSI (1.7 MPa)
From Equation 5.13, the corresponding principal tensile stresses are, at A,
2,160)2 ( 2and at cgc,
+ (23s?  2 = 25 psi (111 Pa)
2,160
Ii =
1,831)2 1,831 ( 2 + (243)2  2 = 32 psi (221 Pa)
Thus, the principal tensile stresses are low and should not cause any cracking at service load. The horizontal shear stress v h = 235 psi at contact surface AA has to be checked to verify whether it is within acceptable limits. In accordance with AASHTO, the maximum allowed is 160 psi < 235 psi, and hence special provision for added vertical ties or dowels has to be made if AASHTO requirements are applicable.
Dowel Reinforcement Design
Vu = 190,0001b
Req. V nh = bv
=
Vu
<l>
=   5  = 253,333 lb (1126 kN)
190,000
0.7
12 in. (30.5 cm
dpc = 57 in. (145 cm)
From Equation 5.26b, Available V nh = 500b vdpc = 500
X
12
X
57 = 342,000 lb (1520 kN)
> 253,3331b
Hence, specify roughening the contact surface of the precast web fully to Hn. amplitude. From Equation 5.22 (a), 0.75Vjj mm umt.
= 0.75V6000 = 58 > 50, use 58 in the expression.
. Av _ 58b v _ 58 X 12 _ . 2'   j  6 00  0.0116 m. 1m. along span zvh yt 0,0
So using #3 vertical stirrups, Av = 2 x 0.11 = 0.22 in. 2, and s = 0.22/0.0116 = 18.9 in. (48 cm) center to center < 24 in., O.K. Verticalweb steel reinforcement for shear in the web would most probably require smaller spacing. Hence, extend all web stirrups into the situcast top slab.
5.10 DOWEL STEEL DESIGN FOR COMPOSITE ACTION
Example 5.2 Using (a) the ACI friction coefficient and (b) the PCI friction coefficient, design the dowel reinforcement of Example 5.1 for full composite action by the alternative method, assuming a simply supported beam of effective 65 ft (19.8 m) span. Solution: From Figures 5.14 and 5.17,
Atop
= 60 X 12 = 720 in 2 (4,645 cm2)
0.85/~cAtop
Cc =
= 0.85
X
3,000
X
720 = 1,836,000 lb (8,167 kN)
5.11 Dowel Reinforcement Design for Composite Action in an Inverted T Beam
251
Assume ApJps > Ce, since the prestressing force is not given. Then
Ph = 1,836,000 lb I
vh 
 65 X 12  390 . 2 m.
bv
=
12 in.
80bvlvh = 80 X 12 X 390 = 374,400 lb (1,665 kN)
< 1,836,000 lb
Hence, vertical ties are needed. For roughened surface to full Hn. amplitude and minimum reinforcement,
V nh = 500 bvd = 500 X 12 X 57 = 342,000
Vu 190,000 Req.  =   5  = 253,333lb <I> 0.7
<
Vnh = 342,000
<
available Fh = 1,836,000 lb
Use Ph'" 253,333lb for determining the required composite action reinforcement.
Using ACI JA. Value.
From Equation 5.27 and fL '" 1.0, with lvh '" 390 in.,
_ 253,333 _ . 2 2 Total AVf  1.0 X 60,000  4.2 m (26.3 cm )
. _ 50b v lvh _ 50 X 12 X 390 _ . 2 2 Mm AVf    r  60000  3.90 m (25.1 cm )
Jyt ,
From Example 5.1, min A vf '" 0.01 in. 2/in. '" 0.12 in. 2/12 in., controls. So, trying #3 stirrups, we obtain Av '" 2 x 0.11 '" 0.22 in. 2 , and
lvh Av 390 s =  =
AVf
X
4.2
0.22. = 20.42 m. centertocenter
< 24 m. < max. allow. 4 X 12 = 48 m.
.
.
So use #3 U ties at 20 in. center to center.
Using PCI JA.e Value
>
=
1.0
1,000>2 b v lvh Ph
fLe =
::; 2.9

1,000
X
1 X 12 X 390  . 1836000  255 , ,
< 29 .
So use fLe '" 2.55; then, from Equation 5.32, _ 253,333 _ . 2 Req. AVf  2.55 X 60,000  1.66 m.
< mm. AVf  3.90 m. , controls
.
_
.
2
So use #3 U ties at 20 in. centertocenter (9.5 mm dia at 55 cm).
5.11 DOWEL REINFORCEMENT DESIGN FOR COMPOSITE ACTION IN AN INVERTED TBEAM
Example 5.3
A simply supported inverted Tbeam has an effective 24 ft (7.23 m) span length. The beam, shown in cross section in Figure 5.18, has a 2 in. (5.1 cm) situcast topping on a nonroughened surface. Design the required dowel action stirrups to develop full composite behavior, assuming that the factored shear Vu to which the beam is subjected at the critical section is 160,000 lb (712 kN). Given data are as follows:
252
Chapter 5
Shear and Torsional Strength Design
I
~: I
Figure 5.18
Beam cross section in Example 5.3.
f: (precast)
= 6,000 psi (41.4 MPa), normalweight concrete
=
f:c (topping)
3,000 psi (20.7 MPa), normalweight concrete
Prestressing steel: Twelve! in. dia 270 k strands fpu
=
270,000 psi (1,862 MPa)
fps = 242,000 psi (1,669 MPa) Tie stee1fyt = 60,000 psi (414 MPa) Use both the ACI direct method and the alternative method with effective lLe to carry out your design.
Solution:
dp = 2 + 2 + 10 + 12  3 = 23 in.
Aps
= 12
=
X 0.153
= 1.836 in. 2
X
Tn = ApJps = 1.836 bv
lvh
242,000 = 444,3121b (1,976 kN)
12 in. 24
X
=
2
12
= 144 m.
X
.
Atop
=2
X
48
+2
12
= 120 in. 2
Cc =
0.85f~cAtop
= 0.85 X 3,000 X 120 = 306,000 lb (1,361 kN)
<
Available Vnh = 80bJvh = 80
X
Tn
=
444,312 lb
Accordingly, use Fh = 306,000 lb (1,361 kN). Then, for a nonroughened surface, 12
X
144 = 138,240 lb (615 kN)
<
Cc = 306,000 lb
Hence, ties are required for developing full composite action using X. = 1.0.
ACI Direct Method
Vu 160,000 Req. Vnh = ~ = ~ = 213,333 lb (949 kN) Use IL = 1.0. Then, from Equation 5.26a, with dowel reinforcement, we have
5.12 Shear Strength and WebShear Steel Design in a Prestressed Beam
253
23 = 22,0001b
Available V nh = 80b vdpc = 80
X
12
X
«
required V nh
From Equation 5.27, for an unroughened surface IL = 0.6l\ = 0.60. Then Req. total AVJ = From Eq. 5.22 (a), 0.75Vjj
=
JLfrt =
V
213,333 2 0.60 X 60000 = 5.93 in
=
0.75V6000
yt
58
>
,
50, hence use 58 in the expression.
. _ 58bJvh _ 58 X 12 X 144 _ . 2 Req. mm AVJ f 60000  1.67 m
<
5.93 m
.
2
So use AVJ = 5.93 in. 2 (37.0 cm2 ), and try #3 inverted U ties. Then AVJ = 2 x 0.11 = 0.22 in. 2 (1.4 cm2) and the spacing is
s
=
Iv0v = 144 X 0.22 = 534· (154 ) 5 9 3 . m. . cm
Avt .
The maximum allowable spacing is s = 4(2 + 2) = 16 in., or 0.75h = 0.75 x 26 = 19.5 in. < 24 in. Thus, use #3 inverted U ties 5 in. (13 cm) centertocenter over the entire simply supported span.
Alternative Method Using ....e
Fh = 306,000 lb
1,000A2bJvh
lLe =
1,000
X
Fh
1.0 X 12 306000 ,
X
144
=
5.65
>
2.9
So use lLe = 2.9; then, from Equation 5.31c, we get
Fh 306,000 2 Req. Avt = ILdyt = 2.9 X 60000 = 1.76 in
Req. min. Avtfrom (a) = 1.67 in2
<
1.76 in2
So use Avt= 1.76 in. 2 Then the spacing is four times the least dimension:
Iv0v 144 X 0.22 . s = Avt = 1.76 = 18 m. centertocenter
and the maximum allowable spacing is four times the least dimension:
s = 4(2
+ 2) = 16 in. < 24 in.
Hence, use #3 inverted U ties at 16 in. center to center over the entire simply supported span.
5.12 SHEAR STRENGTH AND WEBSHEAR STEEL DESIGN IN A PRESTRESSED BEAM
Example 5.4 Design the bonded beam of Example 4.2 to be safe against shear failure, and proportion the required web reinforcement. Solution:
Data and Nominal Shear Strength Determination
fpu
=
270,000 psi (1,862 MPa)
fy = fyt = 60,000 psi (414 MPa)
fpe = 155,000 psi (1,069 MPa)
f: =
Aps
5,000 psi normalweight concrete
= 13 7wire !in. tendons = 1.99 in. 2 (12.8 cm2 )
254
Chapter 5
Shear and Torsional Strength Design
As = 4 #6 bars = 1.76 in2 (11.4 cm2 )
Span = 65 ft (19.8 m) Service W L Service WSD
= =
1,100 plf (16.1 kN/m) 100 plf (1.46 kN/m)
Service WD = 393 plf (5.7 kN/m)
h
=
40 in. (101.6 cm)
dp = 36.16 in. (91.8 cm) d = 37.6 in. (95.5 cm)
b w = 6 in. (15 cm)
ee
=
15 in. (38 cm)
ee = 12.5 in. (32 cm) Ie = 70,700 in. 4 (18.09
X
106 cm4 )
Ae = 377 in. 2 (2,432 cm2 )
r
Ct
= 187.5 in. 2 (1,210 cm2 )
Cb =
18.84 in. (48 cm)
= 21.16 in. (54 cm)
P e = 308,255 Ib (1,371 kN)
Factored load Wu = 1.2D + 1.6L
= 1.2(100 + 393) + 1.6
X
1,100 = 2352 plf
Factored shear force at face of support = Vu = WuL/2
= (2352
X 65)/2
= 76,440 Ib
Req. Vn = Vu/<I> = 76,440/0.75 = 101,920 Ib at support
Plane at ldpJrom Face oj Support
The ACI 318 Code allows in the case of prestressed concrete members to consider the critical section for shear and torsion to be taken at a distance of h/2 from the face of the support while in reinforced concrete members it mandates a distance of d/2. For uniformity in the treatment of both materials, d/2 is chosen in the solutions, which is slightly more conservative.
1. Nominal shear strength Ve of web (steps 2,3)
1. d
2
p
=
36.16 == 1 5 f 2 X 12 . t
X
Vn
= 101,920
X
[(65/2)  1.5J 65/2
= 97,2161b
Vu ad d p = 0.75
97,216 = 72,912Ib (VU ad h = 72,206Ib)
fpe = 155,000 psi
0.40fp u = 0.40 X 270,000 = 108,000 psi (745 MPa)
<
fpe = 155,000 psi (1,069 MPa)
Use ACI alternate method Since dp > 0.8h, use dp = 36.16 in., assuming that part of the prestressing strands continue straight to the support. From Equation 5.16,
Ve = ( 0.60A
Vil + 700 ;;p }wdp 2: 2A Vilbwdp :s 5A Vilbwdp
5.12 Shear Strength and WebShear Steel Design in a Prestressed Beam
255
A = 1.0 for normalweight concrete
Mu at dl2 from face = reaction X 1.5 
Wi1.5i
2
= 76,440
Vudp Mu
X
1.5 
2352(1.5? 2 = 112,014 ftIb = 1,344,168 in.Ib
=
72,912 X 36.16 1,344,168
= 1.96 > 1.0
So use Vud/Mu = 1.0. Then Min. Vc = 2A ~ bwdp = 2
X
LOY5,000
X
6
X
36.16 = 30,683 lb
Max. Vc = 5A ~ bwdp = 76,707 lb
Vc = (0.60 X LOY5,000
=
+ 700
=
X
1.0)6
X
36.16
161,077 lb
>
max Vc
76,707 lb
Then Vc = 76,7071b and controls (341 kN). Also, Vj<l> >! Vc; hence, web steel is needed. Accordingly,
Vs = Vu
<I> =
0.7
5  Vc = 97,216  76,707 = 20,5091b
X
8A~bwdp = 8
X
1.0Y5,000
6
X
36.16
= 122,713 lb (546kN) > Vs = 20,509 lb
So the section depth is adequate.
2. Minimum web steel (step 4)
From Equation 5.22b, Mm. ; = 80fyt dp \j b.v _ 1.99 X 270,000 ~36.16 _ 6. 2/.  0.007 m. m. 80 X 60,000 X 36.16 6
. Av ApJpu
(d;
3. Required web steel (steps 5,6) From Equation 5.21b,
or 20,509 _ . 2 . 60,000 X 36.16  0.0095 m 1m. (prestressing force is > 0.4 x tensile strength) Then the minimum required webshear steel A/s = 0.0095 in. 2/in. So trying #3 U stirrups, Av = 2 x 0.11 = 0.22 in. 2, and we get 0.0095 = O.22/s. so that the maximum spacing is . 5 s = 0.22 = 23.2m. (59cm ) 0.009 and
4A~bwdp = 4
X
1.0Y5,000
X
6
X
36.16 = 61,3661b
>
Vs
Hence, we do not need to use! s. Now,
0.75h = 0.75 X 40.0 = 30.0 in.
256
Chapter 5
Shear and Torsional Strength Design
Thus, use #3 U webshear reinforcement at 22 in. center to center (9.5 mm dia at 56 cm center to center).
Plane at Which No Web Steel Is Needed. support. By similar triangles,
Assume such a plane is at distance x from
ZV
or
1
e
76,707 65/2  x =  2  = 101,920 X 65/2
x=X
65 2
76,707 101,920
65 4
giving
x
=
20.3 ft (6.11 m)
= 244 in.
Therefore, adopt the design in question, using #3 U at 22 in. centertocenter over a stretch length of approximately 244 in., with the first stirrup to start at 18 in. from the face of support. Extend the stirrups to the midspan if composite action doweling is needed.
5.13 WEBSHEAR STEEL DESIGN BY DETAILED PROCEDURES
ExampleS.S Solve Example 5.4 by detailed procedures, determining the value of Ve as the smaller of the flexure shear Vci and the web shear Yew' Assume that the tendons are harped at midspan and not draped. Also assume f~ = 6000 psi. Solution: The profile of the prestressing strands is shown in Figure 5.19.
Plane at d/2from Face of Support.
1. Flexureshear cracking, Vci (step 2) From Equation 5.11, V ei
=
From Example 5.4, Vn = 97,216 lb.
0.60>.
vf: bwd
p
+ Vd + ~(Mer)
Mmax
~ 1.7>' vf: bwdp
From Equation 5.12, the cracking moment is
Mer =
Ie • r;:; (6)'vf~
y,
+ fee  fd)
where IdY, = Sb since Yt is the distance from the centroid to the extreme tension fibers. Now,
+frw' ~l~ ~
12.5"
Yo
I
I:
32'6"
65'O'~ (19.8
/ I
In.)
•
Figure 5.19
Tendon profile in Example 5.5.
5.13 WebShear Steel Design by Detailed Procedures
257
Ie = 70,700 in. 4
Cb
= 18.84 in.
P e = 308,255 Ib
Sb
= =
3,753 in? 187.5 in.2
?
So from Equation 4.3b, the concrete stress at the extreme bottom fibers due to prestress only is
and the tendon eccentricity at d/2 == 1.5 ft from the face of the support is
e = 12.5
+ (15  12.5) 65/2 = 12.62 in.
1.5
Thus, 308,255 ( fee = y:j7 1
+
12.62 X 18.84) . 187.5 == 1,855 pSI (12.8 MPa)
From Example 4.2, the unfactored dead load due to selfweight W D = 393 pJf
(5.7 kN/m) is
Md/2
=
W vX(l  x)
2
=
393
X
1.5(65  1.5) 2
X
12
= 224,600 lll.Ib (25.4 kNm)
.
and the stress due to the unfactored dead load at the extreme concrete fibers where tension is created by the external load is
M d/ 2cb 224,600 X 18.84 . fd =  1  = 70 700 = 60 pSI
e ,
Also,
Mer = 3,753(6
=
X
1.0
X
Y6,000
+ 1,855  60)
8,480,872 in.Ib (958 kNm)
Vd =
WDG  x) = 393(6~ 1.5) = 12,183 Ib (54.2kN)
1,100 plf
X
WSD = 100 plf
WL
=
W u = 1.2
100
+ 1.6
X
1100
= 1880 plf
The factored shear force at the section due to externally applied loads occurring simultaneously with Mm• x is
v = W uG x) = 1880 (~ and Mm• x
1.5) = 58,280 Ib (259 kN)
=
W ux(l  x)
2
=
1880
X
1.5(65  1.5) 2 X 12
= 1,074,420 in.Ib (122 kNm)
Hence,
258
Chapter 5
Shear and Torsional Strength Design
• c;:;:;:. 58,280 Vci = 0.6 x 1.0 v 6,000 x 6 x 36.16 + 12,183 + 1074420(8,480,872)
,
,
=
482,2961b (54.5 kNm)
d 1.7Ay'J:b w p = 1.7 x 1.0Y6,000 x 6 x 36.16 Hence, Vci = 482,2961b (214.5 kN). 2. Webshear cracking, Vew (step 2) From Equation 5.15, Vew = (3.5y'J: + O.3JJb w p + Vp d
= 28,5691b (127 kN) < Vci = 482,2961b
Je = compressive stress in concrete at the cgc
=
Ae
c
P
=
377 '= 818 psi (5.6 MPa)
308,255
Vp = vertical component of effective prestress at section
= Pe tan 6 (more acurately, Pe sin 6)
where 6 is the angle between the inclined tendon and the horizontal. So Vp
= 308,255 65/2 x 12 = 1,9761b (8.8 kN)
(15  12.5)
Hence, Vcw = (3.5Y6,000 + 0.3 x 818) x 6 x 36.16 + 1,976 = 114,038Ib (507 kN). In this case, webshear cracking controls (i.e., Ve = Vew = 114,038 lb (507 kN) is used for the design of web reinforcement). Compare this value with Ve = 76,707 lb (341 kN) obtained in Example 5.4 by the more conservative alternative method. Now, from Example 5.4, Vs
=
<I>
= 0.75  Ve = (97,216  114,038) lb, namely Vc > Vn
>~ Vc'
Vu
So no web steel is needed unless Vj<l> 1 114038
Accordingly, we evaluate the latter:
2 Vc = ~ = 57,0191b (254 kN) < 97,2161b (432 kN)
Since Vj<l>
>~ Vc
but < V c, use minimum web steel in this case.
3. Minimum web steel (step 4) From Example 5.4,
A Req. "s
=
0.0077 in. 2/in.
So, trying #3 U stirrups, we get Av = 2 x 0.11 = 0.22 in. 2, and it follows that Av 0.22 . s = R eq. A v1 = 00077 = 28.94 m. (73 em) s . We then check for the minimum Av as the lesser of the two values given by Av and A
v
= 0.75vjj (~:,). Av = 50bwSlfyt whichever is larger,
Aps fpu s (d; 80 fytdp \j b;"
=
So the maximum allowable spacing::; 0.75h ::; 24 in. Then use #3 U stirrups at 22 in. centertocenter over a stretch length of 84 in. from the face of the support, as in Example 5.4.
5.14 Design of Web Reinforcement for a PCI Double T Beam
259
40"
#3 closed ties at 22 in. c. to c. (9.5 mm dia. at 61 cm)
4#6
13  7.wire~" strands
Figure 5.20
Web reinforcement details in Example 5.5.
Details of the section reinforcement (step 8) are shown in Figure 5.20.
5.14 DESIGN OF WEB REINFORCEMENT FOR A PCI DOUBLE TBEAM
Example 5.6 A simply supported PCI 12 DT 34 pretopped doubleT beam has a span of 70 ft (21.3 m). It is subjected to a superimposed service dead load of 200 plf (2.9 kN/m), including a 2in. additional topping placed sometime after service, and a service live load W L = 720 plf. Design the web reinforcement needed to prevent shear cracking at the quarterspan section 17 ft 6 in. (5.3 m) from the support, calculating the nominal webshear strength Vc by the detailed design method. Also, design any dowel reinforcement if necessary, assuming that the top surface of the precast Tbeam is intentionally unroughened. The section properties are shown in Figure 5.21 and are as follows:
rr'·" ":.(\
1.12'0"
"1+1
! !
...
3" Chamfer
I, J\
<~::.=1 + 1
34"
1
/4"
1'143
(a)
~
I.. '
70'0" (21.3 m)
• ('
(b)
Figure 5.21
Beam geometry in Example 5.5. (a) Section. (b) Elevation.
260
Section property
Chapter 5
Shear and Torsional Strength Design
Pretopped
1
978 in. 2 86,072 in.4 88.0 in. 2 25.77 in. 8.23 in. 3,340 in. 4 10,458 in? 1,019 plf 12.50 in. Other data are:
f~
(precast) = 5,000 psi (34.5 MPa), normalweight concrete (topping) = 3,000 psi (20.7 MPa), normalweight concrete, for future topping if used
f~e
f~i
= 4,000 psi (27.6 MPa)
fpu = 270,000 psi (1,862 MPa), lowrelaxation steel fps = 240,000 psi (1,655 MPa) fpe = 148,000 psi (1,020 MPa) ee = 11.38 in. (28.3 cm) ee = 21.77 in. (57.2 cm) Aps = 18 Hn. (12.7 mm) dia strands
fyt for stirrups = 60,000 psi (414 MPa) Use the same value for the effective depth dp for the midspan as well as other sections. Note that b w for both webs = 2 (4.75 + 7.75)/2 = 12.50 in. (32 cm).
Solution:
Wu
=
1.2 (200 + 1,019) + 1.6
Vu at face of support
X
720
== 2615 plf (58kN/m)
= 91,525 Ib
=
2615 X 70 2
1 ( (35  17.5)) Vn at 17 ft 6 in. from the face of the support = 0.75 91,525 X 35
= 61,0171b (271 kN) 1. Flexureshear cracking, Vci (step 2)
dp
= 34  25.77 + 21.77 = 30.0 in. (76 cm) = 11.38 + (21.77  11.38) 1;~5 = 16.58 in.
Pe = 18 X 0.153 X 148,000 = 407,5921b (18,176 kN)
eat 17 ft, 6 in. from support
Use the precast section properties for computing fee andfd as discussed in Section 5.5:
= _ Pe (1 +
fee Ac
eCb) = _ 407,592 (1 + 16.58
r
978
X 25.77) 88.0
= 2,440 psi (16.8 MPa)
5.14 Design of Web Reinforcement for a PCI Double TBeam
261
Use allowable extreme compressive stresses as follows: (a) prestress + sustained load: fe = 0.45f~ (b) prestress + total load (allowing 33% increase due to transient load: fe = 0.60 f~) Note that although fee = 0.45 f~, this should not affect the shear strength since fee is due to prestress only, and the inclusion of selfweight reduces it to less than 0.45 f~. We thus have SelfWeight W D = 1,019 plf
M17.5 =
WvX(l x) 2
=
1,019 x 17.5(70  17.5) 2 x 12
= 5,617,238 in.lb (634 kNm)
MCb 5,617,238 X 25.77 . fd = [ = 86072 = 1,682 pSI (11.6 MPa)
e ,
Mer
= =
Sb(6.0}'
vfl + fee X
fd)
3,340 (6.0
l.OY5,000 + 2,440  1,682)
= 3,948,762 in.lb (445 kNm)
It should be noted that the factor 6.0 in the cracking moment expression is low, since the modulus of rupture is taken 7.5. If 7.5 is used in the expression the cracking mo
ment value would have become 4,303,022 in.lb, thereby reducing the number of stirrups needed in this design. Unfactored shear due to selfweight dead load is:
Vd = W D
G x) + 1.6
= 1,019
C2
0
 17.5) = 17,833Ib WSD = 200 plf
W L = 720 plf
Factored external load intensity is:
Wu
=
1.2
X
2DO
X
720
=
1392 plf (20.4 kN/m)
Vi =
WuG  x) = 1392 C20  17.5) = 24,360 lb (108 kN) _ (I  x) _1392 17.5(70  17.5) 12 M 2 2
m• x 
WuX
X
X
=
0.6
X
1.0
X
Y5,DOO
X
12.5
X
30.0
+ 17,833
+ 7,673,400 (3,948,762)
= 46,279 lb (201 kN)
1.7}'
24,360
vfl bwd
p
= l.7
X
l.OY5,ODO
X
12.5
X
30.0 = 45,0781b
< 46,2791b
Hence, Vei = 46,279 controls. 2. Webshear cracking, Vew (step 2)
Pe 407,592 fe =  =   8  = 417 psi (2.9 MPa) Ae 97
262
Chapter 5
Shear and Torsional Strength Design
For the vertical component of the prestress force,
Vp
= Pe tan e = 407,592
Vcw
= =
(21.77  11.38) 70/2 X 12
w
= 1O,0831b (44.0 kN)
(3.5A
v1l + 0.3fc)b dp + Vp
X
+ 0.3 X 417) X 12.5 = 149,803lb vs. V ci = 46,2791b
(3.5 Y5,000
Vc
=
30.0
+ 10,083
Now, Vc is the smaller of Vci and V cw ; hence,
Vci
=
46,279 lb
3. Design of web reinforcement (steps 38) From above,
Vc = 46,279 lb
So
~Vc = 23,1401b
Now, Vu / <\> at a section 17.5 ft from support = 61,0171b > Vc >! Vc; hence design of stirrups is necessary. If Vu / <\> < Vc >! V c, only minimumweb steel is needed.
Av Vn  Vc Req. = F d s Jyt p
=
(Vul<\»  Vc
fytdp
61,017  46,279 60,000 X 30.0
0.0082 in. 2/in. spacing
Using d == dp = 30.0 in. and b w = 12.5 in.:
. (A v) Mm. s Aps fpu =     = 18
ff:P
X
80 fytdp
bw
0.153 270,000 )30.0 X 80 60,000 X 30.0 12.5
= 0.0080
0.75vjf
= 0.75Y5000 = 53
. (Av) _ 53b w _ 53 X 12.5 _ . 2' or Mm. ;  ~  60,000  0.011 m. 1m.
The lesser of the two minimum value applies, consequently, min. Av = 0.0080 in. 2/ in. applies as the lesser of the two values.
A Hence controlling " = 0.0080 in. 2lin.
s
=
0.10 in?1ft for both webs or 0.05 in.2/ft per web
Try one row of D5 deformed welded wire fabric at 10 in. centertocenter weld spacing. The maximum allowable spacing is, then 0.75h::; 24 in. So we have
0.75h = 0.75
X
34 = 25.5 in.
Accordingly, adopt one row D5 WWF web reinforcement in one layer at 10 in. centertocenter weld spacing per web at the quarterspan section. Note, in comparing the solution for V ci and Vcw in Example 5.6, that Vci has its highest value close to the support and rapidly decreases toward the midspan, while Vcw has a lesser variation in its value, as can be seen from Figure 5.13. It is important to calculate the flexure shear Vci and web shear Vcw at several sections along the span in order to determine the most efficient distribution of the web steel. A computer program facilitates finding these values at constant intervals of, say, loth of the span, and a plot can
5.15 Brackets and Corbels
263
be made similar to the one in Figure 5.13 showing the variation of the shear strengths of the web along the span.
4. Design of dowel steel for full composite section of the additionaI2in. topping (step 9), if such topping is added later to the pretopped section.
Section at ! dp from face of support
Used dp
Vu at support = 91,525 (408 kN)
= 30.0 + 2.0 = 32 in.
"2d
1
p
= 2
Vu
32.0 X 12 = 1.33ft(40cm)
= 91,525
X
e
5
h/2 = 17 in. = l.33ft
~51.33) = 88,0471b (393 kN)
88,047
Req Vnh = ~ = 0.75 = 117,396 (522 kN)
bv
=
Vu
12 ft.
topping h
=
2 in.
From Figure 5.14 Cc = 0.85f:cAtop = 0.85
X
3000
X
12
X
12
X
2 = 734,400 lb (3,267 kN)
Ts = Apsfps = 18 X 0.153 X 240,000 = 660,960 (2,940 kN)
< Cc
Hence,
= 734,4001b
Fh = 660,960 lb (2,178 kN)
lvh =
70
bv
X
2
12
= 420 m. (1,067 cm)
.
=
144 in. (366 cm)
80b)vh = 80
X
144
X
420 = 4,838,400 lb (21,520 kN)
»
660,9601b
No dowel reinforcement is needed to extend to future additional 2in. topping for full composite action to be developed. The section is adopted when it satisfies the flexural, deflection, and cracking requirements.
5.15 BRACKETS AND CORBELS
Brackets and corbels are shorthaunched cantilevers that project from the inner face of columns or concrete walls to support heavy concentrated loads or beam reactions. They are very important structural elements for supporting precast beams, gantry girders, and any other forms of precast structural systems. Precast and prestressed concrete is becoming increasingly dominant, and larger spans are being built, resulting in heavier shear loads at supports. Hence, the design of brackets and corbels has become increasingly important. The safety of the total structure could depend on the sound design and construction of the supporting element, in this case the corbel, necessitating a detailed discussion of this subject. In brackets and corbels, the ratio of the shear arm or span to the corbel depth is often less than 1.0. Such a small ratio changes the state of stress of a member into a twodimensional one. Shear deformations would hence affect the nonlinear stress behavior of the bracket or corbel in the elastic state and beyond, and the shear strength becomes a major factor. Corbels also differ from deep beams in the existence of potentially large horizontal forces transmitted from the supported beam to the corbel or bracket. These
264
Chapter 5
Shear and Torsional Strength Design
(e) (a)
(d)
(b)
Figure 5.22 Failure patterns. (a) Diagonal shear. (b) Shear friction. (c) Anchorage splitting. (d) Vertical splitting.
horizontal forces result from longterm shrinkage and creep deformation of the supported beam, which in many cases is anchored to the bracket. The cracks are usually mostly vertical or steeply inclined pure shear cracks. They often start from the point of application of the concentrated load and propagate toward the bottom reentrant corner junction of the bracket to the column face, as in Figure 5.22(a). Or they start at the upper reentrant corner of the bracket or corbel and proceed almost vertically through the corbel toward its lower fibers, as shown in Figure 5.22(b). Other failure patterns in such elements are shown in Figure 5.22(c) and (d). They can also develop through a combination of the ones illustrated. Bearing failure can also occur by crushing of the concrete under the concentrated loadbearing plate, if the bearing area is not adequately proportioned. As will be noticed in the subsequent discussion, detailing of the corbel or bracket reinforcement is of major importance. Failure of the element can be attributed in many cases to incorrect detailing that does not realize full anchorage development of the reinforcing bars. Two approaches can be used for the analysis and design of corbels as deep concrete members: the shear friction hypothesis, and the strutandtie modeling of forces hypothesis. In the following section, criteria are presented for computing the forces ensuing from the shear friction approach with the resulting design expressions and the applicable design example of a typical corbel. Section 5.21 presents the strutandtie model development for the analysis of deep beams and corbels, with the applicable design examples.
5.15.1 Shear Friction Hypothesis for Shear Transfer in Corbels
Corbels cast at different times than the main supporting columns can have a potential shear crack at the interface between the two concretes through which shear transfer has to develop. The smaller the ratio aid, the larger the tendency for pure shear to occur through essentially vertical planes. This behavior is accentuated in the case of corbels with a potential interface crack between two dissimilar concretes. The shear friction approach in this case is recommended by the ACI, as shown in Figure 5.22(b). An assumption is made of an already cracked vertical plane (aa in Figure 5.23) along which the corbel is considered to slide as it reaches its limit state of failure. A coefficient of friction J..L is used to transform the horizontal resisting forces of the wellanchored closed ties into a vertical nominal resisting force larger than the external factored shear load. Hence, the nominal vertical resisting shear force (5.34a)
5.15 Brackets and Corbels
265
•
Shear Irictior r.!nlorctmen
•
Figure 5.23 Shearfriction reinforcement at crack. to give (5.34b) where Avfis the total area of the horizontal anchored closed shear ties. The external factored vertical shear has to be VII s:~ VII. where for normal concrete,
VII :s 0.2[; b ...d
(5.35,)
or
VII :S
BOOb..,tl
(5.35b)
whichever is smaller. The required effective depth (I of the corbel can be determined from Equation 5.35a, or h, whichever gives a larger value. For all lightweight or sandlightweigh t concretes, the shear strength Vn should not be taken grea ter than (0.2  0.07aJd)[; b,.,d, o r (BOO  280a/d)b ...d in pounds. If ilie shear frict ion reinforcement is inclined to the shear plane such that the shear force produces some tension in the shear friction steel. (5.35c)
Photo 5.6
Highstrength concrete corbel at failure (Nawy ct al.).
85 for sandlightweight concrete. The PCI values are less conservative than the ACI values based on comprehensive tests. The reinforcement area becomes AVf = fy(1L sin a + cos a) (5.2 Horizontal External Force Effect When the corbel or bracket is cast monolithically with the supporting column or wall and is subjected to a large horizontal tensile force Nuc produced by the beam supported by the corbel.75 for alllightweight concrete.15. a modified approach is used. such as polymermodified concretes.7X. LOX.6X. If considerably higher strength concretes.0 for normalweight concrete. reinforcing steel An has to be provided to resist the force N uc . 5. x. 0. 5.25. In all cases.35d) The assumption is made that all the shear resistance is due to the resistance at the crack interface between the corbel and the column.24. = 1. 0.7) substantiates the use of higher values. Part of the horizontal steel AVf is incorporated in the top tension tie. and the remainder of AVf is distributed along the depth of the corbel as in Figure 5. and 0.266 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design where af is the angle between the shear friction reinforcement and the shear plane. higher values of IL could logically be used for such cases as those listed above. often termed the strut theory approach.24 hypothesis. 0. Work in the field (Ref. Reinforcement schematic for corbel design by the shear friction . Evaluation of the top horizontal primary reinforcement layer As will be discussed in the next section. are used in the corbels to interface with the normal concrete of the supporting columns. The ACI coefficient of friction IL has the following values: Concrete cast monolithically Concrete placed against hardened roughened concrete Concrete placed against unroughened hardened concrete Concrete anchored to structural steel 1. Angle welded to top steel and framing bar Framing bar Shear plane Figure 5. the horizontal factored force Nuc cannot exceed the vertical factored shear Vu' As shown in Figure 5.4X.
.2 Vu unless special provisions are made to avoid tensile forces.36) Compression strut ' . The axis of such an assumed section lies along a compression strut inclined at an angle 13 to the tension tie As. C . c: ~ (5.38) where Mu = Vua v + NucCh . that is.= .25 Compression strut in corbel. .+ .39a) . Tensile force Nue should be regarded as a live load even when tension results from creep.l .  Ts cos 13 As!yt cos 13 Vu sm 13 (5. or temperature changes. where and At = Vua v + NucCh .= .37) Reinforcement An to resist tensile force Nue should be determined from Nue ~ <I> An k Tensile force Nue should not be taken less than 0.85!~ 131cb = .5. The volume of the compressive block is Cc = 0.. .. Reinforcement At also has to be provided to resist the bending moments caused by Vu and N uc' The value of Nuc considered in the design should not be less than 0. as shown in the figure.d) <I>!ytjd (5. At = Mu <I>!yt jd (5. c Figure 5.. shrinkage...d) and <I> = 0.15 Brackets and Corbels 267 Bearing plate Shear plane ...75..+ ( d ····1 .20 Vu' The flexural steel area At can be obtained approximately by the usual expression for the limit state at failure of beams.
25. ~Af) Figure 5.8Sct>fy d (S.e. Welded to top steel Framing bar Ah closed stirrups (min. the lever arm jd from Equation (S.38. .39b) c!2 The effective depth d minus 13 1 cos 13 in the vertical direction gives the lever armjd between the force Ts and the horizontal component of Cc in Figure 5.8Sf: b cos 13 (S. Therefore. Then P i' = A 2: 004~ ~ bd .42) or (5. then A _ f  Mu ct>fy(d  131 c/2 cos 13) (5.41a) so that Af = Mu 0.43) whichever is larger.41b) The area Asc of the primary tension reinforcement (tension tie) can now be calculated and placed as shown in Figure 5.26 Reinforcement schematic for corbel design by strut theory.39c) If the righthand side is substituted for jd in Equation 5.39c) can be approximated for all practical purposes in most cases as jd == 0.40) To eliminate several trials and adjustments.26: (5. i.. 131 C = 0. fy where An = reinforcement area resisting tension.8Sd (S. ·d = d _ ] 2 cos 13 131 c (S.268 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design for which the depth 131c of the block is obtained perpendicular to the direction of the compressive strut.
it is sometimes advisable to choose the larger calculated value of the primary top steel area Asc in the corbel regardless of whether the corbel element is cast simultaneously with the supporting column. Calculate the factored vertical force Vu and the nominal resisting force Vn of the section such that Vn ~ VJ<I>. 5. and a bending moment [Vua + Nuc (h . the horizontal closed stirrups are also a major element in reinforcing the corbel. Calculations of As depend on whether Equation 5. V)<I> should be :::. If Equation 5. If not.75 for all calculations.5. In both cases.d)] basically act on the corbel.44) The bearing area under the external load Vu on the bracket should not project beyond the straight portion of the primary tension bars. (b) By calculating the steel area Avt by the shear friction hypothesis if the corbel and the column are not cast simultaneously. To prevent failure. the concrete section at the support should be enlarged. Since the mechanism of failure is highly indeterminate and randomness can be expected in the propagation action of the shear crack. or:::.15 Brackets and Corbels 269 If Ah is assumed to be the total area of the closed stirrups or ties parallel to Aw then (5. depending on the type of corbel construction sequence. using part of Avtalong the depth of the corbel stem and incorporating the balance in the area As of the primary top steel reinforcing layer.36 resisting the horizontal force N uc . 0. that is. the primary tension reinforcement plus the closed stirrups automatically yield the total amount of reinforcement needed for either type of corbel. additional inclined closed stirrups are also used.43 controls. AsC' nor should it project beyond the interior face of the transverse welded anchor bar shown in Figure 5. 800b wd for normalweight concrete. Occasionally.75 .26. Calculate Avt = VnlfylJu for resisting the shear friction force.15. 3. 2. a horizontal factored force NuC' a vertical factored force V u. The primary tension steel area Asc is the major component of both methods. whether the corbel is cast monolithically with the column or not: (a) For a monolithically cast corbel with the supporting column. the corbel has to be designed to resist these three parameters simultaneously by one of the following two methods. The following sequence of steps is proposed for the design of the corbel: 1. Asc = i Avt+ An is used and the remaining! Avtis distributed over a depth i d adjacent to Asc. As seen from the foregoing discussions. and use in the subse quent calculation of the primary tension top steel As.43 governs.20f~ bwd.42 or 5. by evaluating the steel area Ah of the closed stirrups which are placed below the primary steel ties Asc. where <I> = 0.3 Sequence of Corbel Design Steps As discussed in the preceding section. If Equation 5. Part of Ah is due to the steel area An from Equation 5. Calculate the flexural steel area At and the direct tension steel area An' where vua v + Nuc(h . Asc = At + An' with the addition of lAt provided as closed stirrups parallel to Asc and distributed within i d vertical distance adjacent to Asc.d) A t<l>fy Jd and where <I> = 0.42 controls.
26. (254 mm).667 X 1. Figure 5.000 psi (34.270 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design 4.5 MPa).1 = LOA: A vf = 60.667 2 2 = 1270in. as many corbel failures are due to incorrect detailing.000 X 10 X 14 = 140. If case (a) controls. X 12 in.777 in .000 lb (160 kN) acting at a distance a = 5 in. the remaining i Avt has to be provided as closed stirrups parallel to Ase and distributed with a ~ d distance adjacent to A se' as in Figure 5. and an effective depth d = 14 in.K.0 = 1. Calculate the primary steel area from (a) Ase = ~ Avt + An and (b) Ase = At + An' whichever is larger.7 80.7 Design a corbel to support a factored vertical load Vu = 80.15.2 (1110 mm 2) Choose the larger A vf = 1. (819mm) 60000 X 1.24. 2 as controlling.1 = l. Solution: Step} Vn Vu 2:  <I> = . Step 2 (a) Monolithic construction.= <l>fyiL Vu 106. normalweight concrete f.000 psi (414 MPa) Assume the corbel to be either cast after the supporting column was constructed. . (457 mm). 5.An) =~~004~ A I" bd . The corbel has a width b = 10 in.04 j: bd 5.0 = 106. fy or Min. Ase = 0. or cast simultaneously with the column. The following data are given: n = 5. Then Ah and P ~ O. Select the size and spacing of the corbel reinforcement with special attention to the detailing arrangements.4 . (356 mm).000Ib > Vm O.2f~ bwd = 0.000 0.000 106.667 lb 5 .4 DeSign of a Bracket or Corbel Example 5. use in addition !At as closed stirrups distributed within a distance ~ d adjacent to A se' as in Figure 5. (127 mm) from the face of the column.4A: A vf = .777 in. normalweight concrete fy = 60.S(Ase .27 shows a flowchart for proportioning corbels.0001b > Vn 800b w d = 800 X 10 X 14 = 112. If case (b) controls. a total thickness h = 18 in. Neglect the weight of the corbel. (b) Nonmonolithic construction. f. Supporting column size is 12 in.2 X 5.
.15 Brackets and Corbels 271 • (0. .07ald)f~bd .5.0.2 .2BOald)bd for lightweight and sandlightweight concrete Figure 5.27 Flowchart for proportioning corbels. (BOO .
000(18 .356 = 1. Also use three framing size No.~fyjd ~fyjd _ 80. bd = 0.356 = 1. X Vu = 80.K.5(Asc .161 mm2) Asc' (b) Required Ah = 0. 2 2 075 6 .5 SI Expressions for Shear in Prestressed Concrete Beams (5.12) . 5..541 in.d) A . 2 Use the larger of the two values i Avf and A h • Step 5. ~ AVf =~ X 1. 2 .80 in.90 X X (where jd ~ 0.813 mm ) Use a plate 5hn.041.2 X 80.000 Step 4.9 In (16.727 + 0.356) = 0.70.14) _ . f: X 5.0.0. use three No.70(0. 2 < 1.7 anchor to bar.592 in. vertical distance.85 X 14) . The bearing area under the load has to be checked.85 X 5000 = 26. (a) Asc = Check the controlling area of primary steel Asc" (i AVf+ An) = i X 1.66 in.000) Al 2 2 .7 bars = 1.593 in.593 in 2 . Details of the bracket reinforcement are shown in Figure 5.3 closed stirrups at 3 in.000 lb Mu Vua v + Nuc(h .85f~ AI)' where Al is the pad area.15.000 0.85 80.3 closed stirrups = 2 x 3 x 0.083 in.000 5.3 bars and one welded No.0. center to center.20Vu = 0.11) (5. 2 MIn Asc = 0.272 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design Step 3. 2 Ah = 0.70 X 0. 2 spread over i d = 9.727 In (524 mm ) 16. Horizontal closed stirrups: Since case (a) controls. Select bar sizes: (a) Required Asc = 1. 2 (994 mm2 ).11 = 0. Since no value of the horizontal external force Nuc transmitted from the superimposed beam is given.356 In (280 mm ) .541 in. 2 .04 (b) Asc = A f + An = 0. Provide Asc = 1. x 5hn.85d) 5 + 16. 2 (three bars of diameter 22 mm gives 1. use Min Nuc = 0.33 in..541 in.000 = 16.541 . Al = 0.777 + 0.000 _ . and the bearing pad designed such that the bearing stress at the factored load Vu should not exceed ~(0. O. Hence.47 in.. 2 2 60. X 0.000(0. use three No.~''f .541 in.28.000 60.000 X 10 X 14 = 0. We have Bearing strength reduction factor ~= 0.5(1. use three No.777 = 0.000 lb = 0. 2. Its thickness has to be designed based on the manner in which Vu is applied as an undeformable plate.An) = 0.
. 300 mm d...0 ~ [}. "Co> ""0 A •.fee of the ACI code). sand d are in millimeters andfyt is in MPa. Vud) ( 20 + 5 Mu bwd.. 35b wS fyt or ApJpuSH 80fyli bw where b w .Ve V.~~~~~fT~~~N~ anchor bar 8m 1 !1  ·£ .~7~~~. (5. ~] bwd ~ s= [0.21b) Max s = £h :s.28 Corbel reinforcement details (Example 5. Primary tension steel T 1 9in.1 for explanation onfe vs. ·.7).. :"1 .0' . 600 mm when V s > (}. _u_ ~ Vd Mu 1. Vf'c/3)b w max s :s.5..15) (See Sec. Vs > (2}" Vf'c/3)b w enlarge section.. ~ II 3 No. Mer for shear = moment causing flexural cracking at section due to externally applied load. 3/16h :s. p. d.15 Brackets and Corbels 273 . Vc = }. 5.Vj.' .5. ~A~~:==3~No~. Figure 5.3 framing bars '.. Av: the smaller of Av ~ 0.. (5. Min.6. ..4}" vtl bwd] Av/yt d Avlyt d (Vu/<I» . '" .
5 MPa.Ib) x 0.7 MPa. lowrelaxation steel fps = 1. normalweight concrete.655 MPa fpe = 1. Note that b w for both webs = 32 cm.274 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design Max.593 = N/m 5.870N/m 17.3 2 = 407 kN .507 N/m 32cm Other data are: (precast) = 34.2kN/m Vu at face of support = 38.8 Solve Example 5. allowable shear friction force without dowels. section pretopped (topping) = 20.3 cm ee = 57.6 using the SI units system.2 cm Aps = 18 .5 cm 20.6 SI Shear Design of Prestressed Beams Example 5.9cm. normalweight concrete.020 MPa ee = 28.006895 = MPa (in.1130 = Nm 1 Pa = N/m2 1 MPa = N (lb/ft) x 106/m2 x 14. at a later stage if used f~i = 27.507 == 38.310 cm2 3.789 N/m 10.55bJvh lIb psi x 4. 54.7 mm diameter tendons = 99 mm2 f y .448 = N x 0.733 cm 3 171.6 X 10.862 MPa.6 MPa fpu = 1.12.2 X 21.58 X 106 cm4 568 cm2 65.2 X 17.789 + 1. Solution: Wu = 1. for stirrups = 414 MPa f~e f~ Use the same value for the effective depth dp for the midspan as well as other sections. The sectional geometric properties of the beam are as follows: Section property Pretopped Ae Ie r Ct Cb Sb S' WD W D + WSD WL 2b w 6.376 cm3 14. Ph = 0.15.
507 = 20.000 X 65.33 = W ~(l .= 20.11.58 X 10 Sb(0.2 X 2.1 cm Use the precast section properties for computing fee andfd as discussed in Section 5.5.15 Brackets and Corbels ~ of the span = 21.67 272 kN (1) Flexureshear cracking.3 kN/m Vi = Wu Mmax .3 5.x) 14. vi: bwd p .33 m.919 N/m W L = 10. We thus have: Selfweight W D = 14.45 f~.870 X 5. this should not affect the shear strength since fee is due to prestress only.x) _20.x) = 14.33) = 79.33(21.1kN WSD = 2. and the inclusion of selfweight reduces it to less than 0.0V34.3 .020 MPa = 18.6 X 10.6 MPa 3.870 N/m MS.176 kN eat 5.5.733 (0.331.507 N/m Factored external load intensity is W u = 1.46) 568 = 16.310 1 X 65. Vci (step 2) dp = 76. vi: bwd p + Vd + :i max (Mer) ~ 0. from the face of the support = 0.3 (20.50A vi: + fee  fd) 54.67 .33) 2 = 2 = 634 kNm fd = Mer = = = MCb Ie = 6.5.33) x X 2  2 = 864kNm Vci = 0.W I) 2(2" .33)) 10.870 e~·3  5.5: fee = _ Pe (1 + Ae eCb ) r = _ 18.45 f~.3/4 = 5.60 f~) Note that although fee =0.2 cm P e = 18 X 99 X 1.8 MPa Use allowable extreme compressive stresses as follows: (a) prestress + sustained load: fe = 0.61.33m.3 .33(21.1 6.46 6 = 11.50 X 1.5 445 kNm + 16.340.3 .45 f~ (b) prestress + total load (allowing 33% increase due to transient load: fe = 0.176 ( + 42.919 + 1.33 ) = 108kN _ uX (I . 275 Vn at 5.75 407 X = 1 ( (10.5.5.6) Unfactored shear due to selfweight is Vd = WDG .33 m from support = 42.8 .
hence. A Req.3(1. d yt p (272 .Vc f.5 = 681 kN vs.5 x 31. Vci = 220kN controls. Controlling web steel is hence  Av s = 0.1 864 + 108(445) = 220kN 0. min. Vu / <l> at a section 5.33 m.176 Vew = (55.3 fyt .21 mm /mm for both webs or 2 0.9MPa e .18 x 7.3/2 = 44.62 + 79. .176 fe = A = 6310 = 2. . (Av) _ b w _ 318 _ 2 Mm.2 = 202 kN < 220 kN Pe 18.0. Vci Now. Ve is the smaller of Vci and Yew.276 = Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design 0.25 mm /mm The lesser of the two minimum value applies.9)J x 318 x 762 + 44 211 kN = = [0. from support = 272 > Vc >! Ve.0 x V34.28.0V34.(A v) s Or = Aps fpu (d. Vp = P e tanS = 18.0 kN [0. only minimumweb steel is need.33 x 1.33A Vi: bwdp = 0. (2) Webshear cracking.V f.3(A Vi: + lJJbwdp + Vp + 2.0xV34.20 mm2/mm applies as the lesser of the two values. Hence.9) 21. If Vu / <l> < Ve >! V e. consequently.8x76..3 X 414 .5 x 3.860 2 414 x 762\)318 = 0.19 mm2/mm spacing Using d '= dp = 762 mm and b w = 318 mm: Min. 80 fytdp \) hw = 18 x 99 x 80 1. Av = 0. Ve From above. hence design of stirrups is necessary. ':: s = Vn .20 mm /mm fi62 .211) 414 x 762 = 0.105 mm 2 / mm per web. Ve = 211 kN. .3 .6 x 1. d yt p C (Vu/<l» . Vew (step 2) For the vertical component of the prestress force. So = Vci = 211 kN (3) Design of web reinforcement (steps 38) Now.
75 X 864 = 648 Accordingly.5.7 = 392 kN Vu 392 Req V nh = ~ = 0.85 Ts = Apsfps = 18 X X X 20.520 kN » 2940 kN No dowel reinforcement is needed to extend to the additional 5 cm topping for full composite action to be developed. topping (step 9).75 = 523 kN b v = 366 cm topping h = 5.0. and a plot can be made similar to the one in Figure 5.7 X 366 X 5.67m = 1. while Vcw has a lesser variation in its value. say.940 kN < Cc = 3. (4) Design of dowel steel for full composite section of the additionaI2in. then 0. The maximum allowable spacing is.2 + 5.4) 10.1 = 81.13 showing the variation of the shear strengths of the web along the span. adopt using one row D5 WWF in one layer at 254 mm centertocenter of welds per web at the quarterspan section.267 kN 99 1655xlO.7 . The section is adopted when it satisfies the flexural. .067 cm b v = 366 cm 0.267 kN Then Fh = 2.3 = 3.85f:cAtop = 0. A computer program facilitates finding these values at constant intervals of.55 X 366 X 1067 = 21. and cracking requirements. Section at !dp from face of support Use dp Vu at support = 407 kN = 76. It is important to calculate the flexure shear Vci and web shear Vcw at several sections along the span in order to determine the most efficient distribution of the web steel.940kN lvh = 21.13. Note.4 m Vu = 407 X ( 10.3 2 = 1O.08 cm From Figure 5.3 cm hj2 = 0.14 Cc = 0.75h where h = 864 mm but not to exceed 610 mm.55bJvh = 0. 1I1Oth of the span. if such topping is added later to the pretopped section.08 X 10.3 = 2.15 Brackets and Corbels 277 Try one row of D5 deformed welded wire fabric at 254 mm centertocenter weld spacing. as can be seen from Figure 5. So we have 0. deflection. in comparing the solution for V ci and Vcw that Vci has its highest value close to the support and rapidly decreases toward the midspan.
J = Tir4/2. Although circular sections are rarely a consideration in normal concrete construction. These complications plus the fact that the reinforced and prestressed concrete sections are neither homogeneous nor isotropic make it difficult to develop exact .30. the axis through the center of the circular section) and is maximum at the extreme fibers. Shear stress is equal to shear strain times the shear modulus at the elastic level in circular sections.16 TORSIONAL BEHAVIOR AND STRENGTH 5. and Vte the elastic shearing stress due to an elastic twisting moment Te. the torsional problem is considerably more complicated. then (a) When deformation takes place in the circular shaft.278 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design 5. The originally plane cross sections undergo warping due to the applied torsional moment.1 Introduction Torsion occurs in monolithic concrete construction primarily where the load acts at a distance from the longitudinal axis of the structural member. the extent of damage due to torsion is usually not as severe.29. This is due to the redistribution of stresses in the structure. as shown in Figure 5. An introduction to the subject of torsional stress distribution has to start with the basic elastic behavior of simple sections. All radii in a cross section also remain straight (i. a canopy or a busstand roof projecting from a monolithic beam on columns. As the circular element starts to behave plastically. As in the case of flexure. a spandrel beam receiving load from one side. and maximum values on the periphery at the middle of the sides. An end beam in a floor panel.e. for example. The maximum torsional shearing stress would occur at midpoints A and B of the larger dimension of the cross section.) In rectangular sections. As a result. the stress is proportional to its distance from the neutral axis (i. Photos in this section illustrate the extent of cracking at failure of a beam in torsion. They show the curvilinear plane of twist caused by the imposed torsional moments. However. and peripheral beams surrounding a floor opening are all examples of structural elements subjected to twisting moments. These moments occasionally cause excessive shearing stresses. its polar moment of inertia. In actual spandrel beams of a structural system. as shown in Figure 5.. there is no warping) and rotate through the same angle about the axis. This moment produces axial as well as circumferential shear stresses with zero values at the corners of the section and the centroid of the rectangle. If r is the radius of the element.. b = 0 and the shear stress (b) where vt! is the nonlinear shear stress due to an ultimate twisting moment Tp. loss of integrity due to torsional distress should always be avoided by proper design of the necessary torsional reinforcement. (The subscript f denotes failure. flanged sections such as Tbeams and Lbeams. the axis of the circular cylinder is assumed to remain straight.e. such as circular or rectangular sections. Most concrete beams subjected to twist are components of rectangles. severe cracking can develop well beyond the allowable serviceability limits unless special torsional reinforcement is provided. the stress in the plastic outer ring becomes constant while the stress in the inner core remains elastic.16. a brief discussion of torsion in circular sections serves as a good introduction to the torsional behavior of other types of sections. As the whole cross section becomes plastic.
But it was found experimentally that the elastic theory is not entirely satisfactory for the accurate prediction of the state of stress in concrete in pure torsion.16. Prandtl demonstrated the physical significance of the mathematical formulations by his membrane analogy model.' v" = torsional shear stress r = shaft rad iu s Figure 5.2. For over seventy years. Consequently almost all developments in torsion as applied to prestressed concrete and to reinforced concrete have been in the latter direction. St.16.2 Pure Torsion in Plain Concrete Elements In 1853. mathematical formulations based on physical models such as Equations (a) and (b) for circular sections.29 Torsional stress distribution through circular section.30 Pure torsional stress distribution in a rectangular section.Venant's).16 Torsional Behavior and Strength 279 Plastic ring Elastic core +t.5. Figure 5... the torsional analysis of concrete members has been based on either (1) the classical theory of elasticity developed through mathematical formulations coupled with membrane analogy verifications (St. 5. or (2) the theory of plasticity represented by the sandheap analogy (Nadai's).Venant presented his solution to the elastic torsional problem with warping due to pure torsion which develops in noncircular sections. .1 Torsion in elastic materials. In 1903. r v. The model establishes particular 5. Both theories were applied essentially to the state of pure torsion. The behavior of concrete was found to be better represented by the plastic approach.
it can be proved that the differential equation of the deflected membrane surface has the same form as the equation that determines the stress distribution over the cross section of the bar subjected to twisting moments. (d) Rectangular section. Similarly.. at the corresponding point in the actual member. If S is the maximum displacement of the membrane from the tangent at point A. It can be seen from Figure 5. (2) the maximum slope of the membrane at any point is proportional to the magnitude of shear stress. (S. For small deformations. . it can be demonstrated that (1) the tangent to a contour line at any point of a deflected membrane gives the direction of the shearing stress at the corresponding cross section of the actual membrane subjected to twist. (a) Membrane under pressure.31(b) that the torsional shearing stress is inversely proportional to the distance between the contour lines. this maximum stress has to be proportional to the steepest slope of the tangents at points A and B. then from basic principles of mechanics and St.30 and 5. From the membrane analogy. and (3) the twisting moment to which the actual member is subjected is proportional to twice the volume under the deflected membrane. E!! 0) Tangent to membrane at base (Vt m. the higher the stress.45a) Steepest tangent (Tmax) Contours of constant shear stress Internal pressure A (a) (b) Tangent at any point Horizontal Horizontal tangent (V.31 shows the membrane analogy behavior for rectangular as well as Lshaped forms." = 0) (c) (d) Figure 5. The closer the lines.31 Membrane analogy in elastic pure torsion. Figure 5. (c) Lsection.Venant's theory. (b) Contours in a real beam or in a membrane. leading to the previously stated conclusion that the maximum torsional shearing stress occurs at the middle of the longer side of the rectangle.280 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design relationships between the deflected surface of the loaded membrane and the distribution of torsional stresses in a bar subjected to twisting moments.
e is the angle of twist.16 Torsional Behavior and Strength 281 where G is the shear modulus and slope of the tangent. The torsional moment is also proportional to twice the volume under the heap. most commonly Lbeams comprising the external wall beams of a structural floor. the plastic sandheap analogy provides a better representation of the behavior of brittle elements such as concrete beams subjected to pure torsion than does the elastic analogy. The Lbeam in Figure S.3 Sandheap analogy applied to Lbeams.31. But vt(max) is proportional to the (S. Equation S. or Te ex 2(~'bbh) = k 2'bbh where.4Sd represents the polar moment of inertia II of the section. Figure S. such as an inner concentric rectangle of dimensions x and y. Most concrete elements subjected to torsion are flanged sections.2 Torsion in plastic materials. hence. Or yet again. k2 is a constant. It can also be recognized that the slope of the sandheap sides as a measure of the torsional shearing stress is constant in the sandheap analogy approach. v _ Te b "" Te b kb 3h II t(max)  (S.4Sc) with k3 constant.4Sa and b.16. again. rendering the torsional shear stress calculations lengthy.4Sd can be further simplified to give v t(max)  Te kb 2h (S.2. This characteristic of the sand heap considerably simplifies the solutions. Comparing this equation to Equation (a) for the circular section shows the similarity of the two expressions. 5. The corresponding torsional moment Te is proportional to twice the volume under the membrane.46) It can also be written to give the stress at planes inside the section.5. whereas it is continuously variable in the membrane analogy approach. As indicated earlier. Te = k 3 b 3hGe (S.47) It is important to note in using the membrane analogy approach that the torsional shear stress changes from one point to another along the same axis as AB in Figure S.4Sd) The denominator kb 3h in S. where x is the shorter side. The torsional moment Tp in part (d) of the figure is proportional to twice the volume of the rectangular heap shown in parts (b) and (c). 5.4Sb) where kl is a constant.32 is a two.33 is chosen in applying the plas . except that the factor k in the equation for the rectangular section takes into account the shear strains due to warping. From Equations S. be cause of the changing slope of the analogous membrane. so that vt(max) = k 2 xy Te (S. and the maximum torsional shearing stress is proportional to the slope of the sand heap.16.2.and threedimensional illustration of the sand heap.
(d) Torsional shear stress.b w) ihlb .48 give us . tic sandheap approach to evaluate its torsional moment capacity and shear stress to which it is subjected.50) Substituting YI and Yz from Equations 5. (c) Plan of rectangular section. (a) Sandheap Lsection. the torsional shear stress is proportional to the slope of the sand heaps.49 and 5.49) (5. transferring part PDf to NQM = YzhJb . representing a rectangular crosssectional shape = y 1bw (h . hence.bw )/2 V3 = tent representing the flange of the beam.bw)] T:=+ + 2 p [ 3 2 2 (5.282 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design (8) (b) (e) (d) Figure 5.32 Sandheap analogy in plastic pure torsion. Y1b~ Ylbw(h .50 into Equation 5. hence. (5. The sand heap is broken into three volumes: VI = pyramid representing a square crosssectional shape = Y1b ~/3 V 2 = tent portion of the web. (b) Sandheap rectangular section.48) Also.b w)/2 The torsional moment is proportional to twice the volume of the sand heaps.
.7 Reinforced plaster bea m at failu re in pure torsion. we have T. Nawy.N(bj.L H ofr. H • 'I' b ..5.). ~::o E O/JT h.1 F E. (a) Sand heap on lshaped cross section. (d) Transformed tent of beam lIange (V..33 Sandheap analogy of flanged section.bwlh)] ' nl + j(hpbw)2(blh  hwlh) (5.j B 1. t J r. the equat ion becomes Photo 5.b. (l .) . )!)2 and the terms rea rranged. )' V m = (i(3 . (c) Tent segment from web (V2).' 0 IbI I" Idl Figure 5.. is the denominator in this equation and th at i t::. (b) Composite pyramid from web (V. t O.5 1) If both the numerator and denominator of Equation 5.F . ( Rutgers tests: Law.51 are divided by (b . = CAb. (5. et al./I) 2.16 Torsional Behavior and Strength 283 N 1tLZ~ G F Ct=.L r. .) . '\i 1 " • J A r'.520) If one assumes that C.
(Ru tgers tests: L1W.5 is used to o ffset any effect of bending moments that might be presen t. (a) Top view. It was also established that 6~ can be considered as a li miting value o f the pure to rsional strength o f a member without torsional reinforcemen t. ~ O. Note that Eq uation 5. It mllst also be recognized that concrete is not a perfectly plastic material. the actual torsional strength of the plain concrete section has a value lying between the membrane analogy and the sandheap analogy values.53. results in T.53b) where x is the smaller dimension of the rectangular section.SVr.= (5.34.52b can be rewriuen designat ing Tp == Te as the nom inal torsional resistance of the plain concrete and v /(mu) = VIC using AClterminology.284 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Oesign I' holo 5. Usi ng a reduction factor o f 2. If the cross section is a T. T his value originated from research in the skewbending theory o f plai n concrete. (5.or Lsection.5 fo r the fi rst cracking torsiona l load v'c =2. a function of the shape of the beam cross section.) 0' (5.54a) where x is the shorter side of the rectangul ar sectio n.Equalion 5. Nawy el a\. Ex tensive work on reinforced concrete beams by IIsu and conlirmed by others has established that k2 can be taken as i.i' Y (5.) T.52b is similar in formal to Equation 5.8 Plain mortar beam in pure torsion.53. (b) Bottom view.528 can be readily appl ied to rectangula r sections by sell ing O. Equtll ion S. and usi ng k2=i in Eq uation 5. hence. T he high red uct ion factor of 2.)I v/(mu ) = j . so that " .54b) 5. T he fo regoing should give a suWcient background o n the con tribution of the plain concrete in the section toward resisting part of the combined stresses resulting from tor .4~. the area can be broken into component recta ngles as in Figure 5. . except for the differen t values of the denomi nators J and J E. such that (5.52b) whe re J £: is the eq ui vale nt pola r moment of inertia.17 TORSION IN REINFORCED AND PRESTRESSED CONCRETE ELEMENTS Torsion rarely occurs in concrete structures wit hout bei ng accompa nicd by bending and shear.45d from the membrane analogy.
If Tn = required total nominal torsional resistance of the section. Zia. Inclusion of longitudinal and transverse reinforcement to resist part of the torsional moments introduces a new element in the set of forces and moments in the section. Initially proposed by Lessig. The capacity of the plain concrete to resist torsion when in combination with other loads could. A general discussion presented here concentrates on (a) the skew bending theory. 5. Mattock. in many cases. Gesund. Except for the skew bending theory.17 Torsion in Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Elements 285 Figure 5. sional.17. and Elfgren among the several researchers in this field. Consequently. it had subsequent contributions from Collins.55) Several theories have been proposed over the past half century. 5. Hsu details the development of the theory of torsion as applied to concrete structures and how the skewbending theory formed the basis of the initial ACI code provisions on tor . (c) the compression field theory. Hsu.5. be lower than when it resists the same factored external twisting moments alone. and (d) the plasticity equilibrium truss theory. (b) the space truss analogy theory. axial. torsional reinforcement has to be provided to resist the excess torque.34 Component rectangles for calculation of Te. In his book (Ref.1 SkewBending Theory Skewbending theory considers in detail the internal deformational behavior of the series of transverse warped surfaces along the beam. shear. Hsu made a major contribution experimentally to the development of the skewbending theory as it presently stands.9). including the reinforcement Tc = nominal torsional resistance of the plain concrete and Ts = torsional resistance of the reinforcement then (5. the other models consider the shear flow in hollow box sections as the principal element in evaluating the torsional capacity of solid and hollow sections. or flexural forces.
depending on the amount and distribution of both the longitudinal bars and the transverse closed ties. The neutral axis of the skewed surface and the shaded area in Figure 5. and the normal compressive block force Cc" The torsional moment Tc of the resisting shearing force Fe generated by the shaded compressive block area in Figure 5. The complexity of the torsional problem permits here only the brief discussion that follows. cracks develop on three sides of the beam cross section.36(a) is thus (a) (b) Figure 5. as shown in Figure 5.36(b) gives the shear resistance Fe of the concrete. The skewbending theory idealizes the compression zone by considering it to be of uniform depth.36(a) shows the forces acting on the skewly bent plane. The polygon in Figure 5.286 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design sion.35(a). but its torsional resistance is considerably increased. As torsional loading proceeds to the limit state at failure. and compressive stresses appear on portions of the fourth side along the beam. (a) Bending before twist. Prior to cracking. the stiffness of the section is reduced. a skewed failure surface results due to the combined torsional moment Tu and bending moment Mu.35 and torsion. At the postcracking stage of loading. the force Tt of the active longitudinal steel bars in the compression zone. Skew bending due to torsion. Figure 5. (b) Bending . If a twisting moment Tu is also applied exceeding the capacity of the section. neither the longitudinal bars nor the closed stirrups have any appreciable contribution to the torsional stiffness of the section.35(b) denoting the compression zone would no longer be straight. It has to be emphasized that little additional torsional strength can be achieved beyond the capacity of the plain concrete in the beam unless both longitudinal torsion bars and transverse ties are used. but sub tend a varying angle e with the original plane cross sections. The failure surface of the normal beam cross section subjected to bending moment Mu remains plane after bending. with the steel ties (stirrups) at those faces carrying the tensile forces at the cracks and the longitudinal bars resisting shear through dowel action with the concrete. It assumes the cracks on the remaining three faces of the cross section to be uniformly spread.
5. (b) Vector forces on compression zone. Extensive tests (Refs.5. Fy = forces on longitudinal bars Fv = forces on vertical stirrups spaced 'at distance s c = resu ltant force on compression (a) zone at failure (b) Figure 5. and others. Further refinement was introduced by Rabbat and Collins (Ref.9 and 5.17. 5. 5.56b) 5. Te = cos F ~5 X its arm about forces Fv in the figure 0 or (5.17 Torsion in Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Elements y 287 Compression zone in skew bending z x T~ Fx. with additional work by Hsu.2 Space Truss Analogy Theory Space truss analogy theory was originally developed by Rausch and later extended by Lampert and Collins.11).10) to evaluate Fe in terms of the internal stress in concrete kl and the geometrical torsional constants of the section k2X2y led to the expression Vfl (5. Elfgren. (a) All forces acting on skew plane at failure.56a) where x is the shorter side of the beam.13) on the variable angle space truss and Collins and Mitchell (Ref. Thurliman. .36 Forces on the skewbent planes.
. the acceptability of the space truss analogy approach based on hollow sections. F = inclined compressive force on horizontal side cy = inclined compressive force on vertical side Tt = shear flow force per unit length of wall Figure 5.37 Forces on hollowbox concrete surface by truss analogy. In summary. where Do is the diameter of the circle inscribed in the rectangle connecting the corner longitudinal bars. Because of the nonplanar shape of the cross sections due to the twisting moment. The shear flow concept was utilized in deriving the relevant expressions for shear equilibrium. The space truss analogy is an extension of the model used in the design of the shearresisting stirrups. are resisted by the stirrups.17 and 5. It is assumed in this theory that the concrete beam behaves in torsion similarly to a thinwalled box with a constant shear flow in the wall cross section. consisting of the longitudinal bars and transverse stirrups. a space truss composed of the stirrups is used as the diagonal tension members. as shown in Figure 5. F Yo Y Ttyo tan¢ 1 F = tensile force in each longitudinal bar Cx . compatibility and the softened constitutive laws of concrete in a unified theory that can predict with reasonable accuracy the shear and torsional behavior of beams (the softened truss model).288 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design Hsu (Refs. The CEBFIP code is based on the space truss model. the effective wall thickness of the hollow beam is taken as!D o. Do = Xo in Figure 5. and the idealized concrete inclined compression struts in the plane of the cage wall.37. In this code. namely. in which the diagonal tension cracks. producing a constant torsional moment. 5. once they start to develop. and the idealized concrete strips at a variable angle e between the cracks are used as the compression members (struts). Such a conclusion is borne out of tests which have shown that the torsional strength of the solid sections is composed of the resistance of the closed stirrup cage.37. provided that the walls were not too thin. The use of hollowwalled sections rather than solid sections proved to give essentially the same ultimate torsional moment.18) proposed combining the equilibrium.37. The compression struts are the inclined concrete strips between the cracks in Figure 5. the absence of the core does not affect the strength of such members in torsionhence.~.
Hsu.1 1).17 Torsion in Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Elements 289 5. testingsctup. 5. and that torsional shear is carried by the fi eld o f diagonal compression struts. Elfgren proposed the compression fi elds to describe components of the plasticity truss model currently used in the European Code.57) where E. C. (CO//f/esy. but rather uses limits based on the areas of the longitudinal tension steel and the transverse torsional web steel ( incli ned or vertical closed stirrups o r ties).3 Compression Field Theory The compression fi eld theory can be conside red a specia l case of the general truss model theory. which produce a shear now q around the perimeter ( Ref.38 points up the fact that the torsional force is resisted by the tangent ia l components of the diagonal compression stru ts. the angle of inclination {) of these struts can be defin ed as tan {) = .37 of the d iagonal cracks or the compression struts between the diagonal cracks is not idealized to 45°. The angle of inclination {) in Fig. Assumi ng that concrete carries no tension after cracking.9 Reinforced concrete beams in torsion. + EJ + EJ (5. Thomas T. 5.5."2Ph ". (5.) . and Collins and Mitchell modified the approach. proposing the terms to be subsequen Uy discussed . Figure 5.17. E/ = longitudinaltcnsilc strain in the main bars A = transverse tensile strain in bars B Ed= diagonal compression strain The area A o in the figure enclosed by the shear now q can be obtained as A o = Aoh .58) where A Oh =area enclosed by the centerli ne of the hoop Ph = hoop centerline perimeter Photo 5.E/ 2 E..
10 Closeup or torsional cracking of beams in the preceding photograph.. Hsu. Thomas T.) til CrIcked btI. C.290 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design Photo 5. B (d) Equilibrium of =M' Figure 5.38 Compression field truss model by Collins and Mitchell (Ref. . 5.m in torsion I I (b) Longitudinll equilibrium tel Shetr flow peth T A f '. 11). (Collrtesy.
39 Effective thickness td and compression block depth aO' .. "".I O. The transverse a nd longitudi nal strai ns in t he steel at the nominallorsional momen t Tn can be respectively defined as E ( O.) = ( O...85~d. Ao tan e A < Tn I 0.Ao . Ej ..6 1.17 Torsion In Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Elements 291 ao =compression block depth (identical to the depth a of the equivalent rectangular block in flex ure) T he eq uivalen t wall thickness td in the analysis o f the twisted beam is shown in Figure 5.lXl3 ) (5. Figure 5.85~. la nu A . a nd the dept h (/0 o f the compressive block is defi ned in Equa tion 5.59b) whe re the nominal torsional shear stress is Effec'live """' . as well as the ex posed transverse lies aft e r spalling of the concrete cover allorsion failure. The diagonal torsiona l cracks.40.59.39.= T.5. a re demonstra ted in Figure 5.raJ.003 ) (5..
. p. These assumptions do not seem to be correct.59.60 and the following expression for the compression block depth Q o in torsion according to Collins and Mitchell (Ref.62) where Vp = vertical component on the prestressing force. Aef.. d . and (2) using nonsoftened stressstrain curve of the concrete.85f~ A~ tanD (5. T ~ T"p.58. the less is the transverse hoop steel needed and the more is the required . This can be taken as the nexural lever arm.38 range between 24° for pure torsion and 90° for pure nexure.60. = effective shear depth. the sheari ng stress at nominal strengths Tn and V" in Equation 5. For combined torsion and shear. 5. T. 5. considering the actual torsional behavior of the concrete elemen t. It should be noted that Equations 5.40 Torsional failure of webreinforced beam after spaliing of cover (Collins and Mitchell. ( tana + 1 ) ] O. A~ " (5.63 are based on the assumptions: (1) spa lling of concrete cover. the lower the value of a selected for a given torque. 5. The predicted values of the compressive strut inclination a in Figure 5. b~ = minimum effective web width within shear depth d" after spalling of cover.60) The area Ao e nclosed by the shear now ca n be obtained from Equat ion 5. Hence. but 1101 len' than the vertical distance between the cente rs of bars o r prestressing tendons at the corners o f the st irrups. 11 ): a o ~ A .. 5. and 5..1 1). Subtract the diameters of d ucts from the web width if ungrouted . or half the diameter o f ducts for grouted tendons. [~ 1 1 p.61.61) where T" is the nominal torsional moment strength at the limit state at failure.292 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design Figure 5. 5..61 becomes (5.
4.63) It should bc noted that in the compression fi eld theory. The shear flow concept is ulilized in deriving the relevant expressions for shear equ ilibrium.) 0.) 0. IS).17./s.. 5.17. 5. This is discussed in Section 12.ls respectively such that the shear flow q can be defined by the eq uilibrium equations .50EI < 0 < 80 _ 35(..17 Torsion in Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Elements 293 I Photo 5. compatibility and the softened constitutive laws of concrete in a unified theory that can predict with reasonable accuracy the shear and torsiona l behavior of beams (The softened truss model). Prestressed Concrete Institute.18) proposed combining the equilibrium. Alabama . The compression field theory assumes that the geometrical properties of the designed section are chosen on the basis of yielding of the transverse web reinforcement and longitudinal steel prior to diagonal crushing of the concrete.4 Plasticity Equilibrium Truss Theory Hsu (Ref.57 and 5.1 and Figure 12.42 .58a should be taken as the yield strain E.50 for prestressed concrete members. assembly of segmental bridge units. leading to the design expressions presented in that section for detenni ning the compression strut variable inclination angle 0.S (c).y. Reinforceme nt in both the longitudinal (EW) direction I and transverse (NS) direclion t is subjected to a unit stress [. The Code approach assumes II COl/stant incli nat ion angle 0. 5.41 (Hsu. V" is attributcd to compression diagonals inclined at an angle e = 45 0 for rcinforced concrete. adopted by AASHTO aft er modifications.4. Ref. 5.42 . the principal tcnsile st ress is assumed to be equa l to zero after the concrete has crackeda hypothesis subject to justification. taking into account the con tribu tion of tensile stress in the concre te between the cracks. and f. A unit sq uare membrane clemen t o f thickness t is subjected 10 shear flow q due to pure shear in Figure 5.65E1y (5. Since transverse closed stirrups or ties are more expensive than longitudinal bars.) area of longi tudina l steel.1 Equilibrium in element shear. A modified compression fie ld theory was subsequently proposed by Collins and Mitchell.1[.5. The range of the compression strU! angle e in degrees can be eval uated fro m 10 + 35(. in Equations 5.1[. the transverse strai n E.11 Dauphin Island Bridge. 5.17. Consequently. II choice of lower values of 0 is more economical in design. This approach also differs fundamentally from the present standard ACt Code. and 37. in that the con tribu tion in shear resistance by the plain concret e. (Collrlesy.
65 give tan a = and qy Ji ty Fly (5. It is subjected to pure torsion.42b.18). band 5. If an infinitesimal wall element ABeD is isolated as in Figure 5.64a.41 Equilibrium forces in element shear (Ref.66b) where the subscript y denotes the yielding of the reinforcement. respectively.41 the shear flow can also be defined as q = (fDt) sin a cos a (5. The case of a hollow tube of any shape and variable thickness is considered (Figure 5.67) . the shear flow in the I direction has to be equal to the shear flow in the t direction or (5.64b) where unit Ft = AJvls A[ and At are the crosssectional areas of the reinforcement.42a and that the inplane normal stresses in the wall vanish.65) If the reinforcement in both directions is assumed to have yielded. 5. Equations 5.64a) where unit F[ = A[hls[ and (5. Hence. and in the I and t directions. St. (5.66a) = YF[yFty (5.17. it can be assumed that only shear stresses develop in the tube wall in the form of shear flow q in Figure 5. 5.4.42).Venant's theory stipulates that the crosssectional shape remains unchanged in elastic small deformations and the warping deformation perpendicular to the crosssection would be the same along the member's axis.294 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design I rt=s ~ Alt Direction D (a) Shear element (thickness h) (b) Truss model Figure 5. Sl and s are the spacings From the geometry of the triangles in Figure 5.2 Equilibrium in element torsion.
71b) (5.70) By neglecting warping.18).17 Torsion in Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Elements 295 (a) (b) Figure 5.71a) where FI = FI Po and Po = perimeter of the shear flow path. 5.42 Hollow tube equilibrium torsion forces.65. and 5.68) It can be seen from Figure 5.64a. Note: I and t denote the longitudinal and transverse directions.42a that rdt in the integral is equal to twice the area of the shaded triangle formed by rand dt. b. (b) Unit shear element from tube wall of varying thickness h.42a becomes identical to the membrane shear element in Figure 5. the following three equations of equilibrium for torsion result in FI T = . the shear element subjected to pure torsion in the tube wall of Figure 5.70 into Equations 5. substituting for the shear flow q from Equation 5.(2Ao) tan e Po (5.72) .69) where Ao = crosssectional area bounded by the shear flow center line. The torsional force over an infinitesimal distance dt along the shear flow path is qdt so that the torsional resistance to the external torsional moment T in Figure 5.41a.71b can be written at yield as Tn = 2AoAtfyv s cote (5. T = F t (2Ao) cot e (5. A summation of the total area around the cross sec tion gives f r dt = 2Ao (5. Hence.42a becomes (5.71c) T = (fDt)(2Ao) sin e cos e Equation 5. the shear flow q is considered constant throughout the crosssection (Ref.68 gives T q = 2Ao (5.5. (a) Section of tube subjected to torsion T. Substituting 2Ao into Equation 5. FI is the total longitudinal force due to torsion. On this basis.
the following expression can be derived from equilibrium (Ref. Vo.76a) (5. 5.4.37 and 5.74a) where Al1 is the area of one longitudinal bar.18) ~ + (~)2 FByo 2yo Yo _s_ FB AJv + (~)2 (Yo + xo) _s_ _ 1 2Ao FB AJv (5. then Al = .!L 2Yo (b) qr=L 2.75) if M o. Consider the rectangular box in Figures 5.74b) where Al = total area of all longitudinal torsional steel in the section. .43. they can be defined as follows Mo = FByo Vo (5.43. (b) yielding of the longitudinal top compression steel and the transverse stirrups.43 Hollow section shear flow q due to combined shear and torsion. and To are the moments and forces acting alone. If Sl as the longitudinal reinforcement spacing represents the perimeter Ph of the centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement. The shear flow q will not be the same on the four walls of the box when subjected to combined shear and torsion as shown in Figure 5. The required torsional reinforcement in the transverse and longitudinal directions become (5..17.. 5. Failure can precipitate in two distinct modes: (a) yielding of the longitudinal bottom tension steel and the transverse stirrups.296 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design where Tn is the maximum torsional moment strength.40 q= qv+ qr Figure 5.76b) = 2yo )(FT) Atfv Yo s.3 Sheartorsionbending interaction.73) _ At (fyv) 2 All ..for a twoweb box Xo 11111011111 qrt I1111 HIIIII qtt Yo + ! t ! t r qv b qr qr b qb 1111101111/ (a) IIIII(+J 1111I (c) qv=. (a) Bottom Tension Steel Yielding If the failure mode is caused by yielding of the longitudinal bottom stringer (tensile steel) and the transverse stirrups due to combined shear and torsion. fyl (Sl cot e) (5. Ph At (fyv) 2 fyl cot e (5.
76c) R ~ FT F.1.75 such that (5.) R Vo To (~)' + (I.25.)' ~. Equation 5.77a and b give (5. and 1.)' ~ 1 (!i. (Collrtesy.).76 into Equalion 5.0 on the peak planes gives the ci rcular plots shown in Figure 5.5. The inte rsection of Ihe two fai lure surfaces for these two failure modes forms a peak in teract ion curve between Vand T that Equations 5. and in the transverse reinfo rcement.77a and 5.77b) From both Equations 5.!l.44.76d) A nondimensiona l interaction surface relationShip can be obtained by introducing Equalion 5. Wilden & Assoc.12 The Woodley Park Zoo station.78 for R = 0. Vo To 2R (5. H.) Equation 5.C. (5.f. in the bollom bar. all on the side where shear flows due to shear aD tord .77. c ~ 2A o where Po= 2(yo + xo) 0 J(2F A. A third mode of fai lure is caused by yieldi ng in the top ba r. D..77b the interaction of V and T is circular fo r a constant bending moment M for both failure surfaces.) (b) Top Compression Steel Yielding If the fail ure mode is caused by yielding of the longitudinal top chord (compression steel) and the tra nsverse stirrups.17 Torsion in Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Elements 297 Photo 5.2.77a becomes _Mo ~ + (~)' + (I... 0.78.5. Washington. Po T) S (5.
!::.... the shear resisted by concrete.. =2(xo + Yo) Tu = <1>4 Vt. In the calculation of Tn(ACI 31899... 5..5 . the web reinforcement for shear is determined by the value of Vs = Vn ..5.. In statically indeterminate systems.78b) The factored torsional moment strength.p. 5. 5... compatibility of strains at the joints and redistribution of stresses may affect the stress resultants...5 Figure 5.... sion are additive i..&. where Tn = Tj<l> with <I> = 0. and M used in the previous codes. Ref.1). and Bending in Accordance with the ACI31SoS Code Adjusting in the equilibrium truss model of Section 5. At the same time.. 2..79) .78 results as follows (.0 .1 Compatibility torsion.15). 5. (A~p) 11 + ~ Ppc \j 4Vt.. In summary.. the following are the ACI 318 Code provisions for designing the longitudinal and transverse reinforcement in prestressed elements. must equal or exceed the external torsion.Vc while the web reinforcement for torsion by the Tn value alone.85..~ 0. 1..44 Sheartorsion interaction diagram.. Shear..r..)2 + v2 (~) _ ~ Vo To VoTo 2R (5..)2 + (I.5 Design of Prestressed Concrete Beams Subjected to Combined Torsion.. A reduction is permitted in the value of the factored moment used in the design of the member if part of this moment can be redistributed to the intersecting members. A modified form of Equation 5. stiffness assumptions.0 . (5. all the torque is assumed to be resisted by the closed stirrups and longitudinal steel with the torsional moment Tc resisted by the concrete compression struts assumed as zero.17.5 o L. T...e..(fo) 1. left wall (Ref... due to the factored loads. leading to a reduction of the resulting torsional shearing stresses. This simplification eliminates the need for the rigor of the lengthy interaction expressions for V. <l>Tn. Vc is assumed to be unchanged by the presence of torsion. T u..17. r.17.298 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design 1. The ACI Code permits a maximum factored torsional moment at the critical section hl2 from the face of the supports for prestressed concrete members as follows: where Acp Pcp = area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross section =xoYo = outside perimeter of concrete cross section A cp ' in..4.
This is similar to the limiting strength Vs ::.45..82) where AOh = area enclosed by the centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement.48a.84(a).48b and as discussed in Section 5.17 Torsion in Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Elements 299 where = average compressive stress in the concrete at the centroidal axis due to effective prestress only after allowing for alliosses. Torsional moments are neglected however if for prestressed concrete Ic (5.7Aoh ):5 <I>(~ + 8~) bwd bwd (5. in effect. 8~ for shear without torsion.85A oh in Equation 5. lead to failure of the structure but may result in excessive cracking if <l>4~(A2c/Pcp) is considerably smaller in value than the actual factored torque.17.17. sq. if the wall thickness t < AOh/Ph the lefthand side of Equation 5.82 has a maximum value. The area AOh for different sections are given in Figure 5.80) The size of the cross section is chosen on the basis of reducing unsightly cracking and preventing the crushing of the surface concrete caused by the inclined compressive stresses due to shear and torsion defined by the left hand side of the expressions in Equation 5. If the actual factored torque is less than that given in Equation 5. Note that in a solid section the shear stresses due to torsion still concentrate in the outer zones of the section as in Figure 5.17. 5. 5.5.5.3 Hollow sections wall thickness. The shear stresses due to shear and to torsion both develop in the walls of the hollow section as seen in Figure 5.5.79.1. Ph = perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement. Also. the section geometry has to be evaluated at such a location where the lefthand side of Equation 5. in. in.47 give guidance to the determination of the area AOh and the shear flow area Ao == 0. The geometrical dimensions for torsional moment strength in both reinforced and prestressed members are limited by the following expressions.2 Torsional moment strength. (~) + ( 1. If the wall thickness in the hollow section varies around its perimeter.82 should not exceed the stresses causing shear cracking plus 8~. The sum of the stresses at the left hand side of Equation 5.81. Figures 5.lc is denoted in the ACI Code as fpc' Neglect of the full effect of the total value of external torsional moment in this case does not.46 and 5.81) (b) Hollow Sections TuP.3.82 should be taken as . the beam has to be designed for the lesser torsional value. (a) Solid Sections (5.
Ideally.0A Vf'c bwd p p (5.17. As indicated in Section 5.83) where fpe > O.4 Torsional web reinforcement.3. The wall thickness t is the thickness where stresses are being checked. Al is the total crosssectional area of the longitudinal bars.45 Torsional geometric parameters.5.17. meaningful additional torsional strength due to the addition of torsional reinforcement can be achieved only by using both stirrups and longitudinal bars. (TJ<I» where Figure 5. equal volumes of steel in both the closed stirrups and the longitudinal bars should be used so that both participate equally in resisting the twisting moments. If s is the spacing of the stirrups. Figure 5. Vudp ::.7A Vf'c bwd ::. 1.85 AOh AOh =Xl Yl =shaded area to center line of stirrups Note: All stirrups should be closed.46 Shearflow geometry and effective shear area.4fpu5. .300 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design Acp = XOYO Ao = 0.0 Mu . and At is the cross section of one stirrup leg. the transverse reinforcement for torsion has to be based on the full external torsional moment strength value Trv namely. 5.::: 1. This principle is the basis of the ACI expressions for proportioning the torsional web steel.
5.. = Diameter of duct = dd Grouted duct Figure 5. Effective shear width and depth of typical prestressed concrete sec ..47 tions.17 Torsion in Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Elements 301 Flanges prevent cover from spaliing ..
302 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design 1 I "I ~ 1 il Torsional stresses m Shear stresses (a) Hollow section Wi im 1 I I I ___ oJ H!H!!!! Shear stresses ===E Torsional stresses (b) Solid section Figure 5. sq.84b) The area Ao has to be determined by analysis (Ref.17. The additional longitudinal reinforcement for torsion should not be less than _ At (fyt) 2 Al .84b. e = angle of the compression diagonals (struts) in the space truss analogy for torsion (See Figure 5. namely Tc = O. (b) Torsion acts on "tubular" outerwall section while shear stress acts on the full width of solid section: stresses combined using square root of sum of squares (Equation 7. (5. sq.30b). It can be obtained by analysis as detailed in Ref.3. 5. the factored torsional resistance <J>Tn must equal or exceed the factored external torsional moment Tu' All the torsional moment is assumed in the ACI 318 code to be resisted by the closed stirrups and the longitudinal steel with the torsional resistance. The shear Vc resisted by the concrete is assumed to be unchanged by the presence of torsion (see Section 5. the transverse reinforcement area becomes At S Tn 2Aofyt cot e (5.2).18 by Hsu.72) Ao = gross area enclosed by the shear flow path.14 and 7.000 psi. At = crosssectional area of one leg of the transverse closed stirrups. Tc' of the concrete disregarded. As discussed in Section 5.85) where fyl = yield strength of the longitudinal torsional reinforcement. .15) except that the ACI 318 Code permits taking Ao = 0. 7. The angle e subtended by the concrete compression diagonals (struts) should not be taken smaller than 30° nor larger than 60°.000 psi. (a) Directly additive occurring in the left wall of the box (Equation 7. in..84a) (See the derivation of Equation 5. fyt = yield strength of closed transverse torsional reinforcement not to exceed 60. Transposing terms in Equation 5. in.3.17.48 Superposition of torsional and shear stresses.39). Ph fy cot e (5. not to exceed 60.85A oh in lieu of the analysis.30b).17 and 5.
12) recommends computing the value of e from the expression: (5. the torsional reinforcement should extend for a minimum distance of (b t + d) beyond the point theoretically required for torsion because torsional diagonal cracks develop in a helical form extending beyond the cracks caused by shear and flexure.85 increases. the following equations replace the corresponding expressions in the PI (PoundInch) method (5.17.5.84 and 5. the minimum area of the required transverse closed stirrups is 50b ws Av + 2At 2:: 1(5. The minimum total area of the additional longitudinal torsional reinforcement should be determined by (5.5. At the same time the amount of longitudinal steel required by Equation 5. It should be noted that as e gets smaller. b t is the width of that part of cross section containing the stirrups resisting torsion.3 bar. It is necessary to provide a minimum area of torsional reinforcement in all regions where the factored torsional moment Tu exceeds the value given by Equation 5.84 decreases.17 Torsion in Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Elements 303 The same angle e should be used in both Equations 5. The bar diameter should be at least h of the stirrup spacing but not less than a No.85.17. d being the effective depth and h the total depth of the section.5° for prestressed members with an effective prestressing force larger than 40 percent of the tensile strength of the longitudinal reinforcement. In lieu of determining the angle e by analysis. 5. In such a case.79) .88) where At Is should not be taken less than 25b. 5. the ACI Code allows a value of e equal to (i) 45° for nonprestressed members or members with less prestress than in (ii).6 SIMetric Expressions for Torsion Equations In order to design for combined torsion and shear using the SI (System International) method.5 Minimum torsional reinforcement. (ii) 37. The longitudinal bars or tendons should be placed inside the closed stirrups and at least one longitudinal bar or tendon in each corner of the stirrup. The critical section in beams is at a distance d from the face of the support for reinforced concrete elements and at hl2 for prestressed concrete elements.86) 5.87) yt The maximum spacing should not exceed the smaller of Pnl8 or 12 in. the amount of stirrups required by Equation 5. The PCI (Ref.80. Also.jfY I' The additional longitudinal reinforcement required for torsion should be distributed around the perimeter of the closed stirrups with a maximum spacing of 12 in.
where b w .:=: .82) (S.88) where A/s should not be taken less than 0.80) (S.0 Tn = 2AoAtfyt cote s (S.3Sb ws = f yt (S.18 DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR COMBINED TORSION AND SHEAR The following is a summary of the recommended sequence of design steps.:=: Apsfpu 8QF db' Use the lesser of the two sets.83) = ( ~/20 + S~ud)bwd . .17 A ~)bwd ~ (OAA ~ )bwd and Vudp/Mu ~ 1. and bars should have a diameter of at least is of the stirrups spacing but not less than No.87) _ AI.304 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design (S.84a) where fyv is in MPa. At s Tn 2Ao fyt cot e (S. 10 M bar size. At in mm2 and Tn in kNm. A flowchart describing the sequence of operations in graphical form is shown in Figure SA9. fyt or /y should not exceed 400 MPa. .r. Max. Ao. s in millimeter.:.8S) _ At (fyt) 2 Al . dp and s are in milimeters 16 Jyt p 5.min  S~ Acp 12fy _ (At) S (fyt) Ph fy (S.81) Vu ) (bwd Vc Vc + (TuPn) <<I>( . ~yt it w 1 .17S bJfyt. Maximum allowable spacing of transverse stirrups is the smaller oHPh or 300 mm.7A6h A bwd 12 (S. Avt the smaller of  Avt s ... (b w ) v f: F whichever is larger.84b) (S. Min.35b w Avt or Jyt S =  .:=: (0.Ph fy cot e where fyv and fyl are in MPa.+ 8~) 1. Ph and s in millimeters and Ab At in mm2 • Av O.1 "  0.
4 H' (A~p) )1 +4.18 Design Procedure for Combined Torsion and Shear 305 Given: loading. allowable stresses and strengths. A oh' As' Pcp' Ph' t. 1. for prestressed members. h.6 A . support conditions. The value of the design nominal strength Tn has to be at least equivalent to the factored Tjd.. Determine the critical section and compute the factored torsional moment Tu' The critical section is taken at hl2 from the face of the support in prestressed concrete beams.(~+8H') bwd e h ) where Ve = (0. proportioning the section such that . (A2) ~r:T pcp 1 +A~ ep 4vfe YES for PIS sections Torsional effects . x o' Yo' Xl' Yl' Aep' Ao. 2.. average stress fee after losses.7 A!h )2 ~ q. repeat design Figure 5.49 Flowchart for the design reinforcement for combined shear and torsion: (a) torsional web steel.7 A!h ~q. (b) shear web steel. 'e u e Pcp for PIS sections NO Tu> q. for pis.H'b d e w p The cross section has to be enlarged.JP. torsional effects are neglected. bw' d.JP. If Tu is less than </J~(A~p/Pcp) VI + tcl4V'J.5" PIS Calculated factored ~ and ~.H'b d e w p e~5. For compatibility torsion: T = q. i t ~ 1.1 can be neglected For solid sections: ~)2 ( bwd + ( TuPh 1. Classify whether the applied torsion is equilibrium or compatibility torsion. limit the design torsional moment to the lesser of the actual moment Tu or Tu = </J4y1j': (A~p/Pep) VI + tcl4Vi'c for prestressed concrete members. fe is the compressive stress in the concrete after prestress losses at the centroid of the section resisting externally applied loads (termed as fpc in the ACI Code). Check whether the factored torsional moment Tu causes equilibrium or compatibility torsion.2...+ 700 u V .0 Vd u For hollow sections: ~) TUP ( bwd + (1.>. at a distance d from the support.. fyt' fy' e = 37.JP. For compatibility torsion.(~ + 8 H') bwd e ~dp) bwd.5.
::: O.. 50bws ~ .::: 2.06 TbwdforAs y ~ Spacing at closed stirrups. A 'y A'.min .3 bar for longitudinal bars I Arrange the stirrups and longitudinal reinforcement. A. Vc = ( 0.0A and !pe.0 25 T" Iy S Iyv L1 Routine to calculate shear ~ reinforcement.03 Tbwdfor+As y Total stirrups area/two legs..£ cp ..OA Vi:: bwdp .7Aoh <!>(~ + 8~) bwd bwd If the wall thickness is less than AOh/Ph' the second term should be taken as Tj1. S = area of two~~: of stirrup Maximum allowable s = smaller of l!8Ph or 12 in.49 End (a) ") Continued (a) for solid sections: (b) for hollow sections: TuP~)::5 (~) + ( 1. Minimum bar diameter = s/16 or No. Vi:: bwd ::5 S.. I C Figure 5.JP... 7A oht..o .85 AOh At ~t Ph (~ ) co~ 8.4!pu ..:. A.1 306 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design ~I 7= 2 Ao fytcot 8 where At Tn Ao = 0. At bw Ph r where . Fig.)s.49b I Avr=2At+ Av. + 700 Mu p Vu dp ) bwdp .6A V !~ • r. but not less than 5. 5. At S f".
Vu is the factored external shear force at the critical section.6 A + 700 (~:)bwd Vf'c " 5.. Calculate the required shear reinforcement Av per unit spacing in a transverse section. using a maximum yield strength of 60. Acp AI. h Vud 0 Mu . (b) Figure 5.5.. Vc is the nominal .49 Continued 3.000 psi.86.3 bar size. 4. v'f'c b w d "'1.v'f'c bw d Wit .. and bars should have a diameter of at least is of the stirrup spacing but not less than a No. such that At s Tn 2Ao fyv cot 8 Unless using Ao and 8 values obtained from analysis (Ref.18) or from Equation 5.18 Design Procedure for Combined Torsion and Shear Subroutine 307 Prestressed concrete: Vc= 0..1. Maximum allowable spacing of transverse stirrups in the smaller of lPh or 12 in. use Ao = 0.5° for prestressed members with an effective prestress not less than the tensile strength of the longitudinal reinforcement.0 'J.7'J.min  fy _ (At) S fyt Ph fy where A!s shall not be less than 25bw1fyt. 5.85A oh and 8 = 45° for nonprestressed members and 37. Select the required torsional closed stirrups to be used as transverse reinforcement. The additional longitudinal reinforcement should be but not less than _ 5vJ.
2 in. and 54 ft (16.5m) span precast doubleT's are supported by typical precast prestressed concrete spandrel Lbeams spanning 36 ft (11m) on centers (Figures 5. and Vs is the shearing force to be resisted by the stirrups: _u_ ::. (84.50. Given data are the following: Beam Properties Ae = 696 in.:. The floor panels are 36 ft x 54 ft (11m x 16.3 cm) Ct = 41.85 for sand lightweight concrete 0.0 A = 1. bws V t: F Jyt Extend the stirrups a distance (b t + dp ) beyond the point theoretically no longer required.308 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design shear resistance of the concrete in the web.75 for all lightweight concrete The value of Vn has to be at least equal to the factored Vj<J>. 2 (4.9 A parking garage floor for mediumsize cars has the prestressed concrete flooring system shown in Figure 5. (106 cm) . The depth of the Lbeam is chosen as 6'3" so as to provide a parapet wall for the roof on top of the doubleTee beams. The spandrel beams are torsionally restrained by their connections to the supporting columns.3 x 106 cm4) Cb = 33. 5.8 in. 5.0 for normalweight concrete = = 0. and design the stirrups such that =+2: Avt s 2At s Av s 50b w the lesser of .:. where b t = width of the crosssection containing the closed stirrup resisting torsion.50(a) and (b». The floor is subjected to a service superimposed dead load due to the doubleT's of W SD = 77 psf (3.and Av Jyt = 0.75 • r.520 in. Obtain the total AVI' the area of closed stirrups for torsion and shear. Vd Mu 1.5 m) on centers.19 DESIGN OF WEB REINFORCEMENT FOR COMBINED TORSION AND SHEAR IN PRESTRESSED BEAMS Example 5.491 cm2) Ie = 364.687 Pa) and a service live load of W L = 60 psf (2873 Pa). 4 (93. Design the spandrel beam web reinforcement to resist the combined torsion and shear to which it is subjected.
normalweight concrete fy =fYf = 60.895 cm3) Sb = 10..m) f~ = 5.0 m ) ...50 Geometrical details of structure in Example 5.862 MPa) fps = 255.... 270 K stressrelieved strands fpu =270...6 kN. Sf = 8..000 psi (1.:~~I==tm).i (c) Figure 5.i l t I 36'0" SDT24 + 2" 124" X 24" +~ 1 1 6'3" (1'9m) 1 .. dia..000 psi (34.990 in? (180. (b) ~16"1 (a) ~..758 MPa) fpe = 155...l = 2'0" ~y~~~ +¥I B +..5. (a) Section AA. 46'0" rSDT24+2"j 1=='. (b) Partial plan.000 psi (1.000 psi (418 MPa) for stirrups Prestressing Aps = six !in..91 m) ! ~17'0" ___i~f__17'0"i~ .5 MPa). ~16'0"++16'0" 6'3" f (1...0 " (11.094 cm3) WD = 725 plf (10.}'~_l...720 in? (142..000 psi (1..9.8 't.f+'l~ ~~f__·8 spacings at 4'0" = 32'0" (9..... (c) Section 88...069 MPa) .3 6 ' ..19 Design of Web Reinforcement for Combined Torsion and Shear in Prestressed 8eams 309 Connections designed to torsionally restrain beam 4" 3'1" f ~~..
51.9071b (351 kN) Mu at face of support = 0 Similarly.5 in.310 Eps Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design =28 X 106 psi (193 x 103 MPa) dp = 71.041 = 44.3521b (474 kN) V SL at face of support = ~ (14.347 X 61. calculate the values of Tu' V u. of stems 20.X 12 X 9 = 61.25) = 4.6 X 6480 = 1O. and moment diagrams as shown in Figure 5.368Ib/stem (46.5 in.0 kN) = 6480 lb/stem (28.041 ftlb (82.8 kNm) 14. (11. 2 (3871 cm2) Pcp = outside perimeter of concrete cross section = 2(8 + 75) = 166 in.918 in.388 ftlb (60. Solution: 1.5 + 0.796 9 + 725 X 34) = 78.316 = 9979lb/stem (44.2 X 725 = 870 plf (12.7 kN/m) W SDu = 1.6 cm) .2(1.7961b (65. 2 = Pe = ApsJpe 0.1 kN) Total Pu per stem = 9979 + 10.316 + 6480 = 14.2 kNm) = TSL Vu at face of support ! (Pu X no.347 X 9 + 870 X 34) = 106.6 kN/m) WSD WL = = 77 X 54 2 X 4 ft 60 X 54 2 X 4 ft = 8316lb/stem (37.290 lb (633 kN) 2. V u' M u. Calculate Tu.347 8 = . LBeam torsional geometrical details (Step 1) Acp = area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross section = 8 x 75 = 600 in.0 kN) Total P SL per stem = 8. straight tendon Disregard the effects of winds or earthquake. and Mu.2(1.153 = 0. and construct the torsion.25) = 71.4 kN/m) W Lu = 1.5 . Tsv V SL acting on Lbeam (step 1) (a) Service load WD = 725 plf (10. (190 cm) e = 71. (181.918 X 155. of stems + factored W X D X span) = ~ (20.2 X 8.7 in.5 + 0. (422 cm) Xl = smaller dimension to center of tie = 8 . (75 cm).8 = 29.368 = 20.5 kN) Tu at face of support = ~ P u X arm X no.4 cm) Yl = 75 . and the corresponding serviceload values at each transverse stem contact point along the span of the Lbeam. Aps = 6 X 0.000 = 142.796 at face of support = 20.41.7 kN) (b) Factored loads WDu = 1.5 in.2 . shear.3471b (90.
(a) Torsional moment.3 cm) Ph = perimeter of center line of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement =2(x) + YJ) = 2(4.8) Mu X 103 (ft.85 x 322 = 274 in.85A oh = 0.5 + 0.5 in. 2 (1766 cm 2 ) l ..0) = 71.5 + 71. (20. (c) Flexural moment.. (b) Shear.174 (7398) I I I I 868.347 Ib PSL = (14. (182 cm) AOh = area enclosed by centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional ties = (x1)(y) = 4. dp = effective depth = 75 .Ib) (TSL ) I I 106.796 Ib) Beam Wu = 870 pit WSL = (725 plf) i4+1~_4·0"f.2 (2077 cm2) Ao = gross area enclosed by shear flow path = 0.5.51 Force and moment diagrams for beams in Example 5.. Bracketed values are for serviceload level.000 ft.5 + 1. (191 cm) b w = web width = 8 in.352 (78. Ib = 13.4'0"f4'0"+4'0"! ~ _ _ _ Faceof support 17'0" "\ I I I I ~Z?z.000 Ib = 44.907) 1'0')I~. I I I Symmetrical about center of Lbeam I I Vu (lb) (VSL ) 10.9.5 + 0.19 Design of Web Reinforcement for Combined Torsion and Shear in Prestressed Beams 10. h = total depth = 75 in.5 = 322 in.ZZj~:1Z! 6782 (4932) Tu (ft.6 MPa 311 Pu = 20..5 x 71.5) = 152 in.I b) (MSL ) I (e) Figure 5.4 (644.(1.5 kN 10.
128) = 9.4 + 384. torsion has to be considered and appropriate torsional reinforcement provided.1 MPa) At the centroid of the section.290 + 142.4 4V5000 = 150.953 in.7 X 106 in.000 X (71.80. for disregarding torsion Tu ~ <!> Vi. (A~p \ /1 PepN + !er.9 lll. Tu = = ! (61.918 X X 255. cot 8= 1. 4. Verify whether torsional reinforcement is needed (Step 2) From Equation 5. a = 0.2 X 9.953 in. Hence.7) Ae Sb 696 10.9 MPa) .5° for prestressed beams.990(6 x 1. Rqd. 4vf. 2 = 0. Thus.0V5000 + 589 .000 = 15.75V5000 (600 ) 166 'J /1 + 204. Cracking moment capacity (Step 1) fd = unfactored dead load stress From Figure 5.7 X 106 in.85f. assume equilibrium torsion con . b = 0.fd) = 10.4 psi Mer = Sb(6~ Vi.51 and w D = 725lb/ft fd = Sb MD = 725(36)2 1 8 x 12 x 10 990 = 128 psi (0.Ib (1800 kNm) > 1. = fee _(Pe+ Pee) = _(142.Ib (17.Ib The average value was used instead of 47.73 X 106 in. namely at 3 ft from the face of the support.476 ft.2Mcr = 1. (175 mm) Mn = ApJps( dp  ~) = 0.2Mer = 11.990 = (204. minimum flexural reinforcement is satisfied for flexure.73 X 106 = 11.000 .100 kNm) 1.:.51. Min.9 106 in.9 psi say 589 psi (C) (4.290 x 29.Ib hence. + fee .918 X 255.5) = 588.Ib (1. At the extreme fibers of the section.Ib (73 kNm) > 150.041 + 47.Ib as a conservative value of the torsional moment.102 in.0 kNm) Considering section at hl2 from support face in Figure 5.Ib Apsfps 0. The garage elements are all precast.476) X 12 651.85 X 5000 X 8 = 6. fe = 204.312 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design 8 = angle of compression diagonals in truss analogy for torsion == 37.5 _ 6~9) = 15.3 3.930.
6771b .420 ftlb at h/2 = 3 ft from face of support = ! (91.7471b = 49.51 due to the live load and SDL = ~ (20.lb from before hence.7361b (154.482 + 81.8316 = 40.:..lb (Equation 5.7v'jj bwdp :::.671 335. = factored shear force at section due to externally applied loads occurring simultaneously with Mmax .5)12 X 1000 in.9021b Mmax = maximum factored moment at section due to externally applied load. using the total applied factored Tu in.20. = [0.738 + 276.347 X 9) = 91.::::: X 8 X 71.347 Hence Mmax X 9)5 . Vd = ~ (40.706 lb Vd at 5 ft. 5.5 kN) V.0 v 5000 .5691b (417 kN) Rqd.6A.9 + 439. Rqd.569 = 79.6 X 1..655) = 93.81 X 10 6 = 24. from support = 40.347 X 4 = 376.7651b At the required section at hl2 from face of support..=. Vci = [ 0.73 X 10 J 6 2..706 + 28. Vu = ~ (105.562 ftlb Factored Mu at 5 ft from face = ~ (20.272.706 .15.420)12 = 2.102 5.51 for section at hl2 = 3 ft from face of support.81 X 106 in.11 and Vew from Equation 5. From Fig. Mer Mmax J 1.725 1 ft .lb = 3.19 Design of Web Reinforcement for Combined Torsion and Shear in Prestressed Beams 313 dition and no redistribution of moment.0v'jj bwdp Vd = shear at section due to unfactored dead load X Vd at face of support = ~ (8316 Vd at point A in Figure 5.738 + 79. Mu = ~ (105.765) = 34. from Eq·uation 5.347 + 870 X 4 per stem 93.51 = 9 + 725 X X X 34) = 49.lb Mer = 9.73 X 106 in. 2: Vii bwd p + Vd + V. 5.8316 5 .562 + 376.400 in.268 + 34.lb (370 kNm) Ve. = 651. Check adequacy of section for torsion (a) Determine Ve as the smaller value obtained for Ve.747 .X 20.5 + 34.725 28.347 per stem 20. c.5. namely due to live load and superimposed dead load Factored Mu at point A in Figure 5.902 = 9.79 is therefore inapplicable).
75(310 + 8Y5000) = 656 psi (4.3 (142.81 for solid sections.7A Vi: = 1.314 Chapter 5 335.400 = 2. use M Vc Vud u = 1.5 = 177.569)2 8 X 71. 6.Ib (96 kNm) .320 Ib (788 kN) (b) Alternate method for evaluating Vc If fpe > O.272 . = 310 psi (2.137 in.46 MPa) l.16 .5 3.7A5h = (93. ~ > 5y1j: = Vc = 354 psi (2.V~ 5000 + 0.5 .1 MPa). < ~ = 310 pSI .77 X (322)2 + 290.0 V 5000 + 700 X 1.4 MPa) (c) Check section adequacy Vc in solution (a) will be used in this check 5. From Equation Y bwd 1(~)2 + ( Y26.4fpu.04 > 1. hence Vcw = 3. Vp = 0 since tendons are straight.290).4 MPa) From Equation 5. ~ Vc = ( 0. Vci = 354 pSI (contro Is) Use Vc = 310 psi in this solution Vc = vcbwd = 310 X 8 X 71.5 + (651.569 X 71.5 = 587 psi (3.6 X 1. 2: :S dp + 700 Vu ) bwdp Mu 2A Vi: bwd 5A Vi: bwd 93.759 T uPh )2 = 1. 564 psi (3.0Y5000 = 354 psi < < 587 psi 587 psi Use v ci = 354 psi (2.1 MPa) 354 psi .667 Shear and Torsional Strength Design Vci = 8 x 71.9 MPa) c!>(b:~ + 8Vi:) = 0.0 = Vc bwd = (0. the ACI allows using a more conservative expression as in Equation 5.0) = 742 psi (5. Torsional reinforcement (Step 3) Tn = Tu/c!> = 651.0.814 564 psi (3.102/0.75 = 868.6A v f.5 MPa) available > hence section is adequate.15.8 MPa) actual.102 X 152)2 1.7Y5000 = 120 psi 5A Vi: = 5.
4 bar.5. Avt/s 0.62 in.0 in.4 closed stir .5 in. > 0. 7. Av 50b w fyt < Vc 50 X 8 s 60.30 by assuming a value of s.19 Design of Web Reinforcement for Combined Torsion and Shear in Prestressed Beams 315 From Equation 5.0473 > 0.40 in.1 Ill.5 s 80fyt d \j 80 X 60. Av s = lesser of .0473 in?/in.l o r 50b w yt Apsfpu 80fyt d fl: bw 0. Av = 0. Av = 2 x 0. to 8.7 mm diameter). 2 s = crosssectional tie area = 0.4 closed ties (12. 2/in. s Minimum bar diameter = s/16 or No. finding (A.5 x (0.js)fyt 868.000 = 0.O.53) = 8.5010.5 8 b.5 in. or 12 in.75Vjj = 0. = 152/8 = 19 in. Av > .918 X 270.000 X 1.20 = 0.0203 + 0.0203) X 60.017 cm2/cm/two legs) Avt = 2 (At) s s + Av = 2 s X 0.5/16 = 0./two legs (0.5 closed stirrups.000 )71.137 1.046 cm2/cm/one leg) Using the PCI method in whict cot 8 is computed.0067 in./one leg (0.v /cm/two legs). controls. 2 /in.38b.0473 = 13./two legs (0.0203 in. Use minimum shear web reinforcement.4 bars but reduce the computed spacing of 8. = 9~:~:9 Vs = (Vn .7571b (555 kN) but Vn Vn = :.0022.137 s 2 X 274 X 60.0071 in.110 cm2/cm/two legs) Assuming No. for No.53 in.31 x 2 = 0./two legs (0.3 2 = 0.0022 in.5 = 177.7A oh (A.2 Available 0.000 X 71. Shear reinforcement (Step 4) Vc = 310 X 8 X 71.320 lb (788 kN) = 124. s = 0. At Tn 2Aofyt cot 8 868.7(322)(0. Another alternative for the transverse reinforcement is to use No.62 .0067 = 0. cot8= Tulcf> 1./two legs (0. /in.006 cm2 = 0.000 = 0. 12 Ill. 2 /in.75Y5000 = 53 Av 53b w fyt 53 X 8 s 60. This gives No.0473 Maximum allowable spacing smax = Phl8 or 12 in. use No.K.40 = 8. Min.Vc).5 in.017 cm2/cm/two legs) Av = Apsfpu (d = 0.000 = 1.Is) into the expression.Is) for the tie size chosen and entering the value of (A.3 bar = 8. = 0.
AI.20 in. 2 No.4 bars. Using No. .5 bars.) 8" #4 closed stirrups at Prestressing strands 12 in.12. dia. center to center is more preferable as it is easier to bend them than the No. 12 in.. center to center for transverse shear + torsion web reinforcement. to c. S.9. Longitudinal reinforcement (Steps 56) From Equation 5.5 in. O.000 . 5.000 60.20 = 26. For the reinforcing details to be complete. 6 . Note that maximum allowable spacing = 12 in.min  X 152 G~:~~~) (1. as well as details of the anchorage of the longitudinal reinforcement at the supports.7 mm dia.4 stirrups (12. 03 1 60. to c. at 200 mm) 28 #4 longitudinal bars (28 . 7 wire strands (270K) Figure 5. c. 2 controls Using No. Ph fy cot e = 0. 6" 6'3" (191 cm) •• •• •• •• •• •• #4 closed stirrups at 8 in. use closed No. 4 longitudinal bars = 0.K. (12.21 in.5 at 12 in.316 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design rups spaced at 8 in. for this design.21 Use 12 No. center to center instead of No. c.~ in. In this case s = 6.52.88. c.4 bars on each face equally spaced (12 bars 12. to c.52 Reinforcement details of beam in Example 5.3)2 = 5.4 closed stirrups at 8 in. of bars = 0. Adopt the design.7 mm diameter) at 8 in.0203 From Equation 5. Chapter 10 on the design of connections provides these details.21 in.7 mm dia.7 mm diameter/face) and add another 4 bars for reinforcing the ledge to give a total of 28 No.. center to center. Details of reinforcement and crosssectional geometry of the Lbeam are given in Fig. Therefore. a design of the ledge and hanger reinforcement would be required.000 Al = 5.05 bars 5. _ At (fyt) 2 Al .85. 2 (30 cm2) _ 5V1i Acp _ (At) Ph fyt F Jy S F Jy = 5v'sOoO X 600 _ 002 X 52 X 60.
5. the zones of load application.20 STRUTANDTIE MODEL ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF CONCRETE ELEMENTS 5. where the plane sections hypothesis is no longer applicable. The analysis essentially follows the truss analogy approach. results in trusslike action in which the longitudinal steel provides the tension chord of the truss as a tie. and the choice of locations where the corresponding reinforcement is to be placed. (c) dapperended beam on column support. Consequently. such as brackets. where parallel inclined cracks are assumed and expected to form in the regions of high shear. The concrete between the inclined cracks carries inclined compressive forces such as in Fig.20 StrutandTie Model Analysis and Design of Concrete Elements 317 5. beam daps.5. These regions could be the support sections in a beam.20.11(a) and (b). Thus.53 (adapted from Ref. which represent the compressive struts and the tension ties intersecting at the "nodal" points. portal frames. acting as diagonal struts. where the standard beam theory applies.1 Introduction As an alternative to the usual approach for plane sections before bending remaining plane after bending. and the others as Dregions. hence the "strutandtie" expression. as in Fig.11c). (5. with the assumption of linear strains. and others. the strutandtie model is applied effectively in regions of discontinuity. Strutandtie modeling has been introduced in some codes including ACI 31808 Appendix A. . J D B B (a) B D B D (b) B D B D (c) B Figure 5. 5. (b) beam with concentrated load.1) demonstrates the locations of Band D regions. provision of transverse stirrups along the beam span. the discontinuity caused by abrupt changes in a section. These simplifications are necessitated because of the wide range of alternatives in the selection of the path of forces.53 Bregions and Dregions in beams: (a) continuous beam. Figure 5. structural elements can be divided into segments called Bregions. Simplifying assumptions in design have to be made when applying this approach to different structural systems. pile caps cast with column sections.
with infinite possible configurations for identifying load paths in structural systems (Ref. .2 StrutandTie Mechanism For equilibrium.57 and 5. Since this loadpath modeling method is a plastic method with stress concentration conditions and load concentration. the idealizations made in the choice of the force paths render this method less accurate for design purposes. Figure 5. it does not provide a check for the serviceability levels inherent in the semiplastic methods. as in Figure 5.56. depending on the interpretation of the designer. but represents strengthlimit states at the critical sections. Typical nodal zones are shown in Figs. and for a continuous beam in Fig.1. IC CCT Node. as it principally deals with highoverload conditions and with loadcarrying capacity. 5. as discussed by the author in Section 4. A typical representation of the strutandtie model of a simply supported deep beam is shown in Figure 5. particularly because no unique design solutions are possible. 5. 5. Appendix A).54 TTT Node. where C = compression vector and T = tension vector. Thus. after excessive deformation and cracking. 6. termed as the node.55. a CC. The nodes are classified in accordance with the sense of the forces intersecting at the nodal point. Significant overdesign is. 6.318 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design Therefore. As an example.T node resists one tensile force and two compressive forces.3.21 and Ref. A CCT nodal zone can be represented as a hydrostatic nodal zone if the tie is assumed to extend through the node and anchored by a plate on the far end of the node (Ref. simplifications of the paths of forces that are chosen to represent the real structure can considerably differ. 5.58 (Ref. This approach is more an art than an engineering science in the selection of the models.20. particularly as affected by shear and torsion. 5. therefore. at least three forces have to act at a joint.27) and that it does not provide a check on serviceability. required and extensive fullscale tests needed for different structural systems. including the possible distribution of the steel reC \ \ I I C \ \ I I I I rC I { I I I T I C CCC Node.54.3.1). It should be thus emphasized that this approach is a design method that enables analyzing nonflexural regions.5. T __ ~T T CTT Node. Classifications of strutandtie nodes. Such extensive tests were conducted in the case of anchor blocks in posttensioned beams.
1'1 Figure 5.56 Typical strutandtie model for continuous beams subjected to concentrated loads on top: (a) positive moment truss.Node / E~.ped strut Nodalzooe Nodal zone Tie Figure 5. (b) negative moment truss..55 Strutandlie model of a simply supported deep beam subjected to concentrated load on top. .'e"... t .
Compute the stresses. In order to design the critical Dregion. It is important to recognize that the decisions made in steps 2 and 3 are very critical in arriving at an efficiently representative model and a safe structure.59 demonstrates the simplified truss model for simply supported deep beams loaded on the top fibers.57 (b). 5. which act on the boundaries of the Dregion. (d) subdivided nodal zone. 5. Note that nodes A and B at the beam support are compressive nodes as seen by the crushing of the concrete in Fig. inforcement through the nodal zones.+"/ (a) (b) R (c) (d) Figure 5.L. (b) two struts AE and CE acting at node. the following steps need to be taken: 1. If more than three forces act at a nodal point as shown in Fig. 5.320 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design Nodal zone +J. The vertical and horizontal components equilibrate the forces in the inclined strut. (c) support nodal zone.39(d). Isolate each Dregion 2. Select a truss model to transfer the resultant forces across the Dregion. replacing them with one or more resultant forces on each boundary. Serviceability limit checks have thereafter to be applied. 3. The axes of the struts and ties are selected to coincide with the axes of the compression and tension fields and the forces in the struts and ties computed.59) of the forces in the nodal zones. it becomes necessary to exercise engineering judgment in resolving the system of forces such that . Fig. as is usually done in a truss analysis (see Fig. 5.57 Typical nodal zones: (a) three struts acting at node.
~ • C hi cos e T c 10 sin e h. as assumptions based o n significant idealizations can widely diffe r (Ref. T hai is why no unique solu tion is possible. /.60 (Refs.3 ACI Design Requirements (I) Nodal Forces (5. F. . lb.88) where. A h. Fns= nominal strength of a strut. lb.20).22).j •I Figure 5. provided that they satisfy equ ilibrium and compa tibility. (b) distributed steel.59(c) represents a simplified idealized truss model for the principal compressive a nd te nsile stress trajectories resulting fro m the applied distributed load at th e top deep beam fibers. to fo llow. is a modified marc rigorous model for Example 6. A T L c '. tic. bearing area. or nodal zone. or nodal zone.. in orde r to avoid any incompat ibil it ies Ihal can result because of the le ngthe ning of the ties a nd the shorte ning of the struts occurring in the same direction. = facto red force acting on a strut . . 5.58 Extended nodal zone demonstrating the effect of distribution of forces: (a) one layer of reinforcing bars.. ollly three forces act at the nodal point. Figure 5. na mely.75 for both struts and ties (similar 10 the strength reduction for shear) . where ~= 0. 5.20.7.20 StrutandTie Model Analysis and Oesign of Concrete Elements 321 c ./ /. O thcr possible alte rnative models can also be used . 5. .19. T he angle between the axes of struts a nd ties that inte rsect through the node should not be too small . lie. 5. Figure 5. 5.59 of the solution.. than the simplified Fig. The assumed truss model is one alternative. not less than 25°.5.
(d) cracking pattern.20).19.85 13s!~ (5. w Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design C 0. (c) idealized truss model (adapted from Refs. 1 : 8=68 Ilh = 2: 8 = 54 (c) t(d) .59 Truss model and stress distribution in simply supported deep beams: (a) lines of principal stress trajectories for beams loaded on top. psi fee = 0. 5. lb Ae = effective crosssectional area at one end of a strut. taken perpendicular to the axis of the strut.90) . (b) elastic stress distribution across beam depth. 5.89) where Fns = nominal strength of strut.72h 1 ~In~ 2/3h T t (a) t wll2 wll2 t In t (b) ~ Cracks h Ilh75.322 Load intensity. (2) Strength of Struts (5. in.t Figure 5. 2 fee = effective compressive strength of the concrete in a strut or nodal zone.
60 all other cases For f: not greater than 6000 psi._= maximum effective height of concrete concentric with the tic.. Ir the bars in the tie are in one layer. where A. ) where F"r = nomina l strength of tie. in. compression." .20 StrutandTie Model Analysis and Design of Concrete Elements 323 t·. = area o f compression reinforcement in a strut . in.. 2 f. the e ffective he ight of the tie can be taken as Ihe diameter of the bars in the tie pillS twicc the cover to the surfacc of the bars.i at spacing $1 in a layer of reinforcement with bars at an angle Q.fpJ) should not exceed fpy When no prestressi ng reinforcement is used. lb..Jfu (5.92) Fn/ = A~rfy + A pI (fiN + Af p. = stress in compression re inforcemen t.003.. in.2 A = area of prestressing reinfo rcement.·t Vu '" wull2 Vu '" wu ll2 Figure 5. where 13. = 1. = area of nonprestressed reinforcemen t in a tie.60 Strutand·tie alternative model for Example 5.10 (truss solid lines". used to dimension nodal zone. tension). dashed lines".9 1) (5..75 for struts with reinforcement resisting transverse tensile forces = 0040 for struts in tension members or tension flanges = 0. the strut can be S<'ltisfied if l. = 0. 2 = effective stress after losses in prestressing reinforcement dJ".2 (4) Strellgth of Ties (5.!! sin 1'. T he re ... 1.0 for struts which have the sa me crosssectional area of the midstrut crosssection in case of bubble struts. to the axis of the strut. A.5. . A PI = 0 in Equation 5. " r.92. (3) LOllgitlldillal Reillforcemem Fns = fu A ( + A ~f. the strut configuration and the compressive forces in A. in.DIU = F. where A li is the lotal area of reinforcement b..93) where h r.+ I!J. il1... 2: 0. = increase in prestressing stress beyond the service load level (J".
the design of a deep beam illustrates the application of the discussed principles in the forgoing sections.95 (Ref. lb. stipulates that unless confining reinforcement is provided within the nodal zone and its effect is supported by analysis and experimentation.324 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design inforcement in the ties have to be anchored by hooks. in. mechanical anchorages. maXImum Sv .05 m) is subjected to a uniformly distributed live load of 81. Appendix B. all with full development length.1): fee = 0. and minimum AVh minimum Av = = 0. posttensioning anchors.0 in nodal zones bounded by struts or bearing stresses = 0.95) where I3n = 1. (7) Orthogonal Shear Reinforcements that Cross the Compression Struts total area of vertical reinforcement spaced at Sv in the horizontal direction at both faces of the beam AVh = total area of horizontal reinforcement spaced at sh in the vertical direction at both faces of the beam Av = . the computed compressive stress on a face of a nodal zone due to the strut and tie forces should not exceed the values given by Eq. 5. 5 d 5 d 12 in.4 Example 5. 2 It can be assumed that the principal stress directions in the struts and ties act parallel to the axes of the struts and ties. 5.96b) The shear reinforcement required at the critical section must be provided throughout the deep beams.8 in nodal zones anchoring one tie = 0. Under such a condition.0015 bSh 0.83 m) and its thickness b is 20 in.96a) (5. (508 mm). the stresses on faces perpendicular to these axes are principal stresses.10: Design of Deep Beam by StrutandTie Method A simply supported deep beam having a clear span In = 10 ft (3.6 MPa) 60. ::::. (5) Strength of Nodal Zones (5.85 I3n f~ (5. and not prestressed. or straight bars. 12 in.000 psi (414 MPa) fy = Design the beam reinforcement for this beam by the strutandtie method. .94) where Fnn = nominal strength of a face of a nodal zone.20. 5. While deep beams are most likely designed as reinforced concrete members. (b) corbels.6 in nodal zones anchoring two or more ties The following are two examples of the use of the strutandtie method for the design of short span/depth ratio concrete elements: (a) deep beams.000 lb/ft (1182 kN/m) on the top.0025 bsv (5. The height h of the beam is 6 ft (1. An = area of face of a nodal zone or a section through a nodal zone. (6) Confinement in the Nodal Zone The ACI 31808. f~ = 4000 psi (27. maXImum Sh ::::.
400 lb/ft (1942 kN/m) (1) Truss model selection The uniformly distributed load on the beam top is idealized by two concentrated loads as shown in Fig.67 X 14 = 58.T node).42 .2 4' .61) Pu 657.9 x 6 x 12 = 65 in.0 .12 cot 58. as the vector sine and cosine components of the inclined struts at the assumed I} = 58.000 lb.20).20 StrutandTie Model Analysis and Design of Concrete Elements 325 Solution: Check In1d and evaluate factored shear force Vu (Step 1) Assume that d = 0. Intensity of total factored distributed load is w u = 131. (2) Vertical and horizontal components offorces in the truss model The compressive forces in the truss shown in Figure 5.6 81. Vertical distance of node C in Figure 5. (1651 mm). giving a strut force in CA = 1.67 < 2.0./strut (see Fig.9h = 0.59 and detailed in Fig.54)(1.082 lb.400 2 X 10 . beam selfweight total factored load = = 20 X 72 144 1. 5. Evidently.0025 b w Sh for vertical reinforcement. Assume de = cover to centroid of tensile reinforcement = 7 in. b. 5.9 kN/m) X 1500 + 1. However.4.61( c) gives the intersecting nodal forces in the Dregion of node C. 12 = 1. hence a deep beam. 5. = 657.(68 . Idealized equivalent concentrated load is Pu = wJ 2 = 131.61(b) are computed in the usual manner.96 a. Strut inclination angle I} in Figure 5.0) = 68 .61.000 Vn = ~ = 0..67 1. .= .5.61(a) from the centroid of the tensile reinforce2h 2X 6 ment=.000 lb. Compressive forces in each of the compressive struts EC and FD = 876.5" . (CCC node). (CC. giving a tie force in truss member AB = 534. idealizing the distributed load into four or six equivalent concentrated loads would have reduced the compressive forces in the struts and the tensile forces in the ties.2 by Nawy).= 4' . Eqs.293 lb. ACI318 Code requires an area AVh 2:: 0. i = 10.75 = 876. e = 68 .026. (3) Vertical and horizontal reinforcement across depth of beam web Horizontal web requirement is not required as part of the truss.61( d) gives the intersecting forces in the Dregion of node A. The ensuing truss model can be considered to simulate the stress trajectories ofthe principal stresses.2 X X 150 = 1500 lb/ft (21. Hence.000 lb. in order to control cracking. 5. leading to reduced reinforcement areas (see Ref.5.25 ft. 5.0015 b w Slv for horizontal shear reinforcement and Av 2:: 0. 5.000 = 131.0" 3 3 Length CD = 11' . Figure 5.85 6 <4 Hence treat as a deep beam.62°.59(c) is interpolated between I} = 68° for IIh :s 1 and I} = 54° for IIh = 2 (Ref. . Figure 5.400 lblft.62° Assume supports center line span = 11 ft 5 in.62° ( 7") = 11.17 = 7.lIh = 10/6 = 1.
10: (a) idealized truss model. (d) forces on joint A (CCT node)....0001b (e) (d) Figure 5..61 Trussandtie model in Example 5... (c) forces on joint C (CCC node).I n = 10'0" .. J to( Vu = wu ll2 1=11'5" e = 68° for IIh:5 1 =54° for Ilh=2 (a) P/2 P/2 (b) 876....326 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design E ~7'3" ~ F n 1~ ·t Vu = wu l12 I + . (b) truss forces (C= compression.2931b 876.. .0001b C 534. ..... T = tension)..2931b 534.
From Equation 5. 5.521 + 0. for struts EC and FD.293 _ .550 psi.92. on centers.026. From Equation 5.521 = inclination of horizontal reinforcement to the strut = 58.8. (6) Strength of ties Required strength Fnt = 534.0034 > X 0.max = Fnt/fee = 2550 = 210 m.90.000 J3s = 0.4 bars at 12 in.36 in.0025 X 20 X 8 = 0. assumed in constructing the truss model dimensions.5. 2 Width of CA. (5) Strength of struts From Equation 5.3. compressive strength of concrete in a strut or nodal zone is fee = 0.293 lb.1 in.0014 = 20 X 8 20 X 12 0. ht.0025 b~v = 0.2 in.38° where sin 'Yl = 0. 10 bars.026. C/C for horizontal reinforcement for both faces of the deep beam. 2). (4) Check of orthogonal shear reinforcement crossing compression strut As given in Sec. or 534. adopt the reinforcement in item (3). O. 0 0.2.. 2 Use No.. O. hence OK.293 .85 J3J~ where = 0.854 = 0.4 bars at 12 in. No. . Fns = Required strength of struts CA. 2 _ _ _ 1. on centers.85 X 0. Aes = 876.fee Ae or 1.00 Trying No.si 0. DB is 1.75 = 2.0 Use 8 No. b sm 'Y.5 == 7 in.0020 + 0.89.15 in.40 X 0.402 m. Vertical web requirement to control cracking: assume a spacing of 8 in. the minimum reinforcement crossing the struts for f: :s ± 'Yl 'Y2 6000 psi = ~ Asi . . de = 2. Min Av = 0. 2 . ~ 0.000 _ 534.40 in. the maximum height of concrete concentric with the tie for dimensioning the nodal zone is 534. hence Ae 2. clc for vertical reinforcement and No.7 = 7.854 ~ As. .40 in.62° where sin 'Y2 = 0.4 bars at 8 in.93. which is within the available area of the deep beam.K. 5.082 _ Fns .0015 x 20 x 12 = 0.000/2550 = 344 in. cover + 3 + 1.K. namely. Hence. n = 1~.4 bars at 8 in. which is available within the beam area. Similarly.0015 b w Sh = 0.. .550 A".20 StrutandTie Model Analysis and Design of Concrete Elements 327 Assuming a spacing of 12 in.003. on centers as horizontal reinforcement in both faces of the deep beam (= 0.s. 2 Use No.96(b). minimum required strut width = 344/20 = 17. = inclination of vertical reinforcement to the strut = 31.75 X 4. Min AVh = 0. on centers.550 . sin 'Yi = 0.026.082 .082 lb.293 = Ast x 60. 2 Ast . 10 bars in 4 layers of two bars at 3 in.003. hence.60 b. From Eq. on centers as vertical reinforcement in each of the two faces of the deep beam. DB = :00 = 20.20. From Equation 5.9m.6 .
(7) Strength of nodal zones From Equation 5.040 psi.3. Assume the corbel to be monolithically cast with the column. (254 mm).58. (column size: 12 X 14 in.040 psi. Maximum allowable concrete strength in the nodal zone anchoring two or more ties is feu = 0.85 I3n f~. 2. Note that the entire corbel is a Dregion structure because of the existing statical discontinuities in the geometry of the corbel and the vertical and horizontal loads. B. Check the development length. (457 mm). (127 mm) from the face of the column. From Equation 5. Given: f~ = 5000 psi (34. and neglect the weight of the corbel in the computations. Confinement of the nodal zone is not required. 5.5 MPa).62. and the dashed lines denote compression strut action (C).6 X 4. are based on the requirement that the vertical dimension of the corbel outside the bearing area is at least one half the column face width of 14 in.1 to determine whether the resulting reinforcement is excessive or relatively efficient. . D result from the selected strutandtie model.62 denote tension tie action (T). Surface area of node perpendicular to CA: 14) 20 X 14 . It has a width b = 10 in.22).0001b The following are the truss member forces calculated from statics in Fig. say 14 in.60 (Ref.6 or feu = 0.000 = 2.15 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 2.328 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design Actual tie height = 2. O..11: Design of Corbel by the StrutandTie Method Design the corbel in Example 5. 5. The nodal points A.040 X 537 = 1.19) in idealizing the stress trajectories of the principal stresses in the deep beam. C.20. where I3n = 0. Such a truss model could have the form shown in Fig. Careful engineering judgment has to be exercised in the selection of the path of forces on the basis of the principles outlined in Section 5. An = 20 ( . Assume the corbel is monolithically cast with the column. The solid lines in Fig. (356 mm). 5. using one layer of reinforcing bars. the nominal strength of the nodal force is Fn = fee An = 2. The total depth h = 18 in.20 Vu = 16. assuming that the center of tie AB is located at a distance of 4 in.000 psi (414 MPa) The supporting column size is 12 X 14 in.59.) Select a simple strutandtie model as shown in Fig. adopt the design. 5.K. Anchor the 8 No.480 lb.082 lb.85 X 0.7 to support a factored vertical load Vu = 80. and an effective depth d = 14 in. accept.026. Another truss model simulating the uniformly distributed load on the top of the beam by four concentrated loads instead of two could have reduced the amount of the horizontal reinforcement.5 Example 5. and effective depth d = 14 in.15 = 13. 5. > 1.62...= cose o. 521 = 537 Ill. 5. a total depth h = 18 in. StrutandTie Truss Forces Nue = 0. Hence. below the top extreme corbel fibers.20. Also assume that horizontal tie DC lies on a horizontal line passing at the reentrant corner C of the corbel.000 lb (160 kN) acting at a distance a v = 5 in. since the stress in the concrete in the nodal zone did not exceed the calculated permissible fee = 2.095. normal weight concrete fyt = fy = 60. 5. 10 bars using hooks at bar ends with full development length. Principles of equilibrium and compatibility have to be maintained in any chosen model (Ref. Solution: 1.
.: . "..443 lb.c II II D D' : <1:° . 51 x 51 in.000 lb.5.. . ·°:<14 " ".+:(14"'. FBc = 80. \ 00 ~ 0 0 0 \~ 60° 15' \ /' / ~~ 25' 63° .000 = 56.000 X 7 14 + 16. ~~~f==\====j~==~. a) Compression strut BC: Length BC = Y~(7.:.5 .652 in.000 X ~ 15.11.000 Ib B / \ .872 lb.S ::!: "0 00 .20 StrutandTie Model Analysis and Design of Concrete Elements I 329 ~Resultant '4' "./ ~/ / JT .?. c) Compression strut AC: FAC = 56.652 = 89.:.000 lb A +56.000Y(8? + (14? 8 = 112.? = 15. b) Tension tie BA: FBA = 80.62 StrutandTie Model in Example 5. Figure 5.Nuc = 16.872 X 14 Y(8? + (14? = 98.000 lb . d) Tension tie AD: FAD = 112.000 lb. "0" Vu =80." I I / Line '?°o .:9 \~ <> \'<1' :.
8513s fe'. conservatively. Tie Reinforcement Design 56. giving Ah = 3(2 X 0. Steel Bearing Plate Design feu = <I>(0.330 e) Compression strut CC': Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design FcC' = 80.000 .000 + 98. A.000 3.s CD .11) = 0.K.0 sin 60°15' = 0.000 Al = 0.000 lb. Both nodes are CCT nodes and considered unconfined. 4. to c.0.2 Hence.000 Use 3 # 6 bars = 1. 2 as in Example 5. 2 > 0. Hence adopt 3 # 3 closed ties at 3. 0. 2(0.CC( 10  ~s) = 80 k(5 = + 10) + 16k X 18 to give ~s = 1.000 lb f) Tension tie CD: FCD = 56. These top bars in one layer have to be fully developed along the longitudinal column reinforcement.25 .36) = 0. 2 .25'm.75 X 60. Ah = 0.000 _ .0. fits within the available concrete dimension about .66 in. Fu.50(1.64 in.75 for bearing in strutandtie models .63. the minimum reinforcement provided has also to satisfy: ' Ah / tie .000 .75 is used for calculating the effective concrete compressive strength in the struts in the following section. hence.10 m.0045 > 0. Because I3s = 0.000 = 0.0 in.. c. strut width Ws the strut center line. where feu = 0. or. 2 Try 3 # 3 closed ties evenly spaced vertically as shown in Fig.11) 14 X 3 . namely.36 m. 5. Use 5 Yz X 5 Yz in. 2: 0.45 in.36 in.75 X 60.28 in. 6.85 n 80. spacing.75 X 60.000 = . 2 0.75 X 0.7.85 X 5000 = 25...45 in. = 16. 2:..000 = 178. 2 0. O.63.000 0. 3 # 7 bars = 1. Horizontal Reinforcement Ahfor Crack Control of Shear Cracks Where An = reinforcement resisting the frictional force Nue . Area of plate lS 80..1_6'. 5. 2 ..K.40. Strut Capacity Evaluation (i) Strut CC' The width Ws of nodal zone C has to satisfy the allowable stress limit on the nodal zones..32 in.sm a.75(0. 5.1. 2 0. plate and select a thickness to produce a rigid plate.85f~) where <I> = 0.88 in. node B below the bearing plate and node C in the reentrant corner to the column. Use 2 # 6 tie bars = = 16. 2 to form part of the cage shown in Fig.80 in.003 bs.003 O.00::::0. 3..
92 in.S . :4 q 4 Vu '4q. w s ' of all struts fit within the corbel geometry.85I3Jc' feu = 0. from the outer concrete surface.75 X 3. ..50 in. ' . (ii) Strut Be Nominal strength is limited to Fns = feu Aes .. Primary tension steel A~ =3 NOo/ 9 in.8 kip> required FBe = 89. 5.e = <l> Fns. A es at node e = 14 X 3.188 ksi Aes is the smaller strut crosssectional area at the two ends of the strut. I '.. .20 StrutandTie Model Analysis and Design of Concrete Elements ! 4 331 : .92 = 109.75 X 5000 = 3188 psi = 3..85 X 0..75 X 3. q• q • • .S 00 11 .6 framing bars • q • 4 • :. 2 X Available factored Fus. where feu = 0. the node width can be assumed equal to the steel plate width of 5. at node e..4 kip.e... r L 2 No. OK (iii) Strut A e Required width.0 in. Adopt the design as shown in Fig. • .87kip .11).5! x 5! in . while at node B.. Examination of the corbel and column depth of 12 in. w S' of strut A e 112.188 X 14 = 3.37 Ill.188 45. Hence the widths. namely.63.e = 0. 4 j 4 Figure 5.63 Corbel reinforcement details (Ex. JT ... 0..5. 5. shows there is a minimum clear cover of 2.28 = 45.
7 cm h = 191 cm AOh = 2077 cm2 e = 37S From Figure 5. = 75. Cracking moment capacity Sb = 180.7 in.094 cm 2 F = = Jc Ac  Pe 633.:2 . use Mu = 1.094 cm3 n = 34.9. 3.85Aoh = 1766 cm2 cot e = 1.92 cm2 = for shear and torsion 0. = 1.9. Solution: 1.990 in3 = 180.7 mm diameter = 5.000 kNm = 2.4 180.332 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design 5.06 say 4.41 + 2.5 MPa Es = 200.9. See calculation step 2 in Example 5.16 in Example 5.9 using the SI procedure and ACI Shear value obtained from Equation 5.fc = 1.000 X 75.000 MPa Aps <j:J fpu = 1860 MPa fy = 414 MPa fps = 1760 MPa = 6 tendons 12.4 cm Ac = 696 in = 4490 cm 2 2 c = 26.2 in.65 = 4.ce = Pe + Ac From Example 5.12 Solve Example 5.3 cm Ao = 0. = 66.51 factored Tu = 73 kNm factored Vu = Pcp = 422 em YI = 181.094 X 10 t.0 e = 29.69 417 kN factored Mu = 370 kNm 417 x 182 cm 37.290 lb = 633 kN > Vud 1.000 4490 X 102  = 1. See calculation step 1 in Example 5.85 1 Pa = N/m2 4. LBeam torsional geometrical details Acp = 3870 cm2 Xl = 11. 2.9.21 SI COMBINED TORSION AND SHEAR DESIGN OF PRESTRESSED BEAM Example 5.6 cm b w = 20.0.41 MPa 633.14 MPa Pee Sb = 141 + .3 Ph = 2(XI + Yl) = 386 cm d = 182cm cot2 e = 1.5 cm Sb = 10.05 P e = 142.1 MPa .
fd) 2. Tu = 73 kNm> 18.0 MPa Mer = Sb(!~ + fee . Vu = 434 kN.51 and the acting torsional moment value from Example 5. 17.2Mcr = 1080 kNm hence flexural reinforcement is satisfied for flexure.r1+3X1. The garage elements are all precast.85 X 34.14 X 10.9 cm2 X 1760 a = 0.9.06 1.0 Ve Ve = bwd = (v34. 6.2Mer = 180. torsional reinforcement is required.81 for solid section.5 = 204 MPa controls. assume equilibrium torsion condition with no redistribution of torsional moment using the total applied factored Tu = 73 kNm.3 = 17.3 MPa 20 Max.094(~ + 4.05 > 1.5) = 5.5.0) X 10. Verify whether torsional reinforcement is needed From Equation 5.9. Mu = 385 kNm. allow.6 kNm.5 X 20.5 + 5 X 1.2. Check adequacy of section for torsion From Figure 5. .0. From Equation 5.3 kNm 12 422 \j V34.3 = 900kNm = 1.2 X 900 = 1080 kNm Apsfps 5.51 at h/2 from face of support and values computed in Example 5. Ve = Oo4Vi = Oo4v34.85v34.21 SI Combined Torsion and Shear Design of Prestressed Beam 333 fd = unfactored dead load stress = 289 psi = 2. Hence. Tu:S ~Vi(A~p))l + 12 Pcp Vi 3fe T u = 0.82 370 = 2.0) = 5. 5.5 ((3870?) .Nm = 1800 kNm > 1.5 em Nominal moment strength.5 = 18.92 X 1760 ( 182 . From Equation 5.85f: = 0.80 for fpe > Oo4fpu where f~ is in MPa 417 X 1.6kNm From Figure 5. use 1.80.
f yt Ap. m. to c. Maximum allowable s =Phl8 or 30 cm =Phl8 = 386/8 = 48 cm Av Min.006 cm2/cm/two legs controls . At s Tn 2Aofytcote 97 X 10 3 2X1766x414X1.119 cm .017 cm2/cm/two legs 116 Vjf G.35b w 0.051 s .3 = 0.0 cm2 (6 8 .017 = 0.= fyt = 0. d. ) .8 MPa 12 available> 4. c.crosssectional area _ ~ _ 17 s Avtls .:. s = 0.:) = 0.35 X 20. 10 M closed stirrups are used Av = 2 X 100 = 200 mm2 = 2.5 (~~.35 X 203 2 = 0. 0. Vc = 1796 kN Av 0.3 2 414 = 0.75 = 97 kNm From Equation 5.) b. = 116 Y34.017 cm /cm/two legs Av = 2 X 0.119 cm2/cm/two legs Assuming No. 7.9. and s are in millimeters .fpu or .051 cm2/cm/one leg 8.80fytd f1: dp where b w .0 MPa actual.334 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design 417 X 10 )2 ( 0.2 X 1.0 MPa Vc + 8Vi:) u = 0.06 mm = 0.5 X 1012 N/m2 = 4.018 mm2/mm/two Pegs Ap.35b w lesser of .35b w > Vn = 556 kN.0.4 + 8Y34.84b. hence section is adequate.208 3 = <\>( bwd Y1422 x 10 6 + 15. hence provide only minimum reinforcement for shear..75 ( 2. Torsional reinforcement Tn = Tu/<\> = 73/0.5) = 4. Shear reinforcement From Example 5.= ~ = Avt = 2 (At) s s + + 0.fpc {d 592 X 1860 ~1820 80fytd \j = 80 X 414 X 1820 203 2/mm/two legs = 0.7 x 0.82 3 + (73 X 10 X \86)2 1.17 mm /mm/two legs 414 0.
Nawy. 10 M bars (11.Selected References 335 Available Av = 0. H.3/1..5 X 3870 _ 0. Ph _ At (fyt) 2 fy cot e X = 0.17.5 ACI Committee 318. April 1959. For the reinforcing details to be complete. of bars = 33. N. C. a design of the ledge and hanger reinforcement would be required. Reinforced ConcreteA Fundamental Approach. Upper Saddle River. Chapter 10 on the design of connections provides these details. Adopt the design. c. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete. M. University of Illinois. O. E. A I •min 386 ( 414) (1.3 mm = available No.5) In this case s = 15 = 12 cm O. "The Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Corbels. 1986. Longitudinal reinforcement From Equation 5. Farmington Hills.K.051 From Equation 5. 465 pp. (ACI 31808). 10 M bars.2(1. Mattock. AI .0 = 33. K. 452. MI: 2008. . and Siess. pp. SELECTED REFERENCES 5." Journal of the Prestressed Concrete Institute 21 (1976): 5277. Use No. Sozen.. Upper Saddle River.J. NJ: Prentice Hall. K. Miminum bar diameter = s/16 or No. O. E. 936. Note that maximum allowable spacing s = 30 cm 191 . Simplified Reinforced Concrete.2 5.K. 10 bars at 18 cm c. and Soogswang.7 = 5.: Prentice Hall. Urbana. G.3 cm2 controls Using No.K.3cm2 _ 5Vj: Acp  121' _ At S (fyv) Ph I' Jyl :lyl = 5v34.9 . 10 M bars on each face of the Lbeam equally spaced.. Strength in Shear of Beams without Web Reinforcement.0 cm2 No. to c. Nawy.88. as well as details of the anchorage of the longitudinal reinforcement at the supports.3? 414 = 33.4 5. Engineering Experiment Station.2cm2 AI = 33... A.046 12 X 414 X 386 (414) 414 = 22. G. P. M. E. 10 M bar = (18/16) x 10 mm = 11. As = 1. Chen.3 mm). 6th Ed.17> 0. and Commentary to the Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318R08) American Concrete Institute.. Zwoyer. Illinois: Bulletin No.85. 2009.3 bars Use 17 No.3 5.1 5.06. 9. A.
Tjhin. ACI SP208 on Strut and Tie Models. T. Van Nostrand Reinhold.3. 24. T. E. D. G. "A Variable Angle Space Truss Model For Structural Concrete Members SUbjected to Complex Loading. 163 pp.13 5. and Hsu.21 5. Abeles. Torsion in Reinforced Concrete. v. 1991. MI. pp 547587. 551556. M. pp.. No.C. CRC Press. Nawy. 32. W. March 1983. B.. 105115.. Weischede. C.A.16 5. Hsu. T. Reprint No. M." Journal of the Prestressed Concrete Institute 13 (1968): 3444.8 5. D." PCI Journal. Transportation Research Board. T. MayJune.20 5. Crystal City. B. ASCE Annual Convention. and Kuchma. pp. C.. American Concrete Institute. 1994. Corbel at Column. and Zia. "Discussion of Appendix A of ACI 31802.23 5. E. "Shear Flow Zone in Torsion of Reinforced Concrete. American Concrete Institute. New York. T. "ConcreteThe Sustainable Infrastructure Material for the 21st Century. Unified Theory of Reinforced Concrete. pp. T. No. "Torsion in Structural ConcreteUniformly Prestressed Members without Web Reinforcement. and Commentary on the Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete." Vol. P.17 5.11 5. K Prestressed Concrete Designer's Handbook. Hsu. EC103. pp. Collins. Nawy. Bergmeister. National Research Council.336 Chapter 5 5. D. 1981. 11." Bulletin d'Information 150. 1963.C.. and Jennewein. Chicago. Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete. G. MI. Hsu. 1993. K." Journal of the American Concrete Institute 73 (1976): 2632. E. G.9 5. 0. "Shear and Torsion Design of Prestressed and NonPrestressed Concrete Beams. Journ. Design for Torsion and Shear in Prestressed Concrete. K H. Schaeffer. American Concrete Institute.. 1978.6 Shear and Torsional Strength Design 5.19 5. M. "Prestressed Concrete Members under Torsion. and Ukadike. "Dimensioning of the Nodes and Development of Reinforcement. PCI Design Handbook 6th Ed. and Collins.25 5. 116 No.10 5. 2007." Keynote Address Paper. C. C. T. 1979..26 ACI Committee 318.. G. C. Farmington Hills. 313. E. "ConcreteThe Sustainable Infrastructure Material for the 21st Century. No.. Shear and Bending. pp. Reineck. January 2002. 2003. The First International Conference on Recent Advances in Concrete Technology. Schlaich.. September 2006. T. Nawy. Farmington Hills." Journal of the American Society for Testing and Materials." Journal of the Prestressed Concrete Institute 25 (1980): 32100." IABSE Colloquim Stuttgart 1991. 3423. P." SP 5522. Hsu.1. Zurich.. of Structural Division. T. Nawy.. Breen. Chicago: Prestressed Concrete Institute. Proceedings. 8397.7 5. Boca Raton. Prestressed Concrete Institute. September 19.pp.24 5. J..14 5. Paris. pp. Vol. McGee.22 5.. Farmington Hills. M." Concrete International Journal (CI). ASCE.122124. Manual of Design and Detailing of Precast and Prestressed Connections. 1990.. Zia. J. American Concrete Institute. W. pp 123. Farmington Hills. J. Comite EuroInternational du Beton. Viewpoint Publications. 124. "Toward a Consistent Design of Structural Concrete. 3d Ed. Nov. Ed. T. Rabbat. 31863. New York. Prestressed Concrete Institute. March 1982. 1987. Schlaich. Washington. "Shear Transfer in Concrete and Polymer Modified Concrete Members Subjected to Shear Load. P. and Mitchell. "ACI 31802 Shear Provision on the Design of Deep Beams. MI: American Concrete Institute.. Nawy..15 5.. 32063225. P. 1 .18 5. E. 2006. International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering. 2002. 31863. D. MI.12 5. G. G. 74150. "Detailing of Concrete Structures (in German). Tin. and BardhanRoy. Farmington Hill. D. D. on the Strut and Tie Method. Washington. London. M. pp." Keynote Address Paper. P." Concrete International Journal. and Jirsa. 1983. K. Prestressed Concrete Institute. J. E.
5 MPa). normalweight concrete 3. (5 cm) f: = f~i = 5. 4 (18.3 cm) ee = 2 in. (81.5 cm) X S' = 17.652 cm2 ) Ie = 433.300 plf (33.83 Cb 105 cm3 ) = 38 in.3 kN/m) ee = 32 in. = 495 in.1.6 kN/m) and a superimposed service live load W L = 2. 2 (3.400 in.1. It has a span of 75 ft (22. and detail the section.194 cm 2) = 25 in.Problems 337 PROBLEMS 5.500 psi (24. Design the web reinforcement necessary to prevent shear cracking (a) by the detailed design method and (b) by the alternative method at a section 15 ft (4. The following data are given: Ae = 876 in? (5.300 in? (2.1 MPa) Figure PS.1 A posttensioned bonded prestressed beam has the cross section shown in Figure P5.5 cm) Sb = 11.03 X 106 cm4 ) r2 C.6 kN/m).86 X 105 cm3) Wd = 910 plf (13. r l . 3 (1. (96. (63.000 psi (44.350 in.9 m) and is subjected to a service superimposed dead load WSD = 450 plf (6.6 m) from the face of the support. Use #3 stirrups in your design. The profile of the prestressing tendon is parabolic.
The tendon is harped at midspan. (12.7 MPa) for the topping.000 psi (41. If the top surface of the precast section is unroughened. lowrelaxation strand Ips = 189.303 MPa) Ipe = 156.086 MPa) Aps = twentyfour ~in.8 MPa) Ipu = 270. It has a span of 40 ft (12.862 MPa) lowrelaxation strands Ips = 243.000 psi (1. dia (12.4 A 14 in.01 in.000 psi (1.000 psi.000 psi (1. Design the webshear reinforcement at ~dp from the support and at quarter span by (a) the detailed method and (b) the alternative method.8 MPa) Aps = ec = 8.51 in. V ci' and Vcw for the beam in Problem 5. (35.000 psi (1. (11. and plot the variations in their values along the span in a manner similar to the plot in Figure 5.155 Pa).4.6 cm) standard PCI doubleT simply supported beam is shown in Figure P5.076 MPa) six ~in. (20. Given data are as follows: I: (precast) = 5.1 at 1110 span intervals along the entire span.7 mm) dia 7wire strands Stirrupsly = 60. lightweight concrete I:i = 3. normal weight Ipu = 270.6 m) is situ cast on the precast section of Problem 5. The values of the section properties are as follows: Figure PS. Use the ACI coefficient of friction for determining the area and spacing of the shearfriction reinforcement. Compare the results with those obtained using the PCI coefficient of friction.2 Find the shear strengths V c.675 MPa) Ipe = 157.500 psi I: (topping) = 3.197 Pa) plus selfweight W D = 31 psf (1. and use f c = 3.3 Assume that a 4 in.338 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design Iyt for stirrups = 60.4.13.000 psi (20.2 m) and is subjected to a service dead load W SD = 25 psf (1. (2. design the necessary dowel reinforcement to ensure full composite action. (10 cm) topping of width b = 8 ft 6 in. 5. in the solution.000 psi (41.500 psi (1.1.000 psi.484 Pa) and a service live load W L = 45 psf (2. and then compare the two designs.3 cm) ee = 4.7 mm dia) 7wire tendons 5.5 cm) Use dp = 10 in.000 psi. 5. .
9 for combined shear and torsion assuming that the centerline dimensions of the interior floor panels are 30 ft x 56 ft (9.5 m).508 in. Design the beam for flexure and shear by the strutandtie approach. normalweight concrete =fyt = 60. The floor is subjected to a service superimposed dead load due to the double T's of WSD = 77 psf (3.8 Design the transverse and longitudinal reinforcement in Example 5.9 kN).1 m) and an effective centertocenter span 1=11 ft 6 in. (3. including its selfweight. 5.9 Design the web reinforcement for the beam in Example 5. Assume that the bracket was cast after the supporting column cured.49 in. (2.40 in.6 mm) from the column face.000 psi (413. normalweight concrete fy = fyt = 60.000 psi (413. and that the column surface at the bracket location was not roughened before casting the bracket. Detail the reinforcing arrangements for the bracket. 5.7 A simply supported deep beam has a clear span In = 10 ft (3. 3 1. Given: fe' fy =4500 psi (31.873 MPa). 429 in.1 m).0 MPa).6 mm) f: = 5.8 kN/m).9 for combined torsion and shear assuming that the Lbeam concrete is made of sandlightweight concrete.000 lb/ft (1601. The horizontal factored force Nuc = 40.992 in? 56 psf 5. Use both the strutandtie method and the shear friction approach in your solution. (355.000 lb (556 kN) acting at a lever arm a =4 in.47 MPa).7 MPa) Solve by both the shearfriction approach and the strutandtie method. 2 4. 578 in.1 m x 17. 3 1.000 psi (34.173 in. The total depth of the beam is h = 8 ft 10 in. 4 10. 1 l i . 3. Is is subjected to a uniform factored load on the top fibers of intensity w = 120.6 Solve Problem 5.7 MPa) 5.687 Ma) and a service live load of 60 psf (2. 5. 3 31 psf 7.7 m). 4 12.5 Design a bracket to support a concentrated factored load Vu = 125.292 in.51 in.60 in.000 lb (177. 3. Given data are: b = 14 in.5 if the structural system was made from monolithic sandlightweight concrete in which the corbel or bracket was cast simultaneously with the supporting column. (101.Problems Section properties Ac ( Cb 339 Untapped Topped ct Sb st WD 306 in.
continuity can be achieved at intermediate supports and knees of portal frames. while in box gi rders this ratio can be 25 to 30. Illinois.) 340 . For continuous flat plates. (Collrtesy. Also.1 INTRODUCTION As in reinforced concrete and other structural materials. In addition. thereby reducing furthe r the cost of materials and labor. the structural stabili ty and resistance to longitudinal and lateral loads arc usually improved. the spantodepth ralio is also improved.INDETERMINATE PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES 6. depending o n the Iype of cont inuous system being considered. As a result. Consequently. a ratio of 40 to 45 is reasonable. con tinu ity is widely used in longspan Lincoln Executive I'laza. lighter structu res with lighter foundations reduce the COSI o f materials and construction. An additiona l advantage of continuity is the e limination of anchorages at inlerme· diale supports through continuous posHensioning over severa l spans. Arlington Heights. Prest ressed Concrete Institute. Continuous prestressed concrete is widely applied in the United States in the construction of flat plates for floors and roofs with con tinuity in one or both directions and with prestressing in one or both directions. The reduction of moments and stresses at midspans through the design of continuous systems resulls in shallower members that are stiffer than simply supported members of equa l span and of comparable loading and are of lesser denection.
the length of the adjacent spans. and cablestayed bridges with prestressed decks are increasingly built as well. 5. there are two categories of continuity in beams: 1. Concurrence of moment and shear at the support sections.6. Secondary moments due to induced reactions at the supporting columns caused by the prestressing force (to be subsequently discussed). . Effects of higher secondary stresses due to shrinkage. 6. Excessive lateral forces and moments in the supporting columns. Monolithic continuity. 2. are increasingly being used in the United States for very large spans. Note that forming. 4. with the associated highquality control during fabrication. All these factors can be accounted for through appropriate design and construction of the final system. shoring. 6. Cantilevered box girder bridges. widely used in Europe as segmental bridges. where all the tendons are generally continuous throughout t l all or most of the spans and all tendons are prestressed at the site. The success of prestressed concrete construction is largely due to the economy of using precast elements. ment strength of those sections. 2. 6. which reduces the mo3. including special provisions for bearings at the supporting columns. Nonmonolithic continuity. and reshoring can also be avoided in this type of construction. Possible serious reversal of moments due to alternate loading of spans. particularly situcast posttensioned spans. creep temperature variations.3 TENDON LAYOUT FOR CONTINUOUS BEAMS The construction system used. Moment values at the interior supports that require additional reinforcement at these supports. The situcast concrete tends to resist the superimposed dead load and the live load that act on the spans after the concrete hardens.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CONTINUITY IN PRESTRESSING There are several disadvantages to having continuously prestressed elements: 1. These forces are caused by the elastic shortening of the longspan beams under prestress. 7. which might otherwise not be needed in simply supported beams. This desirable feature has been widely achieved by imposing continuity on the precast elements through placement of situcast reinforced concrete at the intermediate supports.3 Tendon Layout for Continuous Beams 341 prestressed concrete bridges. and the engineering judgment and ingenuity of the design engineer determine the type of layout and method of framing to be used for achieving continuity. and settlement of the supports. where precast elements are used as simple beams on which continuity is imposed at the support sections through situcast reinforced concrete which provides the desired level of continuity to resist the superimposed dead load and live load after the concrete hardens. particularly if they are rigidly connected to the beams. thereby reducing the costs further as compared with the costs of reinforced concrete. Basically. Such prestressing is accomplished by posttensioning. Higher frictional losses due to the larger number of bends and longer tendons.
1 Tendon geometry in beams with monolithic continuity.342 Chapter 6 Indeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures Figure 6. The system shown in Figure 6. however.2(a) and (c) are essentially comparable in the degree of their accuracy in estimating frictional and other losses. . Problems are encountered. (b) Nonprismatic beam with overlapping tendons. namely.1 schematically demonstrates the various systems and combinations of systems to achieve monolithic continuity. Figure 6. can add to the cost of formwork. using variabledepth beams. in the accurate evaluation of frictional losses due to the large number of bends. Figures 6. (a) Beam with constant depth.1(a) has the advantage on that of Figure 6. Continuity achieved through the use of precast pretensioned beams with situcast concrete connecting joints can in many cases be easier to erect. nonprismatic sections.1(b).. Frictional losses in the posttensioned straight cables are easier to evaluate accurately.1(a) presents a simple continuity system in which all the spans are situ cast and posttensioning is accomplished after the concrete hardens. Additional costs are incurred due to the necessity of several anchorages.a 0 0 0 o (a) Cap cable Post·tensioned Anchorage 0 (bl o Post·tensioned (c) Figure 6.:. and considerable savings may accrue since formwork and shoring at the site are generally not needed. Post·tensioned ~~O k?'~~~.. although architectural considerations sometimes require non prismatic continuous sections.1(b) in that the cost of formwork will in general be less because the continuous beam has a constant depth.2 illustrates how continuity is achieved in nonmonolithic construction. (c) Prismatic beam with overlapping tendons. The system shown in Figure 6. Figure 6.
Posttensioning or the use of nonprestressed steel at the supports provides the strength required to resist the live load and superimposed load stresses. In general.2 Continuity using precast pretensioned beams.2(b) is probably the simplest for achieving continuity in prestressed concrete composite construction. and no shoring is used in the construction process. The precast pre tensioned elements are designed to carry the prestressing and selfweight moments.2(a) and (c). the precast beams have to be shored before placing the composite concrete topping. while the nonprestressed steel at the negative moment region at the support is designed to resist the additional superimposed dead load and the applied live load moments. (c) Continuity in posttensioning for nonprismatic beams. (a) Posttensioned continuity using couplers. are designed to resist their own weight as well as handling and transportation stresses by the strength provided in pre tensioning. including those shown in Figures 6. If design for continuity due to the total dead load is to be achieved.6. (b) Continuity using non prestressed steel.3 Tendon Layout for Continuous Beams Posttensioned tendons Situcast concrete joint 343 Coupler (a) Situcast concrete Nonprestressed continuity steel Pretensioned tendons (b) Precast beam o Situcast concrete joint Posttensioned tendons o Pretensioned tendons Precast beam (c) Figure 6. . The system illustrated in Figure 6. precast elements.
the bending moments diagrams are drawn on the tension side of the columns.4(c)] is generated due to the prestressing force for the condition where the beam lower fibers just touch the intermediate support. In other words.3(a) shows a twospan continuous prestressed concrete beam. In prestressed concrete. However. and creep become considerable as compared to those in reinforced concrete continuous structures. and the moments M2 caused by the induced reactions will be called secondary moments. As a sign convention. Deformations due to axial loads are usually ignored except in very stiff members. namely. 6. The secondary reaction R causes the camber a to be neutralized and the beam to be held down at the intermediate support by an equal but opposite reaction R.1) . the reaction R will be zero. and the settlement of the supports is also rarely considered since creep and shrinkage do not cause major stresses. leading to shallower. and to return the beam section at the support to its original position before prestressing [see Figure 6. If the two lines coincide.344 Chapter 6 Indeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures 6.e. the bending moments due to the eccentric prestressing forces cause secondary reactions and secondary bending moments. If it is superimposed on the secondary moment diagram M2 in Figure 6. continuity also leads to reduced bending moments. Advantageously. the original moments due to prestressing. the prestressed elements can be essentially considered homogenous elastic material because of the limited cracking level. will be called primary moments. Such a convention can help eliminate errors in superposition in the analysis of portal frames and other systems whose vertical members are subjected to moments. the Tline [Figure 6.4 ELASTIC ANALYSIS FOR PRESTRESS CONTINUITY 6. whereas in reinforced concrete it would not be rational to make such an assumption since flexural cracks start to generate at almost 5 to 10 percent of the failure load. more economical sections. including those that are partially prestressed. the bending moments are always smaller than those of comparable statically determinate beams. In part (b). have very limited flexural cracking as compared with reinforced concrete elements.. shrinkage. M1 = P ee1.4.2 Support Displacement Method Figure 6. at the intermediate supports of the continuous structure.3(c)].1 Introduction Reinforced concrete structures are usually statically indeterminate due to the continuity provided by monolithic construction. i. These secondary forces and moments increase or decrease the primary effect of the eccentric prestressing forces. The effect of the secondary moment is to shift the location of the line of thrust. The line of thrust is the center line of compressive force acting along the beam span.4(d)]. with the thrust line (Cline) moving a distance y from the tendon cgs profile.4(b).4.6 The primary structure bending moment diagram M1 due to the prestressing force is shown in Figure 6. Because prestressed elements. Because of the induced secondary force or reaction R at the internal support caused by the eccentric prestress. Also. a resulting moment diagram M3 = (M1 + M 2 ) [Figure 6. the central support is assumed to have been removed. as explained in Section 6. the Cline. the elastic theory for indeterminate structures can be applied with sufficient accuracy at the limit state of service load. provided that the Cline at the intermediate support is above the cgc line. the effects of elastic shortening. The deviation of the Cline from the cgs line is (6.4(a).
(c) Secondary reaction to eliminate uplift or camber.6. (e) Secondary moment diagram due to R.:l OT (b) R R 1 (d) ~ (e) Secondary Figure 6.4 Elastic Analysis for Prestress Continuity II. (a) Tendon profile prior to prestressing. (d) Reaction R on theoretically simply supported beam. 345 e.3 Secondary moments in continuous prestressed beams. (b) Profile after prestressing if beam is not restrained by central support. . (a) ~~~ .
..4 Superposition of secondary moments due only to prestress and transformation of the thrust Cline. from Equations 1..3a) and Pe e'e fb =A ( 1 . (c) Superposition of (b) on (a) to give resulting moment M3 ... The resulting limit eccentricity of the Cline is e' = e3 = M3 Pe (6.. as is the case for the intermediate support section.. Note that e' is negative when the thrust line is above the neutral axis.11.2) where P e is the effective prestressing force after losses. v egs or Tline (d) ~ Figure 6.. positive (+) above and negative () below the base line. Pe e' C) t= __ ( 1 + _e_t Ac r2 (6..""<::_J ___ .p. and the new location of the tendon profile cgs is determined from the net moment M3 = M1 + M2 using the appropriate moment sign. (d) Transformation of the Cline from the Tline...4a and b..346 Chapter 6 Indeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures (a) (b) (e) Cline ege line  . (a) Primary moments M 1• (b) Secondary moments M2 ....2 c Cb) r (6. The concrete fiber stresses due to prestress only at an intermediate support become.3b) ...
It has two equal spans of 90 ft (27.6.1 A bonded posttensioned prestressed prismatic beam is continuous on three supports. the reaction R is the same as the displacement reaction R in the method described in Section 6. Compute the primary and secondary moments due to prestressing.6.4.1.4b) Alternatively. .5 EXAMPLES INVOLVING CONTINUITY 6.334 kN). The deviation of the Cline from the cgs line is then y = MZIPe . using the M3 moment values in Equations 6.5(c). Use both the support displacement method and the equivalent load method. and the tendon profile is shown in Figure 6.1 Effect of Continuity on Transformation of CLine for Draped Tendons Example 6. midspan sections.P e Ac (1 _e~ ~t) _ r MD Sb (6. or any other sections along the span provided that the appropriate sign convention is maintained. so that the resulting limit eccentricity of the cgs line will be e3 = MiPe • The prestress interior support reaction R is obtained from Figure 6. assume that the variation in tension force along the beam can be neglected. and the concrete fiber stresses at the support where the tendons are above the neutral axis are evaluated from (6. Calculation of the moment distribution due to the loading on the continuous beam in Figure 6. and find the concrete fiber stresses at the intermediate support C due to the prestressing force. The beam overall dimensions are b = 12 in.4 and 6. 6.3 Equivalent Load Method The equivalent load method is based on theoretically replacing the effects of the prestressing force by equivalent loads produced by the prestressing moments profile along the span due to the primary moment Ml in Figure 6.1.4. The effective prestressing force P e after losses is 300.4a) and fb = .000 lb (1.5( d) produces the moment diagram of moment M3 in part (e) of the figure.5(d) in order to determine the secondary moment M z caused by a load R acting at point c of a simple span AB.5 Examples Involving Continuity 347 The concrete fiber stresses at the support due to prestressing and the selfweight support moment are (6. (86 cm). the net moment at the section is M4 = M3 .5a) and fb = Pe Ac + M4 Sb (6. and the load producing this shear is evaluated as in Figure 6.5 should give the same results whether applied to support.5(b).5(d). (30 cm) and h = 34 in.4 m).4a and b.4.5. as in the previous method. This moment is the same as the net moment M3 in Section 6. 6.M D . If the shear diagram causing moments Ml is constructed as in Figure 6.5b) Both Equations 6.
(c) Shear diagram for moments MI.348 Chapter 6 Indeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures ege line ~  o (a) M 1 4flilllI1111111 (b) ~ ~ 11111111111111 (e) 111111111111111111111111 ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!! I R (d) (e) t l Figure 6.0 X 106 + 1.7(a) to get the tangential deviation of the elastic curve at A from the horizontal at C as the displacement at C.05 X 106) 90.ie' can be readily obtained from basic mechanics by the moment area method. 2 144 . Solution (a): Support Displacement Method. From the figure.ie = [(3. (d) Loadcausing moment in (b) and shear in (c). (e) Moment diagram for loads in (d) after moment distributions. EI. 2] X 9~ X 144 _ C· 1X 1~6 X 90) 90. taking the moments of areas AEC and ADC about point A in Figure 6. (b) Primary moment Ml due to prestressing. The primary moment M1 due to prestressing causes upward camber or deflection at the intermediate support C.5 Equivalent load method of Cline transformation. This camber. . (a) Primary structure after prestreSSing.
·lb (b) 3.. . (f) New location of Cline and possible cgs line.~r=="..T ~.1 due to continuity.0 X 1()6 in. (b) Primary moment M1 due to prestress Pe.6 Transformation of thrust line in Example 6.·lb ! 11111111111111111111111111111111 1111111 II II 1.1 X 1()6 in.I~ 45' C (f) 90' _ _ _ _.975 X 1()6 in.0 x 1()6 in..~ A r 6.·lb (229 x 1()3 Nm) (e) Cline and possible new location of cgs line cgc line "'..'WA1!llll1I1II 2.. 13.5 Examples Involving Continuity 10" 349 7" 10' D 45' A D 45' 45' C (a) 45' 90' (27. Rc = 3610 Ib (16 kN) t M2 i I (c) t IIII11 F O. 8 Figure 6.4 m) 8 M.6.Ib (339 x 1()3 Nm) 3.5" (C·line eccentricity) ..95 X 1()6 in..025 X 106 in.L. (c) Reaction R on theoretically simple beam.. (a) Tendon geometry: one possible location. (e) Final moment M3 = M1 + M2 .·lb 1111 1 IllIJITonn".75" .·lb (d) 2.4m) 90' (27. 41111ll11III111111~ 1ll1IDnlIlh. (d) Secondary moment M2 due to R..
From Equation 6. From Figure 6. .LU.ll.1 x 108 R 1ll.I.. x ..05 X 106 in.1.I.LU. the distance through which the Cline has to be transformed upwards at support C is Yc = Pe M2 = 1. from Figure 6..95 X 106 = 2. (c) Secondary moment M2 due to R.58 x 1011 Then = 2. (16 kN) c 2.6(d) and 6.5 cm) .l.1 X 106 in.5 Ill.lb From Equation 6.lb The total moment M3 at C due to prestress continuity is M J + Mz = 2.05 X 106 00 = 13.ll.025 106 in.. i.8051b t (8 kN) The secondary moment Mz due to concentrated load Rc varies linearly from interior support C to end supports A and B in Figures 6..L. is ec = p = e M3 • 4.x 144 = 2. (16.1 350 Similarly.·lb 45R ft.e.58 X 1011 = 3610 lb.Lll.95 x 10 lll.1 X 108 R R = 7.LU.L. the distance of the Cline above the cgc line.j.3 cm) 3 .·lb A""=!::!:.LU.0 X J06 in.6(c).1 x 108 ' RA = RB = 1.LU..LU.·lb (e) Figure 6.I.0 X 106 X  2" x 1 1.3 .L~C R/2 (b) D ~90'~·~1 (a) 2.7 Camber I1c due to M1• (a) Primary moment M1• (b) Deflected shape due to R.5 Ill.I.610 6' x 90 x 12 = 2.. M2 = Rc 2 3.I.x 90 x 12 = 1.3_lb Equating the right sides of these equations to each other yields 7.lb E 3.2.95 X 106 = 4..7(c). the eccentricity of the Cline above the cgc line at interior support C.95 X 106 .ll. Chapter 6 Indeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures 1 EIl1c = 45R x 12 x 90 2 90 x 2 . (34. 300000 = 6.000 The midspan total moment is M3 = 3.7(c) .1 X 106 + 1.
016 psi (1') (7.6(d).16 for load balancing.000 ( _ 13.1 MPa) and the bottom concrete fiber stress is fb = = _ ~: (1 _e:: ) 300.000 X 13. . the final moment at the interior support C is M3 = M) + Mz = 337. Z = 12 = . all other steps for calculation of fiber stresses and location of both fiber stresses and the Cline are identical and give the same results as solution (a). ec = 13. Concrete Fiber Stresses at Interior Support C due to Prestress Only ct 34 = Cb = 2: = 17.6(b).3 lb/ft = 12 = Wblz = 224.5 in. it diminishes considerably.0 MPa) Although the bottom fiber stress in tension is higher and well beyond the maximum allowable. the top concrete fiber stress is r= M Pe (1 + eCt) rZ = _ 300.= 39304·tn.33 = 2. Since the M) diagram is the primary moment diagram as in Figure 6.3(90i 12 = 333.. it is only due to prestress.Ib.75 tn.S(b). 4 12 ' Ie 39.5 X 17) 40S 1 96.5 (90? X 12 333. which is identical to Figure 6.tn.467 ftIb = 4.33 in.1cm) . SPa Wb=[2 where a is the eccentricity of the tendon from the cgc line.S. (17.3a and b. which is the same value as solution (a).304 Z c 12(34)3 r Z = A = 408 = 96. So S X Wb = FEM 300. Once selfweight is considered. From Equation 1. Thereafter. From Equations 6.025 X 106 • 300000 = 6.33 = + 1. Solution (b): Equivalent Load Method. the diagram for the secondary moment Mz can be constructed from M3 . Ae I e = bh = 12 bh3 X 34 = 40S in.M) as shown in Figure 6.000 ( + 13.05 x 106 in.4S7 psi (C) (17.97S ftIb From the moment distribution operation in Figure 6.5 1 X 17) 40S 96.6.5 Examples Involving Continuity 351 and the Cline eccentricity is eD = 2.
."'Ib~ M 1 ~3'OX ".0 X 106 + 1.2 Effect of Continuity on Transformation of Cline for Harped Tendons Example 6.978 0 B Dist.975 X 106 in.00 224.489 +337.Ib M.978 :I~ 45' .489 337. 6..8 Equivalent load method for continuous beam analysis.978 224.9.Ib) (a) M3 0 2. Figure 6.Ib (b) "X 10' .1 X 106 X 90 2 Ell1c = (3.352 Wb Chapter 6 Indeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures 333.50 0.978 +112.025 X in. (b) Total moment M3 • (c) Primary moment M1 • (d) Secondary moment M2 . .0.7 (c).5.978 +224.65 X 1011 in?lb From Figure 6.Ib 111111111 III III !II '11""" .3Ib/ft (4.·Ib A1fTI1lTIIII11_"II~ w AT11If11IJJl1111_111JIJnrIn& 2.978 112.50 45' :I~ 45' 1. Solution: Then Construct the primary and secondary moment diagram shown in Figure 6. "" " " 11111111111111111111 F (d) 1.05 X 106)90 X "2 X '2 X 144  90 X 2 X 3.X 144 = 3.. Use the support displacement method in your solution.87 kN/m) ~t t t ~ ~ t t t t tit t t t t : ~ t t t~ A 45' 1.1 X 106 in.05 X 106 in.05 X 106 in..467 ft·lb (4.95 X 106 in.467 +224. factor FEM (ft·lb) 224. 1 90 2.2 Solve Example 6.Ib (c) 0.00 +224.1 assuming that the prestressing tendon is harped at the midspan of both adjacent spans..Ib (229 X 103 Nm) 106 4. (a) Equivalent load and moment distribution.
'..·lb 2. (d) Secondary moment M2 due to R..53 X lOS in....43" .... (f) New location of Cline and possible cgs line.·lb (b) R = 1738lb I (c) M2 ==~~"~....94 X lOS in. ~ A D B 0++45'0.... ...1 X 108 in...9 0 ' .. (c) Reaction R on theoretically simple beam."'" ..D ~ T ... ...04 X lOS in..13" (Cline eccentricity) cgc line _ _ _ or.5 Examples Involving Continuity 353 1+90'I+I90'I~ A C (a) B M'~~~ 2..53 X lOS in.Ib M3~~~ 3. (a) Tendon geometry: one possible location..Ib (e) Cline and possible new location of cgs line 10.1.. .2 due to continuity.·lb 2.9 Transformation of thrust line in Example 6...... (b) Primary moment M1 due to prestress Pe ..n"n"n"niinl!nl!]I!~lImllmll[II[IUIrrrn"nltn!fn"]II]"~iI~II~'niln"D"D'~==(d) 60..6. (f) c Figure 6.....r .8... (e) Final moment M3 = M1 + M2 .
1 R 11 X X 10 108 = 1 738lb t ' The secondary moment ordinate at interior support C is M2 ="2 x 90 x 12 = 2 1. 2.) 408 96.1 X 106 + 0.1 MPa) and the bottom concrete fiber stress is fb =  ~: (1 _e.94 X 106 = 3.04 X 106 .e.0 MPa) Comparing the results of the harped tendon case of this example to the draped parabolic tendon of Example 6.6 LINEAR TRANSFORMATION AND CONCORDANCE OF TENDONS It can be recognized from the discussion in Section 6.1 .43 m. M2 0.13 in. is M3 ee = p e So the midspan total moment is = 300000 = 10.33 = 2. e = 2. for the Cline or thrust line.lb (344 x 103 Nm). ee = 10. the distance through which the Cline has to be transformed upwards at support C is Ye = pe = 300000 = 3. 6.1 x 10 Re R = 3.0 X 106 and the Cline eccentricity is eD 6  0.53 X 106 .1. the distance of the Cline above the cgc line.049 psi (C) (14. (21.04 X 106 in.2. So the top concrete fiber stress is f' =  Pe Ae (1 + eel) . 10 = 2. 3. EltJ.13 m. Consequently.13 X 17) 408 96. the concrete fiber stresses are lower.94 X 106 in.1 reveals that smaller total continuity moments M3 resulted at the intermediate support since the triangular area of the moment diagram is onehalf the product of the span and the moment ordinate while the parabolic area is twothirds of that same product.lb Thus. (25. This is to be expected since the Cline ordinates are the moment ordinates resulting from the product of .lb = 300000 = 8.738 X 90 X 12 = 0.94 . From Equation 6.4 cm) . M3 = 3.354 Chapter 6 Indeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures 8 l .000 (1 + 10.33 = _ 300. (8 cm) .. the eccentricity of the Cline above the cgc line at interior support C.2 = _ 300.13 X 17) = + 579 psi (T) (4. the total moment M3 = 2.13 m.000 (1 _ 10. Concrete Fiber Stresses at Interior Support C Due to Prestress Only.65 e 2..4 that the profile of the line of thrust (the Cline) follows the profile of the prestressing tendon (the cgs line).94 X 106 .53 X 106 in. From Equation 6. i.7 cm) .
Examples 6. it is possible to linearly transform the Cline by raising or lowering its position at the interior support while preferably maintaining its original position at the exterior simple supports. (24.. This flexibility has major practical significance in the design of continuous prestressed concrete beams.025 X 106 in.75 in.3 demonstrates such a flexibility. namely.05 X 106 X 2 90 X 12 = 7. Consequently. The profile of the Cline remains the same because of the linearity of the transformation.6(f).6. Also.lb.. It can be seen from both solution (a) in Figure 6. where the tendon profile coincides with the Cline profile.1 em) that are the same Cline eccentricities as in Example 6.05 Also.4 kN).10(f) and 6.11 that the Cline coordinates are the same and close to the values obtained in Example 6. X 106 in.7 kN) t l Solution (b): Both M2 = 0 and R = O. and at midspan D the moment is M3 = 2. The deflection behavior of any beam is a function of the variation in moment along the span.5 in. (24. Solution (a): The secondary moment is M2 = 4.1. although the cgs line locations along the span are not the same as those in Figures 6. and 6.10 and solution (b) in Figure 6. as in Example 6.1.3 em) and eD = 6. (a) Figure 6. the beam just touches the intermediate support and behaves like a simply supported beam. note that in solution b.lb. and the prestressing tendon is called a concordant tendon. concentrated or distributed.11(f).1. without changing the profile positions of the Cline.6(a). it is possible to linearly transform the cgs line. and the shape of the moment diagram is a function of the type of load.05 X 106 Rc = RA 4. = RB = 3. Consequently.2 show that in a continuous beam. and note that the Cline in Figure 6.1 and 6.6.e.11(a) with eccentricities ec = 13.lb (458 X 103 Nm) t R X 90 X 12 = 4. 6.10(a).3 em) at midspan similar to the intermediate support eccentricity in Example 6. as illustrated in Chapters 1 and 4.10(a) with eccentricities e c Verify that the profile and alignment of the Cline in (a) and (b) are the same as the Cline geometry in Example 6.750 lb (16.1. tendon profiles are often draped for distributed loads.1 and Figure 6. Such a beam is called a concordant beam.05 X 10 6 in. and (b) Figure 6. (17. i. the reaction R = 0 and the secondary moment M2 = O.1 has a new tendon profile as shown in = 0 and an eccentricity eD = 13. Example 6. the prestressing tendon profile along the beam span.5 in. Compare the tendon profile it presents with that of Example 6.5001b (33.6 Linear Transformation and Concordance of Tendons 355 the prestressing force P e and the tendon eccentricity from the cgc line varying along the span.I.1.11(a). The . while they are harped for concentrated loads.6(f) is the same as the Cline in Figures 6.3 The continuous beam of Example 6. the deviation of the Cline from the cgc line is directly proportional to the secondary moment M 2. The total moment at the intermediate support C in both cases is M3 = 4. Since the M2 diagram varies linearly with the distance from the support. This means that when the cgs line coincides with Cline. 6.1 Verification of Tendon Linear Transformation Theorem Example 6.
.3 (alternative a).. 1.L.10 Tendon transformation in Example 6. .1 356 Chapter 6 Indeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures 1 A (a) (b) Rc =7500 Ib (33..·lb r 2.90'1 Figure 6. .05 X lOS in. .. ..·lb .. ..05X1OSin"lb (e) ~illIllIllIl 0Jnrrn".025 X 108 in..4 kN) RA = 3750lb (e) t I 2... . cg~l~ _ E~5· ____..025 X lOS 4.·lb Rg = 3750 Ib t M'~ (d) r M3 2.025 X lOS in. ___ " B C·line oeD .. . .90'0.~ . .. ... . .crrrrrrrrn"""III""'l lnTllmllmr~ ~~. ..__L*'''''' A (f) .. ..
. ..11 Tendon transformation in Example 6..45'o~1 4 . .4 m)+iI490' (27.025 X 10 in......5" (34.*".9 0 ' (27.45'.025 X 106 in.. (a) 8 : ' : 2 5 X 10 in. .6..Ib 4.00 " .3 (alternative b).." R=O J f (e) t (d) M2 ________________________________ 2..05 X 106 in.75" A c .·lb Ml 6 ~ 2.6 Linear Transformation and Concordance of Tendons 357 13.3 em) 6...4 m)i.·lb 2.025 X 10& in..Ib (e) Cline A ~++90'~ 8 (f) Figure 6..·lb 6 A111TIl1IIIl111111I~ 'T (b) _______IIIIIII~ '..
7. plastic hinging develops at the most highly stressed regions in the continuous beam. Otherwise.358 Chapter 6 Indeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures fiber stresses are also the same. Theoretically. 8.7 ULTIMATE STRENGTH AND LIMIT STATE AT FAILURE OF CONTINUOUS BEAMS 6. l (7. Bending moments and shear diagrams for superposition of transverse loads on continuous beams is shown in Figure 6. Total redistribution and full development of plastic hinges at the continuous supports of a fully bonded prestressed beam render the beam statically determinate. However. It is advisable to start a design assuming concordance in order to eliminate the need for calculating the secondary moment M 2• By trial and adjustment. The eccentricity of any concordant tendon measured from the cgc line produces a moment diagram representing a profile similar in form to the moment profile due to the superimposed load. as the final design dictates. A change in eccentricity at one or both end supports results in a shift of the Cline. This limit in tensile stress is based on allowing some limited cracking beyond the first cracking load as determined by the modulus of rupture of concrete.0 MPa).12.1 General Considerations The serviceload design of continuous prestressed beams assumes elastic behavior of the material up to the limit of allowable tensile stress in the concrete due to all loads. one can arrive at the final beam section depth that fulfills the design requirements with the cgs location either concordant or nonconcordant. but superposition of concordant and nonconcordant tendons produces a non concordant tendon.487 psi (C) (17. up to the limit state at failure. Any line of thrust (Cline) is a profile for a concordant tendon. A concordant tendon induces no reactions on intermediate supports. 4.. 7. 6. Superposition of several concordant tendons produces a concordant tendon. viz. At this stage of overload and beyond.6.2 Concordance Hypotheses The following list summarizes the hypotheses defining the transformation and concordance of tendons in continuous prestressed beams: 1. As cracking becomes more effective during overload conditions. tion. 5. = 2. A beam with a concordant tendon is a continuous beam whose Cline coincides with its cgs line.1 MPa) and fb = +1. 6. as if concordance of tendons were present with zero moments at the supports. internal plastic deformation at the critical regions of maximum or peak moments and plastic redistribution of elastic moments from the negative to the positive moment regions are generated. in such cases the secondary moments M2 can be disregarded beyond the first cracking load. but a change in eccentricity at intermediate supports does not affect the position of the Cline. The choice of concordance or non concordance is determined by concrete cover and efficiency in beam depth selection. such an assumption can result in an unsafe design unless a concordant tendon is assumed from the beginning and is executed in the final design with no overload conditions permitted. 3.016 psi (1) 6. it is important to consider the secondary moment . Any tendon profile can be linearly transformed without affecting the Cline posi2.
(f) Continuous beam.:O:. four equal spans. (b) Continuous beam. concentrated load at any point.357wl I Ro = 0.°ri·5:.558wl Moment (d) Figure 6.OO99wI4/EI R. four equal spans...10wl wi wi wi 1111 Rc=1. . t~""".LL.IIIJ=.I!' .L...7 Ultimate Strength and Limit State at Failure of Continuous Beams 359 At:==:'/" "' ":"!"II I "' ":tf ""I' RA = 0. three equal spans..383wl R. = 1.450wl Shear wi wi I ==to Ro = 0. one end span unloaded. =0.400wl l/'l~ fWPP!!" '11'11 'lB'"I"'I'"'" 't'~" I R..==:t° I Ro = 0. three equal spans.033wl 0.383wl pn:c...+Ll.417wl 0..".4461 from A or 0) = 0.._.L. 0. third span unloaded.:3W.550w/ Rc = 0. concentrated load at center of one span.. /" 8 wi wi . first and third spans loaded.u.fc l+T wi 1'~' E RE = 0. Rc = 0.6.380wl Shear y.OO69wI4/EI Moment (e) A RA = 0..450wl Am•• (0.. all spans loaded. three equal spans.l..rTT.598wl I ...4751 from E) = 0.:83ITwii/rf.0333wI2 Moment = 0. (0..0~3.400wl Shear Am.550wl jLU===rrrrt'==t'===rrrni 0.450wl Moment (b) A RA =0. (h) Continuous beam..l·f: 0. ali spans loaded..4791 from A or 0) = 0..20wl Rc = 0. (e) Continuous beam.C'"'_=TTTr+U.'nmq .400wl fJU. (g) Continuous beam.223wl wi wi /·f.10wl ·1· "'wwqO IJ Ro =0.442wl 0.380wl 0.=1.0059wl" / EI (a) A RA =0.4301 from A) 0.12 Bending moments and shear diagrams for continuous beams.."'1'8' ' .<:""""_. 0.033wl Am.45OwI Shear t:==.c::. = 1..442wl Ama. (a) Continuous beam. end spans loaded.400wl 0.._=:rrr"".o"""" 'i . two equal spans. four equal spans. (0...450wl 0.p:====="9 0. (d) Continuous beam..603wl r ""..""1 c R.0094wI 4/EI 0... (c) Continuous beam..:/. two equal spans.
..4801 from R .393wl D. = Pb 41 3 [4/ 2 a(1+a)] = .U::c:.393wl 0.= V.!.. lI R. = 0.0097wI4/EI Moment (e) A POUO .!!!P 32 Mm •• (at point of load) MI (at support R 2 ) (g) = ~PI 64 32 = 2PI = 0...':':TTTfJ.:c::..393wl She.446wl At:='I"""'fS Jot • wi wi R.... = VI R2 = V2 R3 V2 =~P + V3 =.. 4/2 Figure 6.":':rrn+.r. mox (0.015PI 3/EI D.a(1 4/ 3 + all (h) =£. i[4/ 2 + b(1 + a)] 3 Mme...r fU=..928wl I Ro = 1.. ma • (0. (at point of load) = Pab[4/ 2 .u.4711 from A) = 0.orrr! Moment (f) Total equivalent uniform load = ¥ 32 P R..143wl 'f lf RE =0. wi wi wi wi E I 11111 Illt~ I 1111 I I I I I I It~ I I I I I 1PP4f RA = 0..!!.+JL..12 Continued ..q:.143wl ·f~ I'f~ Rc = 0.u:::=.m•• (0.'.!.')'8 ' ..0065wI4/EI 0.!!..) R.572wl Shear D.393wl = 1.P 16 = V3 =2p 32 =."...1 360 Chapter 6 Indeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures \ i RA = 0. 1[2/ 2 + b(1 + all 3 2/ R3 = V3 =4/ Pab (I 4/ 3 + a) = .4401 from A and E) = 0.
3. 3. A positive secondary momcnt at the support caused by transforming a tendon downwards from a concordant profile will therefore reo duce the negative moments near the supports and increase the positive moment in the midspan region. where the maximum rein forcement index d [w. the following sequence of steps is recommended: 1. Determine the moments due to the dead and live loads at fac tored load level.5 are equally applicable to prestressed concrete sections. with a limit inelastic moment redistribltfiOIl factor of 1000 e.7 Ultimate Strength and Umit State at Failure of Continuous Beams 361 Phote 6. the amou nt by which the moment at the support may be varied is changed by an amount equal to the secondary moment at the support due to pre· stressing ( Ref. It should be noted that the total amount of prestressed and nonprestressed reinforcement should be adequate to develop a factored load of at least J. Conversely. for a beam wi th a given clastic rotational capacity.and tensioncontrolled sections shown in Figure 4. but with a load factor of 1. Redistribute as permitted. Consideri ng the secondary moments is mandated by the fact that the elastic deformation ca used by the nonconcordant tendons changes the amount of illelaslic rotation required to obtain a given amount of redistribution.2).12.) 1012 due to prestressing up to the limit state of the failure load.1 Seven Mile Bridge. 6.4 for a detailed discussion. Modify by algebraic addition of secondary moments M2 due to prestressing.Tensioning Institute. The net tensile strain limits for compression. Post.0. A tendon that is transformed upwards will have a reverse ef· fcct. The net tensile strain for tensioncontrolled sections. (COllrtesy. Florida Keys.38b. See Sect ion 4.24~ 1 for prestressed sections.w')] .2 times the cracking load computed on the basis of the modulus of rupture fr This provision in ACI 31B . 2.7.12. wP' embodied in Equation 4..6.2 Moment Redistri bution The ultimate analysis and design of prestressed concrete members fo llows the strain limits approach detailed in Section 4. may still be stated in terms of the reinforcement index. + d(w . They replace the maximum reinforcement limits used in code provisions prior to the 2002 ACI 3 IB Code. 6. In order to determine the moments to be used in the design. not to exceed O.
The tendon profile at the intermediate supports cannot have the same peak configuration as that of the negative bending moment diagram. The test for this condition should be based on the resulting stress values rather than moment values. and the additional difficulties that can be encountered in posttensioning. A tendon profile alternative that produces the least frictional losses should be chosen in the design. and (b) Flexural members with shear and flexural strength at least twice the load level causing the first cracking moment Mer 6. the total prestressing moment at any section should be sufficient to counteract the average serviceload bending moment at that section. where the chaindotted line gives the average bending moments used in the serviceload design. These considerations include the magnitude of frictional losses that increase with the decrease in the radius of curvature. 5. provided that the midspan profile eccentricity and moments produce satisfactory concrete stresses. a tendon chosen only on the basis of linear transformation and concordance is not necessarily satisfactory.8 TENDON PROFILE ENVELOPE AND MODIFICATIONS The envelope for limiting tendon eccentricities for continuous beams can be constructed in the same manner as discussed in Section 4. with only uniformly distributed live load w L = 1. 4.514 plf (22. Selection of the tendon profile should be based on the following considerations: 1. and hence more live load. 3.4 Design the tendon profile in the beam of Example 4. 6.7.9 TENDON AND CLlNE LOCATION IN CONTINUOUS BEAMS Example 6. Where possible. It is essential to consider the ultimateload requirements when selecting the tendon profile. Consider the posttensioned prestressing tendon to be continuous . due to both design and practical considerations. Consequently.13. it is advisable to modify the tendon profile at the support so as to have a curvilinear transition at the support zone. A decrease in eccentricities at the intermediate supports through additional tendon transformation decreases the serviceload compressive stresses and can result in allowing additional liveload moments. Typical tendon alternative profiles with equal upper and lower eccentricities at the peak moment sections are shown in Figure 6. The eccentricity should be as large as possible at the point where the largest bending moment develops at the limit state at failure.3 for simply supported beams. unbonded posttensioned slabs. 2. the high level of compressive stress concentration in cases of abrupt changes in the tendon.5 m) each. as it might neither totally fulfill the serviceload stress requirements nor fully satisfy the ultimateload requirements at both the midspan and interior supports.362 Chapter 6 Indeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures Code is permitted to be waived for (a) Twoway. Such modification has to be accounted for by modifying the primary moment Ml diagram and the total moment M3 diagram. since the prestressing force causes axial load stress as well as bending moment stress.1 kN/m).4. A determination has to be made as to whether tension is to be allowed in the design in order to establish the limiting maximum and minimum ordinates of the upper and lower envelopes relative to the top and bottom kerns. assuming the unshored beam to be continuous over three spans 64 ft (19.
and assume that a maximum allowable concrete compressive fiber stress fe = 0.5 MPa) is reached at the extreme top fibers of the composite section when the live load acts on the section.8 MidspanJ.655 MPa) fpi = 189.85 MPa) SupportJ.000 psi (20. Solution: 1.6.45f~ = 2. = 6Vt: = 425 psi (2.000 psi (27.7 (a) Stress data Precast f: = 5. (a) Bending moment diagram for continuous beam.000 psi (1.6 MPa) fpu = 270. 0.862 MPa) fpy = 243.250 psi (15. normalweight concrete f:i = 4. Input data from Example 4.000 psi (1.7fpu) = 151.5 MPa).000 psi (1. normalweight concrete Toppingf: = 3.000 psi (34.93 MPa) .043 MPa) 'Y = 0.3/ .7 MPa). Disregard tension force variation due to frictionallosses in the bends.13 Tendon profile modification.25/ (b) Figure 6. throughout the structure and fully grouted. (b) Tendon profile alternatives.8(0.9 Tendon and CLine Location in Continuous Beams 363 Bending moment envelope A c (a) 0.303 MPa) fpe = 0.000 = 849 psi (5. Use a modified effective width bm =65 in. = 12~ = 12Y5. (165 cm) for the compression flange to account for the modular ratio of the topping and precast concrete.200 psi (1.
174 19.Ib For simplification.251 15. in.2. 2 Ie' in.5 em) (c) Section properties AASHTO Type III Property Precast Composite Ae. (114.390 223. (14.200 = 508. (165 em) 5.77 Precast h 45 in.75 in. st. Assume a trial tendon profile location as shown in Figure 6. 2 (21.1 kN/m) for 4 in.27 24.5 kN/m) WSD = (lV12) X 7 ft X 150 slab formwork X = 153 plf (2.070 Sebs' in.000 in.32 13. ct' in. in. in.1 kN/m)(obtained from ML = 9.9401b (2.3 em) = Transformed b Situcast hf = 65 in. the tangential deviation used for computing dB is based on assuming the tangent to the elastic curve at B as horizontal. precast W CSD = (4/12) X 7 ft topping WL 150 = 350 pJf (5.490 21.Ib) Span = 64 ft (19.7 cm2 ) 2. situcast = 1. 2 cb.514 plf (22. 3 (bottom of slab) Ses.364 (b) Load data Chapter 6 Indeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures WD = 583 plf (8.58 X 106 in.366 X 151. 3 3 4 560 125.288 n = Ee (topping)/ Ee (precast) = = 0.14 The prestressing force after losses is Pe = 3.86 9.045 318.15 yields .73 6.940 X 9 = 4. 3 (top of slab) 934 297. dia (12.366 in.63 X 106 in.300.7 mm dia) 7wire lowrelaxation strands Aps = 22 X 0. .Ib (862 X 103 Nm) The primary moment at midspan El is M E\ = 508.1 31. Taking moments of areas about A in Figure 6. Sb' in.2 kN/m) for 1~ in.6 em) (d) Prestressing steel Twentytwo ~in. in.9 20.153 = 3.940 X 15 = 7. in.186 5.264 kN) while the primary moment at support B is MB = P e X eB = 508.
63 x 10 x 64] x x 2 2 3 144 = 15.x 2 x 144 6 64 .15 support A.Ib + I ~ 3 c.[ 7.14 Trial profile of the prestressing tendon..+ 4. Computation of displacement by taking moments of area about .6.0 X 1010 in. 7. 7. 8 c Figure 6.x .c = [(2.63 X 106 in.58 ) 106 x . Figure 6.g.3 .lb Also.9 Tendon and CLine Location in Continuous Beams 365 ~64'~ __.B = EJct:.63 64 x 2] 64 EJct:.
87 X 106 in. hence.940 6 X 106 in.1 X 583 X 64 .1 wt  994 = 1.76 x 106 in.Ib (Max.2. we have MD at B = MEl = 0.12 X 10 in.366 X 151. 8 = + 4.49 Ill.3a and b. and E3 due to prestressing only is Midspan M3 = (4.17) = = 2. 3lb RA = RD = ' 150 x 1010 6 151 x 10 = 994lb t (By exact calculation = 798 lb) The secondary moment M2 at support B is RA x 64 x 12 = 994 x 64 x 12 = 0. the total moment at midspans.87 X 106 = (8.63 The Cline eccentricity is + 0.87)106 = 5.0. from Equations 6.39 X 106 in.Ib (624 X 103 Nm) (i) Support section B or C The construction process in this stage involves mounting the precast Ibeams and prestressing them. E 1.16) ' eB 8. E 2 . Concrete fiber stresses due to prestress and selfweight (583 pI!) Using the moment factors and reaction factors from Figure 6.39 .) Finally.2.0 cm) 508.10 X 583(64)2 X 12 (see Figure 6.39 X 106 . (41.9 cm) (The eccentricity e' of the Cline when it is above the neutral axis is considered negative in order to conform to Equations 6.12.9401b MD at El = 2.20 X 10 = +.0481b The total support B moment due to prestressing and selfweight is. 508.994 = 40.Ib eEl 3.52 X 106 in.Ib The total moment at support B due to prestressing only is Support M3 = (7.5a and b. 366 Chapter 6 Indeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures EJJ:1 B = (RA X 64 x 12) (64 ~ 12)(64 x ~2 x 2) = 151 X 106 RB in.25'Ill.Ib P e = ApJpe 3.940 = 16.. The fiber stresses due to prestressing and selfweight. calculate MEl from the area of the shear diagram) Net RB = 1. are as follows: . + M is not at midspan.200 6 = 508.76) X 106 = 8.20 and the Cline eccentricity is .58 .38)106 = 4. (21 . M4 = M3 .Ib (see Figure 6. then.
38 X 10S in.•1b (d) D (e) Figure 6.4kN) 994lb 994 t 0.1b ~""XI"i'.. (a) 994lb (4.Ib II 1111111111" IIIII ' (e) ~XI""' .16 Tendon Cline profile in continuous beam of Example 6..Ib I (b) J 994 t M.9 Tendon and CLine Location in Continuous Beams 367 M. "I +" IIIIIIIIIJI!"IIIIIIIIIIII~III 0.76 X 10S in.6. .1b ~2XI"i' .4.
27) _ 2. Alternatively.5 psi (C).K.9 5.08 X 106 in. Hence.1 + 566. fIb = 908.1 = 1.S' = s6() 5.08 X 106 5.186 = + 447.87 X 10 560 223.Ib t fl = :11 + S' = s6() + c = Pe M4 508.87 X 106 560 1 223. .8 = 1997.245 pSI (C) (8.4a and b using the Cline eccentricities e' e = 16.9 .940 5. O.16 gives the moments.463.940 (1 + 16.940 5. OK 6 _ f Ib .K. Pe M4 508.4 MPa).12)106 = 2.91 6. 070 908.K.Ac . fi =  A + c Pe M Pe fIb = .6 psi (C) (13.8 MPa) Pe Ac < 2.20 .070 = 908. no tension.9 = 16.17 Moment diagram due to external load.0 psi (C) (ii) Outer span midspan El The eccentricity at the midspan is e kl = +8. + Sb  M4 __ 508. . the concrete fiber stresses at the support can be computed from Equations 4. O.52 x 106 fl = .8 + 410.070 = 2. Figure 6. = 16. ~ RA = 0.940 = 2.088.Ac  S: s: M4 Total moment M4 at El = (4.8  .940 ( _ 16.08 X 106 6.250 psi.2.49 X 20.564.Pe Ac (1 + e.186  8 23 908.368 Chapter 6 Indeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures 1 .998 psi (C)(13. O.8 MPa) f' lb = .3 498.6 MPa).Pe Ac (1 _e. 2. and Cline geometry of the continuous beam in this example.1. eccentricities.49 X 24. Cb) _ r2 MD Sb = _ 508.186 = 1.8 + 9. We obtain f' I = .52 x 10 560 + 6. Ct ) + MD S' 6 r2 = _ 508.40wl Rs = 1.1wl Figure 6.25 in.49 in.5 psi (C) (3.73) + 2.1a and b or Equations 6.8 .
followed by placing the 4 in.7 MPa) < 2. O.68 X 106 9. fr .8 pSI (C) + .111 psi (C) (7. Effect of adding the superimposed dead loads on support sections Band C At this stage of the construction process the Ii in. resulting in full composite action for supporting the total service live load.3  8.1 kN/m) including W CSD.47 Hence.1167WL 12 = 0.47 X 106 in.1167 X 1. the section moduli for the precast beam become S~ = 21.3 kN/m).1 X 503(64? X 12 = 2.68 X 106 in. O.250 pSI.1. Effects of adding the superimposed live load on support sections Band C After the concrete cures.K. We have W L = 1.lb = 3.2. The support moment due to superimposed load is MB2 = 0.lb 3.8 t _ X 106 ) in. == 1.05 X 106 . and compression at the bottom fibers of the support section. .Ib The liveload moment causes tension at the top. fbT = 414.4 pSI (C) . The resulting total fiber stresses in the precast section at the support due to all loads become f'T and = f'2 + M B3 S~ Hence. M5 = (M4 .510. 5070 .908. thick precast slabs (WSD ) are erected.2 MPa) .K.514 plf (22.250 psi.68 X 106 21714 .4 + t _ 8.12. 3 and Scb = 9.9 Tendon and CLine Location in Continuous Beams 369 4.714 in.6. < 2.05 X 106 _ . .05 X 106 in. thick layer of wet concrete (WSD ). 5.329 pSI (9. 3. Thus.lb Also. f2 .lw12 = 0.490 in? The loading combination which causes the highest stress condition is when the load acts on only two adjacent spans AB and Be.8 f2b = 908. 6186 = 415. W SD = 153 + 350 = 503 pJf (7.1.514(64? X 12 = 8.490 = 1. the support moments due to live load on two adjacent spans is M B3 = 0.510. From Figure 6.
330 psi( C) (9.= .' .560 + 1.Ib (including M CSD ) Hence.9 .. fbCS = + 8'~~.Ib ML = 8.490 = +447.914.27] fbT 560 1 223.87 X 106 in.87 + 2.39 x 106/508.49) X 24.111 psi (C) __ 508.K. I .47) X 106 8.250 psi.K. MCSD ..070 + 21.863. < 425 psi. (41.K.2 + 399.ML Ac Sb Scb r where e = e~ = MiPe and MCSD is the additional superimposed dead load at service after erection.Ib MSD and = 2. 1 __ fr  508.A ( 1  :J  c eel) r MD + MSD SI  MCSD + ML I . The fiber stress at the extreme lower fibers of the precast section at support B or C is .370 Chapter 6 Indeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures 1 Alternative onestep solution using Equations 4.7 = 1. slab From Equations 4.77 cs Hence.+.5~06 X 0. O.68 X 106 9.2 MPa) < 2. O.111 + 347 = 764 psi..940 [ + (16.053.68 X 106 in.4 MPa) Superposition of the tensile stress at the bottom fibers of the slab and the compressive stress of 1.20a and b. fbs = 8'~~. using the appropriate signs. at top of the precast section.87 + 2.. the support moments.77 = +437 psi (T) (3 MPa) = 425 psi.91 (2.68 X 106 5.49 in.940 = 16.940 [ _ (16. are MD = 2. assumed zero here.91 (2. O.where SC IS at th~ top of Sc the precast sectIon fbT =  Pe ( 1 + eeb) + MD + MSD + .47 X 106 in.49) X 20.. Also. Stresses at top and bottom fibers of the situcast 4 in.714 + = 2.73] 560 1 223.47) X 106 6.111 psi at the extreme top fibers of the precast section can result in a net compressive stress at the bottom of the slab = 1.19a and b I _ Pe fr .8~06 X 0.6 = 1.2 .9 cm). From before.186 8. the Cline eccentricity is e~ = M 31Pe = 8..77 = +347 psi (T) (2. the maximum fiber stresses at the top and bottom fibers on the composite slab at the support section are evaluated using section moduli SiCS and SbCS' where ML fbs = +SI X modular ratio n = 0.
& = bd f~ 4 X 2 X 0.000 3.27 + 16.366 X 240.24 Et 0.000 psi concrete = d ( d 00 p wp  00 ') 48.9 Tendon and CLine Location in Continuous Beams 371 fbT = 414. We obtain .000 = 0.80 = 0.000 .0090 00 p = .6.= Aps fps bdp f: ~I = 0.75 in.2 00 = 22 X 48.5 + 0.0054 0. since the superimposed live load is the same in both cases and the section is the same for the span lengths used. 6.000 = 045 22 X 48. Consequently.005 so that the actual strain for total 00 is = +437 SlabtoPli 1111 psi Slab bottom ~ 1f'T 45" +347 Beam top 1 1329 psi Figure 6.76 X 5.76 in.18.0090 .0 60. try two #4 bars as compression steel and four #4 bars at tension steel.75 .18 Stress distribution in the concrete at service load.2062 = 0.5 for stirrup + 0..3  8. (89.5 in.329 pSI (9.6 cm) Since the width of the compression flange at support b = 22 in. .49 from bottom fibers = 36.25) == 48.24 ~1 is comparable to = 0.000 0.75 = 50.20 + 0.20 X 60.5 5. Limit state at failure (a) Degree of ductility for moment redistribution h = 45 d = + 5.2062 at the support 0. = 00 A. Note that the concrete fiber stresses are considerably below the maximum allowable stresses at service load for the same live load and spans as the simply supported beam of Example 4.5 X 5.000 = 020 22 X 36.0062 +d d (00 p 00') = 0. Example 6.2 MPa .5 ( 35.(1.80 for 5.5 demonstrates preferable modifications. 50. Support dp = Cb + eB = 20. The final distribution of stress is shown in Figure 6.19 < 0.7. . ) 9490 == 1.27 0.0045) = 0.0.0062 = 0. 0.24~1 X 0. the selected continuous tendon profile is not the most efficient in this example.68 X 106 .
and the total factored moment Mu = (20.45 > 0.8 in. yielded.71 x 106 in. the section is safe. Also.2062.80 x 48.~0) d l ) = 3. It could be reduced in size by either changing the tendon eccentricities or enlarging the span or allowing a higher live load with new tendon eccentricities.K.6 cm) 3. If A. however.40 X 60.000 psi. the required nominal moment strength Mn = M)1j> = 19.0.2 + 0.80 = X 8.3 .90. but not efficient.76) x 106 in.68 X 106 in.1 103 kNm) > 21.000 (36.2 X 5. Since no redistribution is used here.90 in.372 Chapter 6 Indeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures 1 ! Hence.wide web section at support is 7 + 7.5 .9/(0.87 + 2.5/2 = 10. the factored elastic secondary moment induced by reactions due to prestress.2 Mer as the code requires.lb (3. Hence. is M2 = 0. 4. The neutral axis is inside the flange.000 The depth of the flange up to the 7in.000 + 0.36131 = 0. would have allowed moment redistribution in this case. (b) Flexural moments modifications It is advisable to apply the redistribution modifications separately to the dead and live loads since alternate span loading for live load has to be considered for worst loading conditions while dead load acts simultaneously on all spans. precluding application of moment redistribution.Ib The factored moment is at least 1. . fy = = 60. and thus OK for the chosen reinforcement.54 x 106 in.90 for determining the design moment Mu .76 _ + 0. ddt = a/13 1dt = 8.232 < 0.5)=0.0.34 X 106 in.76 X 106 in.3 X 106 in.47)106 = 5.25 X 106 in. the elastic moments at support are MD + MSD = (2.46 kNm).8 X 60. and the section behaves like a rectangular section. > 8.45 and did not exceed the maximum permissible reinforcement.lb (2.9 2 X  3) 28. A test using the 1000 St percent code provision for redistribution factor.54 x 106/0.20 kNm).44.4 0.34 X 106 + 1.0 as stipulated in the ACI code. = 21.90 in. the beam is in the tensile zone of Fig.80 = 0.366 240.lb and ML = 8. width b at bottom = 22 in.68 X 106 = 20.36 x 0. 0.85 X 5.000 .000 X 22 = 8.000 (8. Figure 6. strain St is less than 0.0075.71 X 106 in.375. Alternatively by the ACI Code.6 X 8.lb From step 2. using a load factor of 1. For maximum allowable wT .366 X X 60.lb = 19. (22.fy(~ 8.lb (2. allowing Ij> = 0.9) 60. O.lb.lb (c) Nominal moment strength The support section factored M u is 1. AvailableMn = Apslps(dp X ~) + Asly(d ~) + A. So r: 240.000 ( 48.19 shows the load and moment distributions. Hence. From Equation 4.
6.. as shown in Figure 6. Solution: 1.5mi t64'! .8 m) spans can be increased by at least 50 percent.4 produces compressive fiber stress at the support precast section due to all loads of 1.329 psi at the bottom fibers. the beam can sustain more load if the concrete compressive stress capacity is to be utilized. Therefore. and we have 5. and the primary support B moment Ml = 508. the primary midspan El moment Ml = 508.~a= 0.25 + 5 = 13.B = [(2. and 1. 6. (34 cm).85 x 106 in..10 Tendon Transformation to Utilize Advantages of Continuity 1. the midspan eccentricity eEl = 8. /I.76 x 106 in. Then the transformation vertical distance = 16.63 x 103 kNm).940 x 11.5 = 5 in.20. Transformation of tendon The tendon eccentricity at support B in Example 6. redistribution occurred I redistribution occurred M2==a~"~.85 ) 64 X 2] Eele!:!.5 . In order to allow the beam to carry more live load.+ 6.940 x 13. 2 X 144 = 75.Ib Figure 6. X X 64 '2 X X 144 X ~06 64] 64 .25 in.19 Loading and factored moment in Example 6.25 = 6. Mubefore \~ redistribution if . assume that the tendon is linearly transformed throughout all the spans such that eB = ec = 11.5 in. These are lower than the maximum allowable fe = 2.aIDiI~I!~lIalnI!TIl!mll[lrrIlDllml![lrrIiDII]iI[lrrIlDII]Ii[lrrIlDI!]II[lrrIlD!I~!Iala!lDiI~!I~lmiaD.4 such that the superimposed live load WL on the 64 ft (19.10 TENDON TRANSFORMATION TO UTILIZE ADVANTAGES OF CONTINUITY Example 6.Ib 0.5 = 5.lb (0.lb (0.11.75 x 103 kNm). (27.76 X 106 in.85 Also.73 106 X .250 psi.111 psi at the top. Also.0 X 1010 . (10 cm).4.6kN/mi L I 64'+i 64' (19.9 cm). Accordingly.3 _ [5.7wL 373 =2574 plf (37.5 Linearly transform the prestressing tendon in the continuous prestressed beam in Example 6. more compressive stress at the midspan bottom fibers due to prestress needs to be developed through an increase in the tendon eccentricity.74 x 106 in.
5...~==~(d) ~ r "y.Ib (e) k:_:_~__\+.1 kN) 4974 lb. .L. 32'~32' Figure 6.81 X 106 in..20 Tendon transformation in continuous beam of Example 6.374 Chapter 6 Indeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures 1 1 I ! (a) (b) Rs = 4967 lb... (22. 4967 lb./I~~ +___:=*"32'MoI32' 64' (f) . 3.> .·lb M2=~~'n"nll~II~~m[anipijrrllnllnll]II]II]lIml1[1I[1I[lrrllnllnll]II]II]II~!lR~I[~an~"D"DIID.~:"""":'I''''':':::'''':~ ~~:_.81 X 10& in. t I (e) I 49741b t ~ 3.
20(e).lb.2. the moment due to selfweight is 2.20) Midspan M3 = (6.79 X 106 in.lb From Example 6. (ii) Outer span midspan section El From Example 6.K.Q70 2.2. MD = 2.4. + 1098 = 908 8 • + 6.71 X 106 in.74  ~ x 3. and f' = 908. • 1347 psi (C) (9.lb (0.186 =  347 pSI (C )(2. (47.66 .K.81) x 106 = 9.K.2 MPa) 6 F Jb < 2.8 =  2.4.66 X 106 in.8 .974 x 64 x 12 X = 3.66 X 106 in. (i) Support section B or C f . O.250 psi.7 MPa). 3.87) 106 = 6. Concrete fiber stresses due to prestress and selfweight (583 plf) From step 3 of the solution to Example 6. O.8 + fb = 908.K.87 X 106 = (9. = + 189 psi (T).71 x 106 6.1 x 107 RA in.lb (see Figure 6.85 + 3.lb so the total moment M4 = M3 . O.lb.66 X 106 508.20(f).2.1 X X 1010 107 = 4967 lb Mz = RA x 12 = 4.6.lb 75. no tension.71 X 106 5.0 64 X RA = RB = 15.._ Pe M4 _ 508.19 Ill.79 x 10 6.79 x 106 . .12 X 106 in. So calculate the final Cline eccentricities = M 31Pe as shown in Figure 6.81 x 106 in. Pe = 508.186 = 908 8 . O.lb Hence.2 MPa).12 X 106 = (4.1339 = .Ae .10 Tendon Transformation to Utilize Advantages of Continuity 375 Eele.2.2248 psi (C) (15.lb (0.81) 106 = 4.12)106 = 2.s6() 5.87 x 106 in.Sf .44 103 kNm) Support M3 = (5.83 X 106 in. 2.940 6. So the net moment M4 = M3 .0 em) .le = [ 64R A X 12 = x 64 x 12] 64 x 2 2 3 x 12 15.940 lb. eB = 9. M3 = 9.Q70 = 908.940 = .4 x 103 kNm). Determination of liveload intensity for new tendon profile for unshored construction t __ fr  Pe ( Ae 1 _ elI ct ) rZ _ MD + MSD _ MCSD + ML st S~ (i) Support section (at B or C) From Figure 6.83 .4.
91 + 5.Ib.95 X 106 5.186 +~ 3613WL 9.83)106 = +3.000 X 48.5 + 20.4. the liveload moment for a threespan beam with one span unloaded is ML = 0.940 ( _ 9. 4.000 = 0.376 Chapter 6 Indeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures From Example 6.736WL 5. = +425 psi at support.95 X 106 6.5 W L = 4995 plf Hence.714 = 44.27) 849 560 223. (ii) Midspan section (at £1) Since WD = 583 pJf. Available nominal moment strength Aps = 3.73) 560 1 223.95 X 106 in.91 3.34 X 106 5. by proportioning we obtain MD + MSD = +(2.91 + 3613W 3.490 L = 849 + 1691 .5 X 24. = + 849 psi at midspan and t.76 in.366 in? Support dp = 11. to be verified by checking the ultimate moment strength available.5.19) 425 560 X 24.44 = 1.Q70 + 21.5 X 5.1167WL (64? (12) = 5.34 X 106 in. IT  t _ + __ 508.73) 223.250 WL = 9109 plf IbT  _ _ _ 508.714 giving W L = 8.020 .47)106 = .736WL in.8 .490 9.092 plf.250  508.77 in. MD + MSD = .76 60. WL = 4995 pJf controls for service load levels. Also.1167WL 12 = 0.940 (1 + 9.(2. from Figure 6. Then As = 4 X 0. 2 w = 22 1. including MCSD The maximum allowable tensile stress t.87 + 2.779 + 2.Ib ML = 0.Q70 3613WL 21.0735WL(64? X 12 = 3613WL in.940 (1 _ (.12.5 X 20.Ib fr  t _ _ _ _ 2.27 = 31.12 + 1. Assume that As at supports Band C is increased to four #6 bars in order to facilitate an increased live load.Ib.638.714 3613WL 21.
3) 60. Hence.2.255 > 0. we can adopt the new profile of the tendon with four #6 bars at the support top fibers in the situcast slab and two #4 bars at the bottom precast section fibers.000 psi. yielded ty =t.51 Ill.6ML 2.76 . W L = 2312 plf controls. would have allowed moment redistribution in this case.000 X 22 = .82 106 X 5. Now. and the percent increase in live load is (2312 .K.9 + 1. .85t: b If A.89) X 106 6.2312 + 31 (0.0045) . however.~1 X = 26. we have AvailableMn = = ApJps(dp ~) + AJy(d ~) + A.34 X X 2. = 60. ML = If ML = 0.Ib and we have Mu or Mu = 1.02 .514) X 100 = 52.0075. Thus.000 0.88 Next.40)60.89 106 + 1.1.Ib . ty 0. precluding application of moment redistribution.59 X 106 0.2(MD + M SD ) + 1.85 X 5.6M L.tyG . Note that if the mild steel is changed from 4 #6 to 4 #8.2.000(31.24~1 = 0. the increase in W L would have been 70%.49 106 in.78M L 6 Aps tps + AJy .78M L Hence.77 wp + d (w . then (26. the neutral axis is inside the flange.0.49 .3.000 (48.76 . Accordingly.000 (9.A.d 3. (24.1167WLI2. percent code provision for redistribution factor.78 = 13.5 X 9. 1.40 X 60.0.2 cm) which is less than the flange depth up to the 7in.366 X X l ) 240.6.wide web section. is less than 0.6M L = 2.366 X = a 240.~1) + 0. 9. from before.82 X 106 in.7% 1.5 0.lb 13. A test using the 1000 B.w') p d = = 0.514 == 50%.2 = = 1.26 X 10 lll. O. ReqUlred Mn =~ = a= Mu X 10 + 1.19 Hence.000 + (1.1167WL(64)2 X 12 So W L = 2312 plf < W L = 4995 plf from the serviceload analysis.77  9~1) + 1.26 X 106 = 0.6ML .59 X 106 + 1.10 Tendon Transformation to Utilize Advantages of Continuity 377 48.M2 106 + 1. Hence. . strain B. the elastic M2 = 3. and the section behaves like a rectangular section. then 3.
< 0. Using the ACI Code redistribution test.27 in..5 MPa).47 x 106 + 1.81 X 106 in. = 0.290 plf (33. for halfbar dia) bb = 22 in.4 cm). at top (modified bm = 65 in.87 in. tn. consider wp = 0 for calculating the moment redistribution factor.2 x 2.250 psi (15.0 in.25 X 5. at bottom b. 2 w = 22 X 9. Nominal moment strength From Example 6.2%.4 w' = 0.81 X 106 in.4 kN/m).25 in. Data for strength design at support Because continuity is obtained in this case through the use of reinforced concrete at the supports. . (25. Sketch the prestressing tendon and other reinforcement details if the maximum allowable concrete compressive fiber stress at service load is fe = 2. it is suggested that the topping concrete also be off~ = 5. c = e.1).7 MPa) Design the continuity to resist the superimposed dead and live loads only.1012 = A.5 in.0. wp + [d/dp] (w .1012 .(1.w') = 0 + [48.000 = 0.0 in.0045 Then from Example 6. . Thus..) 2. and not the selfweight: d = 50. hence.87](0.24131 = 0. the required moment strength due to (WSD + W L) at support B is Mu = 1. = 9. based on elastic moment analysis giving Mu = 23.7.0961 X 8. 5.005. Hence.1) = 0. normal weight fy = 60.0045) = 0.25 in.000 48.5 such that the section and tendon profile of the AASHTO typeIII bridge beam used in Example 4. = and two #4 0. dp = 35.03 x 106 = 23. cover = 48.5. (41. reducing the negative moment by this amount. Assume As = 9. and increasing the positive midspan moment by the same magnitude.11 DESIGN FOR CONTINUITY USING NONPRESTRESSED STEEL AT SUPPORT Example 6.40 in.Ib.75 . 2 0. Use 9% redistribution. redistribution is possible.000 psi (413. hence.5 = 0.Ib.0 60. with midspan eccentricity ec = 16. d . A <l> factor of 0..90 is to be used since E. Assume that the tendon profile in the precast simply supported section is the same as the one in Example 4.25/35.3 cm) and end eccentricity ee = 10.6 x 13. the tensile strain at the extreme tensile steel reinforcement is e.003C~~:9 tn.378 Chapter 6 Indeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures 1 6. = a) 0.4.003 ( ~ . Solution: 1 1.= 48. redistribution percentage = 1000e. we have f: = 5.000 psi compressive strength. for stirrup + 0.5 in.5 MPa).80 (131 = 9.> 0.1300. namely.6 Design the beam in Example 6.51 = 11. The bonded prestressed steel does not extend through the supports.192.7 is made continuous through the use of nonprestressed mild steel reinforcement to carry the superimposed service dead load WSD = 503 plf and service live load W L = 2.89 .0092. = 84 in. 0.000 psi (34. (123 cm) + 0.5 in. d = 48.
a/2) 24.07 X X 0. Rqd. (58 cm ) a = 0. The neutral axis is inside the flange.80/0.9d.000 24.93/2) • 2 2 = 8. end block design.09) X 23. The area As is to be distributed over the total actual flange width of 84 in. 5. vertical.2/12 in.lb (2.44 in. Using #6 bars.6.000 X 0.9 X 48. Mu = (1 . Beam geometry schematic details Figure 6.0. The depth of the flange to the web is 5.8 cm). 2 2 106 9.25 so that we have Total As 84 . As per bar = 0.1 mm dia.67 106 m. As per ft width = (8.21 gives the reinforcing and tendon profile details of the continuous beam of this example.81 X 106 X = 21. bars at 10.9 = 24. use #6 bars at 4 in. (55 cm ) Since the assumed As = 9. X 106 in.9 = 6.24 X X As .25) _ . and the section behaves like a rectangular section..width flange is ''.44 . cover) = 20 X 0.07 X 106 60. Note that the complete design would involve dowel design for composite action.44 = 8. 6.12 INDETERMINATE FRAMES AND PORTALS 6.24 m.9(48.1 General Properties Concrete frames are indeterminate structures consisting of horizontal.K.85 Asfy 60. The degree of indeterminacy depends upon the . 3.= 4.80 in.0 X 106 kNm) .329 plf.44 in.07 Mn = Asfy(d =~) X Assume for the first trial that d . Note also that continuity on three spans in this example using mild steel only at the supports allowed a 50% increase in the liveload intensity from 1.26 in. stirrup design for web shear.75 + 7 + 4. width (19. As = fy (d .86/84) x 12 = 1. > 5. Therefore. Note how the normalweight concrete and mild steel provide continuity at the supports for the superimposed dead and live loads. and the spacing is s = Bar As 0.5in.85f~b = 0.000 X 22 = 5.000 .26/12 Thus. As/12 m. the moment distribution factor is satisfactory. adopt the design for flexure.67 X 106 Usmg Mn = ~ = 0.09: Rqd. center to center over the 84in. and design for serviceability requirements in deflection and crack control as detailed in earlier examples. 2 .lb . O.000(48. The total number of bars over the 84in.25 _ 5.5/2 for the AASHTO type3 section = 15 in.12. or inclined members joined in such a manner that the connection can withstand the stresses and bending moments that act on it.12 Indeterminate Frames and Portals 379 So use a distribution factor of 0. Accordingly.a/2 == 0. Then 24. 2 is very close to 8.25 .+ 1 == 20 4.9. 1. = .60.07 X 106 = As _ 60. 2 (2. Mu 21..82 cm2 ).514 plf to 2.0 in.93 m.(2 X 1.86 in?.86 m.19 in.
(a) Longitudinal section of bridge beam (nol to scale).21" +II ~t It.1 I I # 4 .1 Figure 6. 'I 'I 20 #6.• • ' (11 4 em) . 10· 1\) I f. (b) Midspan saction AA.b ItHI M' " 1' ~ t 7.21 Schematic geometry details of continuous beam in Example 6.i!: w # 4 toppillQ ItHI r LA A /2016 a14 ' cle 1..7).I. . '" '" .6 (see also Example 4. \6.. . (e) Support section 68. .J~ !L _ L. ..".~I 1. IH I at fn'I ".'l Ii 'R' II . j .t 4" r. . T ~ H' 20.__ .I f 1".
Typical frame configurations are shown in Figure 6.12 Indeterminate Frames and Portals 381 nn (a) (b) (d) (e) (e) (f) (g) (h) Figure 6. r the number of reactions.7b) (6. the following conditions have to be satisfied: 1. and s the number of indeterminacies. If moment reversal is possible due to reversal of liveload direction. and the type of end reactions.22(a) is s=3x3+2x23X4=1 and for the frame in part (g) of the same figure it is s = 3 X 10 + 2 X 3 .22.9) where 3n equations of static equilibrium are always available and the total number of unknowns is 3b + r. the number of vertical members.3 X 9 = 9 Note that in order for a frame to perform satisfactorily. the degree of indeterminancy is determined from the following inequalities: + s > 3b + r 3n + s = 3b + r 3n + s < 3b + r 3n (unstable) (statically determinate) (statically indeterminate) 3b (6.3n (6. the highest values of positive and negative bending moments have to be considered in the design. the degree of indeterminancy of the frame in Figure 6. The design must be based on the most unfavorable moment and shear combinations. If n is the number of joints.7a) (6.6.22 Typical structure frames. b the number of members. number of spans. As an example.7c) The degree of indeterminacy is s = + r . .
an expensive construction procedure.or fourmoment equations.12. (c) Bending moment (fixedbase frame). Proper foundation support for horizontal thrust has to be provided. (a) Load intensity. Suppose that the moments of inertia Ie of the vertical columns and Ib of the horizontal beam of the portal in Figure 6.12. as well as the clapeyron three.23 and 6. the bending moment diagrams shown in Figures 6. (c) Deformation of frame in (c).25(a) are not equal. as was done in the case of a continuous beam at serviceload and slightoverload conditions.2. such as virtual work. are assumed familiar in this text.1 Uniform Gravity Loading on SingleBay Portal. If the frame is designed as hinged. The usual methods of analyses of indeterminate structures including frames. 2. stiffness matrix. 6. 6.382 Chapter 6 Indeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures . The following values of the moments and thrusts can be inferred: End Shear in Beam VB = Vc = wi 1 2 (6. and flexibility matrix procedures. Consequently. an actual hinge system has to be provided.9a) w w ffffffffffffffff+ (a) ffHff£HffHffH I (b) I (c) I T T I I TI T T T (d) (e) T Figure 6. well before the development of plastic hinges.23 Rightangled portal frame loaded with gravity load intensity w (T indicates tension fibers).2 Forces and Moments in Portal Frames 1 The behavior of concrete frames before cracking can be considered reasonably elastic. . so that only the minimum guidelines and simplifications are presented.24 will be used in the design of indeterminate prestressed concrete frames. (d) Deformation of frame in (b). (b) Bending moment (hingedbase frame).
(d) Deformation of frame in (b).12 Indeterminate Frames and Portals 383 (a) (b) (e) (d) Figure 6. (b) Bending moment (fixedbase frame).x (I 2 .24 Rightangled portal frame loaded with wind load intensity p (T indicates tension fibers).9d) Maximum Positive Moment at Midspan Mmax  _"8 1 _ wi 2 .9b) where (6.9c) Maximum Negative Moment at Corner MB = Me = Hh = Cl wl 2 (6. (a) Bending moment (hingedbase frame). Horizontal Thrust (6. (c) Deformation of frame in (a).6.ge) Bending Moments at Any Point x Mx 1 = .9g) .C1 wi 2 (6.x)w .Hh  (1"8 .) Cl wi 2 (6.9f) where the points of contraflexure from either corner of the portal are Xl = ~ (1  VI  8Cl ) 1= C21 (6.
2. (a) Uniform gravity loading. and (6.10a) Horizontal Thrust (6.25(b).25 Bending moment ordinates in singlebay frame. ~w12 _ h 1.lOb) . (b) Concentrated gravity loading. = ph . the end shear are and (6. From Figure 6. Since the concentrated load P does not have to act at midspan.12.H "21(e) . (c) Uniform horizontal pressure.384 Loading Chapter 6 Indeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures p X.2 Concentrated Gravity Loading on SingleBay Portal. nonsymmetry of shears results. ph 2 Figure 6. H A________ L_" wi 2 H H H wi "2 (a) (b) p H.9h) 6.
~)]C = x l l l 3 Pl (6.. (6.10i) 6. ] (6.2.6. we have the following: From Figure 6.[ ) aZ a + pz[ ( 1 . M ~ [1 . Vertical Reactions at Supports and (6..~ (1 .11a) Horizontal Reactions.10f) Maximum Positive Moment at x M max = =a Hh = ~ (1 . For windward hinge A.[ z) + . (6.10e) M (1 .~) (~l .10d) Bending Moments at Any Point along Be.C3 ) ~ (1 .lOh) or (6.10c) Bending Moments at Comers MB = Me =Hh =C3T(1 .3 Uniform Horizontal Pressure on SingleBay Portal.~) Pl l l (1 .12 Indeterminate Frames and Portals 385 where (6.~) Pl l l (6.10g) Horizontal Thrust for Several Concentrated Gravity Loads 1 al H = It C3 [ PI [al ( 1 .~l C Pl ) l 3 x For X> a. = For x < a.11b) .12.25( c).T)Pl (6.
A concordant tendon is assumed for the horizontal beam for symmetrical .11h) Me = Hvh = (1  e4 )ph2 (6. are (6. and e 4 in Equations 6.S)ph2 (6. 6.11g) Bending Moments in Comers of Portal _ 1 2 MB .3 Application to Prestressed Concrete Frames As with continuous beams. Canned computer programs for the analysis of indeterminate beams and frames render the use of charts such as this unnecessary except for a quick check of numerical values.26.12.1H) Point of Maximum Bending Moment above Support A (6.11e) Maximum Moment at Windward Column (6. 6."2 ph "8 _ 3 Ie I Ib h +2 2 hh ph 2+3 Ie I = (e4  0.11d) The bending moments at any point y along the column height due to horizontal pressure.10. (6. a tendon profile has to be assumed at the start in order to determine the secondary bending moments M2 for the portal frame horizontal beam and vertical legs. e3 .1 386 Chapter 6 Indeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures 1 i where (6.11i) The constants e l .11 can be graphically represented as shown in Figure 6. and 6.11c) For leeward hinge D. eZ.9. with y being measured from the bottom.HAh .
12) .5 3 3. The incremental force aP can be evaluated by means of the following expressions.5 2 2. and 6.70 0.15 0.45 0.25 0.40 0.35 u" uM 0.50 0.10.5 4 0.6.15 0.05 0 0.40 0.5 1.10 C1 0. 6. !! It: I Figure 6.26 Constants C1 through C4 in Equations 6.5 4 Stiffness ratio k = !!!. gravity loading.9.35 0.20 0.12 Indeterminate Frames and Portals 387 0. in order to obtain a prestressing force P in the longitudinal member.5 3 3.5 1. Frame with Two Hinges at Supports (6. The prestressing vertical tendon should be designed to resist these stresses as well as others.20 0.30 J' <f :: c: ~ c: 0 () 0.10 0.11. Consequently. Longitudinal shortening of the horizontal beam caused by the prestressing force results in tensile stresses at the outside face of the frame columns.5 2 C4 2.75 0. The longitudinal shortening also results in horizontal reactions at the column's supports. a force P + aP has to be applied to the frame.25 0.30 0. and the vertical columns or legs are proportioned to resist the horizontal pressure and the extra moment caused by the shortening of the beam.
EBe and MA ~ 00.5E)c MB ~h. AP approaches infinity.MA AP h 3(2k = EJc(_3_ + k + 3 ) h k +2 k(k + 2) + 1) E1c k(k + 2) h2 (6.15) as k ~ 0. The subscripts Band C denote the member extremities of the frame in Figures 6. as shown in Figure 6. 2h \ ~"'/AP A h AP D Figure 6. and shrinkage. creep.2k EchfJ 3 +3 E EJc h Be (6.25 and 6. The effects of the horizontal reactions on 8 8= \ C . Frame with Two Hinges at Supports M B  6 2k +3 I .27 are as follows.388 Chapter 6 Indeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures 1 1 1 where k = (/bl/J(hll) and E is the total strain due to elastic shortening and movement Be due to shrinkage and creep. .27.27 shows the axial deformation due to the strain EBe = Alii caused by shortening. creep. the stiffness of the vertical members relative to the horizontal member approaches infinity.13) Figure 6.14) Frame with Fixed Supports (6. 1.M. In such a case. The reason for the drastic change in moment values MB and MA is that as k approaches zero.28. and shrinkage.27 Longitudinal deformation of beam BC due to elastic shortening. and the horizontal member becomes very flexible. Frame with Fixed Supports = MB . The tributary moments MA and MB due to the longitudinal shortening of member BC in Figure 6.
:.... . Continuity at the corner of the frames has to be accomplished in the construction process.620 MPa) P + /lP ...""""1'7.(large) Figure 6. Design the frame....""'". (a) Hingedbase frame. the prestressing force are schematically shown in Figure 6. 6.:.95 kN/m) at the windward side and a suction of intensity PL = 40 plf (0. as shown in Figure 6..31.862 MPa) for lowrelaxation tendons 235.30.6.5 kN/m) and a uniform horizontal wind pressure of intensity Pw = 65 plf (0..___.P + /lP Flexible ~  P (small) .58 kN/m) at the leeward side.29 for both hingedbase and fixedbase frames....12. and the location of the prestressing tendons for serviceload and ultimate load conditions given the following data: !pu = Ips = 270.. A typical prestressing tendon profile for a frame is shown in Figure 6.44 m).29 Horizontal reaction effect on prestressing force...4 m) and is subjected to a uniform gravity liveload intensity WL = 240 plf (3..000 psi (1.t+ P P+/lP (applied force) +'r?T"'to+ P (prestressing force) A J4oo(a) /lP (horizontal reaction) ~ (b) ~ _ /lP (horizontal reaction) MA Figure 6.12 Indeterminate Frames and Portals 389 P+/lP_~  P (small) .7 A warehouse structure is made of a prestressed singlebay hingedbase portal frame made of standard doubleTsections for both the horizontal beam and the two vertical columns...Rigid columns ~~~~. the profile. The frame has a clear span of 80 ft (24.28 /lP /lP (large) Effect of tributary moments due to elastic shortening.. The units are 8ft.4 Design of Prestressed Concrete Bonded Frame Example 6. wide (2. Note that the discussion here and in the previous section applies equally to continuously cast and precast prestressed composite frames..000 psi (1. (b) Fixedbase frame. The prestressing force PI is assumed to be less than P2 in order to allow for the frictional losses in prestress.
701: = 3.250 psi (15.30 Tendon profile in a prestressed frame.5 MPa) ni 2.451: = 2.000 psi (1.310 psi (1.000 = 156.000 psi (34.082 MPa) Ipe (final) = (1 .:" D ..5 MPa) Ie = 0.0m) c.17)189. ~ A ~ Figure 6.61:i = 2.500 psi (24.000 = 149.85 MPa) WL = 240plf .7. 36' Ill.029 MPa) I: = 5. " Q.303 MPa) Total losses = 21 %.31 Portal frame in Example 6. losses after one month of prestressing = 17 % Ipe = (one month) = (1 .870 psi (1..390 Chapter 6 Indeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures 1 Concordant tendon cgc Figure 6.100 psi (14.0.5 MPa) hi (midspan) = 3~ = 177 psi hi (support) = 6 ~ = 355 psi h = 6vJ:to 12vJ: = 425 to 849 psi (5.' 0.0..21)189. Ipi = 189.1 MPa) lei = 0.
. the minimum section modulus at the bottom fibers for an efficient section is given by Sb 20 . the midspan moment is so that MD ""8 = = _ wl 2 _ 600(80? 8 X _ 12 .15). the stiffness coefficient is = 600 plf (8.064) 240(80)2 X 12 X Assume It = O. Then WSD = e 2 2 X 110 + 5) 8 ft = 187 plf Beam Be is to be designed as a concordant cable. if W D =: 600 plf. concrete topping (Ref. and a waterproofing width of the segment = 8 ft. 6.064. Then from where Ib h k=Ie I Assume at this stage that Ib = Ie' where Ib is the moment of inertia of the beam Be and Ie is the moment of inertia of the column AB or DC.876 X 106 + 1.5.000 psi lightweight).79(2.. (1 ...lb 106 in. Then k = I h X 1.6. Then from Equation 4. Accordingly. it is to behave as a simply supported beam for selfweight W D' But it would be considered continuous for the superimposed dead load WSD and live load W L as part of the rigid portal frame.e.y)MD + MSD + ML It  yfei or _ (1 . Now.ge.. i. The Cline would then coincide with the cgs line due to concordance.0.760 X 106 + 0.876 = 1. The closest section is PCI 8DT32 + 2 DoubleT type 168Dl with 2 in.1.9c.45 36 "y From the chart for e1 in Figure 6..Ib 106 in.79. MSD ML G G  0. Assume that selfweight W D Equation 6.. 5 psf insulation. e1 = 0. 3 .. it follows that = 0. So given total losses = 21 %.0 = 80 = 0.760 12 X 10 lll.124 X 0.12 Indeterminate Frames and Portals 391 Solution: Frame Horizontal Beam Be Preliminary Analysis.8 kN/m).79)5. assume 2 in.100) X 106 _ . then from Equation 6.124 Sb 0 _ 0. of concrete topping (j~ = 3.064) 187(80)2 X = 0.935 lll.Ib 6 .26..4b.
5. z (15. (20.46 in. .615 6 = 1.) ct (in.5.100 psi.673 X 10 567 97.000 = 463.79 5. = 567 12 X 12 X 150 plf Pi = Apsfpi = 2.050 ( _ 8. 2) Ie (in.34 6. no tension.4) = IelAe (in.21 X 10.) t= _ f 463.8 2.7mm dia) 270K low relaxation strands Aps = 16 X 0.K.79) _ 0 567 1 97.3 cm) sixteen ~in.46 X 10.392 Chapter 6 Indeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures 1 ~ Properties of Preliminary Section Property Untopped Topped I 567 55. O.8 cmZ) Analysis of Section at Transfer (a) Midspan Section (ee = 17.Ib 6 591 From Equation 4. fb =  Pi ( 1 Ae eCb) MD + z +  r Sb = _ 463.45 in.673 X 10 567 97.140 2.038 738 1 Ae (in.952 3.21 10.) MD .8 = 76.46 X 21.21 in. (b) Support Section (ee = 8.21 in. O.463.1a.050 (1 _ 17.) S (in?) Sb (in?) WD (plf) r ee = 8.9 psi (C).46 in.673 X 10 in.45 X 189. dia (12. from Equation 4.740 psi (C) < fei = 2.050 lb 6 t = . no tension.7 23.8 21.K.050 (1 + 17. (44.886 94.153 = 2.464 97.9 cm) ee = 17. Then. Provide nonprestressed steel at the top fibers at midspan to account for any possible tensile stresses.2) Cb (in.615 591 759 71.760 where _ X 10 6 X 591 _ 600 .8 5.66 10.1b.21) + 5. O.140 = 347 psi (C).K.79) _ 5.
K.100 pSI.491 x 106 in.7 MPa) fb = = > fei = 2. releasing the anchorage of the four grouted strands.21) + 97. We obtain Aps Pi = (16 . The bending moments are caused by wind load and moments from the frame horizontal beam BC In such a case it is preferable to spread the tendon across the section. If the former technique is employed.7)2/8] x 12 = 5. unsatisfactory Hence.6. the midspan moment is 106 in.8 0 __ 347.12 Indeterminate Frames and Portals 393 463.7/2 = 23.1. From before.000 = 578.0. O.21) ~ 1+ 97.fb  t _ Pi A e _ 578.543 kN) + 8. dia 270K lowrelaxation strands: Aps Pi = 20 x 0.4)0. Assume that the length of precast beams is 80 .K.256 lb. Choose a doubleT as walls for the frame and suppose that eb and Sb refer to the outer face and that et and St refer to the inner face of the vertical Tsection.836 in.lb = 187(80f X 12 8 . This vertical member will act as a compression member subject to large axial load and bending.21 x 21. hinged at the base.3401b _ f . 2 = Apsfpi = 3.836 x 189. in calculating the stiffness coefficient k in the previous section. The maximum distribution percentage is .0041b (1.lb.1. ± 0 .7 ft. fei .8 +0 2.21 x 21.3 = 78. 2 = 1.876 X 106 106 0. Assume that the center of gravity of the prestressing strands coincides with the cgc line.2. and design the distribution of the strands according to Try using twenty Hn.876 X MB = Me = wl 8  2 0.100 psi.06 x 189.050 ( 8.~ .32 comparing the beam section and the column section. or change the eccentricity of the tendon.340 _ . The support moment is then MSD = 0.271 psi (C) (15.lb and the reaction at the columnwall bracket support is RD = 591 x 78. Frame Moments and Reactions at ServiceLoad Level Horizontal Portal Beam BC Free Support W D Stage. Then the midspan moment ME = wi 2/8 = [591(78. O.15 x 80 ft = 12 ft (366 m) from the support. Composite Topping WSD Stage.06 in. Frame Vertical Column Analysis.153 = 1. Since it was assumed.020 pSI (C) < _ .153 = 3.876 X = X Redistribution of Moments.000 = 347. that Ib = Ie> choose also 8DT32. as shown in Figure 6.919 106 in.100 psi. lower the magnitude of the prestressing force by debonding some strands over a length of 15% of span from the support face.004 ( fb 567 1 = 1702 psi < 2. debond four strands over a length = 0.
(a) Horizontal beam standard PCI section 8DT32 + 2 (168D1).000 = 0.~" di a. or d p = 0.. 2 9. = w' 4 X 0.5 in. dia.22 X 31..42 in. 4. . and assume two #5 bars per rib at the compression side and two #7 bars per rib at the tension side of both the horizontal roof beams and the vertical wall beams.21 + 8. • 4'0" .6 in. (b) Vertical wall section 8DT32 with twenty !in.21 = 29.42 in.000 5.75 compression side b =2 X = 9.5 X 60.22 in. • 2'_0" I + ++ ++ ++ + + + + ++ ++ + I ~ .394 Chapter 6 Indeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures 8'0" +0.2..50 in. 7 wire bonded strands .±.2'0" j 1 34" 32" 30" ++ 1 1 1 $$ +t ++ i4~"~3'7r~4%"~ + 12 ~" dia. 7 wire strands debonded 12 ft from supports (a) F!+8'0"t~ 2'0" .5 :.±... 20 ~" dia.305 = 1.4' 0" t+. 31. We obtain A. 4 . strands with ec = ee = O. d = 32 + 2 .7.8 x 32 = 25. Use dp = 29.0489 . whichever is larger.5 1.8h = 0.32 Details of beam and wall doubleT's in Example 6. d p = cb + ee = 21. 7 wire bonded strands (b) + Figure 6.
5 . and the adjusted midspan ML = 1.1 = 0.124 X 106 1. 0. MB = (C4  0.1 % < 20% allowable limit.w') = 0 + (31.0506.000 5.6.57 . the adjusted midspan moment ME = 0.038 X 106 in.73 .0. m.80 = 0.919 x 106 = 0.73)40(36? = X = 12 = 167. et d = 0.876 X 106 x 1. Then the adjusted MB = Me = (1.003 ( ~ .11h and i.85f:b .4 46 .0. Windward side moment M B MEl = (0. Hence.5 x 2. Also.12 = 0.809 X 106 in.lb = (1 .000 _ 3 57·.40 60.24131 = 0.124 X 106 in.40 in.000 = 0. m.981 x 106 in. C4 = 0. 0.463 in.lb.46 .961 in.12)0.12 = 1.lb.0962 .0506. Then wp + (d/dp)(w .192 > 0.12 Indeterminate Frames and Portals As = 4 x 0.0181 1000 e t = 1000 0. O.lb.73. 2 As fy W 395 = bd 1: = 9. use a moment distribution factor of 0.003 (31.C4 )ph2 From before.0. From before.180 x 106 = 1.26. _ Asfy _ 4 x 0. From Equations 6.24 x 0.12 for transferring 12% of the moment from the frame corners Band C to midspan BC Also. Liveload W L Stage.45 for Ib = Ie From the chart for C4 in Figure 6.502 + 167. rigid connecting steel plates should be used at the portal upper joints and be so designed to provide a moment connection capable of transferring at least 12% of the support moment to the midspan.0.K.259 x 106 in.0075.. C  _ 3.0. k = TI e hh = 0. The liveload reaction at the vertical support is RL = 240 X 80 = 9 600 lb 2 ' Wind Pressure Stage. and the superimposed deadload reaction RSD at the support = (187 x 80)/2 = 7.12) x 1.60 = 2.961 400. e t is larger than 0.502 in. Because of the possible large rotations at the composite joint of this frame.0962 Use wp = (Aps /bdp)(fps /f~) = 0 since the prestressing steel is not continuous over corners of the portal frame.42) x (0.lb Total M8 232. Accordingly.1.lb .0.80 . use a reduced redistribution percentage of 12 percent in the horizontal member of the frame.1) X t = 0.5)ph2 Me = (1 .5/29.5 x 31.0.. So the support moment is M B = Me = = 240(80? 8 X X 12 .124 X 106 x 1.180 106 in.0181 = 18.lb The adjusted elastic moment = Me = (1 .5) 4.60 x 60. the midspan is ML = 1.lb. a .480 lb..0489) = 0.lb.5)65(36? MB2 X 12 = 232.85 X 5000 X 9.
165 x 106 in. and (ii) add half of Figure 6.952 = 2.11a.Ib MF = 4.0.153 X 156.013 x 10.21 = 10. the vertical reactions at A and D due to wind are RWA 1 h = zphi = (65 + 40)(36? 2 X 80 =851Ib RWD h = +!ph i = +8511b Loads and Moments Due to LongTerm Effects Moments to Restrain End Rotations at Band C Due to LongTerm Prestress Losses.33(b) to half of Figure 6.705 X 106 X 0.Ib Me2 = (0.018 Support moment MB = 288.952 = 4.383 X 106 in.013 X X 17. The service load after all losses have occurred is as follows: /pe /pel/pel ME = 149.33( d).705 8.Ib.165 X 106 X X 0.Ib Slopes at Band C at Beam Erection One Month After Prestressing 1 Slope I} = .396 Chapter 6 Indeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures Leeward side moment Me Mel = (1 .4) X 0. From Equation 6.21 = 2.33(c) to half of Figure 6.73)65(36? X 12 = 272.018 X 10.Ib X 106 in.078 in.0131b Midspan monent ME = 384.5)40(36? X 12 = 143.018 lb Support Pe = (16 .013 106 X X 106 in. (i) add half of Figure 6.99 = 3. where four strands were debonded. Then subtract (ii) from (i) to get the rotation of the beam at B or . = 6.Ib MFl = 3.Ib.33( d).8.870 = 288.364 0.016 in.73 .Ib X MB = Me = 2.0.[ MIJ Eeh To find the areas of the moment diagrams for half the span due to symmetry. is eF = (17.Ib The eccentricity at section F.078 = 416.364 X 106 in.33 shows the moment distributions on horizontal member BC One month after prestressing we have: /pel = 156.Ib Total Me = 272.220 X 106 in.952 = 3.99 = 4. and the moment at section F is MF = 384.310 = 156870 = 0.46 = 6.Ib The reduced M F due to debonding is 288.938 in.143.017 X 106 in.952 = 6. Figure 6.220 X 106 X 0.016 in.310 psi 149.153 X 156.870 = 384.870 psi Midspan Pe = 16 X 0.938 .46 .251 106 in.952 .99 in.Ib The controlling wind moment Mw= 416. since wind can blow from either the left or the right.21) !~ + 8.
.99" (27.33 Bending moment diagrams for primary and selfweight moments for beam BC.364 X 12 X 12 + (3.lb (e) 4.013 X .76 x 1()3 kNm)' 3.6.9 em) 397 _ _+/_ _ _ _ _ _ _ . (d) Beam BC selfweight moments.364) X 12 X 12 X 1 2: 1 2: + 4.4.Ib (MFI ) 4.c: _ _ _ _ _t1 T. C that would have to be restrained by a welded connection to develop continuity at the portal frame corners Band C..705 .Ib (0.705 X 10S in.Ib m1i w.::.165 X 106 in.220) X 28 X 12 X . (c) Effective prestressing moment after all losses.Ib 6.46" (44....lIrrn T .2._ _ _ _C9. 1 2 ' t Debonding _.220 X 106 in..017 X 106 in.Ib (M.364 X 106 in.Ib (0. 2.251 X 106 .491 X 106 in.6 = M(il at beam erection = 2. (b) Prestressing moments one month after initial prestress.220 X 28 X 12 + (6.0' ". =I4O'~I__40' '2'*'I.O28'~:t:28''+I.:.in.62 x 1()3 kNm) (d) Figure 6.cgsr. 17.12 Indeterminate Frames and Portals 10.·Ib LOllIIIIIII 11111111111111111111111111.383 X 10S in.165 .! ~~IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII~IIIIIIIIIIIII.165 X 106 in. '4£UlllUlltllll11111111111111ill@~ 5.Ib (b) 6. (a) Tendon profile.3 em) Debonding zone C t . r~F~JE~~::::.4m)i 3.'" '0' tNmJ 3.ITD T 2.mIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIMIDTII.j zone (a) taO'(24.Ib M. We have: (i) SEc h X 10.
45.126.4)106 Ech = 107. M rl/2 Slope S = . lb 480 Moments Resulting from Creep and Shrinkage Long.050 + 384.25: Ec = 57.03 X (463.000Vii = 57.0.6 in. we have .2. VIS = 1.21 2 .03 X 106 psi ECR = 567 X 1 4.25 2 = 417 X 10.1.757. Thus.757.0181b It is reasonable to take the creep force as the average of Pi and Pe.000 106 = 4.398 Chapter 6 Indeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures 1 1 .050 lb Pe at erection = 384. then. ECR e = Ac1Ec [(Pi + P ) Cu ] 2 Use the creep coefficient Cu = 2.013 . and if we assume that RH = 75%.251) x 12 x 12 x +4.3 X 106 EJb 480Mr EJb 6 M r = 107.EJb = 'Ec1b Mr X 480 Equating the right sides of the preceding equations yields 107.3 X 10 Ech 6 If Mr is the resisting moment at the connection weld to restrain the member against this rotation.6 = = M(ii)l at service load 1 2 1 2 2.12 = 476.3 X 10 = 0.7 _ 369.000Y5.2 X 10 6 KSH ( 1 . which states that after 30 days to within one year KSH= 0.491 x 40 x 12 x (ii) 2 "3 = 2. the shrinkage strain from the time of erection (30 days after prestressing) to one year later is _ ESH  8.6.4 The rotational angle S at B or C caused by the reduction in the prestressing force due to longterm losses is _1_ (476.14.251 x 12 x 12 + (3. from Table 3.12 = 369.49  1.06 S (100 .4.491 X 40 X 12 X "3 = 2.79./in.RH) V) Now.017 x 28 X 12 + (6.5.017) X 28 X 12 X 5.7 SEc Ib x 10.Term Losses (a) Creep Pi = 463.018 ) X 2.224 X 106'm. (b) Shrinkage From Equation 3.233.383 .
8 5.310 365.199 X These moments due to longterm effects will produce tensile stresses at the inside face of the vertical member and bottom face of the horizontal member.244 + 0.) MD = 0 MSD = 0.464 in. Also.038 6 = 112 psi (C).lb 0.45(1 .eeCt)_ MD _ MT r2 st S~ = _ 365. and Ee = 4.6.491 MSD = X 106 in.663 X 10 + '3. Support Section (ee = 8.45 + 3) = 4.K.lb 6 X 499.854 psi (C) < Ie = 2.in.0.12 Indeterminate Frames and Portals 399 ESH = 8.46 567 10.46 21.140 X 6 _ 2.952 6 = . From Equation 6.8 X + 5.663 X 10 6.809 X 106 in.250 psi.lb 106 in. So the total deformation strain due to creep and shrinkage is (417 + 82.03 X X 106 X 55.75) = 82. O.224 106 in.lb Ib =  Pe ( 1 Ae eeCb) + MD + MT +r2 Sb Sbe = 365.03 X 106 psi. no tension.K.981 + 1.464 36 X 12 106 in.259 Mr = 0. Final Moments and Stresses in the Horizontal Beam Be Midspan Section (ee = 17. 4 Consequently.lb = M CR + SH = 0. O.199) X X 106 = 2.) MD = 5.EBC 3 Eele From before.46 in.79)(100 .3 x 10.45.2 X 10. the stiffness coefficient k = 0.lb . Elastic shortening should also be considered often for accuracy.62 X 103 kNm) 0.724 in. precast (= 55.jin.615 2.3)106 = 499.3 x 1O<i in.6 X 6 0.lb (0.810 ( 1 567 + 17.259 + 0.199 The total superimposed moments are Pe after all losses = 2.21 in.21) 97.79) _ 5.663 106 in.810 lb MT = MSD = + ML + Mr + M CR + SH (0.lin.810 (1 _ 17. MB = Me = (2k + 3) h.491 X 106 2.14.lb X X X ML = 1.981 X 106 in. MB = Mc = (2 X 3 0.3 X 10 = 198.45 X 149.06 x 1. l=Pe Ae (1.lb 106 in.491 X 10 97.
O. 2 2 As .35 .90 .256 + 7. creep.= 31.39 X 10 6 _ As .3 Ill. O. 2 > 1.000 X 28. (79.21) _ _ 2. X 10 Ill.133 ( + 8.6(1.26 X 106 567 1 97.600 + 851 = 41.Ib .est'essed Conc.5 .60. the moment MD becomes MD 15 = 0.26 X 106 in.038 X 106 ) + 1.9 x 31.000 0. Provide nonprestressed steel to accommodate all the tensile stress.40 in. load on the column is RD + RSD + RL + Rw = 23.99 III (12.8 0 6. O.9d = 0. _ 1.8 Ill.133 ( _ 8. Pe for 12 strands at either support after all losses = 274.339 6· lb 0.ete Structu"" .416 X 106 in. 2 ( 12.2 X 0.05 X 10 .3 cm ) 2 Use two #7 bars (22mm dia) in each rib.81 cm) < Hence.81 in.K.Ib ! Mw = 0.21 x 21.MT = (0.2. ML = 1. which cause compressive stresses.038 = . 2.038 + 0.000 X 31. and shrinkage. M n = ~ d Mn = Asfy(d ~) As X 60.35 in.a/2 == 0.000 X 96 hf = 0.0 cm ) a== 1.3 .5 cm) 3.809 + 1. __ 274.617 X 106 in.1871b (183 kN) = 41.K.99 X 60.Ib 1 Not including the relief moments due to rotation.851:b X 106 _ .133 lb.250 psi.05 X 106 in.Ib The sections at supports Band C are virtually reinforced concrete.809 X 106 + 1.21 X 10.480 + 9. (0.29 ...000 X 28. 0.6 Mu R q. treat as a rectangular section: d a 2= = 4 in.416 X 106) 3.8 0 3. and t = _ I 247. Then As = 4 X 0.31d.79) + + 2. 4.038 x 111' in.26 X 10 567 1 97. the total negative moments at supports Bore are . The direct Final Moments and Stresses in the Vertical Column Walls AB and DC.088 psi (C) < Ie = 2.85 X 5.187 X Assuming 15 in eccentricity.60 = 2. Also. Then 3.1.60.2.0(0.400 Chapt.416)106 = 2.K.Ib 3.952 6 = +280 psi (T) < It = 12Vt: = 849 psi. 31. Mu = = 1. Ib From Eq.6 Indetenninate P.39 Asfy 0.1.5 = 28.29 in.39 X 106 = _ 3.35 Assume a moment arm d .
and serviceability checks as well as detailing the welded connections between the horizontal beam and the supporting wall columns. As the applied load is gradually increased until the structure as a whole reaches its limit capacity. dia 7wire 270K lowrelaxation strands arranged as shown in Figure 6.34 gives a schematic of the configuration details of the prestressed concrete portal frame.250 psi (15.6.33 X 103 kNm) For 20 strands in the wall units. adopt the doubleT section 8DT32 + 2(168 . develop severe cracking.439 psi (C) (9.140 = 1. since full redistribution at ultimate load is not considered. dia 7wire 270K lowrelaxation strands with four strands debonded 12 ft (3. (innerface) = MT S' 456.887 41. Figure 6.lb (0. The continuity factors assume that adequate longitudinal reinforcement is provided at the critical continuity zones to properly control the cracking levels of those zones. shear strength. for all practical purposes. Pe P f.032 kN) Ib (outer face) = .K. as full redistribution of moments would have taken place throughout it. O. rotating plastic hinges have developed. adopt the doubleT section 8DT32 for the walls with twenty~in. such as the supports or corners of frames. and the rotation becomes so large that.880 X 106 567 567 5.5 MPa) Consequently. 6. Also.809 106 ML = 1. flexural strength.887 41. Pe Ae Ac MT +Sb 456. with redistribution factors p D for continuity empirically provided by the code.416)106 = 2.9 MPa) < Ie = 2.32.13 LIMIT DESIGN (ANALYSIS) OF INDETERMINATE BEAMS AND FRAMES The discussions presented so far deal with proportioning the controlling sections in the design process. .187 2.66 m) from the face of the supports.187 2.615 = +223 psi (T) :s 849 psi. If the number of plastic hinges that develop equals the number of indeterminacies. the structure becomes a mechanism tending toward collapse. the structure becomes determinate.809 + 1.310 = 456.880 X 106 in.416 The total moment is MT = X 106 (0. the critical sections.06 P X 149. Such a procedure does not necessarily give the most efficient solution to a statically indeterminate continuous beam or frame.880 X 106 =+567 567 2. With the development of an additional hinge.13 Limit Design (Analysis) of Indeterminate Beams and Frames MSD = 401 X 0.617 + 0. such as the midspan and support sections.D1) for the horizontal top beam BC with sixteen !in.038 X 106 Mw = 0.8871b (2. Pe = Apsfpe =  3.038 + 0. The total design would involve designing the vertical wall brackets.
nine plastic hinges are formed. resulting in a basic frame ABC.d at_I ElI:ttnd through the supports (2. The structure in Figure 6.35(e) has nine indeterminacies. hence. A tenth hinge reduces the structure to a mechanism resu lting in collapse. Analysis of the structure al full morncnt redistribution is termed as IJ/uslic or limit analysis. Note that no plastic hinges are permitted to form at midspan of the horizon tal members. These locations occur at the intermediate supports of continuo us beams and beamcolumn comers of fra mes..7. and 6. Si nce plastic moments are a magnification of the e lastic momen ts. .oo 2'5 Ptf rib It bottom) Lean eoncrlU lill FIgure 6.7 Ptf rib It top.ntllf Additional nO/l9rfttt. Since concrete cracks severely at high overloads. as seen in the portal frame of Figure 6.6. 6.5.7. it is possible for the designer to impose the desirable locations of the plastic hinges by making the concrete member fail o r making it adequately strong at any section by decreasing or increasing the reinforcement percentage without appreciably alteri ng the stiffness of the member. Details of Baker's Iheory o/imposelJ rO/aliolls are presented in Refs. where the resulting locations of the plastic hinges are obtained [rom mechanisms determined by upper and lower bound solutions.34 Sectional elevation and connection details of frame In Example 6..35.1 Method of Imposed Rotations The imposed locations of the plastic hinges coincide with the locations of the maximum e lastic moments fo r combined gravity loads and horizontal wind loads. the natu ral loca tion for the development of a plastic hinge is at that comer. only one hinge develops. Because the structure is indeterminate to the first degree.402 Chapter 6 Indeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures Topping eonneaion ""dod WeIIMd molMnt connection ~~ble 01 molMnt l. 6. 6. one plainly sees that the maximum e lastic moment occurs at corne r C. which is the fun damen tal frame for the imposed hinges seen in Figure 6. numbered in the order in which they arc expected to form.35(e). By superposi ng part (a) on part (b).13. This flexibi lity in proportioning is nOI available in the plastic design of steel structures.
Hence..35 Imposed plastic hinges in concrete frames. (a) Gravityload elastic moment. 8ik = 8 i. The coefficients 8ik are called influence coefficients.16) I If 8ik is assumed to represent the relative rotation of the ith hinge due to a unit moment at the kth hinge. From the principle of virtual work. 8U =8· 8Xi (6. The plastic moments resulting in hinges 1. because they represent the displacement or rotation at a particular section due to a unit moment at another section. (e) Succession of plastic hinges in twospan. (c) Hinge 1 at C reducing frame to statically determinate. (d) Basic plastic frame.6.n are denoted Xl' X 2 . ••• . . twolevel frame. 8ik = 8ki from Maxwell's reciprocal theorem. . i.13 Limit Design (Analysis) of Indeterminate Beams and Frames 403 (Gravity load HfHtHfHH A (a) 0 Wood i A (b) o 8 C c A (e) (d) 2 5 6 3 6 9 4 8 7 (e) Figure 6. (b) Windload intensity moments. i. the derivative of the total strain energy U with respect to the assumed plastic moments Xi at any hinge i is set equal to the plastic rotation at the hinge. Xn and are assumed to remain constant throughout the progressive deformation of the structure. (6.3..2..e.e. X 3 ..17) .
. 6. resulting in 301 = ~I(~la)(~) = 3~Ilac 311 is obtained by superposing the redundant structure Xl on itself: A.. . The arbitrary plastic moment values Xl' X 2. By trial and adjustment of the redundant plastic moments Xl' . As an example. + 32n X n 3no + 3nl X l + 3n2X 2 + .36 the influence coefficient 301 is obtained by superposing the moment diagram Mo of the primary structure on the diagram Xl of the redundant structure created by the development of hinge 1. the plastic moments at the beam supports and column ends are obtained for the plastic design of the concrete structure. 62. in Figure 6.. + 3nn X n = 62 = (6. .21) where Ai is the area under the primary Mi bending moment diagram and 1"] is the ordinate of the Mk moment diagram under the centroid of the Mi diagram (Ref.. Substituting 3iO and 3ik for M/{> we obtain 3iO + L 3ik X k = 6 i (6. 6n that give full redistribution of moments throughout the structure.5). We have A la ...20) 6 n The number of equations is equal to the number of redundancies or indeterminacies.20 is (6. Xn in the solution of Equations 6.19) k=l This is a structure having n plastic hinges to reduce it to statically determinate: 310 + 311 X l + 312X 2 + . = 2 3 and 1"] under the centroid of the Mo diagram = el2.. 1"] = la 2 1 =c 2 3 ..20 for controlled maximum allowable rotation of the largest rotating hinge 61. ..1 I 404 Chapter 6 Indeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures Consequently.18) The lefthand side of Equation 6.. + 3ln X n = 6 1 320 + 32l X l + 322X 2 + . L I EJ o k=n IMMk 'ds =6· ' (6. ••• 'Xn are chosen to result in plastic rotations 61.18 represents the integration of the products of the areas of the Mi diagrams and the ordinates of Mk diagrams at their centroids along the horizontal distance s along the span. It can be proven that the influence coefficient 3ik in Equations 6.
8 Determine the required plastic hinge rotation in the fourspan beam of Figure 6.38. It can aid the designer in easily forming and solving sets of Equations 6.13 Limit Design (Analysis) of Indeterminate Beams and Frames 405 f f f f f f f f f f f t (a) (b) Figure 6. from Table 6.6.20 for any indeterminate structural system. (a) Primary structure moment. (b) Redundant structure moment. Table 6.37. so that three hinges will develop at the plastic limit. Solution: The structure is statically indeterminate to the third degree. Then.2 Determination of Plastic Hinge Rotations in Continuous Beams Example 6.36 Influence coefficient determination from superposing Mo and Xl. . 6. Assume the maximum ordinate c of the redundant moment at hinge location to be unity.19. E18 10 = 811 = 3 Mol 31 2 2 From Equation 6. The beam is subjected to simplespan plastic moment Mo so that the midspan moment is equal to the support moment = ! Mo before full rotation of the hinges and full moment redistribution take place.1 and Figure 6.1 gives the values f Mi Mk ds for evaluating the influence coefficient values 8ik for various combinations of primary and redundant moment diagrams.13.
c:JT i T e ~/a (e + d) i/a (2e +d) i/a (e+ 2d) !/a (e +d) ~ /a (e + d) i' (8(2c + d) + b(2d + ell (a) (b) (c) Figure 6.1 406 Table 6. ..8.37 Primary moments and plastic hinge rotations in Example 6.1 Chapter 6 Indeterminate Prestressed Concrete structures! j Product Integral Values J M. Mk ds for Various Moment Combinations Elo'k ~ Mk D1 lac 1/1 Parabolic I~ ~I ~/ac ~/ac QI 61 ~/ac ~/ac Tb 1 T a . b Dr I~ 1/1 ~I (a + b)e ~/ac ~/ac i /ac ~/ac ~/8e i/(2a +b)e L::JI QT ~ Parabolic ~/ac ~/ac ~/ac ~/8e ~/ac i l (8 + 2b)e ~/ac 1lac ~/ac 1lac ~/ac * lac i\IBC 11(8 + b)e 61 ~/ac i\IBC ~/ac ~1(8 + b)e 1.t.
38 Primary and redundant moments in Example 6. . 2 ET& 2 0 3 . (1) (1) = (D( ~) = +i = = 22 2(_i) (_~) = + 21 2 3 3 23 (_i) (_.2M 0 2= M I = M I 0 + 2 I . 5Mo(21) + O.) = +i 2 3 6 . and the controlling one in the design.38.8. Figure 6. the required plastic hinge rotations at the support are Mol 81 = 4El = 83 and Since 82 < 81.!.19.1 and Figure 6. Therefore. 83 = 81. 5Mo(I) "3 "6 +0 Mol =4 Also. E18 1 2 =3 Mol + O.82 = 020 + 021 X l + 022 X 2 + 023 X 3 From symmetry. is 81 = MOll4EI.13 Limit Design (Analysis) of Indeterminate Beams and Frames 407 x.6. again from Table 6. the first hinge to develop.320 3 El021 El0 El0 From Equation 6.
50 All other beams 0. The plasticity length lp determines the extent of severe cracking and the magnitude of rotation of the hinge. Cohn's method is based on the requirements of limit equilibrium and serviceability.11). there are two types of hingestensile and compressive. Baker (Ref. 1 The preceding discussion gives the basic imposed rotations approach embodied in Baker's theory.12. This is equally applicable to both tension and compression hinges. A typical plot showing increase in rotation through increase in confining reinforcement is shown in Figure 6. 6. as noted earlier. 6. 6. it is important to limit the magnitude of lp through the use of closely spaced ties or closed stirrups.75 0. 6.42 0. 6. 6. 6. Two of them. where confinement of the concrete core is obtained through concentration of closed stirrups at the supports and column ends. It can also be described as the angle of discontinuity between the plastic parts of the member on either side of the plastic hinge.5).37 0.17).2. Furlong's method is based on assigning ultimate moments for various loading patterns on the continuous spans that would satisfy serviceability and limit equilibrium for the worst case.nate Prestressed Concrete Structures' Note that the procedure used in Example 6. and Furlong (Ref.56 0. the strain capacity of the concrete at the confined section can be significantly increased. Corley (Ref. with a subsequent check of rotational compatibility. as experimentally demonstrated by several investigators. are lp = 0.20).40 (Ref. and Mattock (Ref.20). the concrete section at the first hinge has to be made ductile enough through section core confinement to be able to sustain the necessary rotation. Sawyer's method is based on the simultaneous requirements of limit equilibrium and rotational compatibility. Therefore. In this manner.13. In order that the first hinge that develops in the structure. 6. can rotate without rupture until the nth hinge develops.2 Beam Moment Coefficients for Assigned Moments Boundary condition Moment type Beam loaded by one concentrated load at midspan 0. Nawy (Ref. Other modified approaches have been proposed by Cohn (Ref. 6. usually the critical hinge. 6.18). for the plasticity length lp and the concrete strain Ec (Ref.408 Chapter 6 Indeterm.13. 6. for example.14).5Z (6. Several empirical expressions have been developed.5d + 0. As Figure 6.22) Table 6. 6.14). including Nawy (Refs.19). The sections are reinforced in such a manner that the ultimate moment strengths for each span are equal to or greater than the product of the maximum ultimate moment Mo in the span when the ends are free to rotate and a moment coefficient kl for various boundary conditions as listed in Table 6. Sawyer (Ref.14). it is important to maintain the correct sign convention by drawing all moments at the tension side of the member. Sawyer (Ref. 6. Also.50 0.33 0. see. and 6.39 shows.8 can be used in the limit design of any continuous beam or multistory frame.3 Rotational Capacity of Plastic Hinges Rotation is the total change in slope along the short plasticity length concentrated at the hinge zone.18). with a subsequent check of serviceability.46 Span with ends restrained Span with one end restrained Negative Positive Negative Positive .
and " ~ 0..2 Pretensioned Tbeam with rectangular confining reinforcement at fail ure (Nawy. (a) Tensile hinge.. = ratio of volume of confi ning binder stcel (including the compression stee l) to the volume of the concrete core I" = haf/ the plasticity length on each side of the centerline of plast ic hinge.\. '.39 sive hinge.13 limit Design (Analysis) of Indeterminate Beams and Frames 409 . 1 :"' Photo 6.003 + O.oz z + 0.23) whe re d = effective depth of the beam (in. 1'2.2p. b (6. !lNAM.n 'bi Plasticity zooes /" in plastic hinges.. (b) Compres . Potyondy).> "".1· I.6. .22 can be more conservative for high val ues o f PI' Con fining binders .. Figure 6. """. Equation 6.) Z = distance from the critical section to the point of contraflex urc p.
As the prestressed concrete section is cracked and decompression in the prestressing steel has taken place.24) where c Eto: =neutral axis depth allhe limit slate at fail ure = strain in the concrete al the extreme compression fibers when the yield cur vatu re is rcached k(1 = neutral axis depth correspondi ng to Eu E = concrete compressive strain at the end of the inelastic range or at the limit c state at failure. . the angle of rOlation of the plastic hinge is readily determined [rom the expression (6.lin. the structural system gradually starts to behave similarly to a reinforced concrete system. depending on whether the tension steel yields before the concrete crushes at the extreme compression fibers in cases of overreinforced beams.0% for confined concrete is recommended in de term ining the maximum allowable plastic rotation 0P' although slrains of confined concrete as high as 13% could be obtained.. As the load reaches the limit state at failure .Selek NfWYPotyondy o Figure 6.001 in .wy.. as is sometimes the case in prestressed beams. T he strain E« can usually be taken at the load level when the strai n in the tension rein forcement reaches the yield strai n Ey = fIE.. Once the concrele strain t:c is determined..001 in. • N.410 Chapter 6 Indeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures .20 .14. The discussion in this entire section (6. It can be taken to be approximately 0. the value of En will have to be higher than 0.10 o o o • · .40 5 Conlining reinforcement p.13) is equally applicable to reinforced and prestressed concrete indeterminate structures at the plastic loading range where full redistribution of moments has taken place. as shown in Ref. = 1. or higher.lin. If concrete crushes first .' ~o! ~ 0.. 6. A limit of allowable E.Dtnesi "'" • Nlwv. the fl exura l behavior of the prestressed concrete elements is expected to closely resemble that of reinforced concrete elements. I") Comparison of plastic rotation with results 01 other authors.
5d = 0.9 Determine the required and available rotational capacities of the critical plastic hinges in the continuous prestressed concrete beam in Example 6.jin.13 Limit Design (Analysis) of Indeterminate Beams and Frames 411 6.5 = = 5. = 0.000bd d f.3 Confined Sections Max.22.55d = O.24.jin.2Sd .5 and :$ I d 20.0 .000 psi 60.51 radian .4 Calculation of Available Rotational Capacity Example 6.01 0. 0. Ip = 0.01S :$ 13.Q1S I d and 1 I 1.05 5.01S radian 1 I 750 or d:$ O.5d + 0. Unconfined Section.001 ) . fy Z = 5. X 400bd2 = SOObd 2 Mol SOObd 2 I 1 I Required 81 = 83 = . at end of the inelastic range for unconfined sections Ec Max.000bd Required 82 From Equation 6.375d .jin.375d Ece Ec = 0. ( 0.2S .6. Available 8p = ~ . allow Ec = 0.775d = 1.004 in. Solution: Mo = 2 From Example 6.S for both confined and unconfined concrete.01 in.2Sd = 0.55d d .= 3 = 750 d radian 4EJc 4 X 150.S.0.001 ) Available 8p = .jin.01 in. at end of the elastic range = 0.001 in. allowable = 0.375d 1. for confined sections 3 in?Ib EJc = 150.00Obd=3 X Mol SOObd' 1 I d' 1125 d ra tan . calculate the maximum allowable spantodepth ratio lid for the beam if full redistribution of moments is to occur at the limit state at failure.004 0.1.000 psi for the mild steel Also.13. From Equation 6. .. (Ec Ece) (0.5d + 0. .775d The total plasticity length on both sides of the hinge centerline is 2 x 0.0.125 d :$ O. = 6E[ = 6X150.55d. Given data are as follows: Mu kd = ~ Mo = 400bd' c = 0.05Z = 0.kd Ip = For full moment redistribution.
The foregoing discussion for the limit design of reinforced and prestressed concrete indeterminate beams and frames permits the design engineer to provide ductile connections at beamcolumn supports and generate full moment redistribution throughout the structure.058 radian> required 8 = 0. 6.01. one sees that confinement of the concrete at the plastic hinging zone permits more slender sections for full plasticity and. 1.02 % 0. verify whether the continuous beam satisfies the rotation serviceability criteria given that b = !d.02 111 + 0. hence.3 and d = 57. b Z = 5.058 radian . say 0.025 and lid = 35 with c at failure = 0. Also.9 with binder ratio Ps = 0.125 .0. the beam satisfies the serviceability criteria for plastic rotation.001 ) = 0. resulting in full utilization of the strength of the prestressed system.003 + 0.01 0.jin.0098. Rqd.125 d .01 in. So use. a more economical indeterminate structural system.025 = 0. 82  _l_i~003 1 radian . continuity in both pretensioned and posttensioned systems to withstand seismic loading can be effectively utilized through the appropriate confinement of the connecting zones by means of the procedures presented in this section. 81 R = 1 I 750 d = 750 35 = 0. for ing available plastic rotation: 0. 1 I 750 d ~ 0.55d = 0.2 X 0.412 Chapter 6 Indeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures For full moment redistribution.1.375d 1.10 If closedstirrup binders are used in Example 6.4 I Comparing the results of the unconfined sections in the first case to the confined sections in the second case.051 I d ~ and 1 I 1.lin.046 radian qd. Ec The maximum allowable to be utilized is Ec = 0. Thus.25d . . the correspond 8p = ( 0.003 + 0.125 d ~ 0.01 in.2ps + X = 0.5 Check for Plastic Rotation Serviceability Example 6.25d.13. Solution: z d Hence.051 or 38. Available 8p = 0.046 radian. Available Ec = 0.5 1 11 Also..
g Aeh  1 "fyt )f' (6. For column rectangular hoops. measured outtoout of transverse reinforcement.25) or A Ps ~ 0.8 by the author and Chapter 13 to follow): 1.6 Transverse Confining Reinforcement for Seismic Design Transverse reinforcement in the form of closely spaced hoops (ties) or spirals has to be adequately provided for concrete frame structural elements in seismic regions. fyt = specified yield of transverse reinforcement.45 ( . Ag = gross area of the column section. the minimum volumetric ratio of the spiral hoops needed for the concrete core confinement is P >S fyh 0. smax = i of the smallest crosssectional dimension of the member or 4 in. For column spirals. 6. 2. The aim is to produce adequate rotational capacity within the plastic hinges that may develop as a result of the seismic forces.).13 Limit Design (Analysis) of Indeterminate Beams and Frames 413 6.). where Ps = ratio of volume of spiral reinforcement to the core vol ume measured out to out.13. he = crosssectional dimension of column core measured center to center of confining reinforcement.27) or (6. in. and the ACI Code on seismic design require design and detailing of closed ties at the beamcolumn connection zones and in shear walls to be governed by the following (See Chapter 15 of Ref. Aeh = core area of section measured to the outside of the transverse reinforcement (sq. psi. the International Building Code (IBC2000).6..28) whichever is greater. Aeh = crosssectional area of structural member.26) whichever is greater. the total crosssectional area within spacing s is (6. whichever is smaller (IBC requires 4 in. The Uniform Building Code.12f~ (6. ASh = . in. s = spacing of transverse reinforcement measured along the longitudinal axis of the member. in. where total crosssectional area of transverse reinforcement (including cross ties) within spacing s and perpendicular to dimension he.
000 psi (414 MPa) fYI = clear cover = 1~ in. The largest of the following three conditions 0 govern: (a) depth of member at joint face (b) ~ of the clear span (c) 18 in.5 15 20 ( 11 X X 24 )( 4. Trying s = 3~ in.414 Chapter 6 Indeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures 3. Figure 6.89 m2 controls . (c) 24 x diameter of the hoop.42 m.000 ) _ .28. (380 X 610 mm) f.6 MPa).4 hoops plus two No.25 x 15 =3..41 from Reference 6.1) f~ FYI he = column core dimension = 24 . (450 mm) .000 psi (27. the confining transverse reinforcement at beam ends should be placed over a length equal to twice the member depth h from the face of the joint on either side or of any other location where plastic hinges can develop.11 Design the confining reinforcement in the column at the beamcolumn joint of Figure 6.5 x 20 60. The maximum hoop spacing should be the smallest of the following four conditions: (a) i effective depth d.3 X 3.5) = 20 in. center to center.000 . b/4 = 0.09she fyl f~ or ASh ~ 0. 4. The confining transverse reinforcement in columns should be placed on both sides of a potential hinge over a distance 1 ..4 crossties at 3~ in.7 Selection of Confining Reinforcement Example 6.000) 20 .27 and 6.41. normal weight 60. whichever is greater. Reduction in confinement at joints: A 50% reduction in confinement and an increase in the minimum tie spacing to 6 in. ASh ~ 0. For beam confinement. (610 mm) (b) ~ x clear span = (24 x 12)/6 = 48 in. ASh  _ 0.3she (:g eh . are allowed by the ACI Code if a joint is confined on all four faces by adjoining beams with each beam wide enough to cover three quarters of the adjoining face. (b) 8 x diameter of longitudinal bars.5 + 0. Place the confining hoops in the column on both sides of potential hinge over a distance 10 being the largest of (a) depth of member = 24 in.1 60.000 = 0. (300 mm). 2 3. (1220 mm) (c) 18 in. (38 mm) Solution: From Equations 6.75 in. Use No.0. maximum allowance s = ! smallest column dimension or 4 in. X ASh = 0.09 X ( 4.8 gives a typical detailing example of confining reinforcement at a joint to resist seismic forces.2(1.13. 6. = 4. Given: column size = 15 x 24 in. (d) 12 in. 5.
MI: American Concrete Institute.... . Use 10 = 48 in.5 in.11).1 ACI Committee 318. t No.13 Limit Design (Analysis) of Indeterminate Beams and Frames 415 14 he = 20" ·1 I.41. SELECTED REFERENCES 6. (1220 mm).6.. pp. II}' 24N ·1 V L SNo.41 Confining reinforcement for seismic resistance (Example 6.9 #4@3~NC< T. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (AC! 31808) and Commentary (AC! 318 R08).9 31. 465. spacing the No. @ 3* . r / 4No.. bars at 89 mm center to center) as shown in Figure 6.. center to center over this distance (12. 4No..9 No 4@3 N c< / / <> 1S sp. 2008."..7mm dia. Farmington Hills.4 @ 3~N c< Figure 6.4 hoops and cross ties at 3. .. 54N 9!N 2 g!w 2 f 2 w ~'.
J.820. E. Miami.." Journal of the Prestressed Concrete Institute.12 Nawy. E. 1970. Reinforced ConcreteA Fundamental Approach.. CRC Press. V. ASCE 92 (1966): 121146. International Building Code 2000 (IBC). pp. 936. "MomentRotation Relationships of NonBonded Prestressed Flanged Sections Confined with Rectangular Spirals. MI.20 Mattock. H. 1987. P. Reinforced Concrete Structures. Ultimate Strength Design of Structural Concrete. New York. pp. Joint UBC. 1947. 6. 1 I .: Bureau of Engineering Research..7 Ramakrishnan.. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Danesi. 1970. Nov. 2. "Rotational Compatibility in the Limit Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams. S. 6.13 Nawy. G. K. BOCA. E. Prestressed Concrete Designer's Handbook. 197. John Wiley and Sons. "Discussion of Rotational Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Beams by W. H.341353. Design of Prestressed Concrete. 10011010.. 2000. 6. Construction of Prestressed Concrete Structures. 2. "Design of Concrete Frames by Assigned Limit Moments. 1981. G.J.24 Nawy. P. E. Limit State Design of Reinforced Concrete. and Thornton. 5th ed. 1977. 6. 6. A. 1970. 6. London. ASCEACI." Journal of the Structural Division. London: Wheeler.8 Nawy. August 1968. Rutgers University. G." Journal of the American Concrete Institute. 51. 6. "Rectangular Spiral Binders Effect on the Rotation Capacity of Plastic Hinges in Reinforced Concrete Beams. 6.. D. pp.5 Baker. SBCCI. J. 1964. December 1968.. 6. 3d ed. G." Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Flexural Mechanics of Reinforced Concrete.416 Chapter 6 Indeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures 6. London: Cement and Concrete Association. "Secondary Moments and Moment Redistribution in Continuous Prestressed Concrete Beams. John Wiley & Sons.15 Prestressed Concrete Institute.4 Abeles. California.18 Sawyer. John Wiley & Sons. and Grosco. A. Cracking and Deflection of Spirally Bound Pretensioned Prestressed Concrete Beams. and Paulay. 1999. pp.. L. 3rd ed. 6. G. 2001." Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Flexural Mechanics of Reinforced Concrete. 2009. pp. "Rotational Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Beams. N. 1250 pp. 359382. E. FL. and Arthur. Farmington Hills. G.23 Nawy.17 Cohn. W. K. W. 452 pp. NY. 6th ed. G. 1964." Journal of the Structural Division. 1997..10 Nilson. F. Concrete Construction Engineering Handbook. Miami. 6. FL. M. 1956. Chicago: Prestressed Concrete Institute. R.14 Nawy. Nov. 6." Journal of the American Concrete Institute 67. T.22 International Code Council. NJ." Engineering Research Bulletin No. and BardhanRoy. Vol.16 Park.. Boca Raton. Prentice Hall. 6. Viewpoint Publications. L. 6.1967.3 Taylor.11 Corley. ASCEACI. pp. A. 6." Journal of the Prestressed Concrete Institute. 6. vol. 2nd ed. 6. Corley. London. Farmington Hills.. JanuaryFebruary 1972.. 6. 1998. E. E.2 Gerwick.21 International Conference of Building Officials. W. G.. 1975. Uniform Building Code (UBC).519522. and Smulski. Concrete Plain and Reinforced. ASCE 93. The Ultimate Load Theory Applied to the Design of Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Frames. 6. Y.. "Moment Rotation.19 Furlong. B. PCI Design Handbook. A. Whittier. New Brunswick. New York. and Potyondy.2007. L.. R. c. Upper Saddle River. California. G.pp. L.405431.9 Lin. Fundamentals of High Performance Concrete. 6. and Salek. Thompson. 6. F. Z. ICBO.6 Baker. A. J. B. Boca Raton. Concrete Publications Ltd. R W. Whittier. E. H.. 6. MI. "Design of Concrete Frames for Two Failure Stages. CRC Press. New York. 4055.
6.7 Design the portal frame of an aircraft hangar having the dimensions and the loading shown in Figure P6.. The beam has a rectangular section 15in.7. 6. 6.... for service loading.f . ~ (0) I Figure PS. (b) Design the beam depth such that the concrete fiber stresses due only to prestressing do not exceed the maximum allowable for normalweight concrete having cylinder strength f~ = 6.4 m)..5m) _. ~ _II  ~ .2 Solve Problem 6...4 m).8 0 ' .7. The prestressing force Pe after all losses is 450.7 using the same loading conditions if the span of the horizontal beam is 90 ft (27.4 if the beam is continuous over four equal spans of 64 ft (19..Problems 417 A~~====~==+~=~f===~=~8 ++40'1+40'_++.1. (a) Find the final profile of the thrust Cline and the beam reactions at all supports..4 m) Figure PS.4 Develop the tendon profile for the continuous beam in Example 6.. 6.000 psi (41. (24.1 for a tendon profile harped at midspan points D..7.1..6 cm) at the exterior supports above the cgc line.. (c) Determine the shape of the concordant tendon.. 240 plf r.000 lb (2...=~============~100' (30...1 A twospan continuous beam has a parabolic tendon profile shown in Figure P6.. ..002 kN). (38.E z 45' " _8 0.6 m). the frame in Example 6. Detail the connections and the configuration of the prestressing tendons of the horizontal member...1.. and draw a beam elevation of the tendon profile.4 if the beam is continuous over two equal spans of 64 ft (19. Use the same allowable stresses as in Example 6.4 MPa). (7. but having the same eccentricities.1 for a tendon profile which has eccentricities eA = eB = 3 in.4 m) (24.8 0 ' . 6.1 cm) wide.6 Design...5 Solve Problem 6.. 6. Compare the results with those of Problem 6.4 ..4 m) and the height of the portal is 25 ft (7.3 Solve Problem 6.... PROBLEMS 6.
and their behavior more affected by flexural cracking. and crack width arc determined 10 be within allowable serviceabi lity values. including anchorage development strength. to uncomfortable ride characteristics in bridges and aqueducts. Transamerica Pyramid. including mis. makes it more critical to con trol their deflection and crack ing. T he pri mary design involves proportioning the structural member for the limi t Slale of flexu ral stresses at service load and for limit states of failure in fl exu re. Prestressed concrete members are con tinuously subjected to sustai ned eccenlric compression duc to the prestressing force .1lignment of windows and doors. The fa ct that prestressed concre te elemen ts arc more slender than their counlerparts in reinforced concrete.e. and to cracki ng of partitions in apartment buildings. San Francisco. which seriously affects their longterm creep deforma tion performance. 418 . and torsion. Failure to predict and control such deformations can lead to high reverse deflection .1 INTRODU CTION Se rviceabilit y o f prestressed concrete members in their deflection and cracking behavior is al teast as imporlan! a criterion in design as serviceability of reinforced concrete elements. California. which can produce convex surfaces detrimental to proper drainage of roofs of buildings. camber ( reverse deflection). Such a design can only become complete if the magnitudes of longterm deflection. shear. AND CRACK CONTROL 7. i. camber.CAMBER. DEFLECTION..
SVjf (7. and is = stress in the mild reinforcement when mild steel reinforcement is also used. (c) Class C: It> 12Vjf (7. and stress relaxation. Prestressed twoway slab systems are to be designed as Class U. Hence. and proper crack width evaluation procedures used. and deflection computations are made. A best estimate of camber increase should be based on accumulated experience. Because of the high stress levels in the prestressing steel. Allowance for limited cracking in "partial prestressing" through the additional use of nonprestressed steel is prevalent. The cracking aspect of serviceability behavior in prestressed concrete is also critical.1b) This class is a transition between uncracked and cracked sections. limitations on the magnitudes of crack widths and their spacing have to be placed. 3. (b) Class T: (7. where limited cracking is allowed through the use of additional nonprestressed reinforcement.2 BASIC ASSUMPTIONS IN DEFLECTION CALCULATIONS Deflection calculations can be made either from the moment diagrams of the prestressing force and the external transverse loading. The modulus of concrete Ec = 33 w 1. the gross section is used for section properties when both stress computations at service loads. a cracked section analysis has to be made for evaluation of the stress level at service. the gross section is used. spantodeath ratio code limitations. No skin reinforcement needs to be used in the vertical faces. The concrete gross crosssectional area is accurate enough to compute the moment of inertia except when refined computations are necessary. In either case. shrinkage.1a) In this class. and a correct choice of the modulus Ec of the concrete.1c) This class denotes cracked sections.5 ~ . as it causes a negative increase in curvature which is usually more dominant than the decrease produced by the decrease in prestress losses due to creep. The cracked bilinear section is used in the deflection computations. (a) Class U: It ~ 7. .2 Basic Assumptions in Deflection Calculations 419 The difficulty of predicting very accurately the total longterm prestress losses makes it more difficult to give a precise estimate of the magnitude of expected camber. No skin reinforcement needs to be used in the vertical faces. or from the momentcurvature relationships. Computation of dips or is for crack control is necessary. The principle of superposition applies in calculating deflections due to transverse load and camber due to prestressing. For stress computations at service loads. the following basic assumptions have to be made: 1. where dips = stress increase beyond the decompression state.7. Calculation of the momentcurvature relationships at the major incremental stages of loading up to the limit state at failure would also assist in giving a more accurate evaluation of the stressrelated load deflection of the structural element. corrosion due to cracking can become detrimental to the service life of the structure. where the value of i~ corresponds to the cylinder compressive strength of concrete at the age at which Ec is to be evaluated. Accuracy is even more difficult in partially prestressed concrete systems. Creep strain in the concrete increases camber. 2. Therefore. The presented discussion of the state of the art emphasizes the extensive work of the author on cracking in pretensioned and posttensioned prestressed beams. Prestressed concrete flexural members are classified into three classes in the new ACI 318 Code. 7. and for deflection.
Deflection. the cracked moment of inertia ler can give a morc accurate determination of deflection and camber. and Crack Control Photo 7. I I I ! • fi.1 LoadDeflection Relationship Shortterm defl ections in prestressed concrete members are calculated on the assumption that the sections are homogeneous. I . 7.POS1<JlCking . . California. region iI.n . I CMnbef I '' I • o Oefleelion d Figure 7. Such an assumption is an approximation of actual behavior. Thereafter. San Francisco.1 . iSOIropic. . . S.PoI1 . Deflections due 10 shear deformations are disregarded. .420 Chapter 7 Camber. postserviceability stage. Sections can be treated as totally elastic up to the decompression load. postcracking stage: region III . . where the strands are trea ted as a single tendon. and clastic. I• • ! ! I . 1II 1 I • .3. precracking stage. 4. A ll computations of deflection can be based on the centcr of gravity of the prestressing strands (egs). Region I. 6. particula rl y that the modulus Er of concrete varies L~' I .rviatlblliIV I .1 Beam loaddellection relationship. 1 Supporting base of the Transamcricu Pyramid.3 SHORTTERM (INSTANTANEOUS) DEFLECTION OF UNCRACKED AND CRACKED MEMBERS 7. .
1.3 ShortTerm (Instantaneous) Deflection of Uncracked and Cracked Members 421 with the age of the concrete and the moment of inertia varies with the stage of loading. then where X. If alllightweight concrete X. Ec Figure 7.85.75. Region II. Region III.. where the structural member develops acceptable controlled cracking in both distribution and width.. (7. The precracking segment of the loaddeflection curve is essentially a straight line defining full elastic behavior. Strain. = 0.1. it is less than the modulus of rupture fr of concrete.2b) used. For design purposes.e. X.7. i. = 1. whether the section is uncracked or cracked. the value of the modulus of rupture for concrete may be taken as Ir = 7. The flexural stiffness EI of the beam can be estimated using Young's modulus Ec of concrete and the moment of inertia of the uncracked concrete cross section.000~ for normalweight concrete The pre cracking region stops at the initiation of the first flexural crack. i. The loaddeflection behavior significantly depends on the stressstrain relationship of the concrete. The maximum tensile stress in the beam in this region is less than its tensile strength in flexure.e. Postcracking stage.1 Precracking stage: region I. Precracking stage.3.2 Stressstrain diagram of concrete.2a) or Ee = 57. Ideally. when the concrete stress reaches its modulus of rupture strength fro Similarly to the direct tensile splitting strength. where the stress in the tensile reinforcement reaches the limit state of yielding. IS (7. Ee = 33 w l. S W/' e 7.0 for normalweight concrete. the modulus of rupture of concrete is proportional to the square root of its compressive strength. viz. as shown in Figure 7. The value of Ec can be estimated using the ACI empirical expression given in Chapter 2. and if sandlightweight concrete is used.1. as in Figure 7.2. where a structural member is crack free. Postserviceability cracking stage.5A Vi. The three regions prior to rupture are: Region I.. . = 0. the loaddeflection relationship is trilinear. A typical stressstrain diagram of concrete is shown in Figure 7.
152 in 3 (18. and Crack Control If one equates the modulus of rupture fr to the stress produced by the cracking moment Mer (decompression moment).878 cm3). Solution: fg The modulus of rupture fr 12(24?/12 = 13.5 can also be used instead of 6.5AVt: + :: (1 + e.400 cm4).fr) fL (7.9 kNm) .5>.1 Compute the cracking moment Mer for a prestressed rectangular beam section having a width b = 12 in.6 MPa). from Equation 5. The concrete stress fb due to eccentric prestressing is 1.:)] (7. (610 mm). 7.5vJ: = 7.27 MPa).Ib (302.4b) where Ma = maximum service unfactored live load moment ftl = final calculated total service load concrete stress in the member fr = modulus of rupture fL = service live load of concrete stress in the member.4a) where fee = compressive stress at the center of gravity of concrete section due to effective prestress only after losses when tensile stress is caused by applied externalload fd = concrete stress at extreme tensile fibers due to unfactored dead load when tensile stresses and cracking are caused by the external load. then fb = fr =  ~: ( 1 + e.422 Chapter 7 Camber.1.3a can be transformed to the pcr format (Ref.: )] = 1.12. YI = 24/2 = 12 in. Mer = = Sb[ 7.68 X 106 in. Also. Equation 7. 7.~ )+ ~:r (7.824 in 4 (575.5 Vi:.0 for deflection purposes for beams.2 Calculation of cracking moment Mer Example 7. Deflection. and bh 3/12 = = = 7. More conservatively.3. the cracking moment due to that portion of the applied live load that causes cracking is (7. A factor 7.5Y4. vJ: + ~: ( 1 + e.3c) where Sb = section modulus at the bottom fibers. If the distance of the extreme tension fibers of concrete from the center of gravity of the concrete section is Yl' then the cracking moment is given by (7. (305 mm) and a total depth h = 24 in.8 MPa) in compression. (305 mm) to the tension fibers. Sb = flYI = 13.000 = 474 psi (3.152[474 + 1850J 2.000 psi (27.7) giving identical results: Mer Ma = 1_ (ltl .850 psi (12. Use a modulus of rupture value of 7. given that f~ = 4..824112 = 1.3b) or Mer = Sb[ 7.3a) where subscript b stands for the bottom fibers at midspan of a simply supported beam.
3. reaching a lower bound value corresponding to the reduced moment of inertia of the cracked section. The moment of inertia Ier of the cracked section can be calculated from the basic principles of mechanics. 7. Similar computations can be performed for any tendon profile and any type of transverse loading regardless of whether the tendon geometry or loading is symmetrical or not.3. 7. As the magnitude of cracking increases.3. A beam undergoes varying degrees of cracking along the span corresponding to the stress and deflection levels at each section.5) Notice that the deflection diagram in Figure 7.3.1. and the neutral axis continues to rise toward the outer compression fibers. the flexural rigidity of the section is reduced.1 is considerably flatter in region III than in the preceding regions.2.4 Postserviceability cracking stage and limit state of deflection behavior at failure: region III. 7. a secondary compression failure develops.3.3 ShortTerm (Instantaneous) Deflection of Uncracked and Cracked Members 423 If the beam were not prestressed.4.lb (61. cracks are wider and deeper at midspan. The beam is considered at this stage to have structurally failed by initial yielding of the tension steel. 7. Finally. with . Hence.7 kNm). Suppose a beam is prestressed with a constant eccentricity tendon as shown in Figure 7.7.1. This is due to substantial loss in stiffness of the section because of extensive cracking and considerable widening of the stabilized cracks throughout the span.3 Postcracking serviceload stage: region II. Hence. When flexural cracking develops.1 Deflection calculations. The use of the moment of inertia of the gross section rather than the transformed section does not appreciably affect the accuracy sought in the calculations.824/12 = 0. the strain Es in the steel at the tension side continues to increase beyond the yield strain Ey with no additional stress. As the load continues to increase. The precracking region ends at the initiation of the first crack and moves into region II of the loaddeflection diagram of Figure 7. Then the moment of the weight intensity (Pe)/EJc of the halfspan AC in Figure 7.2.3(d) is drawn above the base line. the moment would be Mcr= fl/Yt= 474 x 13. Deflection calculations for uncracked prestressed sections tend to be more accurate than those for cracked sections since the assumptions of elastic behavior are more applicable.546 x 106 in. The final camber or deflection is the superposition of the deflections due to prestressing on the deflections due to external loads. the cracks continue to open. making the loaddeflection curve less steep in this region than in the pre cracking stage segment.1. The loaddeflection diagram of Figure 7. The distribution of strain across the depth of the section at the controlling stages of loading is linear. the contribution of the concrete in the tension area diminishes substantially. Use the sign convention of plotting the primary moment diagram on the tension side of the beam.3.2 Uncracked Sections 7. leading to total crushing of the concrete in the maximum moment region followed by rupture. whereas only narrow.3(c) about the midspan point C gives 3 c = Pel 2EJc 2 (i) _EJc (i i) Pe X = 2 4 Pef2 8EJc (7. Most beams lie in this region at service loads.2 Strain and curvature evaluation. as the beam cambers upwards due to prestressing. stiffness continues to decrease. and employ the elastic weight method by converting the moment diagram ordinates to elastic weights MAEJJ on a beam span l. as is shown in Figure 7. minor cracks develop near the supports in a simple beam. It continues to deflect without additional loading.
(a) Prestressing force. From the strain distributions.6c) . (b) Primary moment M1• (c) Elastic weight We = MIEclc.424 Chapter 7 Camber. the angle of curvature dependent on the top and bottom concrete extreme fiber strains Eet and Eeb.6a) (2) Effective prestress after losses: (7. and Crack Control (a) ~IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII~I We I t!!tt!! t!tt! t! t! !!! !!!!!! I!"f 2Ec1c (b) ~I ~ (e) (d) Figure 7. the curvature at the various stages of loading can be expressed as follows: (1) Initial prestress: (7.6b) (3) Service load: (7. (d) Deflection.3 Calculation of deflection by elastic weight or momentarea method. Deflection.
4(b) after losses is the sum.2 Priest Point Park Bridge in Olympia. the change in curvature "$1due to loss of prestress from creep. '.4 Strain distribution and curvature at controlling stages. a castinplace prestressed concrete structure. (Cou rtesy. using the appropriate sign. (7.~ '/ . (b) Effective prestress after losses.3 ShortTerm (Instantaneous) Deflection of Uncracked and Cracked Members 425 l I'~ l 1' 1'. $::: (Eef .7) I'holo 7. Arvid Grant and Associates.· t" tbl . (4) Failure: (7. of the initial curvature ~. It has to be modified to show tensile stress at the bottom fibers if the section is cracked.EaJlh.) • l r.1 T . relaxation. (d) Failure.t'_L ___ '/ '/ r'l Idl Figure 7.7. Inc. $ /'" (EcbI . ~ " r'~j t.e. (a) Initial prestress. = (E_ . and the change in curvature (1$2 due to creep of concrele under sustained prestressi ng force .6<1) Use a pills sign for tensile strain and a minLlS sign fo r com pressive strain.EcwJlh.4c denotes the stress distribution for uncracked section. and shrinkage. c\l~ '" Eulc. The effective curvatu re <P~ in Figure 7. (c) Service load. i. $. Figure 7.) . Washington..EctJlh)..
9b) where <Pc = curvature at midspan <Pe = curvature at the support a = length parameter as a function of the tendon profile.5 prestressed by a parabolic tendon with maximum eccentricity e at midspan and effective prestressing force P e• Use both the elastic weight method and the equivalent weight method.5 Deflection of beam in Example 7.8a) For the primary moment. M1 = Pee. The span of the beam is I ft.4 gives (7.2. Deflection. from the basic mechanics of materials. <P = M Eelc (7. and Crack Control where. 7. so that <P=Substituting into Equation 7.3 Immediate deflection of simply supported beam prestressed with parabolic tendon Example 7.9a) The general expression for deflection in terms of curvature as proposed by Tadros in Ref.8b) supported beams with constant (7. (c) Deflection. (a) Tendon profile.3.426 Chapter 7 Camber.5 eccentricity tendons yields for Pee Eelc simply (7. and its stiffness is Ejc' (a) We (b) (e) Figure 7. 7. . (b) Elastic weight MIEclc.2 Find the immediate midspan deflection of the beam shown in Figure 7.2.
6 shows typical midspan deflection expressions for simply supported beams. from the basic mechanics of materials.3 ShortTerm (Instantaneous) Deflection of Uncracked and Cracked Members 427 Solution: Elastic Weight Method. Equation (c) is identical to Equation (a) for the midspan deflection of the beam. the use of the gross moment of inertia Ig underestimates the camber or deflection of the prestressed beam. However.7. From Figure 7. ="2 1(Peel 3" = 3EJc 2) Peel EJc X X The moment due to the elastic weight We about the midspan point C is MC = 8 c = R.(i) .5(b). the midspan deflection of a uniformly loaded simply supported beam is (b) Substituting for the load intensity W from the previous equation into this one yields 5 P e el 2 8 = c 48 EJc (c) As expected.5 and 7. From Chapter 1. R. a method developed by Branson in Refs.3 Cracked Sections 7. 7. Ie = Ier + ( Ma er Mer )3 (Ig  Icr) ::::: Ig (7.3. According to this method. 7. or in the case of partial prestressing where limited controlled cracking is allowed. the equivalent balancing load intensity W = 8Pee W resulting from the pressure of the parabolic tendon on the concrete is 12 Also.1 Effectivemomentofinertia computation method.3. As the prestressed element is overloaded.10a can also be written in the form Ie = ( M )3 Ig + Ma [1  (M er Ma )3] Ier ::::: Ig (7.lOa and b to get the effective moment of inertia .10b) The ratio (Me/Ma) from Equation 7.3.6. the cracked moment of inertia Ier should be used for the section across which the cracks develop while the gross moment of inertia Ig should be used for the beam sections between the cracks. such refinement in the numerical summation of the deflection increases along the beam span is sometimes unwarranted because of the accuracy difficulty of deflection evaluation.4b can be substituted into Equations 7. an effective moment of inertia Ie can be used as an average value along the span of a simply supported bonded tendon beam.12. Figure 7. Consequently.lOa) Equation 7.[Peel e 2 EJc 6 48 ~(~ X i)] 6 8 2 48EJc = _1_ (PeeP _ 3PeeP) = 5PeeP EJc Then 8 c = 5 PeeP 48 EJc (a) Equivalent Weight Method. complementing the shear and moment expressions for continuous beams given earlier in Figure 6. Theoretically.
c 31 2 24 t w ! !! ~ p +. Subscript c indicates midspan.428 Chapter 7 Camber.4b2) . It~ 6= wb (3/ 2 .I+I~ I I. subscript e indicates support. and Crack Control Load deflection Prestress camber w 4 ! I wl 3 I· ~ ~I q.Ie_:~g +<1_s p ~.c 12 12 6 = 48El = ~I' f+. I ~I' Figure 7. .4b 2 @ I 24El = q. Deflection.6 Shortterm deflection in prestressed beams.f~g=.
15(1el + Ie2 ) and for continuous uncracked beams with one end continuous. end) where 1m is the midspan section moment of inertia and IeJ and 12 are the endsection moments of inertia.13a) where np = Ep/ Ec' If nonprestressed reinforcement is used to carry tensile stresses.7.3. Hence. Ie = 0.7 is evaluated using the transformed Ier utilizing the contribution of the reinforcement in the bilinear method of deflection computation.70Im + 0. The cracking moment of inertia can be calculated by the PCI approach (Ref. Branson's effective Ie gives the average total immediate deflection 3tot = 3e + 3cr described in the previous section.13 can be modified to give / / / / 1 1 / / lie = deflection using 19 lier = deflection using Ier I.1 in accordance with ACI code.lOa and b thus depends on the maximum moment Ma along the span in relation to the cracking moment capacity Mer of the section.8) for fully prestressed members by means of the equation (7.3 ShortTerm (Instantaneous) Deflection of Uncracked and Cracked Members 429 Mer Ma = 1 _ (ftl . The idealized diagram for the Ig and Ier zones is shown in Figure 7.3. 0. the bilinear momentdeflection relationship follows stages I and II described in Section 7.13 to follow Ig = gross moment of inertia Note that both Mer and Ma are the unfactored moments due to live load only such that Mer is taken as that portion of the live load moment which causes cracking. Ie = (7.12b) Avg. 7." Equation 7. 3er in Figure 7. namely. In graphical form. Avg. from Equation 7.3. = average moment of interia for li tot • = lie + lier 1/""1 /1 / / / i • 1 1 1 _++li er+i I Deflection li Figure 7.11) where Ier = moment of inertia of the cracked section. The effective moment of inertia Ie in Equations 7. 7. .7 Momentdeflection relationship.15(1conl.12a) (7.2 Bilinear computation method. The ACI code requires that computation of deflection in the cracked zone in the bonded tendon beams be based on the transformed section whenever the tensile stress It in the concrete exceeds 6y1"fl.85Im + 0. In the case of uncracked continuous beams with both ends continuous.fr) fL (7.7. in "partial prestressing.
Ie' r2. A flowchart for instantaneous deflection calculation and construction of the momentcurvature diagram in stepbystep increments is given in Figure 7. ee' e. The cracked moment of inertia can be calculated more accurately from the momentcurvature relationship along the beam span and from the stress and.c r t ) e Deflection due to self·weight: 5WO£4 60 j..4(d) for strain Ecr at first cracking.3. (7.430 Chapter 7 Camber. about the centroid cgc of the section under consideration.13b) where ns = E/ Ec for the nonprestressed steel.14 can be rewritten to give I cr = Me EcEcr = Me f (7. strain distribution across the depth of the critical sections. d = effective depth to center of mild steel or nonprestressed strand steel. Equation 7. RH. c t.= 384£1 e ! Figure 7. consequently.A ( 1 2 e. VIS Read load data: W0' WSD ' WL Read material properties Calculate stress fibers at midspan and support section at transfer Pi f:= . Deflection. and Crack Control (7. 7. . cb. As shown in Figure 7. including the prestressing primary moment M I .3.8. Sb' st. ( START ~ Read properties of section A e.14) where Ecr is the strain at the extreme concrete compression fibers and M is the total moment.15) where fis the concrete stress at the extreme compressive fibers of the section.8 Flowchart for immediate momentcurvature camber and deflection.3 Incremental momentcurvature method.
A.2 +Sb MT ( Subroutine for bilinear method ( ~ STOP (b) ) START ~ Check bottom stress at midsection for working load Figure 7.5~ use Ig instead of Ie in previous equation of 6SD +L where: f b =.(M )3)Icr . T fn=final stress due to all loads fL = service live load concrete stress Ier = (npApsd. t Note: if bottom stress at working load fb is less than 7.6 vnpp + n.1.r: e ( 1 +) ebCb Ae .7.fr)] M.g <1 Ma er (Mer) = [ 1.3 ShortTerm (Instantaneous) Deflection of Uncracked and Cracked Members 431 ~ I Effective Ie method I I Bilinear method I Incremental momentcu rvatu re method r ( Subroutine fOT Ie method END (a) ( Calculate Ie START ') ~ I e = (Merr1g Ma where + (1.(fn.P . = 6.8 Continued .p) ~ 6SD + L = 5(WSD + WL ) £4 + 6 0 ~ + 6SD +L ~ 384 Ee Ie 6 net inst... + n.d2 ) (1 .
6.6.2 ! Figure 7.432 Chapter 7 Camber. = 8/ + 80 + 850 + 6L : (cl I \ STOP Subroutine for incremental momentcurvature method ( START J Obtain the loss in the prestressing force.f' = _ .P (1 + eeCb) Ae .6.. = 8.2 .6.WL1 850 = 5WSD £4/(384E lerl 8SD + L = 5WSD +L£4 384Ele ·8 net inst.5X Vf: Portion of live load not causing cracking WL1: WL WL1 = (fL .f' = _ l1P Ae l1f = b Support: .2 . + 80 + 850 + 8L 5wL1 8L = . and Crack Control 1 No \ f fbe:5 7.fnetl X fL where fL is tensile stress caused by the live load alone at bottom fibers WL2 = WL .7.6. .6.P (1 + eeCb) Ae C l1P (1 _ ee ') Ae .P Obtain stress change due to prestress loss Midspan: .8 Continued .f = b (1 _ee.5X Vf: ) Yes f not = feb .384EIg r L2 + 384Eler 5W £4 where Ier is defined in the Ie method subroutine 8 net inst.2C') . Deflection.
672 lb.if>e) 48 24 ( f STOP Figure 7. Assume that strands are jacked to 0. ct = 8. The beam carries a superimposed service live load of 1. Draped tendon: /)j = + (if>.t.77 in.70fpu resulting in the initial prestress Pi = 462. The effective prestress Pe = 379.39 in RH=70% ..3911b occurs at the first load application 30 days after erection and does not include all the timedependent losses.458 in.058 kN) at transfer Pe = 379. 2 (6.153 = 2.4 SHORTTERM DEFLECTION AT SERVICE LOAD 7. Data (a) Geometrical Properties (Fig.e:)/h Singlyharped tendon: l 8 £2 Camber after loss /)j = if>e .862 MPa) stressrelieved strands = 2.e:)/h Support curvature if>e = (e b• . (b) incremental momentcurvature method.448 in.019 plf.feb)/Ee ebe = (fbe .688 kN) (b) Material Properties V / S=2.P subtracted from stresses at transfer e: = (f: . 2 2 Aps = 16 x 0.if>e)  £2 if>e + (if>e £2 . (15.340 in? (5. ee = 12.5 kN/m).1 using (a) applicable moment of inertia Ig or Ie method.77 in.02 in.1 Example 7. 2 Disregard the contribution of the nonprestressed steel in calculating the moment of inertia in this example..8 Continued 7..3 NonComposite Uncracked Double TBeam Deflection Evaluate the total shortterm (immediate) elastic deflection of the 12 DT 34 beam in Example 4.4 ShortTerm Deflection at Service Load 433 f Obtain remaining strains after loss t.39111b (1..072 in.3 cm ) Pi = 462.M:lIEe ebe = (feb . diameter 7wire 270ksi (fpu = 270 ksi = 1.fbe)/Ee Midspan curvature if>e = (ebe .t.1 kN/m) and superimposed dead load of 100 plf (1.310 cm 2) ( = 86. 7. . selfweight WSD = 100 plf (1. It is bonded pretensioned.448 in. cb = 25.47 x 104 cm3) st = 10.100 plf (16.672 (2. 3 W D = 1.9) Ac =978 in.100 plf (16.23 in.05 kN/m) ec = 22.4. with Aps = sixteen Hn.46 kN/m) WL = 1.t.4 (3.7.f:)/Ee e! = (f: .59 x 106 cm4) Sb = 3.
.cgc  12.067 MPa) fpy = 230.lb (a) At transfer.019(60)2 ...1a. Midspan Section Stresses ee = 22... 8 X 12 = 5. =5.~I~: =1 +1 34" 1 3" Chamfer 11 Figure 7.. ..000 psi (1..000 psi 6 Eps = 28..[ .600 m. :~...502.1..r===========c=gs====~==============~_~~ 1+I 30'0" 30'0" .000 psi = 3. .. (559 mm) Maximum selfweight moment MD = From Equation 4.862 MPa) fpi = 189.( .05 kN/m) Wso = 100 plf (1.750 psi fpu = 270.1 m) ..000 psi (1.~..2 m) I I Elevation F ·~I 3'0" f~ f~i 12'0" 6'0" . .77" 38" ~.9 :I I I 43/4" Beam geometry of Example 4. 1..23" t f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f t'. (18.. and Crack Control WL = 1100 plf (16..1 m) ~:~ .6~+'. calculated fiber stresses are .(9..980 psi (1. Deflection. ..303 MPa) fpe = 154.02 in....46 kN/m) 8.250 psi fli = 184 psi (midspan) It = 849 psi (midspan) Solution: (a) 1.(9..434 Chapter 7 Camber..250 psi fe = 2.5 X 10 psi (196 GPa) (c) Allowable Stresses fei = 2.
Allow using the gross moment of inertia Ig for deflection calculations. Vii 2.lb (672 kNm) 5. minor cracking is expected and allowed as the 7.391 _ 22.1. O.672 1 978 = 3.458 978 88.23) _ 11.391 ( 978 + 22.7.73) _ 5. 8 = 540.0 3.587 = +698 psi (T) < 849 psi.000 0 = 1. Support Section Stresses From Example 4.340 = 462.600 + 22.354 kNm).1 379. =.K.000 = 11.526 = 25 psi (C) < fr = +184 psi(T).5 factor is conservative.77) + ~'88.0 11.000 m.502.02 X 8.3b. (b) At service load MSD = ML 100(60)212 .K. .000 in.600 + 3. the effective moment of inertia Ie can be taken as Ig• If compared with the modules of rupture fr = 7.77) 88.02 x 8.5 '1'5000 = 530 psi.940. O.689 + 3.524 + 1.0 = +501 .982.340 = 2. O. fb= ~1 + i Ae r2 eCCb) + MD Sb 5. O. = 5.600 inlb t = . From Equation 4.250 psi.778 psi (T) 3.480.982. fri = 6~ = 6'1'3.600 10.502.940.K.3a.750 = 367 psi fr = 12v'f: = 12'1'5.02 x 25.0 10.600 + 6.647 = 1.l00(60?12 8 . = 5. In such a case.982.877 psi (C) < 2.Pe Ac (1 _ ect ) r2 _ MT S' __ 379.458  f = +411 From Equation 4.502.K. .600 978 1 88.000 = 849 psi ee = 12.4 ShortTerm Deflection at Service Load 435 = _ 462.lb (61 kNm) = 1.77 in.02 X 25.940.000 58 10.250 psi.4 Liveloadf = = 568 psi (C) Liveloadfb = 5.5 = 7.34 Total Moment MT = MD + MSD + ML (1.672 1 _ 22.1146 = 735 psi < fe = 2.
90 in.839 3. for a = lI2.03 3 .49 Ec = 57. 3D = 5 X 84. = 57.672 (12. (48 mm) t Deflections due to selfweight = 0.89 + 0.89 t +0. >I12 A summary of the shortterm cambers and deflections at service load is as follows: Camber due to initial prestress = 1.99 = 0.877 +1.000Y5.8 MPa) t = 462. hence O.99 in.= 0. Summary of Fiber Stresses (psi) Midspan ft fb ft Support fb Prestress Pi only At transfer and Wd Live load WL only At service load (1 psi = 6. Deflection and Camber Calculation at Transfer From basic mechanics or from Figure 7. Deflection.524 1.20 + 0.03 X 106 X 86.89 in. Total Immediate Deflection at Service Load of Uncracked Beam (a) Superimposed dead load deflection.000 = 4.0.000V\750 = 3.072 = 2.019 = 0..9 (60 X 12)4/384 X 3.c_1.02 X (60 X 12? 3.99 4. (2. 4.019 = 0.K.49)( 100 ) . The selfweight per inch is 1.31 = 1.77 .93 in. (25 mm) JDeflection due to superimposed dead load = 0.93 Ill. using Ec = 4.672 8 X X X X 22.= pI X X 106 psi (24.02)(60 3. I 1.99 in. i J .89 in.90 in.2)_4_ 384 X 4. I .702 X +~ 462. (23 mm) JNet deflection at transfer = 1.9Ib/in.1 MPa) 106 psi (27. and Crack Control Follow the same steps as in the midspan section.03 X 106 psi 3SD = 0.= 5wI4/384E1.08 in.eJl2 8EI 24EI Eci = 57.:.000~ = 57.019/12 = 84.6. with the moment M =0 in the above steps. (48 mm) t This upward deflection (camber) is due to prestress only.. the net camber at transfer is 1.49 X 106 X 86.242 0 1. t (25 mm).99 Ec Eci ( 100 ) (3.(1_1_00.242 2.895 kPa) +501 25 568 735 3. (2 mm) Deflection due to live load = 0.99 J.436 Chapter 7 Camber.08 Ill.49 X 106 X 86.22.0 mm) >I (b) Live load deflection 60 X _ _ 5.072 = 0.778 +698 +92 +92 0 +75 2..49 X 12? 24 10 6 X 86.)(.072 X ~ _ . the camber at midspan due to a single harp or depression of the prestressing tendon is 3 So t= PeJ2 + P(ee . A check of support section stresses at transfer gave stresses below the allowable. and the deflection caused by selfweight is 3D J.000vt.t Thus.03 1.
jin.jin. = 1. reduced camber is _ (462.379.jin.0 = 90 psi (C) ilE~ = 90 6 = 26 3.6 in.34 m.6 in. = 1. Ed = 3.524psi = X 10. 2 978 1 88.6 in.(ilP) (1 + eeb ) = + 83.6 in.02 X 8.7.02 X 25.281) . So 30 days' prestress loss ilP = Pi .281 ( _ 22.jin.6 in.jm.242 psi = 26 X 10.23) Ac 1 .010 10.jin.49 X 106 psi (i) Due to prestressing force (P) Midspan: f' = Et e Ecb +501 psi +501 6 = + 144 3.379. Support: same as in (i) Strain change due to prestress loss . ilfi = . !Solution: (b) Alternate Solution by Incremental Moment Curvature Method Pe at 30 days after transfer is 379.2 Ecb X 10.6 in.281 lb.49 X 10.391 lb.6n = 0. X fb = 1.391 = 83.281 (1 + 22.895 KPa) (ii) Due to prestressing force and selfweight (Pi + W D) Midspan: f' = 25 psi <= 7.281lb (370 kN) Strains at Transfer Due to Prestressing Ed at 7 days = 3.0 .jin.4 ShortTerm Deflection at Service Load 437 If deflection due to prestress loss from the transfer stage to erection at 30 days is considered.672 .877 psi = 537.49 x 10 X fb =3. (1 psi = 6.77) = +634 psi (T) b Ae ? 978 88.8 10.Pe = 462.ilP = 83. m.6 psi Midspan Section il f t = _ (ilP\ _ ee t ) = + 83.672 . .391) . Support: f' E~ Eeb = +92 psi fb = 2.49 X 10 X 10 6. = 642 X 10.1.672 83.89 ( 462.89 462 .
21 34 X 10. /. Deflection.m.281 ( _ 12.10 ample 7.6 = 16. 5 +21 + 642 +116 = 526 (b) Support section strains Ee x 106 in. +144 26 +118 1 T 34. From Figure 7.09 X 10. l 1 Support Section ~fl = _ (~P) ( Ac _ 1 eCI) = r2 83.0 = 404 psi (T) ~Ebe = 3. Strain distribution across section depth at prestress transfer in Ex .77) + 978 88.49 X 10 ~r.82 X 10.10. Support curvature <l>e = 526 .0' 1010 +26 + = +182 828 (a) Midspan section strains Ei: x 106 in.+ 182 x 10 m.5 6 = .6 rad/in.118 34 X 10.281 (1 + 12./m. 3.5 X 10 6'm. 3. Figure 7.5 psi (C) '1Ee AI = 16. Superimposing the strain at transfer on the strain due to prestress loss gives the strain distributions at service load after prestress due to prestress only.49 X 106 = + +404 116 X 10. as shown in Figure 7.= _ (~P) (1 ~b Ac + eCb) = r2 83. 6' /.4. lin. m.6 = 27. 6 .77 X 25.49 x 10 . lin.23) + 978 1 88.438 ~Ecb  Chapter 7 Camber. and Crack Control _ 634 _ 6' .6 rad/in.77 X 8.10 Midspan curvature <l>c = 828 .m.0 = 16.
23 = 30. 12 The deflection determined by the uncracked Ig is 5w [4 1 B = g 384EJg 5 X 80(60 X 12)4 . the portion of the load that would not result in tensile stress at the bottom fibers is Wl = (1.89 + 0. 2 Then . = 2.55 in.55 in. . From Example 7. + (20 mm) I (a) Bilinear Method Ier = npA ps d.8h = 27.7. and Aps 0. > Used d p = 30.34) = 1.6 for a = lI2. superimposed dead load WSD and live load WL are the same as in the previous solution.4 Solve Example 7.3 by (a) the bilinear method.3 If Cracked Example 7..02 + 8. Note that the computed deflection values can differ by 20 to 40 percent from the actual values because of the several parameters which affect the modulus of concrete.1. i after losses in the previous solution. since W L = 1. the tensile stress caused by the live load alone at the bottom fibers is +1.072 0.3.100 = 964 plf = 964 = 80 lb/in .(1 .5 SHORTTERM DEFLECTION OF CRACKED PRESTRESSED BEAMS 7. i. = 1.Ir = 750 .448 in.530 = +220 psi (T).03 X 106 X 86.25 in.778 . t (39 mm) (camber) which is identical to (1.82) X 10..5.82 X 10.07 p Ee 4. (b) the effective moment of inertia method for a condition of tensile stress Ib = 750 psi at midspan bottom fibers at service load.1 ShortTerm Deflection of the Beam in Example 7. Now. 7.100 plf. The deflections due to selfweight W D. Assume that the net beam camber due to prestress and selfweight is B = 0. the beam camber after losses due only to P e is Be t = 439 <l>e(f) + (<I>e  <l>e) ~: X = 27.6~) 6 n = Eps = 28.778) X 1.5V""fl = 530 psi for crack formation.778 psi.03 X 106 dp = ee + Ct = 22.2 in.220) (1. the tensile stress exceeds the modulus of rupture Ir = 7. Hence.6 (60 8 12? + (16.8 in. Solution: The net tensile stress beyond the first cracking load at the modulus of rupture is Inet =Ib .09 + 27.6 (60 X 12)2 = 180 + 025 24 .e.= 384 X 4.25 in.5 ShortTerm Deflection of Cracked Prestressed Beams From Figure 7.5 X 10 = 7.95 in. all computational values in the various steps of the solution can be rounded to three significant figures without appreciably affecting the final results.
4 (5.11.l.530) 1.440 Chapter 7 Camber.25 = 0.28 in. Deflection.0006 p Ier = 7. l Use this value for the final net longterm deflection after losses as tabulated in Example 7.03 X 106 X 14.876 0.072 + (1 .67 86. (::) = 1  etlf~ fr) ftl = final total stress = +750 psi (1) fr = modulus of rupture = 530 psi from before !L = live load stress = 1778 psi 1 _ (750 .(38 mm) (b) Effective Moment of Inertia Method Ie Method: From Equation 7.07 5 x 0.350 in.187 62.80 + 0.100/12 = 92Ib/in.49in.0006) = 14.(33 mm) as compared to 1.03 106 62. 384 5 X 11.350 = 1. and Crack Control Aps 2.6\17.10b.100 .6.07 x 2.l. (17 mm) Thus.69 = +1.3 for the following incremental strain steps: .448 (30.69 in.124 = 0. 4 X = 0. the total deflection due to live load 3L = 0.448 Pp = bd = 144 x 30.25?(1  1.49 in. 7.6 CONSTRUCTION OF MOMENTCURVATURE DIAGRAM Example 7.5 Construct the momentcurvature diagram for the midspan section of the bonded doubleT beam in Example 7.100 x 12 = 11.67)14.0. . = 5 384 X X 92(60 X X 12)4 X 4. 5wzZ 4 l\r = 384EJer = 0.3(60 X 12)4 X 4. in Solution (a).187 in.67 Total liveload intensity Deflection due to live load 3L 1.778 = (Mer) = Ma (~~J = Ie = = 1 .0.l. .964 .3Ib/m.187 1. . Choose 3L = +1. From Equation 7.9 X 10 cm4) Balance of the total load that results in cracking of the section is Wz = 1.49 in.
. .00 1 in .3.524 psi E~ '" Ect. $/ +50 10' = + 144 X 10.69 x lif in..010 x 1O . I.94 X 10.4.02 + 5..352~ II E!) = = _ 1.672 = 0. .6 in l in.7./in.). Solulion: L Prestress Trtmsfer Stage From the da ta fo r Example 7.82 The stresses and strai ns at midspan at transfer prestress PI are . Prestress Stage after Losses In the subsequent decomp ression stage a moment value M.6 Construction of MomentCurvature Diagram 44' I'holo 7.:. .502. Strain at/pt:. 3. 2. 4. Modulus of rupture level. the corresponding moments due to PI + Mf) are M I :. the midspan stresses due onl y to prestress PI are as follows: f.672 x 22. 379391 PI = 462.6 ". Strain at trnnsfer I. (1010 .000 psi d ue to PI o nl y. 154.003 inlin.lb.:.. X 10. Decompression at tendon cgs level. From Example 4.6 in.33.3 Deflection of cont inuous beam (Nawy e t al. + 501 psi fb "" .980 psi prior to gravity loads. S_ Cracked section.!in.462. strain fOci at top :. 3.3. p.6 rad/ in. strain Eel at top = 0. p.600:. Hence. 6_ Cracked section. due to gravity loads has to be found which would reduce the stress in the prestressing steel to zero. 379391 lb.49 X I (fOrb  .1.144) :z 34 From Example 7. 189. 0. 2.49 X I 3.3.
6 x 103 MPa) c:.6 in. (12.524 psi 10.jin. Figure 7.118)10.153 in. = 27.000 0.030 E.. as shown in Figure 7.. fc = f: 5000 I [~:  U. I EO 0 0.010 Strain (in. ~ I 500 I 100 0. E~ = Ecb + 144 X = 1.) 0.002 Strain (in.6 in. and Crack Control ~~~./in...6 6' 34 = 27.005 0. Reduce the strains up to the P e stage as follows: E~ Ecb = 0.11 Stressstrain diagram fodin. = 0.2 set method 1300 ! x 900 Area = 0.6 in.6 in.442 Chapter 7 Camber.jin.00X 10S psi I I I I I I I I f: = 5000 psi I (34. Ep .6) = + 118 10.000 0. strength = 41300 Ibs.E E . f~ = +501psi feb =  3.000 psi concrete.) 0.82(1010 E~) = X = 828 X The strain distribution becomes.5 X 10& ~si 1189. Deflection.010 X 10..48 MPa) I 30 20 ~ c:..13.jin./in.001 0.jin. .~~"" "'( 250 " 1700 ~ 200 150 100 50 Yield strength by 0. (Ecb  <1>2 = h (828 . 10. 2 Ult.E E .12 Stressstrain diagram for f c = 5.... YJ 40 I I 4000 'w ~ ~ III 3000 en 2000 1000 I I Ec =4.82 X 10 radjill....i~~' j.003 Ec Figure 7.7 mm) dia prestressing tendons.6) X 10.82(+ 144 X 10.. en 10 5 ~ .
884 pSI .jm. 3. .01 . 4.6 in.3. The corresponding gravityload moment Mg = O.jm.0 == . 6 .23) Adjusted/' = ~ 1 88.116 X 10 m.300 psi (C) Adjusted fb = ~ 1 + Eeb = 3.000 psi.6 Construction of MomentCurvature Diagram 443 34" T 26.5 X 10 Compatibility of strain requires that the prestressing tendons in the bonded beam undergo the same change in strain as the surrounding concrete.359 X 10. 86 072 = 2.75" 828 X 106 Figure 7. 27.300 6.296 ( 22. Ie 22. j.75 x m.296 ( 88. X fdecomp. Use the stressstrain diagram of Figure 7.636 X 10.. .153 X 16 = 433. the decompression strain at the cgs level is Edecomp.7.6 26. .01" ~ 3.11 the corresponding stress fpe = 177 . Note the strain distribution in Figure 7. 6 = 819 X 10 m.6 = 6. 22. x 26.296 433. Thus. Decompression Stage with Zero Concrete Stress at Tendon cgs From Figure 7. From the stressstrain diagram in Figure 7. m.13 Strain distribution due only to prestress Pe .02 X 25.01 + 3.12 for the concrete to determine the actual stresses through strain compatibility.723 10.11 for the prestressing steel and that of Figure 7.77) 433. Total Epe = 5.13 due to the prestressing force Pe.5.   8 28 x 10.jm. we have Adjusted Pe = 177.03 X 106 .636 x 10 m.03 X 10 Y Mdecomp.000 X 0.6 . Consequently. increasing the tensile strain in the tendon in order to reduce the compressive stress in the concrete at the cgs level to zero.0 == +469 psi (T) E' = e +469 _ 6.02 .jin.11.02 X 8. 4. X Mdecomp. and fpe Epe =  = Eps 154.980 _ 6.6 + 723 X 10.
4 + 151.6.  h E~)  _ (18.. Corresponding M = 11.444 Chapter 7 Camber.10 .27 X 10 6 in.4 X 10 m.02 .6 in •lin • 6 = 11.300) = 12. Therefore Mer = 3.14 Stress distribution at decompression in Example 7.458 ' pSI 1078 609 psi 151. v'jj = 7.+4.340(530 + 3.16 MPa) = 609 4. Deflection./in.374 .6 in.4 X 106 (d) (b) Figure 7.psi 3. the second part of the above expression for moment gives a stress of 3.lb Figure 7. Net stressf' E' e = 1.2.078 pSI (C) .1) _ 6 _ 34 . s' = = 1. (b) Decompression stress.300 = +74 psi (T) Eeb +74 _ 8 6' I' = 4. (T) Jb Sb 3.75" (a) +74 psi (e) +18.27 X 10 = 11.27 X 106 10.lb Net bottom concrete stress = modulus of rupture fr for this stage = +530 psi (T) Eeb = +530 6 =+132 4. Mdecomp. (d) Unit strain. and Crack Control Mdecomp. 1511 x 10.14 gives the stress and strain distributions in this beam at the decompression state.lb (1.27 x 10 m.3.8 X 10 = 1224 .884 x 86.f Net stressfb = +3. _ (Eeb  <l>decomp. = 7.5Y5.000 = 530 psi Mer = Sb[ 7. (a) Loading stress.300 psi. (C) 10. . m.340 ' pSI . (c) Final stress.5>" v'jj + ~: (1 + e:: )] From before.27 x 10 Nm) 11.03 X 106 .99 X 10 6' rad/m.11. Modulus of Rupture Stage J.03 X 106 6 . f' = 12.078 + 469 = 609 psi (C) (4. X 1011 + +3374.  _ 2.5>. 4.458 f = .072 _ 6 • 6 22.+ 1 .8 X 106 in.27 X 10 = +3 374 .03 X 10 6 X 1O.
45 in.1 ~TotaIEP'~ ______ __ '" / l 0.001 = 0.001 in.224 + 469 = 755 psi (C) Et= e 755 .0064 = 0. Epe = 6.2. at the top fibers.000 x 2. (Eeb  <1>4 = = h <) = (132 + 187) 34 6 X 10 +9.480 lb. O.000 psi corresponds to Ec = 0.153 = 2.45 in.1. the corresponding stress is I1Eps = Ips == 260.6 rad.lin.0256 in.45 X 0.lin.' <Pcr ~L/_.lin.15.03 X 106 . in Example 7. (30.' ~~ ~ f~EP.0192 + 0. below the top fibers of the flange. .6 Construction of MomentCurvature Diagram c = 1.45) .K. From Figure 7.0263 in. the tensile force Tp = 260.fps == 255.001 in. Ie = 3. .000 x 2. Ee = 0.000 > T = 636.lin. The compressive force is then Cc = (12 x 12 x 1.11.001 = 0.1.448 = 624. Tp = 255. and Ce = (12 x 12 x 1. '" 6 t ! t // / .0192 m. From the stressdiagram of the prestressing steel in Figure 7.480 lb.448 in.001 in.0064 in.25 . 1. Figure 7.16) = 624.= 18.lin...0199 m..000 psi. and from similar triangles in Figure 7.9 X 106'm.jm.240 lb. Then I1Eps is the additional strain in bonded prestressing strands due to Ee = 0. Cracked Section Stage. 2 Thus.80 c = 1. Then I1Eps = (30. 1. By trial and adjustment. Hence.45" 445 'U.000 psi and = 16 X 0.0064 in.187XlO6injin 4.25 .359 X 106 = 0.12.16 in. Hence. . Moment Mn rI 1./in. Net stress F = 1. Aps From Figure 7.15 Strain distribution at Ec= 0. 5. Second Trial Assume Cc = 1.400 lb == Tp.5) . From before.'_.5 in.38 X 10.001 in. assumed c = 1.lin.\30.lb .5)3000 = 648.7. 5 X 0.jin.25 . assume a neutral axis depth c = 1. a = 0.0064 = 0.448 = 636.24. So the total E ps = 0.0199 + 0.12. the neutral axis depth should be reduced. and Total Eps = 0.jin.jm.45)3000 = 624.5.
1 in.25 _ 1~1) = 19. is the maximum unit strain allowed by the ACI Code at ultimate load. = 2.003 i I I Mn = 19. ' X 10.7 LONGTERM EFFECTS ON DEFLECTION AND CAMBER 7.lb Use c =.85f~b Apsfps 2.000 x 144 1.lin.38 Ill.5 d.= 690 1.6.94 Figure 7.003 = = c = . Ec = 0. 'i'u A. a From Figure 7.6 rad j'III . From the stress diagram in Figure 7.000 0.16.001 Mg = 18.1. (Ultimate Load) Ec = 0.000 psi. c = ~ = 0.4 in. giving Mn = ApJps( dp  ~) = 2.003 = 0..003 in. and from Equation 7. 7. .003 in.38 I M3 =11..001 = c = . Deflection.2.0692 in.99 t/l.7. = 33..1 Ill.radjIll 6' .9 f~ I {lX "'.1.t/l=4. <!> u Eu 0.1 . = 27.448 X 270.0628 Ill.1.82 I I q.6 M2 = 0 Curvature (rad.0064 = 0. A schematic plot of the momentcurvature diagram is shown in Figure 7...fps =fpu = 270.448 X 263.000 psi.38 X 0. = E t/l= 690 e = 0. j' 1. Eps = 30.6 X 106 in.jin.38 .446 Chapter 7 Camber. M4 = 12.80.42143 1.85 X 5.~ (!) :>c . So use a =.25 .0628 + 0.. and Crack Control 1 I c: . Fully Cracked Section Stage. Ill. Assume fps = 263. = 1..27. 6.12.1 PCI Multipliers Method The ACI Code provides the following equation for estimating the timedependent factor for deflection of nonprestressed concrete members: ./in. The loaddeflection diagram has the same form and can be inferred from the momentcurvature diagram.80 = 1. = Total Eps 0.t/l = 9.143 e cr = 0. Then a = .16 Momentcurvature diagram of Example 7. X 106 ) t/l.0 .000(30.= 0. Eu 0.15..45 X 10.lin.
in Equation 7. 7.70 2. based on Refs.20 3. propose that substantial reduction can be achieved in longterm camber by the addition of nonprestressed steel.7. The camber and deflection effect during erection.80 2.85 1. Table 7.7. = timedependent factor for sustained load p' = compressive reinforcement ratio X. a reduced multiplier C2 can be used given by (7. The increase in strength of the concrete after release of prestress due to losses.16.7 LongTerm Effects on Deflection and Camber 447 A= where 1 + SOp' ~ (7.16 cannot be readily used.00 2. 2.00 3. = multiplier for additional longterm deflection In a similar manner. Because of these factors.16) i. Shaikh and Branson.30 . in Ref. Equation 7. can provide reasonable multipliers of immediate deflection and camber provided that the upward and downward components of the initial calculated camber are separated in order to take into account the effects of loss of prestress.40 2.80 1.45 2. C1 differs from X. the PCI mUltipliers method provides a multiplier C1 which takes account of longterm effects in prestressed concrete members.17) Table 7.9.85 1. In that case. The longterm effect of the prestressing force and the prestress losses.1 C1 Multipliers for LongTerm Camber and Deflection Without composite topping At erection: (1) Deflection (downward) componentapply to the elastic deflection due to the member weight at release of prestress (2) Camber (upward) componentapply to the elastic camber due to prestress at the time of release of prestress Final: (3) Deflection (downward) componentapply to the elastic deflection due to the member weight at release of prestress (4) Camber (upward) componentapply to the elastic camber due to prestress at the time of release of prestress (5) Deflection (downward)apply to the elastic deflection due to the superimposed dead load only (6) Deflection (downward)apply to the elastic deflection caused by the composite topping With composite topping 1. 3. because the determination of longterm cambers and deflections in prestressed members is more complex due to the following factors: 1. 7.1.8 and 7. which only apply to the upward component.
C1 A~ = mu ltiplier from Table 7. and ultimate allowable strain Ec = 0. and prestressing forces are calculated for each inte rval together wi th the incremental shrin kage.PnI = prestress loss at a particular time interval from all causes.4 Prest ressed Ibeam at the limit state or failure load (Nnwy el 81. . The strai n distributions.003 in . and Crack Control where = area of non prestressed reinforcement A ps = area of prestressed strands. The procedure is repea ted for all subsequent incremental intervals.448 Chapler 7 Camber.180) where =initial prestress be fore losses ez = eccentricity of tendon at any section along the span Subscript II . cu rvalUres. and relaxation strain losses during the particular time interval.7.001 and 0. The design life of the structure is divided into scvcrallimc intervals selected on the basis of specific concre te strain limits.. CII = creep coerricients al beginning and end. These calcu lations sho uld be made for a su fficient number of points along the span . such as unit stra in levels Eel = 0.lin. and relax. such as midspan and quarterspan points.alion. The general expression for the total rotation at the end of a time interval can be expressed as (7.1 7.1 = beginning of a particular time step Subscriplll = end of the aforementioned lime step CII_I.lin.002 in.2 Incremental TimeSteps Method The incremental timesteps method is based on combi ning the computations of deflections wit h those of prestress losses due to timedependent creep. this e la borate procedure is justified only in the eval uation of denection and camber of very largespan bridge systems such as segmenta l bridges.). shrinkage. and an integration or summation of the incremental steps is made to give the total timedependent dencction at the particu lar section along the span . PI Obviously. of a particu lar ti me step PII . respecti vely. to be able to determine with sufficien t accuracy the fo rm of the momentcurvature diagram. Deflection. creep. where the erec Photo 7.
. Clearly.18a.7 LongTerm Effects on Deflection and Camber 449 tion and assembly of the segments require a relatively accurate estimate of deflections.lin. adding the curvature increment Ll<Pn to the total curvature <Pnl at the beginning of the desired intervals. (Figure 7. E~ = + 144 X 106 in.20) LlEps.net = (LlE~R.lin'.19c) and the total rotation becomes (7.21) where k is a function of the span and geometry of the section and the prestressing tendon. the total deflection at a particular section is l)x = <ptkl2 (7. Thereafter.. justified only in evaluation and assembly of segments requiring relatively accurate estimates of deformations. Ecb = 1010 X 106 in'.19b) for the top fibers and for the bottom fibers.7 to give a curvature increment Ll<p. e. the incremental timestep procedure is lengthy and.. while Naaman expresses the longterm deflection in terms of midspan and support curvatures at a time interval t (Refs. Several investigators have proposed different formats for estimating the additional timedependent deflection Lll) from the momentcurvature relationship <P modified for creep.19) 6 LlE ~R n = gross creep incremental strain at the top fibers. strain. (Figure 7.20) A schematic of the changes in strains and rotations from time step n . 7. (Figure 7.19a) (7.18. as seen from Figure 7. then. Naaman's expression gives.g. e. The selection of the time intervals depends on the refinement level desired in the computation of cambers. The total camber ( i ) or deflection ( ~ ) due to the prestressing force can be obtained from Equation 7.20 as (7. and curvature are obtained at the end of the time interval.lin. 7. LlEcRcb = 895 X 106 in.g. e.12. as given in Equation 7.lin. Both Tadros and Dilger recommend integrating the modified curvature along the beam span. For each time step. 7.g..20) LlEcRb.18b) Now. new values of stress.17. for a parabolic tendon. . As an example. The incremental rotation is.11. LlE ~Rc = +127 X 10in.n = strain reduction due to prestress loss caused by creep force LlP.n . suppose that the following strains from subsequent Example 7.7. n (such as 169 x 106 in. (Figure 7. e.g. hence.1 to time step n is shown in Figure 7.13).7 are used to illustrate calculation of incremental and total rotations: E~_l = gross strain due only to prestress at the top fibers.n = gross creep incremental strain at the bottom fibers. LlE~R net Ll<Pn =  ' h LlEcRb net ' (7.19) Eb nl = gross strain due only to prestress at the bottom fibers. From Equation 7.LlE~s. the incremental creep and shrinkage strains and relaxation loss in prestress are computed as shown in Example 7..n) (7.20) Then the net incremental creep strain that will result in incremental rotation <Pn is LlEh.lin.
the curvature at effective prestress Pe can be defined as (7.17 Strain changes and rotations at step n.450 Chapter 7 Camber. Deflection. and Crack Control 1 ! I Figure 7. where <1>1 (t) = midspan curvature at time t <l>2(t) = support curvature at time t in which M <I>(t) where Ece(t) = time adjusted modulus 1 = E (t)I ce c + KCc(t) in which E c(t1) = modulus of concrete at start of interval Cc(t) = creep coefficient at end of time interval.3 Approximate TimeSteps Method The approximate timesteps method is based on a simplified form of summation of constituent deflections due to the various timedependent factors. 7. If C u is the longterm creep coefficient.7.22) .
where to.26. 7.9) 8T•t = 8p{ 1  ~ + X.0 == 1 for all practical purposes.7.24a) and the final total net deflection including liveload deflection is (7. 60 ) is the creep ratio <X.25 tO· 118 for moistcured concrete = 1.23a) or (7.60 Cu in which to.7 LongTerm Effects on Deflection and Camber 451 The final deflection under Pe is (7. at loading kr = 1/(1 + A)ApJ when A)Aps « 1.25) t 10 + to.26) where 11 = PiPi Ct = creep coefficient at time t Ka = factor corresponding to age of concrete at superimposed load application = 1. Cu is used in place of Ct in Equation 7. 7.13rO. Branson et aI. the total deflection 8 Tt becomes (Ref.LlPI2Po in which Po = prestress force at transfer after elastic loss = Pi less elastic loss.24b) Intermediate deflections are found by substituting Ct for C u in Equations 7.23b) Adding the deflection due to selfweight 8D and superimposed dead load 8SD ' which are affected by creep gives the final timedependent increase in deflection due to prestressing and sustained loads as (7. = 1 . 60 C = (7.24a and b.24a: (7.. in Refs.7. proposed the following expression for predicting the timedependent increase in deflection Ll8 of Equation 7. For the final deflection increment. the total deflection is . in days.095 for steamcured concrete t = age. For noncomposite beams.27) where 8p = deflection due to prestressing LlP = total loss of prestress excluding initial elastic loss X.(krC t )] + 8D [1 + krCt ] + 8sD [1 + KakrCt ] + 8L (7. 60/(1O + to.5 to 7. For composite beams.
I. use the appropriate factor in the denominator) Yes = distance from centroid of composite section to centroid of slab topping F = force resulting from differential shrinkage and creep Eee = modulus of composite section a = creep strain at time t divided by ultimate creep strain = t o. and Crack Control OT = . comparing the relative rigor involved in applying the three methods of Sections 7.nor overestimated. that the deflection under short and longterm loading is governed by a variety of possible conditions too numerous to be covered by a single set of rules for calculating deflections. for simply supported beams (for continuous beams. The process becomes more rigorous if the incremental timesteps method is used. In sum. excluding initial elastic loss Icomp.7.7. it is important to recognize that the degree of spread can be very large.7.4 Computer Methods for Deflection Evaluation Several computer approaches and canned programs are available for deflection calculations. and 7. '1\' = 1 . if not more. particularly longterm deflection. = moment of inertia of composite section Od! = deflection due to differential shrinkage and creep between precast section and composite topping slab = FyJ2/8EeJcomp. 7. These conditions are related to all properties of the concrete constituent materials which affect deflection. Engineering judgment has to be exercised in determining a reasonable accurate concrete modulus Ee value at the various loading stages and in achieving values of creep coefficients that are neither under.2. ] (7.28) + Od! + OL where. Hence.7. the difference in the shrinkage characteristics and timestep increments due to the difference in shrinkage values of the precast section and the added concrete topping increase the rigor .(aP j2Po) aPe = loss of prestress at time composite topping slab is cast. 7.1. 7. Keep in mind.6o/(1O + t o.apc P ° + k r Cu ('1\ . Deflection. The material properties input to any computer program should be carefully scrutinized based on laboratory tests if large span structures are involved.Op{ 1  ~ + KakrCu '1\] + OD[1 + KakrCuJ [ + OP.452 Chapter 7 Camber.3.5 Deflection of Composite Beams Computing deflections for composite prestressed beams is similar to that for noncomposite sections. deflection calculation procedures and methods should be viewed within a ±40 percent variability. except in cases of very large span bridges such as cablestayed bridges.1 compo Ie ap . The additional steps at the various construction stages of the precast element and the situcast top slab require consideration of the changes in the moments of inertia from the precast to the composite values at the appropriate stages. They lend themselves handily for such more refined methods as the timestep method in Section 7.60 ).7. Moreover.a'1\ ) .2.7. however.
and the shrinkage and prestress relationship at the various loading stages. Ponding should be checked by suitably calculating deflection. Compute the concrete fiber stresses at the top and bottom extreme fibers due to all loads. sum of longterm deflection due to all sustained loads (dead load plus any sustained portion oflive load) and immediate deflection due to any additional live load b 360 480C 240 aLimit not intended to safeguard against ponding. 4.2. Following is a stepbystep procedure for computing deflection: 1. AASHTO permissible deflection requirements. including added deflections due to ponded water. 2. and reliability of provisions for drainage. 3. the use of computer programs facilitates speedy evaluation of camber and deflection in composite elements. Use the equations Table 7. but may be reduced by the amount of deflection calculated to occur before attachment of nonstructural elements. are more rigorous because of the dynamic impact of moving loads on bridge spans. camber. 'Ratio limit may be lower if adequate measures are taken to prevent damage to supported or attached elements.2 ACI Minimum Permissible Ratios of Span (/) to Deflection (0) (/ = Longer Span) Type of member Deflection 0 to be considered (1Io)mln 180a Flat roofs not supporting and not attached to nonstructural elements likely to be damaged by large deflections Floors not supporting and not attached to nonstructural elements likely to be damaged by large deflections Roof or floor construction supporting or attached to nonstructural elements likely to be damaged by large deflections Roof or floor construction supporting or attached to nonstructural elements not likely to be damaged by large deflections Immediate deflection due to live load L Immediate deflection due to live load L That part of total deflection occurring after attachment of nonstructural elements. bLongterm deflection has to be determined. including the concrete modulus E".8 PERMISSIBLE LIMITS OF CALCULATED DEFLECTION The ACI Code requires that the calculated deflection has to satisfy the serviceability requirement of maximum permissible deflection for the various structural conditions listed in Table 7. Compute the initial strains Eci at the top and bottom fibers and the corresponding rotations. Note that longterm effects cause measurable increases in deflection and camber with time and result in excessive overstress in the concrete and the reinforcement.7. requiring computation of deflection and camber. Fortunately. . but should not be lower than tolerance of nonstructural elements. 7. shown in Table 7.3. and considering longterm effects of all sustained loads. construction tolerances. Choose the time increments to be used in the deflection calculations. con crete creep. Determine the properties of the concrete. This reduction is made on the basis of accepted engineering data relating to timedeflection characteristics of members similar to those being considered.8 Permissible Limits of Calculated Deflection 453 of the computational process. as well as subsequent strains and rotations.
Repeat the same procedure for all time intervals. 7.454 Table 7. 6. . Use Ee = 4.6 Given fpi = 189. If not. h 5. Figure 7.000 psi after anchorage losses and after eliminating frictional losses by jacking from both beam ends and then rejacking so as to maintain the net fpi = 189. and add the effect of superimposed dead loads.03 X 106 psi for all loads in the solution.3 Chap!e. 8. AASHTO Maximum Permissible Deflection (/= Longer Span) Maximum permissible deflection Type of member Deflection considered Vehicular traffic only Vehicular and pedestrian traffic 1 i Simple or continuous spans Cantilever arms Instantaneous due to service live load plus impact 800 1000 300 375 E~ . Add the result of step 5 to the result of step 3. and relaxation acting as a force F at the cgs. Then compute the concrete fiber stresses at the cgs level due to F.7 Cambe.18 presents a flowchart for computation of deflection by the approximate timestep method. change the section. assume that fpi would be equal to 189.. Delleclloo.000 psi prior to erection. Compute the total change of stress in the prestressing steel due to creep. shrinkage. Also. evaluate the longterm camber and deflection of the bonded double Tbeam in Example 7. Also. Add the deflections due to live load to get the total deflection f>p Verify whether the computed f>T is within the permissible limits. compute the strains at the cgs line and compute the relaxation of the strands during the first time interval. aod C.3 by the PCI multipliers method.000 psi. assume that the nonstructural elements attached to the structure will not be damaged by deflections and that live load is transient. If the beam were to be posttensioned..9 LONGTERM CAMBER AND DEFLECTION CALCULATION BY THE PCI MULTIPLIERS METHOD Example 7.ck COOtrol. 9. 7. and verify whether the deflection values satisfy the ACI permissible limits.Ecb <\> = .
fpi' fp. = Oi + 00 where kl' k 2: a function for tendon as in Table 7. fti' Eei . c t ._ 384 Ee I.9 LongTerm Camber and Deflection Calculation by the PCI Multipliers Method 455 ( START ) l 1. Calculate fiber stresses at midspan and support section at transfer ct ft = _ Pi (1 _ ee ) _ Mo e Ae r2 Sf q.i' fe' fei' ft.60 10 + to. RH.: n ° L Ier::. I g.1 l 3 4.(:. .)= [1_(fn~fr)J ler = (npAp.Ig 8 EeiIg Self·weight deflection 00 ~ = 384Eei 5W o 2" On.0..25 t. 13t00095 for steamcured concrete Figure 7. Sb' st.6v'np pp + nspl .60 Cu K.fil q. = __ L_..+ k2 Pi e e Q2 Pi (e. fpy.ei = Pi ( e. r2.. Compute 0so = .) e r2 Mo +5 b l 3. f.cb f. Yes ~ 2. kr' A.: ( 1 + . Ig where(~. ee' e. Compute I. + n s A s d 21 (1 .P.1.ei = Eei h t Pi ( eeCb) feb =.18 Flowchart for computation of deflection. 5W Q4 6. Input section properties: A e..: 1 + e r2 (feb . . Compute Prestress camber 0pi t = kl . fpu. c b . = (:..118 for moistcured concrete = 1... VIS Input load data Wo ' Wso ' WL Input material properties f. Cu Time intervals t.d.? (feb .fil Eei h Pi e.c ) fi=. F.7. ~ ! 5Wso 2" 5...Ae 1 .384EeI.:) Ig + [1 . Compute timedependent factors for each time interval C = t to. = 1. b =.eelQ2 8Ee. prestress loss I!t. Ee. Eps' A ps' Pi' Po' p.
072 6 5D WSD = 0.CuliD Ie + lisa [ 1 + ak.l '" + lisa [1 + K.C.3(60 X 12)4 384 X 4.019 pif = 84. Deflection.456 Chapter 7 Camber.Pe 2P.08 m.Cu (A  aA') ] + (1 .' = li pl [1  ~ + h(k.0 mm) .49 X 10 X 86.Cu Ie ] Icomp Icomp + li df + IiL where A' =1 _ I:!. = 5Wr 384EcJg 5 X 84. Total longterm net deflection for composite section liT. (2.a) k.7Ib/in.l.' = li pl [1  ~: + Kak. and Crack Control l j I No J " Section noncomposite? ) 1 Yes I 7.072 6 5SD = = 0. the section did not crack (See Example 7. 5 X 8. .072 in.18 END J ) Continued Solution: Ig WD = 86.C.P + li pl ~ 1 e comp + k.9 Ib/in. 4 = 1. W L = 1.3) .9 (60 X 12)4 384 X 3.C.CuA] + liD [1 + K.99 in.l '" + IiL '" a.03 X 10 X 86. Compute total deflection at time step t for noncomposite section liT.l Po I [ I:!.P I:!.C.)] t + liD [1 + k. Is there another time interval? " / Yes l Gotosteps] ( Figure 7. li df = FYe.k.100 pJf = 91.k.~2 aEeeIcomp No I " 9. '" (14 mm) I = 100 pJf = 8.3 lb/in.
(24 mm) If the section were cracked. i l. i Q.072 in.72 in.).. "" < I.5 Typical dcncclion prior to limit state at failure (Nawy et al.00 IV. the following arc t.) Load Transfer Sp (1 ) Multiplier (2) Multiplier (noncomposite) Final S.57 in.he tabulated values of longtenn deneclion and camber obtained using the applicable PCI multipliers from Table 7.  530 psi 5 x 91. f 1. J. If the section is composite after erection. I~ = I. l' 2. FinalS 0.7 (60 X 12)4 .79 in. t 0. = 86.072 = 0. (in.w if the beam is shored during placement of concrete topping. l' t . 8/. the effective I .99 in ! 1.70 3.03 X \If x 86.· (max. 2.! 1.) (3) Prestress WD 1.89in.93 in.83in.4 LongTerm Camber and Deflection Values in Example 7. Table 7.80 1.90 in. i Q. would have had to be used instead of I" Using the PCI multipliers method for calculating dcncction al construction erection time (30 days) and al the final service·load deneclion (5 years)..63 in. 384 x 4. 1.45 4.85 Net 8 W'D 0.9 longTerm Camber and Dellection Calculation by the PCI Multipliers Method 457 Photo 7.24 in. was also used in this prestressed beam.! 1.f.96 in. 0..!iZ in. ! 1. If mild steel reinforcement A.49 in..40 in.7. J. The C 1 multiplier is reo duced by the factor C2 where C 1  :'::'7:" 1 + AJ AI'I C1 + AJ A"..90 in.49 in. i 2.! 1. (In.6 by PCI Multipliers Method Erection S. f 0. 1<:Otnf> has to be used in calculating SL and S.93 In. t Net S 3.08 in. the reduced multiplier would be used..
except at transfer.43 . 30 days after transfer (completion of erection and application of the superimposed dead load).750 psi. i instead of 4. 3 X 0. using Ec = 4. camber if the live load is assumed all transient in this case.31 giving C2 = 2.7 Solve Example 7. From Table 7. .5 bars were also used in the prestressed beam. and the allowable deflection = 11240 = (60 x 12)/ 240 = 3. assume three No.000\1\750 = 3.0 in.lin.3 and Figure 7. the liveload deflection = 0.) for the beam at transfer due to prestress force Pi and Pi + W D are as follows: Prestress Force Pi Midspan: ft = + 501 psi (3. i (38 mm).49 in.79 in. Also. Strains.6 in.10 LONGTERM CAMBER AND DEFLECTION CALCULATION BY THE INCREMENTAL TIMESTEPS METHOD Example 7.5 MPa) = +26 X 10. As an example. Deflection.80 in.6 by the incremental timesteps method assuming that fpi = 189. Assume the beam to be posttensioned.000 psi and that prestress losses are incrementally evaluated at prestressing (7 days after casting).jin.01 is used instead of the previous 2. 3. and 5 years.3 MPa) +501 6 = +144 X 1O6in.49 X 10 = 1. As A ps = 2142 = 0.03 X 106 for all incremental steps in this solution. where f:i = 3. which is satisfactory. 90 days.1 MPa) fb Et c Ecb =  3.242 psi (15.79 in. Continuing. = Support: f' E~ Eeb = +92 psi (0. i shown in the table as a multiplier value of 2.93 in . the modulus Ec of concrete should be calculated for the time change at each incremental time stop. the final net camber after 5 years = 0.010 X 10. i (20 mm).9.35 for the concrete and fpy = 230. Solution: Instantaneous Stresses.jin.01 As an example of the adjustment of values previously tabulated. Use Eps = 27. hence enhancing stiffness.6 in.5 X 106 psi. and Crack Control due to the mild steel reinforcement controlling propagation or widening of the flexural cracks at longterm loading. Plot the cambertime and deflectiontime relationships for the beam. the initial fiber stresses (psi) and strains (in. the value of the original camber becomes 3. Similar adjustment for all deflection components can be made applying the relevant correction factor.458 Chapter 7 Camber.6 in.63 in. Note that unless otherwise stated.45 multiplier. = 642 X 10.4 the camber after erection and installation of the superimposed dead load at 30 days = 1..49 x 106 psi From Example 7. we have .000 psi for the prestressing steel used in the beam.l. (76 mm) > 0.524 psi (24. 7. and Deflections Eci = 57.jin.jin. Assume that the ultimate creep coefficient Cu = 2. (24 mm).7 MPa) fb = 2.
(~) + (<l>e X <l>J (60 ~: 8 12? + (19.254 to.60060) W+t· X = 0. per unit stress Creep strains at other time intervals are similarly computed. for moistcured concrete Thirty days after transfer. . = Support <l>ei From Figure 7.10 LongTerm Camber and Deflection Calculation by the Incremental TimeSteps Method 459 10.lin.35 /4.6 = 19.30 = 30 30 + 35 X 800 X 10. the creep coefficient at any time. the shrinkage time t = 30 days if the beam is posttensioned and t = 30 + 7 = 37 days if it is pretensioned./in.7.3. Midspan <l>e. From Equation 3. From Equation 3. ESH.6 in. in days. is to.94) 2 .6 X X 10.6 ( 300. 5wl 4 + 384E T c'g 5 = X X Selfwt.99 m. 60 C= 10 + to. 0i t = <l>e 1010 .60 Cu t As an example.89 t + 0. t = 33.94 10. (b) Shrinkage of Concrete.072 = .6°060) 10+30' 10.6 = 369 X 10.65 + 33.6 rad/in.144 34 X 10. Hence. Note that creep strain has to be calculated at the centroid of the reinforcement in order to calculate the creep loss in prestress.6.lin. t (23 mm) Time Dependent Factors (a) Creep.19.89 in. +0.26 34 X 10.6 in.6 = 33.10.6 (60 X 24 X 12? (60 = 24 X 12? 10. at 30 days after transfer ECRI = ECR( = 0.9b.99 t = 0. where fes = Ees ECR concrete stress at cgs level = concrete strain at cgs level = unit creep strain per unit stress at ultimate creep = CjEe = 2.03 x 106 = 0. From Equation 3. ESH. per unit stress. t (25 mm) Net camber at transfer = 1.49 X 10 X X 12)4 86.6 rad/in.583 X 106 in.90 in. 0D = 384 (1019)(60 12 6 3.94 X = 642 ./in.94 X = 1.t = t + 35 t ESH where E SH = 800 X 106 in.583 X W. t (48 mm) Notice that this value is the same as that obtained by the moment expression in Example 7.65) X 0. Finally.65 X 10.6 (33.15a for moistcured concrete.
0. fp/fpy exceeds 0.000 _ ) _ R . ESH may be calculated for all other steps tabulated in Table 7.19 Stress and strain at transfer due only to prestress before losses in Example 7. (c) Relaxation of Strands.349 0.55..n.460 Chapter 7 Camber.5.7 Creep x 10.078 pI 1 . (a) Midspan section. and ee = 12.1 _ (log t2 . 1:: f"4X . . ~ '" .55 . 3524 ~ 18 li 'o~ 1 (a) ~ 1010X 106 ~L. Transfer to Erection (Step end = 30 days) (a) Concrete Fiber Stresses at the cgs Level for Calculation of Creep The tendon eccentricities are ec = 22.77 in.254 0. tT ~ ~ 3. and 5 years after prestressing.0906 0.. . is to the base 10. 90. 4. . Columns 2.6.1261 0. and fpR is the remaining stress in the steel after relaxation for 30 days = 720 hr after prestressing.6 ECR. Deflection.G95 0. fpR _ ~ J.0190 D. Table 7.o~ .000 we must find the R values for all timesteps using t1 = 0 as a base./in. If the relaxation loss ratio is _ _ fpR _ (lOg 720 .452 0.02 in. t 2242 642 X 10~ Strain Stress Strain Stress (b) Figure 7...75" ~50' ".0165 0. and Crack Control In a similar manner.6 ESH.073 133 236 207 154 55 0 0.525 0.log t1 XfPi _ ) 10 J.~ ____ ~ ~ ~ rt= 1.0776 0. t Shrinkage x 10. and 365 days..0.0776 0..34 92 PSi + 26 X 106 in. Table 7.7. .5 Time Days (1 ) TimeDependent Incremental Prestress Loss Factors in Example 7. From Equation 3. = Incremental increase. 0 230 0. (b) Support section. From the figure.103 0.1071 0.1 J. Figure 7.55 n where log t.0130 0.t Relaxation ~ECR ~ESH R (6) ~R (2) (3) (4) 133 369 576 730 785 (5) (7) PIS (7 day) 30 90 365 5 yrs 0 0.0X189. in hours.5 gives the incremental timedependent parameters for prestress loss factors in this example for time steps 7. 30.19 gives the instantaneous stresses and the corresponding gross strains before losses due to prestress.254 0. and 6 give cumulative values.
254 X 10.03 X 10 X 10 6" m. . (399 kN) (i) Midspan Section (1 psi = 6.jm.jm.5 6 106 + 14.0 = 435 pSI (C) .03 X 106 .66 2.350) = . ps = 36.335 x 10 m. Relaxation Stress Loss !ltR30 = 0.080) = 782 x 10.03 x 10 Creep Incremental Strain !lEeR = = !lECR X stress tat cgs From Table 7.169 4.+24 4.589 psi =! (42.764 x 10 m.0 MPa) Total Steel Stress Loss !ltT = (!lEeR + !lESH)Eps + !ltR X Midspan !ltT30 = (782 + 236) x 10.080 pSI C 21.77 X 8.23) Ae r2 978 1 88.666 psi (101.jm. 88.895 x 103 MPa) !lr = _ !lP30 (1 _ ect ) = _ 89.6 (3.6 in.02 X 25.66 + 13.6 in.448 = 89. 6 .0 6" = + .( )( ) Jbee = 3.jin. So X Midspan !lEeR = !lEeR x tbee = 0. per unit stress.jin.625 psi (253 MPa).0 pSI 683 _ 6 .03 X 10 X !lEeb = 10 6' m.254 x 10.77) = 683 . 4.589) = 36.658 ( 12.6 in.350 pSI C 9.625 x 2.02 x 8. use an average MTJO X 27.02 + 3. (1) 18 pSI +18 _ !lE~ = 4.00 = tbee = .02 .2 MPa Ebee = 461 3. 4.5 X 10 + 14.5 !lEeR 0.6 (1.661 + 30. 89. 6 .jin.658 lb.661 psi Support !ltT30 = (343 + 236) x 10Hence.10 LongTerm Camber and Deflection Calculation by the Incremental TimeSteps Method + 26.666 6 = 42.0 = +97 psi (1) !lEe t = +97 _ 6 .0776 x 189. (ii) Support Section !ltt =  89.350 _ 6' .03 x 10 19.jm.3 MPa) Ebee = 1.000 = 14.666 = 30. (C) Ae r2 978 88.77 X 25.( )( 1.080 _ 6' .jin.254 Support !lEeR = !lECR X 10.77) .658 (1 _ 12. Shrinkage Incremental Strain flESH = 236 X 10.524 x 26.!lP30 (1 + ecb) = _ 89.23) 978 88.7.242 x 19.6 x 27.343 X 10.658 (1 + 22.658 ( _ 22. tbee = 0. !l+ ~b = .+4 !ltb = ~ 1 + X 10 m. Prestress force loss (b) Corresponding Change in Concrete Fiber Stresses and Strains !lP30 = MT3f0.jm.6 in.75 = 3.
:lECR  .net = .:lECRcb  = (895 + 169)10.6 in.net  .6 in.6 in.254 X X X 10. Resulting Curvatures.:lEps where .4)10. 10. and Camber Net creep strain (in.:lEC Reb . and Crack Control .103)10. X = 2.254 x 10.:lEeR = 3.20 Creep incremental strains at 30 days in Example 7.:lEps is the strain loss due to prestress loss From Figure 7.lin.jin.254 10.:lEeb = 435 6 4.net = .7.:lE~Rc .jin .jin.6 in. +23 X 106 ':I ~X 106 (a) (b) Figure 7.:lE~se = (+23 .20.:lEhc . Deflection. = + 103 .) . X . .:lECReb X 0.6 in.524 x 0.:lE~Reb.) .jin. Net strains (in.6 34 .03 x 10 = 108 X 10. = 461 10.:l<1>30 is the added curvature due to losses at the end of 30 days after transfer based on the adjusted net strains.:lE~Rc.6 X 10.:lEeR = + 501 x 0.:lEpseb X = .:lE~Re .6 in.6 = 895 X 10.jin . (c) Net Strains.:lECRcb net  . .:lECRe.6 = +23 X Support .6 X = .jin.jin.:lECRcb = = n f7b X .6 (ii) Curvatures (rad/in.:l<1>c30 = .) (i) Fiber gross strain Midspan .254 x 10. = 726 10.jin. Midspan .net  .lin.24)10.6 in.:lEpseb X 10. we have the following: Midspan . h .:If in part (b) of the solution.242 0. in other words the curvature increment for this step.462 Chapter 7 Camber.6 = 569 10.6 = + 127 X 10.:lE~Re = +92 .6 Support .:lnet ECR = .jin.:lE~Re net (726 .6 in.:lECReb  = (569 + 108)10.6 in. = +19 .:lE~sc = (+127 .
24.03 X 10 X 169.32 X 2 + 33. 1.7.32)10.10 in.6 = 33.60 Cu = 10 + 300..30 X 10.94 .33 X 10.94 X 106 rad/in.6 rad/in.32 X 10.38 X 10.14..80) = +0.(25 mm) from before W SD = 100 plf 00 5 X 11 2 (60 X 12)4 o . <l>ci = 33.54 <l>ei (iii) Total Curvature (rad/in..03 X 106 psi as a reasonable value for the modulus of concrete for the rest of the example.6 rad/mm) From Figure 7.58.65 X 106 rad/in.15 days = 0.08(1 + 0.~Ehe. 5Wl4 Selfweight deflection OD = 38 4 EJg = +0.6(2.65 .net = h (461 .6 X namely.14 + 0 = +2.6 rad/in.24 t + 2.6. Also.60 (C.12) X 10.32 X 10. (0. 030(cam b) t=  _ (60 X 12? 6 24 (58.99(1 + 1..1 0 LongTerm Camber and Deflection Calculation by the Incremental TimeSteps Method = 463 24.6 SD  384 X 4.6(1. = 10 + to.14 in.24 in.08 in. 1.96 X 10.6 rad/mm) Support <l>Te30 = (19..77 .141.6 rad/in.00 in.80) 2. 1.020 = + 0.. Assume Ee = 4. the camber due to prestress at the end of 30 days for singly harped tendon beam is = 58.99 in.5 mm) X t o. = 1.6 (60 X 12)2 (60 X 12)2 24 8 + (33.38) X 10.14 in.(51 mm) 0SD30 = 0. for WSD at .00 + 0.19)10.02 0D30 = 0. (0.6 34 X 10.02) = +2. 1.(4 mm) OL = 0 (building occupied at 90 days) Total gravity load deflections = 2. t (28 mm) (camber) .12 x 10.60 300. We have W D = 1019 plf = 84.(31 mm) 0net30 = 3.(1.) and camber From before. and curvature at 30 days after transfer is <l>T = 19. = 58.9Iblin. So the total = <l>i + ~<I>30 Midspan <l>Tc30 = (33.60 C.35 = 1..6 rad/mm) 14.77 X 10. 1.77) X 10 3. t (82 mm) (d) Longterm Deflections Due to Gravity Loads at 30 Days after Transfer.6 rad/mm) Support ~<I>e30 = ~ECReb.net .
(a) Midspan section.0 .34"~ I +74 psi +18 X 106 l+~ 2841 3. tbee = 2.03 X 10 X = + 100 .6 (1. ps Ebec = 270 X 10. (b) Support section.841 psi E' e = +404 6 4.6 in.18 = +74 psi = 2.6 m.jm.807 psi E~ = +18 Eeb X 10. Creep Incremental Strain !:lEeR = 0.807 19.21. and Crack Control 1 ServiceLoad Step90 Days after Transfer (a) New Reduced Concrete Fiber Stresses and Strains Due to Prestress Losses in the Previ ous Stage Prestressing force change = (i) Midspan !:lPe r = + 501._ X X 26.524 + 683 = 2.jin.jin.jin. Eeb = 705 10.66 + 13. From Figure 7. 464 Chapter 7 Camber.23" +404PSi +100 X 106 in.75" Stress (a) ! 705 Strain Stress (b) 448 Strain Figure 7. .jin. per unit stress (Table 7.7.6 in.242 + 435 = 1.7 .21 Adjusted stress and strain at 30 days due to prestress only in Example 7.6 in. rf 4.095 X 10.095 X 10.1 088 i 19. .6 in.6 in.841 = 616 .jin.6 (2. = 448 X 10.095 X 10.6 in. 1.5) !:lE'CRtbce !:lECR tbee Midspan!:lEcR = Support !:lECR = = 0.66 .02 + 3. = 0.97 = + 404 psi tb = 3.jin.jin.6 in.jin.6 in.1 . Deflection.483 2 . (ii) Support f' tb = +92 .088) = 103 X 10. X lbee  /' 1.lin.483) =236 X 1O. pSI Ebec 10.02 6 5 = 2. X 10.
981 10 + 1.164 + 10.jin.5 27. = +6 psi I1tb = 147 psi I1E~ = +2 X 10.807 0.335 psi (b) Correspnding Change in Concrete Fiber Stresses and Strains. I1ECRcb = t30b X I1EeR = 2.6 in.net = I1E~Rc . Prestress force loss I1P90 = I1tT9f/1ps = 12.506) = 12. I1Ecb = 57 X 10.6 = +5 X 10. Net strains (in.6 in.841 X 0.6 X = +7 X 10.I1Epscb = (270 + 57) X 10.net = I1ECRcb .095 10.7.6 in.196lb (134 kN) (i) Midspan Section (1 psi = 6.jin.658 = +33 psi I1tb = .6 I1ECReb.lin.095 X 10.625) = 1.6 in.6 in.6 in.095 X X 10. I1Eeb = 36 X 10.6 I1ECRcb. (c) Net Strains. Resulting Curvatures.jin.) Midspan I1E~Rc.net = I1E~Re .095 X 10.jin.895 x 103 MPa) I1t = +97 I1E~ = X 30.6 in.net = I1ECReb = I1Epseb = (172 + 36) X 10.6 = +38 X 10.10 LongTerm Camber and Deflection Calculation by the Incremental TimeSteps Method 465 Shrinkage Incremental Strain I1ESH = 207 X 10.6 in.jin.I1E~sc = (+38 .I1E~se = (+7 .8) X 10.jin.2) X 10.6 = 270 X 10. use an average i1fT90 =! (14.6 = 136 X 10. and Camber (i) Net creep strain (in.jin.981 6 = 14.0130(189.164 psi = 10.) Fiber gross strain Midspan I1E~Rc = no X I1EeR = +404 X 0.230 psi +8 X 10.36.6 in.981 psi Total Steel Stress Loss I1fr = (I1ECR + I1ESH)Eps 6 6 + X X I1tR Midspan I1tT90 Support I1tT90 = (236 + 207) = (103 + 207) X X 1010 X X 27.6 = +30 X 10.jin.5 106 + 1.6 = 213 X 10.506 psi Hence.jin.6 .335 x 2.lin.196 89. (ii) Support Section 11/.000 . X = 1. Support I1E~Re I1ECReb = +74 X 0.6 = 172 10.6 Support I1E~Re. Relaxation Stress Loss i1fR = 0.448 = 30.
Deflection.27 for t = 60 days) 0D90 = oi(l + Ct ) = 0.90 = 3.47 X 10.5 t = 0.22.72 rad/mm) Support <V Te90 = (33.87 in.) Midspan Chapter 7 Camber. <Vc30 = 58. the final net deflection (camber) at five years is 0.60 900. while a plot of the cambers and deflections as a function of time is shown in Figure 7.6 (1. From Table 7.18 + 0. From Table 7.04rad/mm) = 65.41 (Ct = 1.net = h = 4.6 = 3. and vature is <Ve30 = 33.5)10. 0SD90 t (51 mm) = 0.7.6) = +0.6 rad/in.7.net .27) = +0.6 34 = 7. t (89 mm) and the net deflection is Net 0net.15 X 10.47 X 10.15) X 10.35 = 1.rad/in.77 .93 in.17 in.6 X 24 = (60 X 12? 24 (65.60 Cu = 10 + 90060 X 2.6 =37.6 34 (iii) Total Curvature (rad/in.LlE~ Re.32 x 1O<i rad/in. and Crack Control LlECrc net Ll<Vc90 = ' .92 + 65.47) X 10. which is much less than the maximum allowable deflection or camber.51 in. J.7. 6 (136 .47 X 2 + 37.6 (1.60 Ct = 10 + t o.LlE~Rcb net h ' (213 . i (93 mm) (d) Longterm Deflections Due to Gravity Loads at 90 Days after Transfer t = 90 days t o.6 = 65.4.08(1 + 1.15 X 10.50 in.t 0L (from Example 7.15) X 10.41) = +2. 0T = 11240 = 60 x 12/ .6 and 7. Support Ll<Ve9O LlEC Reb.) and camber From before.30) X 10.6 (60 X 12? (60 X 12)2 8 + (37.77 X 106• So the total cur and we also have the following: Midspan <VTc90 = (58.466 (ii) Curvature (rad/in.65 in.99(1 + 1. The deflectiontime relationship becomes almost asymptotic.2.39 + 0.65 i +3..39 in.92 X 10.32 . i(4 mm) (camber) ServiceLoad DeOection at 5 Years The same steps as the previous give the results tabulated in Tables 7.93 = +3. So the total deflection at 90 days due to gravity loads is Og = +2.92) X 10.
Q) ."" .....
09i 30 90 365 5 yr *P/S = step at transfer of prestress at 7 days after concrete is cast.7 LongTerm Curvatures and Deflections in Example 7.90i 1.50 +3.93 +4.etcR.ecRb.24 3.92 66.29 4.16i 0. 6.16i 0.89 3.79 19. 1 in.ne~ 6.07 73. = 25. Midspan End 6.65 14.e cR.<l>e (5) I<l>c (6) I<l>e (7) 3p .09 4.<l>c (4) 6.4 mm.14 +3.21 2.22 42.en "'" CICI Table 7. 3g (9) Net in.t 3net.36 78.38 7.94 24. n Y 6. Midspan End Total cumulative curvature x 106 radlin.12 4.94 58.99 +2.15 7. e CRbc. Midspan End Prestress camber force P in. .15 4.net t Time at step end Days (1) P/S* Curvature increment x 106 radlin.14i 0.65 4.19 1.t (10) (2) (3) (8) 0 +103 726 +38 270 +31 217 +20 143 0 +19 461 +7 172 +5 138 +4 90 33.65 34m 38. Gravity loads WD + WSD + WL in.15 19.43 45.35 +0.lin.net 6.7 Deflection Net creep strain increment x 106 in.26 0.76 33.
.4. Compare this solution with those of Examples 7.6 and 7. Photo 7. 240 = 3.09 in.time in Example 7. T lmII/cllysJ ! j ~ +>0 Figure 7.2. 7.11 LONGTERM CAMBER AND DEFLECTION CALCULATION BY THE APPROXIMATE TIMESTEPS METHOD Ex:ample 7.09 in.0 1 1 1 1 1 ~ .0 !E ~ 0 1 1 1 1 '30 ' 1 1 36. Note that lo ng·term creep losses can be considerably reduced by the addition of nonprestressed reinforcement to the section at the compression sidc. the beam satisfi es the serviceability requirements for timedependent deflection. »0. Hence. Potyondy).7.6 Dcfl ection at fai lure o f prest ressed T·beam with confining reinforcement (Nawy.7.7.6 by the approximate time·steps method using the same allowable steel and concrcte stresses.8 Solve Example 7.1 1 long·Term Camber and Deftectlon Calculation by the Approximate TimeSteps Method 469 .22 Prestressed camber and load deflections vs.
and IlPIP i = 83.! &L = liveload deflection = +0. = 1  83. since usually A/Aps« 1.281 = 0. = 1 Ka = 1.0.672 Ib P e = 379. So X. Then Ka = 1.7.448 in. Instantaneous Camber and Deflections.470 Chapter 7 Camber. Assume Po == Pi' Then IlP = Pi .2811462.12 Use the same C. Pi = 1 1 j 462.91 2 X 462.IlPI2P".93 in.25t.) &i(D) &i(SD) = From Example 7.672 379.18.+ &L! where IlP = (Po . 90.+ &SD[1 + Kak.3.89 in.99 in. = &pi = instanteous inti tal prestress camber l. the incremental timestep net deflection is &p is the deflection (camber) due to prestressing = &i(Pi) and the total net deflection due to loads is &T = T] = Pe/Pi .02 1. From Equation 7. 1 1 + As/Aps where A/Aps« 1. = 2.118 for moistcured concrete t = age at loading.35 C'30 = 1. = 1.82 Ct90 = C'365 = CtSy.0 under normal conditions Use k.672 k.25(30) 0. Deflection. From Example 7.08 in. 5 yr k = .118 = 0.(k.C.391 = 83.Pe) is the total loss of prestress excluding any initial elastic loss.q!.672 = 0. t = instanteous deadload deflection = +0.!= instantaneous superimposed deadload deflection = +0. 2 C u = 2.27.q] t + &D[1 + k.26. &p[ 1  ~+ X.3911b Aps = 2. X.Pe = 462.281Ib.41 1.l!. in days = 30. and Crack Control Solution: Datafor This Alternative Solution. Transfer to Erection (30 days). ! From Equation 7. 365. and &p and T] are as before.02 . == 1 as accurate enough for practical purposes. &i(P. value for &SD as for &D' and consider it accurate enough.84 C. = 1 .
15 +3.118 2.15 0.20 t + 4.12) t + 0. The minus sign () indicates upward camber t.82) t +0.93 in.09 4.18 + 0.93 = .18 + 0.6.24 3. = 1.89(1 .81 + 0.62 1.3.08(1 + 0.89 3.10 0.79 1.7.8 gives the calculated values of camber and deflection using the three methods in Examples 7.30 3.65 4. t (12 mm) ServiceLoad Deflection at 365 days Ka = 1.14 +3.25(90) 0.89 +4.62 X 1.01 in.82) t +0.49 0.74 X 1.63 +3.91 X 2.89 3.89 3. t (26 mm) Comparison of Deflection Calculations by the Three Methods.48 t = 0.02) t +0.15 0.93 t = 4.89(1 .99 +2.74 C.90 1.99(1 + 1.82 87365 = = 0.12) t +0.08(1 + 0.8.41) t +0.93 +4.26 0.15 t = 1.30 t + 2.18 + 0.52 X 2. = = 1.16 0.8 Time at step end.91 x 1.91 X 1.3.12) t + 0.90 1. t t 8T9{) = 1.89(1 .825)0.90 1.40 +0.0.99 +2.97 t + 3.09 1.0. and 7.08(1 + 0.41) t +0. t (20 mm) ServiceLoad Deflections at 5 Years Ka C.79 +0. 7.93 t = .68 t + 3.49 1.25(365)0.50 +3.41) t +0.0.97 4. we have The total interval from transfer is t = 90 days.41 8 L = +0.08(1 + 0. Table 7.19 t = 1. = 1.02) t + 0.11 LongTerm Camber and Deflection Calculation by the Approximate TimeSteps Method 471 8730 = 1.35 4.49 in.99(1 + 1.82) t + 0. So Ka = 1.7.19 0.91 X 1.89(1 .84 x 1.68 5.99 +1. and the plus sign (+) indicates downward Table 7.84 0.99(1 + 2.25(1.89 t = 0.79 in. days (1) Camber and Deflection Comparisons (8 Inch) Methods PCI multipliers Incremental timestep Approximate timestep Camber 89 (8) (9) Camber (2) 89 (3) 8net (4) Camber 89 (5) (6) 8net (7) 8net (10) 7 30 90 365 5 yrs 1.02) t +0 = .99(1 + 1.118 C.48 +3.118 = 0.12 = 0.5.01 . t (29 mm) ServiceLoad Deflection (90 days).91 0.52 8T5yr = 1.15 in.20 +0.0.
.7 Typical cracking propagation in prestressed concrete beams (Nawy et al. .1.65 kNlm) and a service live load W L =280 plf (4..12 LONG·TERM DEFLECTION OF COMPOSITE DOUBLET CRACKED BEAM EXll mple 7. Photo 7.. The camber is the upward deflection due to the prestress force less the reduction in deflection due to selfweight. The incremental time step method is timeconsuming. 7. This variation is expected because incremental prestress losses are determined al each step rather than as a single lumpsum loss taken al the final stage.9 A 72ft (21... A large number of incremental time steps need to be investigated in largespan major Slructures such as segmenlal or cablestayed bridges where accuracy of deflection and computations of camber arc of a major concern.. deflection .08 kN/m).). Deflection. Comparison of the nct deflections shows thai the multipliers method and the approximate timesteps method give essentially comparable results. Calculate the shortterm (immediate) camber and deflection of this beam by (a) the I~ method.. (b) the bilinear method as well as the limedependent .472 Chapler 7 Camber. and Crack Control • . while the incremental timesteps method gives slightly lower camber values (approximately Jin.9 m) span si mply supported roof normal weight concrete doubleTbeam (Figure 7. . and usc of CQmputers is necessary to justify its use. difference).23) is subjected to a superimposed topping load W SD = 250 plf (3.
000 psi (20.000 psi (1.8 x 104 cm3 ) 641 (9. Noncomposite Composite Ae.' in.0 kN/m) VIS = 615/364 = 1. Sb. ?.000 psi at transfer ee = 18.118 (32. plf 4 615 (3.23 DoubleT composite beam in Example 7.9 x 105 cm4 ) 97 (625 cm2) 21. deflections after 2in.793 MPa) 4 6 Eps = 28. 2 Ie' in.717 (4. low relaxation fpi = 189.46 (240 mm) 3. (475 mm) Pi = 12 X 0.000 psi (34. in? Wd .65 x 10 MPa) Solution by the Ie Method 1.153 X 189.000 psi (1.000 psi at Jacking fpi assumed = 0. topping is cast (30 days) and the final deflection (5 years).720 (24.750 psi (25. in? cb .000 psi (1.1 x 105 cm4 ) 90 (580 cm2) 24. (325 mm) f~ = 5.81 in.945fpj = 189.05 m) ~·~I  Torgr:::=~~~~~~~~~~~~'~'::"~'~'~h .02 (255 mm) 2. in.98 (558 mm) 10.142 (5.9 MPa) Aps = twelve !in.34 kN/m) 855 (5. Given prestress losses 18%. (476 mm) ee = 12.516 cm2) 77.5 X 10 psi (19. in.968 cm2) 59.69 in.1 x 104 cm 3) 8.5 x 104 cm3 ) 5.5'0" I tLfJl4~" ______t.7.960 (9.380 MPa) fpy = 260.000 = 347. c.54 (623 mm) 9.5 MPa) f~i = 3.152 (13.73 in.73 in.862 MPa). (43 mm) RH=75% ee = 18..000 psi (1.l Figure 7. using the PCI multipliers method.540 kN) .12 LongTerm Deflection of Composite DoubleT Cracked Beam 473 11010'0" (3.9.303 MPa) f pj = 200.004lbs (1.L 2" 2 17~" PCI Mctl" 32" ~ 10LDT32 + 2 (128 D1) ~t. Midspan Section Stresses fpj = 200. in? S'. dia lowrelaxation prestressing steel depressed at midspan only fpu = 270.4 x 104 cm 3) 891 (13.7 MPa) it at bottom fibers = 12~ = 849 psi (5.9 MPa) toppingf~ = 3.
153 X 154. From Equation 4.98) + 4. 2 WSD = 12 X 10 ft X 150 = 250 plf (3.836. (b) After Slab Is Cast At this load level assume 18 percent prestress loss fpe = 0.73 X 21. Pi eCcb MD fb=. From Equation 4.02) _ 4.944.000 = 154.87 psi (C). Deflection. O.125 psi (C) < .60(3.980 psi Pe = 12 X 0. and Crack Control MD = (a) At Transfer 641(72)2 8 X 12 = 4.1b. From Equation 4.18b.73 X 10.416 in.95 + 1.6 kN/m) MSD = 250(72)2 8 X .1a.73 X 10. f '== _ Pe Ac (1 _ecc.18a.K.960 = +432.02) _ 6.5 .004 (1 _ 18.73 X 21.) M D 17 . O.250 psi.543 Ib For the 2in.250 psi.lb = MD + MSD = 4.958.717 . f :4 c .474 SelfWeight Moment Chapter 7 Camber.98) + 6.944.543 (1 _ 18. Pe ( 1 Ac eCcb) + =_"c=MD + MSD +r2 Sb = _ 284.750) Sb = _ 347._ Pi ( ecc.44 .82f pi = 0.Sf 97 5.lb (783 kNm) From Equation 4.K.004 (1 + 18.000 m.980 = 284.53 = 1.124.717 = 2.834.250 psi.162. fb = .31 = .2.416 + 1.416 615 97 2.0 MPa) < 0.960 = _ 347. slab. 12 = 1.928.42 psi (C).000 6.984.60fci = 0.308.5 = 730 psi (5.984. O.984.) _ r2 MD + Sf MSD 284.45f: = 2.928.lb .543 (1 + 18.1 MPa) < = 2.82 X 189.( 1 + ) + Ac r2 0.416 615 97 5.416 615 = +527.416 615 97 2.K.416 m.984.1. say 1. say 310 psi (C) (2.928.
K.2 ' 280(72? 8 X ML = 12 = 2. (c) At Service Load Jor the Precast Section Section modulus for composite section at the top of the precast section is st = c 77.288 8.K.152 = 207 psi (1. = 849 psi.7 + = 2177 288 '3' = + 123.426.177. ML Stress J~s at top slab fibers = n S b = 0.118 = 10 337 in 3 9.337 = 162 psi (1. Jb = + 123. slab top fibers = 8.03 X X 106 = 0.4 MPa) (C) Stress Jcsb at bottom slab fibers = 0. .19b.210 = 940 psi (6. from Equation 4. O.152 in.85 MPa).77 X 2.000Y3.550.000~ = 57.142 +816. slab bottom fibers = 10. (d) Composite Slab Stresses Precast doubleT concrete modulus is Ec = 57. say 124 psi (T). O.77 106 S: for 2in.337 in? from before for top of precast section. This is a very low tensile stress when the unshored slab is cast and before the service load is applied.288 in. Scb for 2in.0 . say 817 psi (T) (5.02 + 123.7. Jt = _ Pe Ac (1 _ ? ecct ) _ MD + MSD _ MCSD + ML S S~ MCSD = superimposed dead load = 0 in this case f'  730 __ 2. O.19a.12 4.12 LongTerm Deflection of Composite DoubleT Cracked Beam =  475 = 2.lb (246 kNm) from Equation 4.4 MPa) < f.46 .7 (0.337 = 730 .81 in.177.8 X 104 MPa) Ec = 57.77 X 2.5 MPa) (c).000 = 4.177.1 MPa) (C) 2.12 Modular ratio n = P X 106 psi (2.7.3 from data. Support Section Stresses Check is made at the support face (a slightly less conservative check can be made at 50db from end).7 + 693.288 10._1_77_. «12 Vi. = 849 psi.000 = 3.33 + 2.2 X 104 MPa) 3. ec = 12.000Y5.K.2_8_8 10.03 Situcast slab concrete modulus is X 106 psi (2.
202 psi (C) (15.13.26 MPa) /.86 = 0..73) (72 X 12)2 8(3.. 347.49 X 10 )59.eJ2 P.42Iblin. Summary of Midspan Stresses (psi) ft fb Transfer Pe only W D at transfer Net at transfer External load (WL) Net total at service +433 1.24(3.6 in.86 in.720 = 2.004) (18.6 0=+I 8EcJg 24 EcJg (347. (66 mm) t Selfweight intensity w = 641/12 = 53. and Crack Control t =  347. hence.550 +124 +693 +817 3.42(72 12)4 384(3. O.81 .30 4 2.:6: .73) (72 X 12? 10 )59.(ee ... (19 mm) t .90 + 0. (47 mm) I {o Thus the net camber at transfer = 2.004) (12. from Figure 7..2 X 104 MPa) From before.eJl2 106)59. (b) After slab is cast and at service load.6 + 1.720 X + . 28 days Ec = 4.60f:.K.570 = 3.004 (1 _ 12.K.2 MPa) < 0.250 psi.476 (a) At Transfer Chapter 7 Camber..81 X 10. Selfweight OD = 5wl 384EcJg 5 = X for uncracked section X 6 53. psi (T) (1. = .K.720 = 1.74 in.250 psi. = 2. O.49 = (347. Camber and Deflection Calculation At Transfer Initial Ed = 57.426 +2.b « 21..81 X 97 +0 = 2.18.004 ( 1 615 + 12.. Deflection.02) .163 730 210 940 2.03 X 106 psi (2.49 X P.000\.0 615 97 = +182..... the support section stresses both at top and bottom extreme fibers were found to be below the allowable.49 X 106 psi (2. O.98) 2.8 X 104 MPa) Due to initial prestress only.
use.888 = 24.lb Ma. VFc Moment Mer due to that portion of live load that causes cracking is Mer = Sb(7.lb 1. .142(530 + 2.586 where Mer is the moment due to that portion of the live load that causes cracking and Ma is the maximum service unfactored live load.20 Hence.2)11.4.2.98 X 10 From Equation 7.13.118) + (1 .13 gives Ier = 11.426 .110 = 15. dp = 18.312 in4 = 112 (891 .) from Equation 7.652 2. = 7.177 .75 . np = 28.3a and the stress fpe and fd values already calculated for the bottom fibers at midspan with fr =7.652 in. the section is cracked and the effective Ie from Eqs. Ma Ma (M)3 Ig + [1 .5V!'c + fee .7. From Equation 7.586 Ma fL 693 (~: Y= Ie Ie = = (0.5VJ: = 7.02 + 2 (topping) = 30.5 =530 psi.11.275.5 X 106/4.fd) = 3. unfactored maximum live load moment = 2.33lb/in.13 Equation 7.000 = 530 psi fb at service load = 817 psi (5.2(77.288 = 0.73 _ Aps _ p + 10.12 LongTerm Deflection of Composite DoubleT Cracked Beam 477 4.0. 3.530) = 0.83lb/in. Hence. WL = 1~ X 280 = 23. Using the preferable PCI expression of (MerIM.177 .(M er )3] Ier ~ Ig er 0.275.03 X 106 = 7 to be used in Equation 7.lOb.75 in.5Y5. and the stress values previously tabulated.641) 20. Immediate Service Load Deflection (a) Effective Ie Method Modulus of Rupture f.288 in.19(a) or (b) should be used.424 WSD = + 8. 4 (4. (780 mm) Pp .fr = 1 _ (817 .153) _ 4 120 X 30. Mer = 1 _ ftl .bd 12(0. from Equation 7.550) = 1.110 in.586? = 0.4 MPa) in tension (from before).63 x 105 cm4).
720 in.1) = 9. vJi = 817  530 + 287 psi (T) causing cracking fL = tensile stress caused by live load alone = +693 psi (T) W Ll = Portion of live load not causing cracking WL = (fL .720 = +0.5'11.384EJe . topping is placed on the precast section. the resulting topping deflection with Ig = 59.l.384(4. and Crack Control 5wl 4 5 x 23.73 in. Total liveload deflection prior to prestress losses = 8Ll + 8cr = 0.66Ib/m.03 = 106)11.57 = 1.164. I I Solution by Bilinear Method foet = feb = .83(72 X 12)4 384( 4.03 x 106 )24..89 = 1.03 x 106)59. Longterm Deflection (Camber) by PCI Multipliers When the 2in.33(72 X 12)4 8 . 8L2 due to cracked Ier 5 X 9. obtained by the Ie method.l.L . (as an average value) When the concrete 2in.478 Chapter 7 Camber.68(72 X X 6 12)4 = 384Ee I g = 384(4.. 8Ll due to uncracked Ig 5wLll 4 8Ll 5 X 13.03 X 106 )59.312 = +1.63 in.586 X 280 = 164. Deflection.63 in.'.110 1..03 10 )77.l. 4 is 8SD = 5 X 20.720 = +0.1 pJf = 13..74 i Net shortterm deflection prior to prestress loss is 8Total = 0. .l.83(72 X 12)4 384( 4.4 8 SD = 5 X 20.foet) fL = = 693 .7. . From before. 1 . = 0.32 in. (16 mm) Using PCI multipliers at slab topping completion stage (30 days) and at the final service load (5 years).287 693 x 280 pJf 0. versus 1.118 0.57in.74 + 1. WL  WL2 = w Ll = 12 (280 .l.73 in.32 + 1. concrete topping is placed on the precast section. the resulting topping deflection with Ig = 59.15 inJ 5.720 in.. the following are the tabulated deflection values: .66(72 X X 12)4 384(4.68 Ib/in.89 in. 8. (45 mm)..
Allowable deflection = 4. This condition essentially produces the absolute minimum crack spacing that can occur at high steel stresses. here termed stabilized minimum crack spacing.13.891 +1. Serviceability behavior under service and overload conditions can be controlled by the design engineer through the application of the criteria presented in this section. Consequently.891 +2. additional cracks will form and the number of cracks will be stabilized when the stress in the concrete no longer exceeds its tensile strength at further locations regardless of load increase. experimental investigations support the hypothesis that the major controlling parameter is the reinforcement stress change beyond the decompression stage. Work in this area is relatively limited because of the various factors affecting crack width development in prestressed concrete. Primary cracks form in the region of maximum bending moment when the external load reaches the cracking load.71 i +4. (53 mm) 1 . > 2.281 2.461 1. O.30 5. .13 CRACKING BEHAVIOR AND CRACK CONTROL IN PRESTRESSED BEAMS 7. 7.74 i 1.451 +1.85 0.1 Introduction The increased use of partial prestressing.60 +1.74 i Hence.20 2.80 1.13.K.24 i +0.091 span/180 = 72 X 12 180 = . the stabilized mean crack spacing a cs is the mean value of the two extremes.13 Cracking Behavior and Crack Control in Prestressed Beams 479 PCI Multiplier (Composite) Load Transfer 3p in.29) where 'Y is a factor reflecting the distribution of bond stress. allowing limited tensile stresses in the concrete under serviceload and overload conditions while allowing nonprestressed steel to carry the tensile stresses. However. 4. (1) PCI Multipliers 3 30 in. (2) (3) Prestress 2. is becoming prevalent due to practicality and economy.40 2.68 +3. 7. The maximum possible crack spacing under this stabilized condition is twice the minimum and is termed the stabilized maximum crack spacing. As loading is increased.631 +1.8 Ill.1 in. Nawy.7. 7. an evaluation of the flexural crack widths and spacing and control of their development become essential.86 0. have undertaken extensive research since the 1960s on the cracking behavior of prestressed pretensioned and posttensioned beams and slabs because of the great vulnerability of the highly stressed prestressing steel to corrosion and other environmental effects and the resulting premature loss of prestress (Refs. 11 is the maximum bond stress which is a function of and LO is the sum of the reinforcing elements' circum Vfc.44 1. final deflection'" 2.137.1 in. The total tensile force T transferred from the steel to the concrete over the stabilized mean crack spacing can be defined as (7.2 Mathematical Model Formulation for Serviceability Evaluation Crack Spacing. et aI. 3Final in... Hence.25 i +1.17).
14.15). (a) For even distribution of reinforcement in concrete. cf.fd ksi (= 1. shrinkage.34) where k and a are constants to be established by tests. .13.480 Chapter 7 Camber. 7. Because it is logical to disregard as insignificant the unit strains in the concrete due to the effects of temperature.34 is rewritten in terms of I1fs so that the following expression at the reinforcement level is obtained based on large numbers of tests: (7.000 psi) (7. At can be defined (see Figure 7. the maximum crack width can be defined as (7.31) From extensive tests (see Refs.3 Expressions for Pretensioned Beams Equation 7.30) By equating Equations 7. and elastic shortening. 7. 1 (al (b) Figure 7. then for the prestressed tendon 11!s = fnt . where c is a constant to be developed from the tests: Arf~ a es = c 2. The resistance R of the concrete area in tension.35) fb·~I ~.24 Effective concrete area in tension. and 1.54 for posttensioned prestressed beams. the following expression for a es is obtained. (b) For noneven distribution of reinforcement in concrete. Deflection. 7.29 and 7." ~gl t.33) or W max = k' a cs (l1fs)" (7. If I1fs is the net stress in the prestressed tendon or the magnitude of the tensile stress in the normal steel at any crack width load level in which the decompression load (decompression here means fe = 0 at the level of the reinforcing steel) is taken as the reference point. The unit strain Es = I1f/ Es.30.. and Crack Control ferences. Crack Width.24) as R =Af' t t (7.O~ (7.2 for pretensioned.13.~ is found to have an average value of 1.32) where fnt is the stress in the prestressing steel at any load level beyond the decompression load and fd is the stress in the prestressing steel corresponding to the decompression load. and 7.
.. l:o A / / .25 beams..13.. Linearized maximum crack width versus (A/2... IH./ / / / / • • ""'""""""'""""~40% / .... X 103 Ib/in... / 10 30 50 wmax = 5... l:o 300 Figure 7.~T7~_.37a) (kN/mm) X103rr.. • ... ...!......>< 'x E ::I E ti ::!i .. A plot of the data and the bestfit expression for Equation 7.y 0 .2 / 4 / / / / /.. •• .... ...!...• / / ....~ / .....• • .. and a maximum crack width (in.85 X 105 ./s = 20 to 80 ksi..36a is given in Figure 7..35 for l!:.... u / 12 +40% "'X.../ / "....36b) where Ri is the ratio of distance from neutral axis to tension face to the distance from neutral axis to centroid of reinforcement. Linearizing Equation 7.85 X 10 5 ~o At (Ills) (7./ /:/ / .7.13 Cracking Behavior and Crack Control in Prestressed Beams 481 A 40percent band of scatter envelops all the data for the expression in Equation 7.6..::: ._r.f r / / • 0. .~ ... 8 . 7..36a) of maximum crack width at the reinforcing steel level... / / / • • • • • .......35)........25 with a 40percent spread...... which is reasonable in view of the randomness of crack development and the linearization of the original expression (Equation 7. 0.35 for easier use by the design engineer leads to the simplified expression w max = 5.o}Ms..) at the tensile face of the concrete of (7./ 0 100 A 200 .4 Expressions for PostTensioned Beams The expression developed for the crack width in posttensioned bonded beams which contain mild steel reinforcement is (7.4 16 .c "C ... pretensioned .........
ls) (7. so that the expression for the maximum crack wid th at the reinforcement level (inch) becomes W"'. The crack spacing stabilizes itself beyond a n incre me ntal stress 6. the reduction multiplier Ao is '" ~ '.75 + 0. For more refined values in cases where the concrete cylinder compressive st rength ranges between 6.36a is considerably reduced. the expression is (7. as shown in Figure 7.27. depending on the rowl reinforcement percent Pr of both the prestressed and the noopre stressed steel.85 in Equation 7.26 gives a regression plot of Equation 7.) For posttensioned beams. Deflection.37b) at the tcnsile face of the concrete lower fibers.8 Flexural cracki ng propagation in prclcnsioned prestressed Tbcam (Nawy el at ).83.75 + 0.[. this factor reduces to 2.(0. of 30.38a) In SI units.482 Chapler 7 Camber.37a Iha l shows II scat ler band of ±40 per· cent. both pretensioned and posttensioned has shown that the factor 5.~ = 2. for the width at the reinforcement level closest 10 the tensile face.06 v'.. Figure 7.f: 1 (7. a modifying factor for particular values can be obtained from the following expressions: I: .f: (7.000 psi (60 to 100 MPa). the factor 6. Io.75 x 10 s A.fs. and Crack Control Photo 7. .38b) where A" cm2.000 psi.f:) v'. Recent work by Nawy et aI. which is not unexpected in flexural cracking behavior.06v'. MPa.39. cm. l:o (6.000 psi or higher. ~ 2 .39b) .37a lind 7.==.51 in Equa tions 7.= 0.000 to 14. For non bonded beams.37b becomes 6. on the cracking performance of high strength prestressed concrete beams.000 psi and 12. and (7.000 psi to 35. For concrete strengths in the range of 9. 6.75.
5 30 . <""". Linearized maximum crack width versus (Atllo}Ms.13. on the assumption of the desirability of a "seamless transition" between serviceability requirements for nonprestressed members 16 P = 0.. X 103 Ib/in.. .6 / .!:!. / / 0..f..= 18 0.~/~r' 483 10 30 50 / / 24 W max / = 6..51 X 105 :.25% 40 .'~.. 6 .13 Cracking Behavior and Crack Control in Prestressed Beams (kN/mm) X103~.~ ..5 ACI New Code Provisions The provisions used for crack control in reinforced concrete through bar spacing is extended to prestressed concrete bonded beams."". ~  0. 300 400 Figure 7.. . . and the reinforcement stress are in ksi.f.. E 20 ~ P=0.26 beams....27 Reinforcement percentage effect on the relationship between crack spacing and incremental reinforcement stress.. .// ~40% ..<: :2 .7. t.. •••: : .24% ____o__ ____ ~u O~~~~~~~~~ 25 45 5 15 65 75 35 55 Steel stress X 103 (psi) Figure 7.60% ~3~ ~10 4 <o~~o>P =____ 1...4 '" " E " E E :l 12 'x :!: . 7. ~ ...2 ~ ____ ~ ______ ____ ~ ______ At ~ ____ ~ ______ ~ ____ ~ ____ ~O o 100 200 ~o t.'/ .. posttensioned where t...
7.40 and correspondingly in Eq. While the code follows the author's definition of Ilis given in Section 7. These provisions stipulate that the spacing of the bonded tendons should not exceed 2/3 of the maximum spacing permitted for nonprestressed reinforcement. an increase of crack width due to sustained loading significantly affects the durability of the prestressed member regardless of whether prestressing is circular. however. and no check needed if Ills is less than 20 ksi. since actual spacing of the tendons in almost all practical cases is less than the code equation limits.5 C c (7.000) = 10 ( ~ 2. . hence almost all beams satisfy the code. A limit Ills = 36 ksi. effects of environmental conditions are considerably more serious in the case of prestressed concrete elements due to the corrosion risks to the tendons. Macroscopic cracks.40) but not to exceed 8(40.484 Chapter 7 Camber. or linear.9 from ACI 224 Report (Refs.13. in.41) but not to exceed 200(280/llis).000/Il/J. Also. 7. Cc = clear cover from the nearest surface in tension to the flexural tension reinforcement. Information obtained from sustained load tests of up to two years and fatigue tests of up to one million cycles indicates that a doubling of crack width with time can be expected. should be used for safe mitigation of cracking in prestressed concrete members. 7.7.18).4 in conjunction with Table 7.13. such as in tanks. Hence. Ilis = difference between the stress computed in the prestressing tendon at service load based on cracked section analysis. It should be emphasized that beams have finite web widths. Therefore.18. liquid containment vessels and other prestressed concrete structures in severe environment or subject to overload. where Ilis is in MPa and ce is in mm units. and the decompression stress Ide in the prestressing tendon.7.41 still lack the practicability of use as a crack control measure and the 2/3 factor used to change the multiplier 15 to 10 in Eq.3 and 7. They require additional mild steel reinforcement to control the crack width.7.26). the expression becomes s = 250 ( 280) Iy 2.6 LongTerm Effects on CrackWidth Development Limited studies on crackwidth development and increase with time show that both sustained and cyclic loadings increase the amount of micro cracking in the concrete. engineering judgment has to be exercised as regards the extent of tolerable crack width under longterm loading conditions. is arbitrary and not substantiated by test results.41 for maximum tolerable spacing. particularly in terms of corrosion of the reinforcement and appearance.13.13.5 Ce (7.3. though cracking levels may be detrimental in bridge decks.15. Therefore. In SI units. The expression for prestressed members becomes s 40. such as in beams. 7.40 and 7. Such spacing provisions as presented in the Code are essentially unworkable. microcracks formed at serviceload levels in partially prestressed beams do not seem to have a recognizable effect on the strength or serviceability of the concrete element. Deflection. 7. The code permits using the effective prestress Ipe in lieu of Ide' ksi. do have a detrimental effect. 7. Equations 7. The mechanism of crack generation differs in the prestressed beam from that in reinforced concrete due to initially imposed precompression.17. Also.2 (Refs. the expressions presented in Sections 7. and Crack Control and fully prestressed members.
000Vt.41 0. Table 7.9 485 Maximum Tolerable Flexural Crack Widths Crack width Exposure condition in.10 Dry air or protective membrane Humidity. moist air.10.30 0.000 psi = 30 ksi 10._~ 15.004 7. 7.10 A pretensioned prestressed concrete beam has a Tsection as shown in Figure 7. soil Deicing chemicals Seawater and seawater spray.36" ___ t N.28 Beam cross section in Example 7.. mm 0. .7.15 0. wetting and drying Waterretaining structures (excluding nonpressure pipes) 0.016 0.9 from the ACI Committee 224 report on cracking serves as a reasonable guide on the acceptable crack widths in concrete structures under the various environmental conditions encountered.18 0. The locations of the neutral axis and center of gravity of steel are shown in the figure.012 0. Assume that no failure in shear or bond takes place. Solution: !lis = 30.28.13. f~ = 5.14 CRACK WIDTH AND SPACING EVALUATION IN PRETENSION ED TBEAM WITHOUT MILD STEEL Example 7. dia 7wire strand 270K grade.!sOl <p 7wire strand Figure 7. It is prestressed with fifteen isin.007 0. and Es = 28 X 106 psi.000 psi.006 0. Ec = 57.A.7 Tolerable Crack Widths The maximum crack width that a structural element should tolerate depends on the particular function of the element and the environmental conditions to which the structure is liable to be subjected. Find the mean stabilized crack spacing and the crack widths at the steel level as well as at the tensile face of the beam at !lis = 30 x 103 psi.14 Crack Width and Spacing Evaluation in Pretensioned TBeam Without Mild Steel Table 7.
(0.2 20. = . 5.28 mm ) 7.10. = 7 x 14 = 98 sq in. the Figg Engineering Group of Tallahassee.5 = 1. Deflection.1 x 10.85 x IOS (:~)6J.486 Chapler 7 Camber. 18 also) Mf!an Stabilized Crack Spacing A .31 = 834. "" 25 _ 10.2 1 mm) Maximum Crack Width al Tensile Fact! oj Beam w' IJIU = WIDU R/ .7 m.9 New Maumee River CableStayed Bridge. and Crack Control Photo 7.62 = 5.2 Io .000 psi = 30 ksi (207 MPa) .1.011 in. Find the crack spacing a nd width for an incremental steel stress ill. Courtcsy of the dc signer. Toledo.36 _ 3. The design includes a unique single pylon clad with glass emitting LED arrays at night."" 30.5 in.. and a main span of612 feet in both direction.11 The beam in Example 7.. u'" = 1.0083 X 1..0083 in.. Florida (see Photo 1. (0.10 also con tai ns th ree 116 nonprcstressed mild steel bars as shown in Figure 7.36 R.85 x IOS (2~2)30 25 .15 CRACK WIDTH AND SPACING EVALUATION IN PRETENSIONEO TBEAM CONTAINING NON PRESTRESSED STEEL Eumple 7.: 0. ( 145 mm) Maximum Cra ck Width at Sleel Le llel w . single plane of slays.) (A ( 98 ) = . " 0. Ohio night rendering. 5.3 1 = 0.29. Io = 15'1'1"0 "" 15'ITC76) = 20.62 in.
12 A pre tensioned prestressed concrete Ibeam has the geometry shown in Figure 7.15 mm) Maximum Crack Width at Tensile Face of Beam Ri = w:Uax 25 .0061 in.5 == 0. It is prestressed with twenty isin. acs .29 Beam cross section in Example 7.000 psi (138 MPa).2 ~o = 1.15 m.8) = 4. and check whether the crack widths that develop satisfy the crack control criteria for deicing chemicals.7 30 = 606.0061 X 7.24 = 0.000 psi = 20 ksi (138 MPa) .9 X 10.2 (95. (105 mm) 27.6 25 _ 10.8) 27.007 in. Solution: Mean Stabilized Crack Spacing At = 14(3 ~o X 1.85 X 10 ~o 5 (95.16 CRACK WIDTH AND SPACING EVALUATION IN PRETENSIONED IBEAM CONTAINING NONPRESTRESSED MILD STEEL Example 7.36 = 27.7 ( At) Maximum Crack Width at Steel Level Wmax = 5.6" 15~"</I 7wire strand 3#6 Figure 7.16 Crack Width and Spacing Evaluation in Pretensioned IBeam Containing Nonprestressed Mild Steel 487 ~ __ ~~_i 10.11. Solution: 11/s = 20.62 + 3 2.18 mm) = = 0.30.000 psi.6 _ 2.10.75 + ! X X k + 1~) = 14 X 6.8 in.70 in. dia 7wire 270K grade lowrelaxation strands and four #7 mild steel bars having yield strengthfy = 60.24 1. (0. Assume that no failure in shear or bond takes place.84 = 95.75 WmaxRi = 1. Find the mean stabilized crack spacing and the crack widths at the steel level as well as at the tensile face of the beam at incremental steel stress 11/s = 20. (0. = 1.7.85 X 10 5 (At)11/s = 5. 2 = 20.
31.49 in. 7. (0.06 in.5 == 0.0 X 10.75" 4#7 Figure 7. 2 20'IT X ns + 4 X 2.75 = ns + In. J 19.49 .17 CRACK WIDTH AND SPACING EVALUATION FOR POSTTENSIONED TBEAM CONTAINING NONPRESTRESSED STEEL Example 7.12.488 Chapter 7 Camber. dia 7wire strands of 270K grade and additionally reinforced with four #6 nonprestressed steel bars.13 A posttensioned prestressed concrete beam has a Tsection as shown in Figure 7.23 _ 2.1 mm). (0. Mean Stabilized Crack Spacing A.2 w.75 ~o = +~ X 20'ITD + 4 X 2. 3. = acs = 1.23" t 1.5 = ( A)I1f = 585 X 10.8 m.(122.23 Ri = 36 _ 19.85 X 10. Deflection.19.75 = 38.06) 20 38.004 in.A.9. the maximum tolerable crack width for deicing is W max = 0.004 in.0037 in. = 18 X (3 X 1.5"  N. From Table 7. and Crack Control 5. The locations of the neutral axis and center of gravity .2 = 0. serviceability requirement is satisfied. (0.1 mm) Maximum Crack Width at Tensile Face of Beam 36 .007 > 0.0037 X 1.2 (At) ~o = 1.2 (122. It is prestressed with twelve iein.79 = 1. Hence.1 mm) Maximum Allowable Crack Width for Deicing. (97 mm) Maximum Crack Width at Steel Level w max = 5.) = 122.49 ' 5 ~o ~S'  371.30 Beam cross section in Example 7.06) 38."ax = W max Ri = 0.
000 ksi.000 psi.( 7 6 2 mm) .54 At X = 5. .6. I 22" (55..000 psi = 30 ksi = 8 X 12 = 96 in.93 in.0 X 10 5 X . Ee = 57.. Maximum Crack Width at Steel Level _ W max  6.93 30 = 0.007 1. From Table 7.31 22 _ 9. = 1.012 in.ii' <b 7wire strand 4 #6 bars Figure 7.36 96 25.9. (0.18 mm) Maximum Crack Width at Tensile Face of Beam R.17 Crack Width and Spacing Evaluation for PostTensioned TBeam Containing Nonprestressed Steel I 489 30" r .65 em) 12 . (0.51 X At _ 10 5 ~ (ills ) .31 Beam cross section in Example 7.. (0.000~ psi.0102 in.7.31" (23. 2 LO = 12 X 'IT X n.51 ".26 mm). and Es = 28.9 em) ___ ~ ___L 9. Assume that f~ = 5.3 mm) > 0.54 LO = 1. = 0. assuming there is no failure in shear or bond. which is satisfactory.9. Find the mean stabilized crack spacing and the crack widths at the steel level as well as at the tensile face of the beam at ills = 30. (0. Solution: ills = Mean Stabilized Crack Spacing At 30.. (145 mm) .46 = 0.000 psi.. + 4 aes X 2.0072 in.~ I (12.70 m.13. the maximum tolerable crack width for the stated humidity conditions is 0.0102 in.31 _ 4 X = 1.. of steel are shown in the figure.26 mm) Maximum Tolerable Crack Width for Humidity. Then determine whether the beam satisfies the serviceability criteria for crack control for humidity and moist air.X 96 25. w:Uax = 22 .46 = wmasR.7 5" em) r '.93 = 25.
19 SI DEFLECTION AND CRACKING EXPRESSIONS Ee = w~. 10. ills.37 on crack control W max = U w X A 10. O. 40.895 (2.043 vI"fc MPa (7. = 1 + 50p' ~ Equations 7.000) X 1.500 Kg/m3. Hence the code provisions are not effective.10b) Ie = (~J\ + [1 .13b) (7.16) Ier = Icr npApsd~(1 .2b) (7.1.36 and 7.895 MPa fr = 0. <80 MPa 5 Ee = 3.Or MPa For normalweight concrete.5 = 10.500 to 2. 12. and Crack Control I Solve Example 7.5 in. . < From this solution.000 .3 Ill.10 by the ACI 318 code provisions for crack control.5 0. Ee = 3.11) (7.32v1"fc + 6.2 = 40. From Eq.13a) (7..1. millimeters where AI' cm 2. .. MPa .2a) where f~ is in MPa units and we is in Kg/m3 ranging between 1. + nsA sd 2 )(1 . 7. s Max. allowable = 10 ( 30.32v1"l + 6. Solution: !1/s = 30 ksi Cc = 1..~ (ills). it is evident that every prestressed concrete beam would satisfy the ACI code requirements for crack control regardless of the loading conditions and/or overloading. cm.7 Ill. It is rare that prestressed or mild steel reinforcement would ever be spaced within a flange that can violate the code spacing requirements. or environmental conditions.5 2.18 CRACK CONTROL BY ACI CODE PROVISIONS Example 7. !'o.1 490 7. Deflection.6~) = (npApsd.14 Chapter 7 Camber.(~:y]Ier (~J = [ 1 (7.000 = .0 Ill. For f~ > 35 MPa.6Vnp pp + nsp X.62 vI"fc e~l~ fr)] (7. and probably rarely would they be effective for crack control even in twoway prestressed concrete plates. 7.K.000) 8 ( 30.40.
cm2 Ie' cm 4 r.15 Solve Example 7.kN/m 1=21.cm c"cm ec' cm ee' cm Sb.9 MPa fei = 0..9 MPa at service load It allowable before unshored slab cast = 1.20 SI DEFLECTION CONTROL Example 7. Data (a) Section Geometry Ac. = 5.790 MPa Eps = 19.5 4.99 mm2/tendon) fpu = 1.43 cm Noncomposite 3.cm3 wD.44 = X 4.0 5.4 X 104 13.5 MPa f~i = 25. 12.45f~ = 15.370 kg/m3) fe = 0.5 MPa.05 m RH=75% f~ = 34.3 24.2 X 104 13.5 for concretes withf~ N/mm2 MPa N/m Nm > 70 MPa MPa (psi) 0.9 for shortterm deflection using the SI procedure.9 x 105 626 55.5 32.9 = 15.4 MPa (l yIf'.cm2 cb. cm3 S'.8 25.300 MPa fPJ = 1.968 24.95m W L = 4.6 x 25.48 X 10 .7 X 104 MPa .) Aps = twelve tendons. normal weight (2.20 81 Deflection Control Uw = 491 8.5 for pre tensioned 10. lowrelaxation fpi = 1.2 x 105 581 62.8 X 104 9.lb) 0.5 for posttensioned = 9.0 X 10.09 kN/m (b) Material properties VIS = 615/364 = 0.006895 (lb/ft) 14.380 MPa fpy = 1.7mm diameter.7.516 32.593 (in.113 = = = = 7.7 MPa toppingf~ = It at bottom fibers = yIf'.5 MPa 20.0 flange width b = 3..5 47. lowrelaxation (0.34 topping t = 5 cm Composite 5.5 x 104 9.860 MPa.
96 =  5.000 47. 9. topping is slightly more than 5 cm. 2. After unshored slab is cast At this load level.8 MPa (C) < allow. ft = _ Pe Ac (1 _ ecct ) r2 _ MD + MSD st 1.540.5 MPa.18a.600(21.5) _ 780. .K.5 X 55.3 kN/m3 X 9. MD + MSD = 782 kNm since 2 in. w SD = 0.05 x 3.7.95? 8 = 216.18b.340(21. O.540 kN selfweight moment MD = From Equation 4.000 Nm (In Example 7.5 MPa.5 7.3 = 3.5) _ 562.8 X 104 = + 2.968 X 100 626 9. Midspan section stresses fpf = 1.000 (1 _ 47.8) 562.266.82 X 1. 15. fpe = 0.0 MPa (C) < allow.300 = 1.9.5 cm 12 X 99 X 1.7 = 2. and Crack Control .300 MPa 1.05 x 23.5.945fpf = 1.800 Nm = 562.968 X 100 626 9. O.500 3.3 + 12.95? 8 = 562.380 MPa fpi assumed = 0.8 X 104 = 3. concrete weight = 2.540.1a.81 N/m3 For 5 cm slab.066 MPa Pe = 12 X 99 X 1.54 X 106 N = 1. from Equation 4.K.5 X 25.500 1+ +'3. l j 1.6 kN/m MSD MD + MSD = = 3.370 = 23.500 Nm = 1.5 X 2104 = 20.1 MPa (C) == 1.500 + 216.066 = 1.492 Solution: Chapter 7 Camber.000 (1 _ 47.300 MPa at transfer = ec Pi = = 47. From Equation 4.800 780.968 X 100 626 4.) For unshored case.5 X 25.370 kg/m = 2.96 . Ie = 15.266 kN For the 5 cm topping. Deflection.000 3.82fpi = 0. assume 18% prestress losses.6 .
Ee = 2. At service load for precast section Section modulus at top of precast section is 32.2 X 104 = +0.5 x 104 = 16.0 I _ 246.6.2 MPa (C) Stressfesb at bottom slab fibers = 0.91 S~ for 5 cm slab top fiber = 13.7 X 104 cm3 ML = 4. Composite slab stresses Precast doubleT concrete modulus E c e o 043'Vr.4 MPa.5.5 cm .968 x 100 626 +~~ 780.19a.20 SI Deflection Control 493 1.:.320 _ _ 4 .3701.320 15.320 fb = +0.5. 4.64 + 5.!t = +5.77 X X 246.19b. 25.57 MPa (c).74 = +5.1. O.38 MPa (T) "" allow.5 x 55.77 Seb for 5 cm slab bottom fiber = 15.5 = 2.090(21. ee = 32.4 x 104 cm3 X X 10 104 4 = 0.77 S.043VzD.f' = W1.5 X 0.0 .5 0 r~.5.7 X 104  Check is made at the support face (a slightly less conservative check can be made at 50db from end).2 X 105 S~ = < allow.7 = 2.57 .4 X 10 4 = 1.9 MPa.K.34 = 0.7. Support section stresses 246.K.5 .64 MPa (T) 3.25 p 2.25 X 104 MPa Modular ratio n = 2. f' MSD =  Pe Ae (1 _ee cl ) _ MD + MSD _ MCSD + ML S' S~ r2 = superimposed dead load = 0 in this case f .266. O. wC = 2370 Kg/m3 .7 X 10 From Equation 4.3701.000 4.7 x 104 cm3 from before for top of precast section.5 X 0.!t = 1.320 13. 246.0 = 15. Stressns at top slab fiber = n~S' = e ML 0. 15.95)2 8 = 246320 Nm ' From Equation 4.K.4 MPa (C) 1.74 + 4. O.61 + 17.000 ( 1+ 47.91 X 104 MPa Situcast slab concrete modulus Ee = 2.8) 3.043V34.
96 5. 28 days Ee = 2.fe = 15.26 MPa (C) < allow.K.3 = 62.540.9 say 65 mm t Selfweight OD = 5w [4 384.540. net camber at transfer = (65 .57 16.K.K.968 X 100 626 0 = 1.000 ( 32.= 45 mm >V 5 4 384(2. = 103 [ 1.00 1.9 X 105) + 10 3[ 1.370)15 X 0.5) _ 3.2 + 7.000 (1 _ 32. Deflection. t. O. O.000(32. hence O. Shortterm (immediate) deflection (a) Deflection at transfer Initial E C1.5 MPa.80 X 104 MPa From Figure 7. fe = 15.57 6.74 +5. .5)(21.45) = 20 mm (b) Immediate service load deflection From Equation 7.540. = W15 0 043Wf' C· C = (2.52 X 104 )(24.8) 3.5(21.95)4 X 105 I Thus.52 X 10 )(24.9 X 10 ) 5 X 9. After the unshored slab was cast and at service load.5 4 47.96 7.9 = 2.340(21.6.5 X 25.5 MPa.48 6. and Crack Control f t = 1. Summary of Midspan Stresses (MPa) Load Stage ft fb Transfer P e only w D at transfer Net at transfer External load w L Net total at service +2.043 V25.52 X 10 )(24.00 X 47. fb = 1.95?] 8(2.13. the support section stresses both at top and bottom extreme fibers were found to be below the allowable.60 +17.52 X 104 MPa from before.74 +4. deflection due to initial prestress only.9W] 24(2.968 X 100 1 + 626 +0 = 15.540.2 MPa (C) < allow.9 X 105 ) = 70. 1 el g '''.494 At transfer Chapter 7 Camber.5 X 55.34 +0.
(M )3] Ier ~ Ig X = 0.9 X 105.4s = 3.188 mm2 2 bdp = 11.62v'il = 0.fr) h fL = +4. .6~ dp = ee + = Ct + 5 cm (topping) = 47. 5 cm topping Load 3SD = 15 mm J.8 l1.600(21.8 4 10 X Ier 6.48 .7.6Y6.5 + 25.11. the resulting topping deflection with Ig = 24.160 X 105 = 8.6 (~:Y = 0.4) 4.64) 4.8 105 cm4 4.9 X 105) = +15mmv I (c) Summary of shortterm deflections Prestress Camber 3i = 65 mm t Dead Load 3D = 45 mm J.3.600 N/m. Live Load 3L = 50 mmJ.378 WL 105 + 3. When the concrete 5 cm topping is placed on the precast section.090 N/m 3 L = 5w L l 384EJe 4 = 5(4. W SD =3.91 X 104)(8.0047 305 X X X 78 n p = = = Eps Ee = 19.74 (T) fr = 0.9 X 105 ) + (1 .216 from Equation 7.lOb.1.91 X 104)(24. Ie = er Ma Ma ( Mer)Ig + [1 .91 X X 4 10 = 6.88 cm = 0.03 X 105) = 5. 3 SD = 5 X 3.88(78f(1 .03 From Equation 7.62 X v'3.95)4 X 105 384(2.090)(21.54 X 105 cm4 = 4.64 MPa ftl = +5.20 51 Deflection Control 495 Ier = npApsd~(l .216)(4.216(24. Mer = Ma 1_ (ftl .95)4 X 10 384(2.0.48 MPa (T) ( Mer) = 1 _ Ma (5.5 + 5 X 99 78cm Ap Pp = 12 = Ap = 1.74 = 0.7 2.1.54 X 105 ) 5 = +50 mmJ.94 X 10.
Journal of the Prestressed Concrete Institute 27.48 X lO. "A Rational Method of Estimating Camber and Deflections of Precast. 2006." In Deflection of Concrete Structures. John Wiley & Sons.1977. 1995. 7.4 (b) Tensile beam face R. Committee Report ACI 224R99.. 7. H. MI. 7. Farmington Hills. PCI Design Handbook.24 X 0. and Dilger. MI.5 Branson. 6th ed. 1987. 7. A. p. A. Journal of the Prestressed Concrete Institute 15.3 ACI Committee 224. American Concrete Institute. L. American Concrete Institute. American Concrete Institute. 2000.77. 7. Nawy.11 w max = 1. ACI Special Publication SP43. D. K. H. 7. K. D.1982. pp. "Expedient Service Load Analysis of Cracked Prestressed Concrete Sections. 1977." Journal of the Prestressed Concrete Institute 22.1 ACI Committee 318.5063.15 = 0. Chicago.48 X 10 _s(A ) I1fs LO t = 8. 1972.7 Shaikh. Committee Report ACI 435R95. Dallas. 7. American Concrete Institute. 7. D. E.12 Tadros.4 cm (a) Steel level W max  _ 8. 1974. pp. 1970.15 Solve Example 7. W. 65. and Branson.11 using SI procedure Data I1fs = 207 MPa At = 618 cm2 LO = 70. 83127. October 1979. M. D. "NonTensioned Steel in Prestressed Concrete Beams.21 SI CRACK CONTROL Example 7. 7.24 from Example 7. = 1. "Designing for Deflection. E.19 say 0. Control of Cracking in Concrete Strectures. 1436. 465.2 mm SELECTED REFERENCES 7. Deformation of Concrete Structures. . New York. Chairman. Design of Prestressed Concrete. "The Deformation of NonComposite and Composite Prestressed Concrete Members. Prestressed Concrete Institute Convention. G. Prestressed Concrete Members. Farmington Hills. Building Code Requirements for Structured Concrete (ACI 31808 and Commentary 318R08).S Prestressed Concrete Institute..15 mm 70. 2001. Deflection.s ( 618 ) 207 = 0. McGraw Hill. 7.9 Martin. "Effect of NonPrestressed Steel on Prestress Loss and Deflection. F. MI. E.86111. M. K. Ghali." Paper presented at CIP Seminar on Advanced Design Concepts in Precast Prestressed Concrete.2 ACI Committee 435. Farmington Hills.11 Tadros.4 Tadros..6 Branson. pp. New York. 2008. 7. 28 (1983): 137158. and Crack Control 7. A. Control of Deflection in Concrete Structures." Journal of the Prestressed Concrete Institute 22 (1977): 100108.496 Chapter 7 Camber. MI. E. Farmington Hills. Prestressed Concrete Institute.10 Nilson. M. also Discussions and Author's Closure.
1. 7. 7. and (c) the approximate timesteps method. D. "Flexural Cracking Behavior and Crack Control of Pretensioned and PostTensioned Prestressed Beams.15 Nawy.. G. Addison Wesley Longman." Journal of the American Concrete Institute 65. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. 405. Concrete Construction Engineering Handbook.and TBeams. 30. G. G.2 A 68ft (20. 7.. MI. I . Vol.. 7..13 Naaman." Proceedings of the NATONSF Advanced Research Workshop." Journal of the American Concrete Institute. Farmington Hills. p. Dordrecht. 1'\3" Chamfer I '""'  3'0" 4.14 Nawy. 1996. 307l. II.1980. Z. 7. DordrechtBoston: Martinus Nijhoff. 7. Vols. I .23 Nawy. 2. 425. 7. 7. Van Nostrand Reinhold. 7. "Partially Prestressed Concrete: Review and Recommendations. P. FL. Journal of the Prestressed Concrete Institute 30. G. 7. p.. M. "Crack and Deflection Control of Pretensioned Prestressed Beams.. G. 1560 pp. CRC Press. 18th ed. vol. M.2 . T.73/4" I T h 34" J Figure P7. J." Journal of the Prestressed Concrete Institute 22. 2nd Ed.C. High Performance Concrete. Are the deflections within the AASHTO permissible limits on deflection? Givenf~ = 6. G..1 Calculate the instantaneous and longterm cambers and deflections of the AASHTO beam of Example 4.65 kN/m) and a service live load W L = 300 plf (4. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. MI. "Flexural Cracking Behavior of Pretensioned and PostTensioned Beams: The State of the Art. 7.16 Nawy. 7. A. E..22 Libby. "Prediction of Creep Effects Using Age Adjusted Effective Modulus Method. 1971. 1986. UK." Journal of the Prestressed Concrete Institute 25. E. 1986... 7. E.7495.1985.19 Nawy. Publ. New York.21 Bazant. E. I and II. Chicago. John Wiley and Sons. "Serviceability Behavior of PostTensioned Beams. editorinchief.26 AASHTO. Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges. Z.38 F I 3'0' ~. J. Farmington Hills. Boca Raton. "Partial Prestressing From Theory to Practice. 440 p. December 1985. London. Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Handbook. A. Modern Prestressed Concrete. J. 7.7m) span simply supported lightweight concrete doubleTbeam is subjected to a superimposed topping load WSD = 250 plf (3. 1998." NATOASI Applied Science Series. (b) the incremental timesteps method. I . Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute.. and 365 days. G. Vol. E.18 Nawy. 2nd ed.180. in Cooperation with NATO Scientific Affairs Division. pp. 2001. 137156. pp.~ 4' .20 Neville. 212217. E. 2009. MI. E.000 psi. Y.~I""____ 1:~:.". "Flexural Cracking Behavior of Pretensioned Prestressed Concrete 1. 4th ed. pp.Problems 497 7." Journal of the American Concrete Institute.3047..24 Nawy.17 Cohn. G. Farmington Hills. and 5 years by (a) the PCI multipliers method. PROBLEMS 7. 2008..~.1977. 1984. and 2009. 890900. April 1972.335360. and Huang. '" I I . E. P. and Chiang.25 PCI. Then tabulate and compare the results. R. and Potyondy. Washington.2 for 7. New York. Properties of Concrete.
118 in4) 5. in.960 (9.37 8. Use Figure P7.000 psi (1. 4 (77.9 X 105 cm4) 97 21.717 in? (3. Also. plf 615 (3. Calculate the immediate camber and deflection of this beam by the bilinear method and the timedependent deflections at intervals of 7.750 psi f.720 (24.i = 5.81 in. r.i = 3.4 A simply supported bonded doubleT beam has a 50ft span and is subjected to a uniform live load of 1.862 MPa) 260. Deflection.7 MPa) f.5 X fpi = 189.000 psi (normal weight) fe = 2. 2 4 Ie' in.3 cm) ee = 18.000 psi (34.5 MPa) (lightweight) f.73 in.3 Determine the crack width and stabilized mean crack spacing in the doubleT beam of Problem 7.000 psi (1. dia lowrelaxation steel depressed at midspan only fpu fpy = 270. in.15 kN/m) V/S = 615/346 RH = 75% 855 82. 2 Ie = 59.8 x 104) 491 (7.63 3.142 in 3) st = V/S W D = 641 plf(491 plf) 1. (4.720 in. determine whether the maximum crack width obtained satisfies the serviceability requirement for crack control for a humid and moist environment.723 97 25. 30.6 MPa) Aps = twelve !in.2 and the following data.in? Wd . Its geometrical properties and maximum allowable stresses are as follows: Ac = 615 in.000 psi (103 MPa) beyond the decompression state. 7.261 9.5 x 104) 5.960 in? (8.98 (558 mm) 10.750 psi (25. (476 mm) ee = 12. f: f.02 (255 mm) 2. and Crack Control kN/m). 90.2 for an incremental stress of 15.587 741 = 1.150 in3) = Sb = 2.69 in. (325 mm) f: = 5.250 plf and a superimposed dead load of 200 plf.793 MPa) 28.250 psi = 3. Noncomposite Composite Ae.968 cm2) 59. Sb' in? S.303 MPa) = Eps = 106 psi (196 GPa) 7. ct' in.69 in.717 (4. in? cb. at bottom fibers = 12VJl = 849 psi (5. and 365 days using the PCI multipliers method and verify whether they are within the permissible ACI limits on deflection for the conditions where nonstructural elements are not likely to be damaged by large deflections.000 psi (1.498 Chapter 7 Camber.i = 184 psi .
dia 7wire lowrelaxation strands fpe = 150. Use nonprestressed reinforcement where necessary. topping.9 by the incremental timesteps method. Calculate the flexural crack width at service load for a stress increment ills = 15.000 psi Aps = Bracketed values are for the composite section due to 2in.) Eps = RH= 70% fei = 2.000 psi = 28 X 106 psi Cb = 21.000 psi 195. (b) Find the longterm camber and deflection of the beam by the approximate timestep procedure for t =7 days and t = 180 days. assuming that the ultimate creep coefficient Cu = 2. (9.35. assuming that twelve !in. . dia 7wire 270 K stressrelieved strands are used for prestressing the beam section.54 in. Are the values within the allowable ACI limits? (c) Calculate the flexural crack width at service load for a stress increment ilfs =15. 7.250 psi !t = fy = 849 psi 60. and tensile stresses within the allowable limits at the support section both at initial prestress and at service load.98 in.46 in. (24.Problems fpu fpi = 499 270.5 Find the longterm camber and deflection in Example 7. Use the momentcurvature approach to determine the initial camber at transfer. (a) Find the eccentricities ec and ee that would result in a tensile stress!t = 750 psi at the lower fiber at midspan at service load.000 psi fpy = 235.02 in.000 psi beyond the decompression stress.) Ct = 10.000 psi beyond the decompression stress.000 psi sixteen !in.
Catifornia. since external loads are rarely concentric. and design of prestressed compression members arc similar to those of reinforced concrete members. The theory. C rack ing develops. Yet another use is in pretensioned and posttensioned prestressed piles and masts. hence. As a resu lt . analysis. If the applied load is concen· The George Moscone Convention Center. design by T. the bending tendency of the concrete at midlengt h is neutralized by the stretching errect of the axially embedded prestressing strands. San Francisco. (Courtesy. Lin International. As such. no buckling can result as long as the prestressing stcel and the surrounding concrete arc in direci contact along the 10iailength of the element. PostTensioning Institute. Columns are normally subjected to bend ing in addition to axial load.) 500 . it is also used in axially loaded members such as long columns (compression members) and lies fo r arches and truss elemen ts (tension members). but it can be preven ted through the use of prestress in the columns. the concrete section is subjected to tension at the side farth est from the line of action of the longitudinal load.Y.PRESTRESSED COMPRESSION AND TENSION MEMBERS 8. The internal axial prestressing force in the bonded tcndon produces no column action.1 INTRODUCTION Although prestressing is predom inantly used in nexural members such as beams and slabs.
and foundation anchorages for earthwork retaining structures. Tension members can also be circular or parabolic in shape. as the compressive stress on the concrete section is needlessly increased.8. as witness prestressed circular containers or catenaryshaped bridge elements. In the nonslender column. restraining ties for arch bridges. which intersects the interaction diagram at C. A compression member can be considered fully prestressed throughout its length if no loss in development of prestressing occurs at its ends. (b) Path OBC for buckling failure of slender column. railroad ties.2 Prestressed Compression Members: LoadMoment Interaction in Columns and Piles 501 tric. These elements are mostly linear. Tension members are normally subjected to direct tension only.1) where ei is the eccentricity of the load at the various loadmoment combinations. tension members in trusses. Instability occurs once the critical load is reached. The fundamental function of the pure tension members is to prevent their cracking at service load and to enable them to sustain all the necessary deformation needed to develop full resistance to the external service loads and overloads. failure occurs as the load reaches the value A along path OA. the reinforcement segment in the development zone is considered nonpresstressed and the section at the end zone is treated as a reinforced concrete eccentrically loaded section. 8. In the slender column. as for example. Being crackfree would fully protect the reinforcement from corrosion and other environmental conditions. prestressing is inconsequential if not altogether disadvantageous. If partial loss occurs. Figure 8. it is necessary to evaluate all possible combinations of ultimate nominal loads Pn and ultimate nominal moments Mn given by (8. and the concrete arches at the compression side. the maximum load is reached at B along the path OBC.2 PRESTRESSED COMPRESSION MEMBERS: LOADMOMENT INTERACTION IN COLUMNS AND PILES In order to evaluate the nominal strength of a column at various eccentric load levels. (a) Path OA for material failure in nonslender column. .1 Basic interaction diagram for columns. A plot of the relationship between Pn and Mn is shown in the interaction diagram of Figure 8. A quantitative definition of slender and nonslender columns is given later.1 for both nonslender columns (material failure) and slender columns (stability failure).
10'. similar to those made in regard to reinforced concrete columns. prestrcssed concrete footbridge. England.r {. are as follows: 1.CrOSI ~ section {. 0 1 0 s' 01 0 I ~ r. The slress distribution in the compression zone is parabolic and is replaced in analysis and design by an eq uivalen t rectangular block.502 Chapter 8 Prestressed Compression and Tension Members The basic assumptions made in regard to prestressed concrete.. i.1 Eel Pic Island. Twickcnham. The strain distribution in the concrete varies linearly with depth. 2.' Photo 8. .
lin. This failure mode develops when the strain in the concrete at the loaded side reaches Ecu = 0.003 in.2 Prestressed Compression Members: LoadMoment Interaction in Columns and Piles 503 3. pure bending defines the state where the ratio of the factored axial load P u to the factored flexural moment Mu is negligible. re . from concentric loading to pure bending.lin. whereas other codes use a higher value of 0.003 in. Figure 8.0012 to 0.. Mu = 0.3 for the critical section at the limit state of ultimate load by material failure. the crosssection of the member is shown in part (b) of the figure. Compatibility of strain is postulated between the concrete and the prestressing steel. or EO = 0. 2..2.002 in.lin.lin. 4. Balanced state of strain. Note that Ec = 0.003 in. large eccentricity. This failure mode is the reverse of the preceding one. while the strain in the prestressing steel at the far side is below the yield strain.004 as a minimum value for beams in the transition zone.002 in. as is done in the case of flexural beams. The stressstrain diagrams of the concrete and the prestressing steel are known.0020 in.002 in. In the case of columns.003 in.lin. The eccentricity e of the axial load is larger than the balanced eccentricity eb • 3. The modes of failure are also similar to those of reinforced concrete columns: 1. 5. No tension at the extreme concrete tensile fibers and Ecu = 0. The section is considered to have failed when the strain in the concrete at the extreme compression fibers reaches Ec = 0. The steel at the far side yields prior to the crushing of the concrete at the loaded side. balanced eccentricity./in. and (c) of Figure 8.0038. resulting in a large eccentricity and a strain valve greater than 0.lin. The remaining points on the interaction diagram are for cases that lie between stages (a). (b). 6.lin.lin. at the extreme concrete compression fibers. at failure due to the concentric load P u. beyond the service load level. and forces for such a case are shown in Figure 8. where the block depth a = 131 c.10 fe' Ag or less. Cutting the freebody diagram at the column midheight above section 11. The typical case of a compression member lies between stages (b) and (c) of Figure 8. The eccentricity of the axial load is defined as the balanced eccentricity eb . and the strain and stress at failure in parts (c) and (d).002 in. It should be noted that if Pn = 0. This mode defines the condition of maximum moment value Mnb on the interaction curve corresponding to a maximum tensile strain in the tension layers equal to a strain increment aEps = 0.8. and the average crushing strain at middepth of a concrete section sUbjected mainly to axial load is EO = 0. small eccentricity. The neutral axis position is at the extreme tension fibers. The strains.003 in. 3.lin. assuming a depth c and then testing the assumption. at middepth. The crushing strain of the concrete in combined bending and axial load at the extreme fibers is Ec = 0. the column essentially behaves as a flex ural beam because of the low level of axial force. Initial compression failure.2. Pu = 0 and Ecu = 0. The neutral axis position is at infinity.2 shows the strain and stress distribution for these three cases. at the extreme compression fibers. namely. corresponding to EO = 0. stresses. Initial tension failure. The neutral axis is inside the section and is determined by trial and adjustment. St = 0.0035 or 0. The three major controlling points on the interaction diagram are: 1. The parabolic distribution of stress for cases (b) and (c) is replaced by the equivalent rectangular block. The eccentricity e of the axial load is smaller than the balanced eccentricity eb • 2.003 is the value used in the ACI Code.
3) If the effective prestressing force after all losses is P e.504 Chapter 8 Prestressed Compression and Tension Members 1 j ! h ri Strain N. (b) Ec = 0.2a) (8.2b) and (8./in.003 in. ~ 0. shrinkage.A. and zero tension at the extreme tensile fibers. a = h) rN./in.2 Strain and stress distribution alternatives across concrete section depth. the corresponding strain in the tendons prior to the application of the external load is Epe = fpe Eps = Pe (Aps + A.85f.lin. and relaxation losses given respectively by (8. T L T. (c) Pu = 0 and Ec = 0. ~ 0.003 in.~ Tsn Tsn (a) (b) (e) Figure 8. at infinity (c = 00. .s)Eps (8Aa) .003 in.2c) Equilibrium of forces then gives (8. I 1111111111111111110..A.003 in. I r NA ./in.002 in. The strain Ece is the uniform strain in the concrete under effective prestress after creep. spectively. (a) Mu = o. at the extreme compressive fibers. Stress 0.lin. ~ ~EI~1 f~E.
4d) . The change in strain in the prestressing steel area A~s as the compression member passes from the effective prestressing stage to the ultimate load can be defined as AE~s = Ecu c( c.4b) AEps = Ecu c) + Ece (8. • i • I I I I I I I cgc 112 I I I I I I Pn I I I I I I I I ~ (al (dl T. (d) Stresses and forces.d ( c d') Ece (8.I~ el r h/ I Pn h/2 d' I~ I I 1 • l + • l' . (b) Cross section.3 Stresses and forces in typical eccentrically loaded nonslender column. (a) Elevation. V· I I A .8.n . (c) Strain distribution.4c) (8.2 Prestressed Compression Members: LoadMoment Interaction in Columns and Piles 505 (bl JE.~ Cen Pn I Figure 8. T.
FL. Tnmpa . 114.j"=h Figure 8. Ax. ...O) " IP..2 Cablestayed Sunshine Skyway Bridge... Figg Engineering Group Tallahassee.O..1 M.506 Chapler 8 Prestressed Compression and Tension Members PhOlo 8.j I ' f~ rn'T y 1 :"..M. ...) !P. Florida.'1 lension r.... (CO/tr/esy.4 Loadmoment interaction diagram controlling eccentricities.
90 for pure flexure in the strain limits approach.4.65 for tied columns and 0. but not less than. the member is subjected to pure flexure. To recapitulate.5) Similarly. Tied Sections: 0.002 in.3 STRENGTH REDUCTION FACTOR <I> For members subject to flexure and relatively small axial loads. or Tsn = ApsEps[ Epe + Ecu( d ~ c) + Ece] d. The value <l> P n = O.+ Tsn( d  (8.002) to the limit strain state in tension (Et = 0.8.35 (b).90.005). 8.6. = Ccn (~.7) From Equations 8.6) Taking moments about the geometric centroid cgc of the section gives Mn = Pnr.lin.Ag can be considered as a design axial load below which the <l> factor can safely be increased for most compression members. for small axial loads it is reasonable to permit an increase in the <l> factor from that required for pure compression members.45 shows the transition zone in which the strength reduction factor. Hence.~)~ .60 for compression members. The design strengths are evaluated from the nominal strength values as and Design Mu = <l>Mn = <l>Pne where <l> is the strength reduction factor for compression members..65 ::5 [ <l> = 0.lOf.70 for spirally reinforced columns to 0. as in Equations 4.)r. interpolation of the <l> values for the transition zone from the limit strain state in compression (Et = 0.3 Strength Reduction Factor <p 507 or (8. can be made from the following expressions: (a) <l> as a function of strain. Note that the design Pu and Mu have to have a value close to. the factored values Pu and Mu. or a neutral axis depth ratio ddt = 0.5. the nominal strengths P n and Mn for several eccentricities ei can be evaluated in order to construct the PM interaction diagram for any section or develop nondimensional series of PM interaction diagrams for various concrete strength levels. The loadmoment interaction diagram for the controlling eccentricities is shown in Figure 8.T.002)C!0)] ::5 0. 8.7. The balanced limit strain for the compressioncontrolled state is denoted by limiting strain Et = 0.65 + (Et  0.n(~  ~)~ (8.35 (a) and 4.90 (8. and the strength reduction factor <l> becomes 0.45. failure is initiated by yielding of the tension reinforcement and takes place in an increasingly ductile manner. Figure 4. within the limitations of the transition zone of Figure 4.2a. <l>.8a) . can be increased from 0. and 8. 8. When the axial load vanishes.
75 + 0.65 :S ( <\> = 0.0020 in. A reasonable approximation can be made by assuming. This step also enables one to verify the value of the strength reduction factor.e. i.002)e~0)] :S 0.75 + (Et  0.5 presents a flowchart of the trialandadjustment sequences of the design or analysis procedure.90 (8. The moment Mnb results from an Eps strain value which gives a maximum moment in the interaction diagram. Tied sections: 0.d %]) t t :S 0.75 :S [ <\> = 0. A void fractional quantities in selecting sectional dimensions. 508 Chapter 8 Prestressed Compression and Tension Members 1 Spirallyreinforced sections: 0.65 + 0. including the construction of an interaction diagram.8b) (b) <\> as a function of the neutral axis depth ratio. 4.lin. 8.15 [C.9a) Spirallyreinforced sections: 0.9b) Note that the balanced strain condition in prestressed concrete compression members is highly indeterminate. and find the corresponding Pn and Mn' Then check for the adequacy of the assumed section.0012 to 0. and then proceed to compute the balanced limit strain axial load Pnb and the corresponding moment Mnb at limit strain Et = 0. This assumption has to be verified.75 :S (SPiral: <\> = 0.002.. tied or spiral. namely. a value !J.90 (8. ..ps = 0. Assume the number and size of strands. from Eqs. 3. Evaluate the factored external axial load P u and the factored moment MU' Compute the applied eccentricity e = MJP u ' 2.4 OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE FOR THE DESIGN OF NONSLENDER PRESTRESSED COMPRESSION MEMBERS The following steps can be carried out for the design of nonslender (short) columns where the behavior is controlled by material failure: 1.36(a) and (b). beyond the service load level and computing the stress block depth "a" of the concrete section accordingly.002 adjusted after the interaction diagram is plotted. Design the lateral reinforcement. S. in trial and adjustment. whether <\>Pn > the factored Pu and <\> Mn > the factored Mu' If the section cannot support the factored load or is oversized and hence uneconomical. Assume a neutral axis depth c. revise the cross section and the reinforcement through trial and adjustment by repeating steps 4 and 5 as necessary. In this manner. Assume that the strain in the extreme tensile fibers is equal to an assumed strain Eps of the prestressing steel. Assume a cross section and type of lateral reinforcement to be used. Figure 8.25 [C. it becomes possible to refine the maximum moment ordinate value for the balanced strain limit state in compression represented by the neutral axis depth cb if needed. and the nominal moment for the limit stain condition E t = 0. 4.90 (8.d %]) :S 0. 6.
5 Construction of Nominal LoadMoment (P nMn ) and Design (P uMu) Interaction Diagrams 509 ( START l Input: po.'. Mull/> l Assume b. or from the u . Additionally. A~s.1 Construct the nominal loadmoment interaction diagram for a prestressed concrete compression member 14in.. E. The member is reinforced with eight !in. PL' MD.034 MPa).5 MPa). normalweight concrete Eps = 29 Ips = X 106 psi (200 X 103 MPa) 240. < 0.6.. Check compression failure: Tension failure: 0.5 CONSTRUCTION OF NOMINAL LOADMOMENT (PnMn) AND DESIGN (Pu Mu) INTERACTION DIAGRAMS Example 8.5 Flowchart for design or analysis of prestressed concrete nonslender compression members. half on each side of the two faces parallel to the neutral axis as shown in Figure 8. The stressstrain diagram for the strands is shown in Figure 8. fpu. fpy • Ep $' F £s' ccu • y.7 mm) dia 7wire stressrelieved 270K strands. E. Mn. and type of lateral reinforcement l Balanced condition: Assume strain in tensile strands A. €py. fpe. Given data are as follows: I: = 6.000 psi (1. Mu f.7..002'. deep.005 ! Figure 8. fps. d.c Cb) 0 l Compute limit strain Pn' Mn e = MJPn . e .655 MPa) . Pull/>. (12. d' l Compute Pu' Mu.8. draw the design interaction diagram using the appropriate strength reduction factor values. Consider the strands fully developed throughout the length of the member. to equal to • .002 0. €ce. 8. h. The effective prestress after all losses is Ipe = 150.• diagram if steel yields Compute cb from strain compatability = Cb Eeu (€ps Epe fee) (d  • where a = {3. MulPu' assume I/> Compute required Pn .000 psi (1. (356 mm) wide and 14in.000 psi (47.
.h12) Assume new valLIII of c. Ap.3 Interior of the George Mosconc Convention Center. ."HI..o ~"n. Y. (Collrtesy.... ./2).r:"(h/2 . USII Irial and adjustment to obu.d')'" T. design by T..flle 1 (C :d') +(""] (d~C) Compute p~ • eel' . n where Ccn " O.. +t<u +e".510 Chapter 8 Prestressed Compression and Tension Members 0 Assume c and .. [(po _tao r"..5 Continued PholO 8..) .E .~~of I I I 'NO Figure 8. " C•• lh/2 . .Iofo..in new P" ineluding No 0 ~p" Sf e~ternal factored Pu 1 Va revising section andlor steel Go to I 0 01 ( C'"". California...85f~~ r:.' . .r..A~.[t II " Mn IP. San Francisco. PostTensioning Institute. Lin Internationa1.E..] M. ld .T. .
153 in. Ecu = 0.. Solution: Nominal Strength PnMn Diagram 1. 2 Ultimate strength = 41300 Ibs 500 50 100 0.012 in.010 Strain (in. strands ~e~ Figure 8. when P e acts on the section = ~ AcEc (1 + e:) ' Epy = strand yield strain == 0. III en ~ . Stressstrain diagram for !in.003 in. (12.. at failure Ece = 0.7 don.7 mm) dia 270K prestressing ten . ..6 Section geometry.030 €.) 00 (Use Ecu = 0. c = possible.9 Assume a reasonable value of Ep and adjust as necessary.. 1700 1300 N '0 150 x 900 100 Area = 0.5 Construction of Nominal LoadMoment (PnMn) and Design (PuM u) Interaction Diagrams 511 2" o . :I'I 2" ApI T f 14" =8  ~" dia. from Figure 8./in. Figure 8.8./in./in... en E .. ~ E e .) 0.005 0./in.2 set method 200 ~ 'iii . Axial Compression: Mu = 0.0005 in.003 since perfect axial compression is im " 250 Yield strength by 0..
. Zero Tension at Tension Face.920 .612 x 29 = X 106 [0. From Equation 8.700 .920 = 903.000) 1000 = 0.5.000 x 14 x 10.0052 + 0.2 2 r' (h a)"""  T' .700 Ib (3.526 Ib (247 kN) Tsn = 0.0052 . c = 14 in.5 = 749.600 lb (4.n = 0.n = 0.0005 ] and Ecu = T. for Eps 0. (267 mm) Ccn = 0.55.003( 00 c: 2) = 0.85f~ ba = 0.003 C41~ 2) + 0.95 cm 2) From Figure 8.612 x 106 [ 0. 2 2 ' 2 =0 el Mn =. So we have Ccn = 0..0005 ] = 55. Thus.0.600 . Pn = Ccn . T.760 lb (4.612 x 29 x 106 [0.05([.0005 ] 47.4.9201b (213 kN) From Equation 8. (356 mm).0052 in.612 x 29 x 106(0.335 kN) T.75 x 14 = 10.2.0052 .lin.47 920 ( 1 .75 .85 x 6.Ecu(C ~ d') + Ece] 106 psi (200 x 103 MPa).153 = 0.920 lb (213 kN) From Equation 8.0052 . and the effective depth d = 14 .020 kN) From Equation 8.003 in. = 29 X x 29 = 0.7. (305 mm).0.0.5 in.85  0.526 .446 kN).557 .003 C2 ~ 14) + 0.2 = 999600 ( .n A~s = A~sEps[ Epe .lin.5571b (416 kN) T~n P n = Ccn  . + 0.0005) = 47. Tm = ApsEps[ Epe + Ecu ( d ~ C) + Ece] = 0.512 Chapter 8 Prestressed Compression and Tension Members The compressive block depth a = 14 in.7.4) .612 x 29 x 106 [ 0.n . a= ~lC = 0. ..85 x 6000 x 14 x 14 = 999.d' sn 2 (h )r' + ( h)""" Tsn d .Tm = 749.47.003 (12 : = (0) + 0. M n = Cen .4 ) 2 14 14) .47.Tsn = 999.0005 ] 93.T.612 in? (3.0052 + 0.2 1 + 47 '920 (12 . Epe = 4 x 0.003 + 0.. ~l = 0.6.2 = 12 in.= 0 Pn 2.93.
15 = 6.50 Ill.611. e Assume the strain in the tensile strands Aps to be equal to the incremental strain ~Ep beyond the serviceload level Pe" Taking a value ~Ep '= 0.274 in.612 X 240. Mn. (155 mm) = 0.000 .8.Ib 1.540 lb (1. So a = Ccn = ~lC Ecu ~Ep 0.75 0.9 mm . 22 ' 2 = 2)~ + 93557 (12 _ ' 14) '" 2 1.0005 ] Figure 8.~6) = 1.000 X 14 = 2.85[.611.617 lb (2. we have Aps/ps 0.85 X 6. .5 Construction of Nominal LoadMoment (PnMn) and Design (PuMu) Interaction Diagrams = 513 600.s.612 29 X 106 [ 0.7 = Aps/ ( ps Ill.3 mm) c Mn 2.0052 . Limit Strain Condition: P n.617 = e2 = .672 kN) M = 749700 (14 .000 X 6.502.5)'" _ 55526 (14 n .937 kN) T.003 e·~l.0014 = 0.130 in.Ib (170 kNm) 1.612 X 240.502.15 in.5 mm) 3.8. (63.5 = 2.c) Hence c == 8. Pure Bending: P u == 0 Neglecting the effect of the compression steel A .003 0. (207 mm).274 o = 00 4.06 = .0014 to be modified by trial and adjustment.130 600.8 Strain distribution. 69.0.10. 2) + 0. 2. similar triangles give c (d .n = 0.10 X 14 X 435.06 Ill. a = 0.000 (12 _ 2.85 X 6.75 X 8. b = 0. ( ) d  ~) = 0. and from Figure 8.11 in. (52.
Contruct the PM interaction diagram for the coordinates listed in Table 8.5 10 7.6 600. 1.9 0 Mu x 103 in.013 = 8.65 0.838 The coordinates for the preceding four cases are the controlling points on the PnMn interaction diagram.5 6 2. .Ib.25 [_1_ cld t ~] 3 = 0.540 (124  6. Other points need to be computed as well.0 1. it is seen that the maximum moment ordinate seems to have a value close to Mn = 2.611.1 ein.0052 + 0.1 2.018 (124 .65 0.047.73 0.73' 3 Hence.509 = 248.2 73.5 8.73 = 1438.1.4 237. Mn. 0 ~) = 0.8 976.838 in.003 ( 12 8.0005 ] x 29 x 106 [ 0. 1 5 2 6 4 7 3 14 18 13.lb.8. is verified. <p = 0. For step 7 in the diagram.126.5 *Max Pu allowed by the code for tied columns = 0.047.73 = 73.lb = 1.15 in.1 summarizes the values of the coordinates used for plotting the PnMn interaction diagram as well as the PuMu design diagram.838 in.65 0.9 1.60 for the limit balanced strain in compression.Ib 0 388.5 8.90 Pux 103 1b 587. (210 mm) 2.9 X 103 x 0.1 248 101.6 1331. Also.Ib (272 kNm) e4 = e = 248.1 Point Summary of PM Interaction Diagram Coordinates in Example 8.103 kN) Mn = 435.448 kN 1.018 .65 0. as ddt = 6. Pu = 101. From the diagram. and e for the cvalues assumed.75 2.450. For example.000 lb = 4.1 4.4 mm.9 1.5091b (563 kN) The limit strain state for PnJ MnJ and e are as follows: P n = 435.80<j>Pn = 469.9 1.6 x 103 lb (2090 kN).50 < 0.3 <p 0.13) + 0.15 6. assuming additional values of the neutral axis depth c and computing P n .6 365.65 + 0. = 25.2 0 Mn x 103 in.7 x 103 1b.5 2.000 in.61. From Section 8.5 14 10. in order to develop an accurate diagram to cover the entire loading range.2 X 103 x 0. From Equation 8.2) ("'A + 126.0 = 0.) Diagram.1 1438.047. Table 8.26 m.5 5.4 1303.3.8 826.1130 kNm 1 in. Hence.3 161.514 Chapter 8 Prestressed Compression and Tension Members = 61. Pnx 103 1b 903.0/12. Mu = 1969.502.540 .65 0.6 2.1 ain.509 (12  ~4) "1 = 2. 61.0181b (271 kN) Tm = 0.005.0 x 103 in.612 .013lb (1. Design LoadMoment (PuM. an assumption of cb = 8. Table 8.65 + 0.5 537.047. cin.~0) "1 . additional points between the coordinates of the second and third cases have to be determined.3 390. the column is in the transition zone.3 19.9 (a).25 (~5 O.13 = 126.969.Ib 0 252.1 0 0.
002C .9 Loadmoment interaction plots in Example 8. 200 / / / / / _O.8<!>Pn = 0..Ib (164 kNm) Pu1 = <!>Pn = 0.2<)' .500 1000 1500 2000 0 Moment Mn x 103 in.274 1.1..i({i\\ ~ .Q ctS .. ""0 0 600 pu(max) . Figure 8.65 X 903. . .\.955 lb (2090 kN) Pus = 0.. The strain in the com .4441b (not usable) The ACI Code requires that the maximum design axial load strength <!>Pn for tied prestressed columns should not exceed 0.6 LIMIT STATE AT BUCKLING FAILURE OF SLENDER (LONG) PRESTRESSED COLUMNS Considerable literature exists on the behavior of columns sUbjected to stability testing. We thus have Max Pu = 0.8 X 587. the compression member will buckle prior to reaching its limit state of material failure. 8. / / / «i ~ 400 e b _ '0. lb.6 Limit State at Buckling Failure of Slender (Long) Prestressed Columns 515 1000 800 If) £! 0 '"' x 0...450. O (lO\\io(l . and for spirally reinforced prestressed columns should not exceed 0.444 = 469... Plots of the interaction diagrams for the nominal strength (PnMn) and the design strength (PuMJ are shown in Figure 8.9.85<!>Pn.760 = 587. Mu3 for pure bending = = <!>Mn3 = 0...574 kN) The remaining values of the coordinates are summarized in Table 8.1.611.8.321 (2.65 X 826... If the column slenderness ratio exceeds the limits for short columns.147 in.648 = 537.80<!>Pn.90 X 1..
.lin. . (d) Fixedfree.. deforming laterally and developing additional moment due to the Pt::. shown in Figure 8. (c) Pinned.. Pulmax) ..10 Loading moment (PM) magnification interaction diagram..516 P Chapter 8 Prestressed Compression and Tension Members .0 (e) k = 2..0 (d) Figure 8. I 1"" M Figure 8. z \ \ a I \ lu ~T k1u I I I /1 I .003 in....10. effect.. pression face of the concrete at buckling load will then be less than the 0. is the deflection of the column's buckled shape at the section being considered..11 Values of column length factor k for typical end conditions.. (b) Fixedfixed with lateral motion... where P is the axial load and t::.. k1u a \ \ \ \ \ T lu k1u \ a I I I / I / ..< \ 1 I I I I I I I I k1u I \ \ / \ \ \ \ \ \ k = 0.. I I I I I I I I I . Such a column would be a slender member sUbjected to combined axial load and bending..0 (b) k = 1...5 (a) k = 1. (a) Fixedfixed.
lOa) and k = 0.I. 't'm 20 VI + 't'm . The total moment P u e + P u . lateral motion exists k = 1.05t\Jrnin =::. t\J is the ratio of the stiffness of all compression members to the stiffness of all flexural members in a plane at one end of the column.5 k=2.:1. The actual k value can be determined from the Jackson and Moreland alignment charts in Figure 8. the following equations suggested in the ACI Code commentary can also be used for computing k: 1. other end free Both column ends fixed. The effective length kiu shown in Figure 8. The buckling effect produces an additional moment of P u . Unbraced compression members restrained at both ends.6 Limit State at Buckling Failure of Slender (Long) Prestressed Columns 517 Consider a slender column subjected to axial load P u at an eccentricity e.0 according to the nature of the restraint as follows: Both column ends pinned. For members in a structural frame. An upper bound to the effective length factor may be taken as the smaller of the expressions (8. Alternatively.1.12a) . 1.0 Typical cases illustrating the buckled shape of the column for several end conditions and the corresponding length factors k are shown in Figure 8.11) where iu is the unsupported length of the column and in is the clear beam span. the end restraint lies between the hinged and fixed conditions.:1 is represented by point B in the diagram. That is.10.12. lOb) where t\JA and t\J B are the values of t\J at the two ends of the column and t\Jrnin is the smaller of the two values. Braced compression members.0 (8.8.0 k=0. it is the distance between the points of contraflexure of the member in its buckled form. k = 20 . In lieu of these charts. no lateral motion Both column ends fixed One end fixed. This moment reduces the load capacity from point C to point B in the interaction diagram of Figure 8. kiu represents the length of an auxiliary pinended column which has an Euler buckling load equal to that of the column under consideration.5 and 2. and the column can be designed for a larger or magnified moment Me as a nonslender column.. 2.85 + 0.11. ~ EI/iu columns t\J=~ EI/in beams (8. The effective length may be taken as follows: For t\Jm < 2.0 k= 1.11 is used as the modified length of the column to account for end restraints other than being pinned. The value of the end restraint effective length factor k varies between 0. (8.
7 0..6 0.0 3.0 5.6 0.0 100.0 10.0 4.0 8.0 0.0 0.2 l 0. .0 30." M.0 3.0 0.) beams L 0.8 1.5 LO '] (a) 'I' = ratio of L(Ellf) of compression members to L(Ellf) of flexural members in a plane at one end of a compression member f = span length of flexural member measured center to center of joints L [ (b) e1r • = ~ lEW.0 5.12 Jackson and Moreland effective length factor kfor (a) Nonsway (braced) frames and (b) Sway (nonbraced) frames.3 l 0.0 30. """"".0 50.£.0 0.0 10.0 4.7 4. Q) Nonsway 'JIA ~ Sway 'JIB 50..0 k MA k 'JIA k 20.0 I + T 1.2 ~0.8 0.0 2. .0 5.5 0. 20.0 3.0 50. 0.0 0. .0 2.3 2.0 5.0 2.0 10.0 7.' beams 1: (EI/lul cols Figure 8. 50.. B •• (EIIl. .U1 .0..1 l I~?"'A 0.0 10.0 7.)cols I. 1.6 1.7 0..0 6..0 10. ..0 fO k 100..0. .0 8.5 8.9 •• •• Single curvature p (~).8 0.4 0..4 Doublecurvlture Z." • • .0 6.0 4.5 ~2.0 3.1 ~ 1L 01 0.0 20.0 W'" t (ElIl.0 'JIB (~).0 3.
For circular sections.6.3\)1 (8. This additional moment reduces the load capacity from point C to point B in the interaction diagram.8.6 Limit State at Buckling Failure of Slender (Long) Prestressed Columns 519 For \)1m ~ 2.9\11 + \)1m (8.1 Buckling Considerations Frames that do not have lateral bracing such as shear walls. diaphragms. 0ns' for columns in braced frames using a stability index.0 + 0.13) where \)I is the value at the restrained end. or diagonal coupling beams are more flexible than those which are braced laterally. CSI Sap2008. 3. (b) Moment magnification factors Os are computed on the basis of firstorder lateral displacements and the mass above each level. a firstorder analysis using moment magnification factors. and others. RISA. STAAD Pro. the three code methods are: (a) Computer programs using a secondorder analysis that determines iteratively the magnitudes of the additional overturning moments in a frame. This behavior is particularly critical when nonslender columns support the floors. The total moment (P u e + P u /1) is represented by point B in the diagram and the column should be designed for a larger magnified moment Mc as a nonslender column by the usual firstorder analysis.10. The buckling effect produces an additional moment P u /1 where /1 is the maximum lateral displacement of the compression member between its two ends from the vertical "plumb" position.3h for rectangular sections. 8. Unbraced compression members hinged at one end. Figure 8. Horizontal displacement in this method need not be evaluated but moments that resist lateral forces have to be computed. These procedures do not consider the effects of the lateral displacement /1 on the axial force P u and the bending moment Mc. Consequently the re . The effective length factor may be taken as k = 2. This method is too cumbersome and least accurate.12b) where \)1m is the average of the \)I values at the two ends of the compression member. In such an analysis. k = 0. Q. the moments and axial forces in a frame are obtained by the classical elastic procedures. For combined gravity and sidesway forces causing the P/1 effect. The radius of gyration r = VI g/ Ag can be taken as r = 0. (c) Moment magnification relationship similar in form to those required for computing the nosway magnifier. for gravity loading without sidesway. The ACI 318 Code stipulates three methods for determining the forces on slender columns and members in frames that resist lateral forces in addition to the vertical gravity loads. Consider a slender column subjected to axial load P u at an eccentricity e. 0ns' is adequate. However. Lateral flexibility can cause the mass of a structure to sufficiently displace horizontally above the foundations that significant additional overturning moments can result leading to loss of stability of the structure. While the most accurate is the method in (a) using computer programs such as PCA's Frame Program.25h. r is taken as 0. where h is the column dimension perpendicular to the axis of bending.
and.520 Chapter 8 Prestressed Compression and Tension Members 1 1 suIting loaddeflection and loadmoment relationships are linear.10 to produce a moment Me' The ratio MJM2 is termed the magnification factor 8. For sway frames.25D for circular members where D is the diame ter of the compression member.7. Mi and M 2 . or r = 0. The degree of magnification is dependent on the slenderness ratio kljr where k is the effective length . P u . The column is subjected to moments Mi and M2 at its ends where M2 is considered larger than Mi' The factored axial force. the ACI 318 Code allows using the following average values for properties of members in a structure: (a) Modulus of elasticity Ee = 33w /. as load combinations involve lateral loads. or for stability checks where f3d is a creep factor.10. P u . the factored moments Mi and M2 at the column ends. with f3d as the ratio of maximum factored sustained shear within a story to the maximum factored shear in that story. If the pf). and for concrete strength f~ > 5000 psi < 12.30h for rectangular members where h is in the direction stability is being considered.000 + 1 X 106) (w/145)1.7 MOMENT MAGNIFICATION METHOD: FIRSTORDER ANALYSIS J J The factored axial forces.35Ig 0. The column load is assumed to act at an eccentricity (e + f). f3d is the ratio of maximum factored sustained axial load to maximum factored axial load associated with the same load combination. The moments of inertia should be divided by (1 + f3d) when sustained lateral loads act.000 psi Ee = (40. are resisted by analytically chosen sectional properties taking into account the cracked regions along the compression member's length or height and the load duration. are computed in this method using an elastic firstorder analysis with the section properties determined taking into account the influence of axial loads.35Ig 0. effect is taken into account. the relative story deflections. for nonsway frames. the moment M2 is magnified by a magnification factor 8.25Ig (c) Area: 1. The ACI 38102 Code permits using either a first. 8.or a secondorder analysis for columns of intermediate slenderness and requires a secondorder analysis for long columns having a slenderness ratio of 100 or more.6 in conjunction with Figure 8.) in Figure 8. effect is ignored is termed the moment magnification method presented in Section 8. the presence of cracked regions along the length of the member and the effects of duration of the load.5 (b) Moment of Inertia Beams: Columns W allsU ncracked Cracked Flat plates and flat slabs: 0.70Ig 0. As discussed in Section 8. a secondorder analysis becomes necessary with a resulting nonlinear relationship of the load to the lateral displacement (deflection) and the moment.5 f. thus f3d = maximum factored sustained axial load total factored axial load Hence.70Ig 0. In lieu of these computations. where required. One ACI Code method where the pf). the strength and stability of the structure as a whole under factored gravity loads should be considered. and the factored moments.0Ag (d) Radius of gyration r = 0.
the moment about each axis should be separately considered based on the restraint condition corresponding to that axis.4Ejg em = a factor relating the actual moment diagram to an equivalent uniform moment diagram. em = 1. namely. subjected to end loads only. The magnification factor is controlled by the type of the magnified moments 8M2 and 'OMl acting at the respective ends 2 and 1 of a column.min = P u (15 + O.12a (single curvature). such as members with transverse loads between supports.8.16a) EI (8.17) and Ml/M2 > 0 if no inflection point exists between the column ends.0. whether sidesway of the structural frame occurs or not.6 + M2 Ml 2:: 0.6 + 0. The term (M l /M2 ) is positive if the member is bent in a single curvature so that the two terms subtract in Equation 8.0. Figwhere M 2 ::. 8. 75Pc P =c (kl u? O. The slenderness effects can be disregarded if klu :::::. For other conditions.14) klu = effective length between points of inflection and [34 .12. For members without transverse loads.6 + O.1 Moment Magnification in NonSway Frames In the case of compression members in nonsway frames.03h) where h is in millimeters.2Ejg = 71'2 em > 10 (8. In SI units M2. namely. 1 _ __ u_ 0. In other words. unless analysis gives a lower value. a function of the relative stiffnesses at the joint of each end of the member.16b) where Pc is the Euler buckling load for pinended columns.15) where P .03h) (8.7 and the monograms in Figure 8.12 and negative in double curvature so that the two terms add (see Figure 8. If M2.03h. In such a case. 8.min ex . k values are computed on the basis of the EI values tabulated in Section 8. the minimum eccentricity in the slender columns is emin = 0.34 12 r M2 (Ml) (8. If the nonsway magnification factor is 'Ons and the sway factor 'Os = 0.18) where h is in inches. It should be noted that in the case of compression members subjected to bending about both principal axes. ure 8.12a). the magnified moment becomes (8. Stiffness EI is to be taken as EI + Else 1 + f3d (8.7 Moment Magnification Method: FirstOrder Analysis 521 factor for compression members. braced frames.12 (M/M 2 )] cannot be taken greater than the limit of Eq.14. namely. the effective length factor k can be taken as 1. em = 0.16c) or conservatively as EI==1 + f3d O.4 (8.7. The minimum allowed value of M2 is M 2•min Ml = P u (0.
05: 8. Pu .23a) .22) 10. the effective length factor k can also be determined from the E1 values presented in Section 8. 8. osMs = "~.2: £"Pu Ms Ms ::.19) The end moments MI and M2 should be magnified as follows: MI = M ins M2 + OsMls (8. and magnified moment Me = 0ns M2 where M2 in this case is M2 = 0ns M 2ns + OsM2s' This condition can develop in slender columns with high axial loads when the maximum moment may develop between the ends of the column so that the end moments might not necessarily be the maximum moments. for pinended columns for all sway resisting columns in a story [Pc = '11'2 E1/(kZu)2] from Equation 8.75LPc where I Pu is the summation for all the vertical loads in a story and I Pc is the summation of the Euler buckling loads. Q.5 (8.522 Chapter 8 Prestressed Compression and Tension Members ceeds the applied moment M 2 .=== r lu 35 VPu/f~Ag the member has to be designed for a factored axial load. Frames braced against sidesway or braced with shear walls.7.21) where M 2ns = factored end moment at the end of the compression member due to loads that cause no appreciable sidesway. in the following expression does not exceed a value of 0. the code permits assuming a column in a braced structure as nonsway if the increase in column loads and moments due to secondorder effects does not exceed 5 percent of the firstorder end moments. Q.0 or be based on the actual computed end moments MI and M 2 . computed using a firstorder elastic frame analysis.16c or d. Once this ratio is exceeded. the value of em in Equation 8.16b) with the E1 values obtained from Equations 8. the design moment should be (8.1 Moment magnification in sway frames using a stability index.7.17 should either be taken as 1.2 Moment Magnification in Sway Frames For compression members not braced against sidesway.0. 2. but its value should not exceed 1. In the case of an individual compression member having .7. Pc. The slenderness effects can be disregarded if k1u r < 22 (8.1).> .2. (8.20) = M 2ns + Os M 2s On the assumption that M2 > M I . computed using a firstorder elastic frame analysis. appropriate measures have to be taken to minimize the additional moments caused by side sway and hence reduce lateral drift of the frame and its constituent columns. A story within a structure can be considered nonsway if a stability index. would normally have a lateral deflection less than total height h/1500.6. In this method (method c in Section 8. M 2s = factored end moment at the end of the compression members due to loads that cause appreciable sidesway.
But the analysis should verify that the predicted strength of the compression members of a structural frame are in good agreement within a ISpercent range with results for columns in indeterminate reinforced concrete structures. A secondorder analysis is an iterative procedure of the P .05.. 1. and consider the final result a secondorder result. The nonsway magnification factor in terms of Q is: 1 8s = . It should be noted that the stability index Q method. The structure being analyzed should result in geometry of members similar to the geometry of the sections to be built. If the members in the final structure have crosssectional dimensions differing by more than 10 percent from those assumed in the analysis.10 sway values due to the P.1.13 to follow) is incremented by IP u .. or 2. including shear deformations. Use a real secondorder analysis computer program in which the reduction in the relative sidesway resistance is used in a global stiffness matrix for the elements involved.23b) When Q exceeds a value of 0. Such a computer analysis would make it possible to efficiently compute the iterating values of moments and . In the case of unbraced frames of comparable slenderness ratios.8 SECONDORDER FRAMES ANAL VSIS AND THE P . It must be stated.1 values.10 =firstorder relative deflection between the top and bottom of a particular story due to shear Vu Ie = length of compression member in a frame measured from centers of joints. taking into account the P. the deflections must be computed on the basis of fully cracked sections with reduced EI stiffness values. When such an analysis is performed in order to evaluate 8s Ms in a nonbraced frame.. Execute several applications of the firstorder analysis where the lateral load (from h.Q 2: 1. particularly if the frame is braced. that the large majority of columns in concrete ..1 EFFECTS A secondorder analysis is a frame analysis which includes the internal force effects resulting from lateral displacement (deflection) of a column. Approximations such as the use of several firstorder analysis cycles and idealizations of nonprismatic sections can be made in the analysis. however. one has to proceed to a secondorder analysis through computer program usage.1 effect on moments at the column joints in braced frames.:l Effects 523 where. in each cycle. should work well for columns of slenderness ratio klJr less than 100. IPu = total vertical load at a story Vu = story shear . 8.8 SecondOrder Frames Analysis and the P .1 effects on the slender column. Such an analysis can be either 1. Hence.0 (8.1 effect in a reasonably accurate and speedy manner. while relatively adaptable to hand computations. a new computation cycle has to be performed. It is important to summarize that the moment magnification method. originally developed for prismatic columns.1 effect on the moments and deflections through a secondorder analysis should be used so as to give more accurate results.8. An attempt will be made here to illustrate the iteration procedure involved in the use of several cycles of lateral load increments to the P .. it is reasonable to expect that canned computer programs have to be used rather than longhand computations in the design of the slender columns of a frame structure. is too cumbersome and least accurate for effective evaluation of the P. in Figure 8.
13b). Add the values obtained in step 3 to the actual lateral loads acting on the frame. all the Xi values. a good assumption is to choose xmax in the range of h/350 to h/500. 2.. namely. Consider the column between the two floors (iI) and (i) in the frame shown in Figure 8. gives ~i results that have to be compared with the Xi values allowed. or lateral displacement of the building upper floors results in cracking of the masonry and interior finishes. building frames do not necessitate such an analysis since the (kljr) ratio is in most cases below 100. . the lateral deflections ~i' and the corresponding ultimate loads Pu. the maximum lateral deflection limitation should be h/500. The iterative computer program.13a.13).13. accept the solution and the design as a second order solution.i at joints i = 1. considering that a fully braced frame has normally a ratio of maximum drift xmax to frame height hs less than 111. Compute the drifts. E1. 7. and Yi is the height of the column between floors (iI) and (i) in Figure 8. chosen for the input data. 3. using the stiffnesses. 6.n (Figure 8. . 4. Assume that the maximum lateral displacement or drift at the upper end of the top column in the frame is xmax and that the total height of the building is h s ' A large drift. Hence. Choose geometrical sections of the frame and its columns and their stiffness E1 by approximate procedures.524 Chapter 8 Prestressed Compression and Tension Members Lx (Xi1) Xmax T Vi I hs Hi 1 (a) AP drift of frame (b) idealized column between i and (iI) floors Figure 8. Unless precautions are taken to permit movement of interior partitions without damage.13 Secondorder frame parameters. 5.24) The procedure can be summarized as follows: 1. . Find the equivalent horizontal forces Hi from Hi = Pi ~/hi (Figure 8. If all ~i values are::. If Xi is the drift at floor level i. Hence. it can be assumed that the proportional horizontal drift for a particular floor is directly proportional to the square of the ratio of the height hi of the floor and the total height hs of the entire frame. If not.. Xi = xmax(h/hs)2 (8. run additional computer cycles with modified stiffnesses until the desired results are achieved. Perform a frame analysis using the appropriate computer program.500.
000 psi (41.000 lb (107 kN) and a factored = 4. Its clear height is lu = 15 ft (4. If the column is slender and klJr is less than 100.000 in. I3d = 0. If it does. perform a secondorder analysis. The necessary equations are provided in Section 8.000 in. and the factored end moments are M) = 425.13. 3.2 A square tied prestressed bonded column is part of a 5 x 3 bays frame building subjected to uniaxial bending. 2.034 MPa) Eps = 28 X 106 psi (200 X 103 MPa) .9 OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE AND FLOWCHART FOR THE DESIGN OF SLENDER COLUMNS 1. If the sidesway is negligible. use the minimum value. If kljr is greater than 100. the given eccentricity is less than the specified minimum.000 lb (1.Pc = 31.10 Design of Slender (Long) Prestressed Column 525 Any of several computer programs can be used to account for the PIl. Design the column section and the reinforcement necessary for the following two conditions: 1. The loads per floor of all columns at that level are "i. Given data are as follows: 1.54 in. Design the equivalent nons lender column.lb (48.Pu Use !in. compute the equivalent eccentricity to be used if the column is to be designed as a short column.655 MPa) Ipe = 150.14 presents the sequence of calculations.334 kN).0 x 106 lb (138 x 103 kN). use the magnification factors ~ns and ~s. compute the magnified moment Me' Then. and then obtain k using Figure ~ or Equations 8.13. assuming negligible lateral sidesway due to wind. compute the eccentricity.5 X 106 lb (20 x 103 kN) and "i.9 kNm).4 o/A o/B = = Mu =220.8.862 MPa) Ips = 240. The factored external load P u = 300.000 psi (1. The flowchart in Figure 8. Strudel. 8. 'npute IjJA and IjJB using Equation 8. Compute klJr.000 in. PCA Frame.000 psi (1.0 kNm) and M2 = 750. Suppose sidesway wind effects cause a factored Pu = 24. assume that ~s = O.03h) m.lb (24. Determine whether the frame has an appreciable sidesway. (0.6 + O.000 psi (1. Then assume a cross section.0 6.4 MPa) I: = Ipu = 270.). and it is not braced against sidesway. using the value obtained. that IS. effects in frame sidesways.12 or 8. or CSI Sap 2000 are examples of such generalpurpose programs.lb (84. Consider gravity loads only. M2 P u 2: . 8.10 DESIGN OF SLENDER (LONG) PRESTRESSED COLUMN Example 8.0 2. STAAD Pro.8 kNm). dia 270K stressrelieved prestressing strands.2 and in the flowchart. and determine whether the column is a short " long column. 2. using the greater of the end moments. and check whether it is more than the minimum allowable eccentricity.
311 for rectangular column.M2. 2: 0.1 526 Chapter 8 Prestressed Compression and Tension Members 1 Ml M2 = M'n.5 1 +{jd p e = 1T2E1 (kl)2' C m = 0.4 M2 for braced members subjected to end load = 1 for other conditions M.+6. Fig.25h for circular column ~>22 kl No r or Short or nonslender column The section needs secondorder analysis {jd = design dead·load moment/design total moment E1 = Ee1.12. r =0. Determine: k.6 + 0.M 2. M2 u e =p 2: (0. + 6. . Mu e= Pu Check the given section as a short column for Me and Pu Figure 8.4 M. M2 > 0 if no inflection point between ends.6 + 0.27c Design: Mu = Me = f. + f..0311) in.M2n.14 Flowchart for design of slender columns. 9. n. r =0.M" = M2n.
0052 in. 5 19  v'ic' = 33 X 1451.05 in. we try a section 15 in.000 psi (414 MPa) The stressstrain diagram of the prestressing steel is as in Figure 8. .. corresponding to fpe = 150. (63.. x 15 in.8 . 4 1TI. a column section is assumed and analyzed.67 mm) < 2.012 in. Hence.8 mm) Tiesfy = 60.T..003 in.6 + 0. (b) Strain distribution. Y 6.2ns = .15 Proposed column section geometry in Example 8.~"rp 7·wire strands (a) (b) (e) Figure 8.2.5 mm) Pu M 750. By trial and adjustment. 1.8.jin.7. We obtain Ec = 33w1.45 X 15 X 12 0. use M 2ns = 750. os' is taken to be equal to zero in Equation 8. = 5 .000 psi. corresponding to fpy = 260.= 2. Accordingly. (381 mm x 381 mm) as shown in Figure 8.6 + 0..15(a) and obtain Actual eccentricity Minimum allowable eccentricity = .10 Design of Slender (Long) Prestressed Column Ecu 527 at failure = 0. Since the frame has no appreciable sidesway.46 X 10 5 6 psi (32 X 103 MPa) _ 15(15)3 _ u.3 X 15 = 58.15. (2.12(b). use the moment magnification method.50 in. from the same figure. Ece = 0.0 Since 58.000 = 4.50 in.jin.= 1.000 300. 1m h = 15" (381 mm) f ~1·15"="==V ege I~+Ties hl2 ".0 > 22 and < 100. (a) Crosssectional details. From the chart in Figure 8. from the stressstrain diagram of Figure 8.03h = 0.218. Epy == 0.03 X 15 = 1. Similarly.lb as the larger of the moments Ml and M2 on the column.000 in. k = 1. (50.7.45 and the slenderness ratio is klu . Gravity Loads Only Check for No Sides way and Minimum Eccentricity (Step 1). Compute the Eccentricity to Be Used for Equivalent Short Column (Step 2). Solution: Epe = 0.lin. (c) Stress block and forces.000 psi.lin.000 = 0.n A p .4. when Pe acts on the section d' = 2 in. the entire M2 is taken to be M 2ns and the magnification factor for sidesway.0005 in.
482 lb (704 kN) .lb. Then ab = 131 x cb = 0.6. 2) + 0.23 in.595 lb (2.538 lb and a minimum nominal uniaxial moment Mn = 2.0052 + 0. The equivalent column has to carry a minimum nominal axial load Pn = 461.18 in.0005 ] 8 = 73. 103 in.552.85 X 6. (330 mm) Comparing with Example 8.1 Hence. from Figure 8.119 kN) From Equation 8.3) + 0. Assume Moment magnifier 8ns = <t> = 0.318lb (385 kN) From Equation 8.462 in. we analyze the assumed 15 in. 2 TI2 E1 TI2 x 5. T.3 .5 2 9 = 5.1.lb (291 kNm) 2. (158 mm).000 = 1.218.38. 7wire stressrelieved strands on each of the two faces parallel to the neutral axis. To design the equivalent nonslender column.2 = 15 .65 = 2. 2 (4. x 15 in.3 = 6.75 x 8. Cm = 1.94 cm 2) Balanced Limit Strain Failure Condition d = h .1 x 10 = 773.538lb (2053 kN) = 1. 5 = 461.0 300 000 = 2. Cen = 0.528 Chapter 8 Prestressed Compression and Tension Members E1= EJg/2.388. (131 mm) Eccentricitye = 461 .003 (8.000 X 15 X 6.65.0 for a nonbraced column.765 X 28 X 106 [ 0.000 O.1 Kips (3.538 Design of an Equivalent Nonslender Column (Step 3).3 in.5 1 + I3d 2.439 kN) Now.462 = 5.34 X 109 .46 x 106 X 4.388. (211 mm).0005 ] = 158.1 and using trial and adjustment.132 C 1 .500 in.75 x 773. Then Aps = A~s = 5 X 0.552.765 X 28 X 106 [0.153 = 0.P u 0.5.75Pe 7 Design moment Me = 8ns M 2ns = 2.3 X 1 1 + 0.3.07 1' 0.07 X 750.. Next.4 (klj = (1.23 = 476. dia.388.462 in.in.2 = 13 in. column section assuming five !in.34 x 10 lb.n = 0.132lb = 773.003 ( 13 8. Tsn = 0. X = 4. Then we have 1.0052 .45 x 15 x 12)2 = 68. a reasonable assumption of the neutral axis depth for the balanced condition would be a value of cb = 8.500 0. Pc = Euler bucklIng load = 2 = 3 (klu) 68.0. as in Example 8.lb (184 kNm) Required Pn = Required Mn Pu <t> = ~6~ 300.765 in.
Assume Neutral Axis Depth c = 12 in.318 (1~ _ 2) + 158.Ib (237.85t: ba = 0.449 = 492.5381b Accordingly.0052 = 127.2.103.0005 ] + 0.OO3C\~. (233 mm) > actual e = 5.318 .11.Ecu X (c ~ d') + Ece] = 0. as assumed.75 X 12 = 9.4 = 642. X 6 Ccn = 0. a= From Equation 8.000 X 15 X 8.500 .85 From Equation 8. f31C = 0.6001b T.17 in. and initial failure would be in compression.65.124 in.2 .020 kN) 73.003 ( 13 11.765 X 28 X 106 [ 0.s Eps[ Epe .1a. Available Pn = 688. 2) + 0.4491b From Equation 8.2 in.60): = 476.6.0.003 C\.4 in.482 = 229.n = A.310 2.765 28 X 106 [ 0.18 in. a = f31C = 0.0005 ] = 69.000 X 15 X 9 = 688.2 = 8.544 .7 kNm) eb = P Mnb nb = 229.2.75 X 11.85 6.595 .127. X 6.~3) = 1~) = 2.n = 0.73. The prestressed column load has small eccentricity.5441b From Equation 8.595 (1~ _ 6.85t: ba = 0. 2) + 0.2) + 0.7.765 X 28 X 106 [ 0. Ccn = 0.003 (13 . for the "balanced" strain limit case (ddt = 0.5. Tsn = Aps Eps[ Epe + Ecu ( d ~ c) + Ece] + 0.. Assume Neutral Axis Depth c = 11.68. we go on to a second trialandadjustment cycle.0005 ] = 0.0005 ] = 68.103.0052 .482 (13 _ From Equation 8.500 lb T.5071b > required Pn = 461.310 lb (1..60) Mnb = 476. <I> = 0.0052  O.124 = 9.158.8.3091b Tsn = 0.0 in.0052 .765 X 28 X 10 [ 0.10 Design of Slender (Long) Prestressed Column 529 From Equation 8. 12) + 0. Also. for the "balanced" strain limit case (ddt = 0.
462 in.. P . (!!.42 ) Ib Prestressed Compression and Tension Members Available p~ = 642. _ d·)r+ T (d !!")" " 2 2 "'\2 2 "" 642. C heck if t he gravity moment needs to be magnified: ~V.!~!. as the moment capacity is larger than required M" A very slight increase in section depth would overcome the small difference between the required and available Por From Equation 8. Chapler 8 = 132.309 . 7wire stressrelieved 270.· lb.84) ..6W').132.538 lb.lb e '" 448 > 2.2) + 132.0L + 1. A lso. 250 kNm).7.lb.6. 195 1.(0) :: 324.(300. GrallUy and Wind Loading (Sldesway).(0) in.870 Ib while required .467. gra vity moment M'}b is not Photo 8.4 O ne of the earliest prestressed concrete root bridges in E ngland a t the Festival of Britai n. 2.c.53. Consequently. M. U=0.(0) in.696 . = 220.421 p~ '" 440. P. =. with five din. adopt a section 15 in. M1b = 750. Pt = 773. x 15 in. O . K..000/ 6. Then design the necessary trans· verse tics.8 kN·m > . . London.K. hence.4> ~ I . accept.600 ...K strands a t each of the two faces parallcl to the neutral axis. 71.309C: .2D+ 1.18 In.. actual e = 5.467.jj..69.600(~ . = 40._!!)~ _ 77(!!.132Iband U = (1.5 .00)+ 24...696 in.lb (278. ~in. "'''' magnified 35 35 V324. a nd Mls.461. From part I.000 x 225 .870 = 5.= .9D + 1.~) (13 2 >It = 2.421 .6W (did not control).(0) Ib.. 2. O.338.
respectively.573. The conditions for case 2 with sidesway do not control.25) where Ac = area of the compression zone covered by the rectangular stress block Fsc = resultant steel compressive forces (I A.462 = 3. Reqmred Mn X = ~ = 498.538 Ill. 1. 8. G sc is the resultant position of the steel forces in the compression area having coordinates xsc and Ysc from the neutral axis in the x and y directions.1 Exact Method of Analysis Columns in corners of buildings are compression members subjected to biaxial bending about both the x and the y axes as shown in Figure 8.17 shows the strain distribution and forces on a biaxially loaded rectangular column cross section.17 Ill.lb ..lb . Such columns are subjected to moment Mxx about the x axis creating a load eccentricity ey' and a moment Myy about the y axis creating a load eccentricity ex' Thus.538.= 1. the neutral axis is inclined at an angle e to the horizontal. Since such a column has to be designed from first principles.538 in. ..022. because of the position of the inclined neutralaxis plane and the four different possible forms of the concrete compression area.573. Eccentncltye = 498.11 Compression Members in Biaxial Bending 531 From Equation 8.!sc) Fst = resultant steel tensile force (I As !st) . dia 270Kstressrelieved prestressing strands on each of the two faces parallel to the neutral axis. since failure is still in compression.022.75 X 31.FSI (8.573.75"LPe 1. with five Hn. Also. .000 = 1.24 = 1.0.0 . respectively. respectively.. < actual e = 5.16(b). Reqmred Pn . Gc is the center of gravity of the concrete compression area. < eb = 9.0 8s = ="LPu 1=0. section of case 1.15..16. G SI is the resultant position of the steel forces in the tension area having coordinates x st and y sl from the neutral axis in the x and y directions. The angle e depends on the interaction of the bending moments about both axes and the magnitude of the total P u' The compressive area in the column section can have one of the alternative shapes shown in Figure 8.. Also Mn = 1. Hence.18 in..0 X 106 220.24 4. x 15 in.lb of case 1.65 324.lb < Mn = 2.388.800 0. having coordinates Xc and Yc from the neutral axis in the x and y directions.000 From Equation 8..16 Ill. adopt the same 15 in.11.000 + 1.4621b = 1.462 in. .11 COMPRESSION MEMBERS IN BIAXIAL BENDING 8. Additional computational effort is also needed. Figure 8. initial compression failure occurs.: . Pn = O.8. 1. the trialandadjustment procedure has to be followed where compatibility of strain has to be maintained at all levels of the reinforcing bars. biaxial bending occurs due to imbalance of loads in adjacent spans and almost always in bridge piers.8St: A c + Fsc .5 X 106 1. From equilibrium of internal and external forces. the required Mn is less than that for case 1 and the eccentricity is smaller than in case 1. Me = Mzns + 8s Mzs = 750.16(c).800 in. Accordingly.
S5f~ Acxc + Fscxsc + Fstx st (S.on and Tens.26b) Pney = O. Pnex = O./M2 + M2 xx yy (b) Figure 8.26a) (S.2 Load Contour Method of Analysis One method of arriving at a rapid solution is to design the column for the vector sum of and Myy and use a circular reinforcing cage in a square section for the corner column. However.16 Corner column subjected to axial load.532 Chapter 8 Prestressed Compress. (c) Neutral axis direction.on Members' y ! 1 / 1 x (a) Floor end beams (iii) (ij (iv) (c) (ii) Mu = Pu e = .S5f~AcYc + FscYsc + FstYst The position of the neutral axis has to be assumed in each trial and the stress computed in each bar using (S. (a) Biaxially stressed column cross section. from equilibrium of internal and external moments. (b) Vector moments Mxx and Myy in column plan.11. such a procedure cannot be economically justified in most cases.27) 8. Also. Another deMxx .
to resist the actual factored biaxial bending moments.28 can be simplified using a common exponent and introducing a factor [3 for one particular axial load value Pnsuch that the ratio MnxlMny would have the same value as the ratio Ma)May as detailed by Parme and associates.0 (8.28) where Mnx = Pn ey Mny=Pne x Max = Mnx at an axial load Pn such that Mny or ex = 0 May = Mny at an axial load Pn such that Mnx or ey = 0 The moments Max and May are the required equivalent resisting moment strengths about the x and y axes. ~ ~ (8. (c) Forces. Such simplification leads to (M)" + (M)" =10 Max May .85f~ f~ 8 (a) (b) (e) Figure 8.18 at a constant value Pn to give an interaction plane relating Mnx and Mny. while a l and a2 are exponents that depend on the crosssectional geometry and the steel percentage and its location and material stress f~ and fyo Equation 8.8. (a) Cross section. as previously discussed in this chapter.17 Strain compatibility and forces in biaxially loaded rectangular columns.29) . In other words. The method involves cutting the threedimensional failure surfaces in Figure 8. sign approach well proven by experimental verification is to transform the biaxial moments into an equivalent uniaxial moment and an equivalent uniaxial eccentricity. respectively. termed the load contours. the contour surface S can be viewed as a curvilinear surface which includes a family of curves. Such a method considers a failure surface instead of failure planes and is generally termed the BreslerParme contour method.11 Compression Members in Biaxial Bending p. The general nondimensional equation for the load contour at a constant load P n may be expressed as Mnx)'" + (MnY)"2 ( Max May = 1. The section can then be designed for uniaxial bending. (b) Strain. I 533 ±l O.
31a) . Mnx + Mny[l Mox Moy 13 2. where ex = log O.18 Failure interaction surface for biaxial column bending. (8. Equations 8.30a) Mny Mnx[l .30 can be modified as follows: Mny 1. For rectangular sections where the reinforcement is evenly distributed along all the column faces. For design purposes.13] Moy + Mox 13 = 1.27. 13] = 1.19 gives a contour plot ABC from Equation 8.534 Chapter 8 Prestressed Compression and Tension Members where Mnx Mny = Pney = Pnex Figure 8. the contour is approximated by two straight lines BA and BC. In that case.30b) In both of these equations. 13.S/log Figure 8. For M nx > b/h.0 (8. and Equation 8. For AB when Mn/Moy < Mn)Mox. For BC when Mn/Moy > Mn)Mox. the ratio Mo/Mox can be taken to be approximately equal to b/h.29 can be simplified to two conditions: 1.0 (8. the actual controlling equivalent uniaxial moment strength Moxn or Moyn should be at least equivalent to the required controlling moment strength Mox or Moy of the chosen column section.
20 are used in the selection of 13 in the analysis and design of the columns just described.31 determine the equivalent required uniaxial moment Max or May If Mnx is larger than M ny . Compute the uniaxial bending moments assuming an equal number of bars on each column face.11 Compression Members in Biaxial Bending 535 1.70 and a ratio of h/b. In effect.11.0~ A _ ____ 1 . Assume a cross section for the column and a reinforcement ratio p = p' == 0. 8.01 to 0. Plots like those of Figure 8. (8.i3 = 1 0 i3 • / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / 45° c 1. the modified loadcontour method can be summarized in Equation 8.02 on each of the two faces parallel to the axis of bending of the larger equivalent .0 o Figure 8.31b) The controlling required moment strength Max or May for designing the section is the larger of the two values as determined from Equations 8.31 as a method for finding equivalent required moment strengths Max and May for designing the columns as if they were uniaxially loaded.8. Mny 2.19 Modified interaction contour plot of constant Pn for biaxially loaded column. 2.3l. 1. The procedure assumes an equal area of reinforcement on all four faces.3 StepbyStep Operational Procedure for the Design of Biaxially Loaded Columns The following steps can be used as a guideline for the design of columns subjected to bending in both the x and y directions.50 and 0. use Max for the design and vice versa. For Mnx :S b/h. This ratio can be approximated to Mn)Mny Using Equations 8. Assume a value of an interaction contour 13 factor between 0.
6 Mny MOY 0.5 0. the same amount of longitudinal steel should be used on all four faces. A detailed computational example.6 0.7 0. 6. Make a second trial and adjustment.8 0.3 0. 3.9 1.2 Required component moment strength About x axis = Mx About y axis = My 0. A flowchart for the primary steps in evaluating the controlling moment values in biaxially lqaded columns is given in Figure 8.3 0. 5.2 0. moment. increasing the assumed [3 value if the Mny value obtained from entering the chart is less than the required Mny. together with a discussion of biaxially loaded columns. 7.7 0. . Find Mny by entering Mn)Moxn and the trial [3 value into the [3 factor contour plots of Figure 8.21. is presented in Ref.5 0. Repeat this step until the two values of Mny converge.20 Contour j3factor chart for rectangular columns in biaxial bending. either through changing [3 or changing the section.0 Figure 8. 8.8 0.9 0. Compute the actual nominal moment strength Moxn for equivalent uniaxial bending about the x axis when Mox = O.1 o 0. 4. and verify the capacity P n of the assumed column cross section. Its value has to be at least equivalent to the required moment strength Mox' Compute the actual nominal moment strength Moyn for the equivalent uniaxial bending moment about the y axis when MOY = O. Then make a preliminary selection of the steel bars.4 0.536 1. Design the lateral ties and detail the section.0 Chapter 8 Prestressed Compression and Tension Members 0.20.4 Required uniaxial moment strength About x axis = Mox About y axis = MOY 0.1 0. In the completed design.2.
12.12 PRACTICAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS The following guidelines are presented for the design and arrangement of reinforcement to arrive at a practical design. Lateral reinforcement is required to prevent spalling of the concrete cover or local buckling of the longitudinal bars. 8. as shown in Figure 8.2 Lateral Reinforcement for Columns 8.1 Longitudinal or Main Reinforcement The average effective prestress in the concrete in prestressed compression members should not be less than 225 psi (1. The reinforcement could be in the form of ties evenly distributed along the height of the column at specified intervals.1 Lateral Ties. .12.8. This code requirement sets a minimum reinforcement ratio such that compressive members with lower prestress values will have a minimum nonprestressed reinforcement ratio of one percent.12 Practical Design Considerations 537 Figure 8. apart should be supported by lateral ties.22.55 MPa).12. 8.2. 8. Longitudinal bars spaced more than 6 in.21 Flowchart for evaluation of controlling moment values in biaxially loaded columns.
(b) Two ties. Normally. . as shown in Figure 8. Spirals are particularly useful in increasing ductility or member toughness. The size of the tie should not be less than a #3 (9.23 Helical or spiral reinforcement for columns.2. 1. and eight longitudinal bars in a column cross section. Hence.23.22 shows a typical arrangement of ties for four. (c) Two ties. six. six. (a) One tie.22 Typical arrangement of ties for four. The columns have to be able to sustain most of the load even after the spalling of the cover in order to prevent the collapse of the building. and hence are mandatory in highearth quakerisk regions. even under such severe load conditions.12. The vertical spacing of the ties must not exceed (a) Fortyeight times the diameter of the tie (b) Sixteen times the diameter of the longitudinal bar (c) The least lateral dimension of the column Figure 8. concrete outside the confined core of the spirally reinforced column can totally spall under unusual and sudden lateral forces such as earthquakeinduced forces.538 Chapter 8 Prestressed Compression and Tension Members 08~ (a) (b) (e) Figure 8.5 mm) bar. the spacing and size of spirals are designed to maintain most of the loadcarrying capacity of the column. The following guidelines are to be followed for the selection of the size and spacing of ties. A C =_c rrD2 4 A = rrh 9 2 4 Figure 8.2 Spirals. The other type of lateral reinforcement is spirals or helical lateral reinforcement. and eight longitudinal bars in a column. 8. 2.
33.53 mm).3 Design of Spiral Lateral Reinforcement Example 8. compute as' and then obtain pitch b using Equation 8.35b below. The spiral should be well anchored by providing at least H extra turns when splicing of spirals rather than welding is used. (9.8.1)f' f :t (8.35b) The spacing or pitch of spirals is limited to a range of 1 to 3 in. (38 mm) given that/y = 60. (508 mm) and clear cover de = 1.5 in. The spiral reinforcement ratio Ps can be written (8. choose a bar diameter db for the spiral. The spacing or pitch of the spiral is so chosen that the load capacity due to the confining spiral action compensates for the loss due to spalling of the concrete cover. (25.2.2 mm).4 to 76.1)[. and the diameter should be at least i in.45 ( A A: .3 Design the lateral spiral reinforcement for a circular prestressed concrete column h = 20 in./. 8. compute Ps using Equation 8. Equating the increase in strength due to confinement to the loss of capacity in spalling. Solution: Using Equation 8.12 Practical Design Considerations 539 Closely spaced spiral reinforcement increases the ultimateload capacity of columns. required Ps = 0. and incorporating a safety factor of 1.32) where Ps A C = volume of the spiral steel per one revolution voI f con tame d'm one revo Iution ume 0 concrete core ' 7l'D2 = __ c 4 (8.12. we obtain the minimum spiral reinforcement ratio Ps = 0.33b) Ag=4 h = diameter of the column as = crosssectional area of the spiral db = nominal diameter of the spiral wire Dc = diameter of the concrete core outtoout of the spiral and fyt = yield strength of the spiral reinforcement 7l'h 2 To determine the pitch s of the spiral.000 psi (414 MPa).33a) (8.35a) or s= (8. Ae yt .32.34) Therefore.45 (Ag .2. the pitch is given by (8.
namely ex = (Mu/P u) = (PueJPu) ey = eccentricity measured parallel to the yaxis = (PueJPJ x = column crosssection dimension parallel to the xaxis y = column crosssection dimension parallel to the yaxis The stepbystep operational procedure essentially follows the logic in the steps presented in Sec.45 ( 226.13 RECIPROCAL LOAD METHOD FOR BIAXIAL BENDING This method developed by Bressler relates the desired axial force P u value to three other values on a reciprocal of the failure surface (Ref.11(17. 8.000 psi X = h . we obtain Clear concrete cover de = 1.0 mm pitch). then =+or 1 Pu 1 Pux 1 Puy 1 Puo (8.000 For #3 spirals.2).540 Chapter 8 Prestressed Compression and Tension Members Using #3 spirals with a yield strength!y = 60.000 psi.0 .0115 314. (56 mm) Accordingly.375) 2 (17.24 a.35b.36a) =+ 1 <l>Pn 1 <l>Pnxo 1 <l>Pnyo 1 <l>Pno (8. 2 So using Equation 8. and Puo.18 such that the values of the load and eccentricities as Pu.2de = 20. 8.0. Pux = <l>Pnxo = design strength of the column having eccentricity ex' provided ey =0 Puy = <l>Pnyo = design strength of the same column having eccentricity ey' provided ex=O Puo = <l>Pno = theoretical axial load design strength for the same column having eccentricity ey = ex = 0 Mux = moment about the xaxis = Pu ey Muy = moment about the yaxis = Pu ex ex = eccentricity measures parallel to the yaxis as in Figure 8.0115 4 X 0. as = 0.53 mm dia spiral at 54. provide #3 spirals at 2~ in. pitch (9.3. Assume Sl denotes the coordinates on the failure surface in Figure 8.11 in. If the desired axial load P u under biaxial loading about the x and y axes is related to the Pu values devoted by Puy' Pux .000 = 0.11.1 60. 2 Ps = 0. 8. If Sz is a point on the compatible reciprocal surface to that in Fig.0 in.98 in. 8.98 . (432 mm) Ae = = 226.18. we get pitch s = 4as(De . which is the factored (design) load.20 in.36b) where. (38 mm) !yt = Dc 60.0) X 0.0)2 4 15 = 17. .0 . 2 Ag = 314. then Sz would define the coordinates of that point as 11Pw ex and ey' where Pu = <I> Pn.5 in.0 ) 4.0 in.db) 2 Dc Ps = = 2. ex and ey.2 1T(17.
24 Failure Surface Interaction Diagram (Ref.Mn Interaction Curves .Mn Interaction Curves Failure Surfaces Sa "load Contour" Plane at Constant Pn (al Failure Surfaces Sa Plane at Constant Pn Po Pn . (b) Biaxial Bending and Tension.8. 8.11) (a) Biaxial Bending and Compression. . (bl Figure 8. 13 Reciprocal Load Method for Biaxial Bending 541 Pn .P.
000 psi (1863 MPa) !pu Ips = = 240. seems to demand less computational rigor as can be seen from the two design examples to follow.and yaxis respectively. M nby = nominal bending moments about the x. Design the column for the following bending moments: Mux = Muy = 825. The interaction expression for the load and bending moments about the two axes is P (P . or tension (negative) Mnx' Mny = nominal bending moments about the x.5 + (M )1.14.4 Assume the precast column section in Example 8. 8. 8. This method seems to require less effort in the solution of biaxial bending problems.85f: b) ~ fpy The stepbystep operational procedure for the design of biaxially loaded columns essentially follows the procedure of Sec.85 f. 8.32.s = stress in the compressive reinforcement closest to the load =fpy if fps Ts = force in the tensile side reinforcement a b = depth of the equivalent block = f31cb = (Aplfps)/(0.0 (8.000 lb (1334 kN) Given: !~ = 6.85 f~ f31Cb b + Aps/.14 MODIFIED LOAD CONTOUR METHOD FOR BIAXIAL BENDING In lieu of Equation 8.542 Chapter 8 Prestressed Compression and Tension Members 8.11.11 proposed a modified expression which can represent both the strength interaction diagram and the failure surface of a reinforced concrete biaxially loaded columns as in Fig.Aps/ps (8.24 modifying the approach presented in Sec. a = f31c f.000 psi (1565 MPa) .(Ag .7 kNm) and P u = 300.000 in.5 = ~ M nby 1. as well as the reciprocal load method. at the balanced strain condition The value of limit strain state Pnb and Mnb can be obtained from: Pnb = 0.37) Where P n = nominal axial compression (positive).3.lb (93.P ) + (M P n no nb nb ~ M nbx )1.1 Design of Biaxially Loaded Prestressed Concrete Column by the Modified Load Contour Method Example 8.38a) and (8. This method.2.11.and yaxis respectively (negative) P no = maximum nominal axial compression (positive) or axial tension = 0.000 psi (41. 8.s .2 is a nonslender column subjected to biaxial bending without sidesway. Hsu in Ref.4 MPa) normal weight concrete 270.38b) where.Ast) + f0st P nb = nominal axial compression at the balanced strain condition M nbx . 8.
75 m. .65 = Pno 0.65. x axis parallel to the shorter side b.153 =0.lb (237 kNm) eb eb = P nb = 229. Solution: Pu Mux Muy = 300. 2 Total reinforcement area Ast = 16 X 0.000 psi Hence: ex = p u = 300000 = 2.153 = 2.002) Pnb = 229. Try Actual P n = Actual Mn = ~ <!> = 0.502.310 = 9.000 (225 .205 lb. ey Mux 825.000 From example 8.000 .Ast) + As!ps = 0. 7 wire) tendons giving a total of sixteen tendons.448 in. suggests that it is compression failure.75 m. 7wire (12mm dia. . dia.103. Mnb 2. Mnb = Pnbeb = 2.000 in.124 .lb about the xaxis = Puex = 825. hence compression controlled state and the strength reduction factor <!> = 0. + 1. y = axis parallel to the longer side h.2. 2 The small eccentricity of 2.53 X 240.448) = 1.000 in. = Muy 825. > e = 2. h = 15 in.75 in.124 in.000 = 461.lb about the yaxis n = 6.85 X 6.2. 85/. b = 15 in.(Ag .103.14 Modified Load Contour Method For Biaxial Bending 543 The section is reinforced with five !in.000 Using the interaction surface expression for biaxial bending in equation 8.310 lb.8. 300. ~ 825.538lb .000 = 2.17 m. = 1. On each face As = (fivdin. for the limit strain state in compression (Et = 0.. d' = 2.231lbm.765 in.5 in.269. 7wire tendons) =5 x 0.75 in. = Pu = 300.000 psi Ips = 240. The column section is 15 in.37.000 . x 15 in.000 lbs = Puey = 825.
205 ._ 1 Prestressed concrete At2 = 2Atl .182 + 0.1 ServiceLoad Stresses Tension elements and systems such as railroad ties.310 (1.229.E. b = 15 in.) A.468 + 0. (c) I /A". 8.103.231)1.E". + 2. .269.5 + 2.5 M nby I . area At1 = Ag + (n .231)1. (a) Unstressed tendon. t II I Prestressed concrete f~~:IJr ~Lpcl = ~Lp.E".502. (c) Prestressed concrete.538 . (b) II Structural steel I ~ __ F I ~~~=1 ~F I ~L ' = ~L ".15 PRESTRESSED TENSION MEMBERS 8.269.310 1.1)Aps.0 I 461. and ties in walls of liquidretaining tanks combine the high strength of the prestressing strands with the stiffness of the concrete. As = five ~in. A".103. (a) I· I L n !> _ _ F "'I Unstressed tendon ~lo::i~n~~~u~t~. The limited and controlled deformation of the prestressed tension member in spite of its slenderness makes it especially useful as a tie or as part of an overall structural system.) ~ tl (d) ~B_F f r.124 = 1 0.5 (1. they provide tensile resistance and reduced deformations that could not be provided if the member were made of an allsteel section to carry the same load. (A"." \ 544 Chapter 8 Prestressed Compression and Tension Members pn (P = = P ) (M Pnb nb+~ )1. d = 12. bridge truss tension members.25 Relative elongation of tension members.15 giving a total of sixteen tendons. h = 15 in.J ~Lpc2 .2~LpCl Figure 8.15.124 1. foundation anchors for retaining walls.229.1 ~L =~ ". dia.5 in. (d) Prestressed concrete. CAp. As such.468 1. . (b) Structural steel.5 +~ no  M nbx (M )1. 7wire strand tendons on each face as in Figure 8. area A/2 = 2A t1 . namely.118 > (this section is very slightly overdesigned) Accept the design. /Atl .
through a judicious choice of the geometry of the section. The elongation of the tension tie results from application of the external force F.47a) while the effective stress in the prestressing steel is fpe e =A ps P (S.40) where As is considerably larger than Aps.47b) . a considerably reduced elongation is seen as shown in Figure S.45) Equation S. The transformed area of concrete in Figure S.39) If the tendon is replaced by a rolled structural member. Hence. ALps =A E FL ps ps (S. the change in the properties of the section results in a deformation ALs = ALps ( AsEs ApsEps) (S.l)Aps F (S.25b.42) the corresponding change in stress in the prestressing steel is Afps = Atl npF (S. Shortening of the tension tie occurs due to both the prestressing force and the longterm effects. from basic mechanics.=  FL AtEc AtEps (S. It is readily seen that if the area of concrete is doubled.44) or AL npFL = .43) (S.46) fei = . In sum. it is possible to reduce the elongation of prestressed tension members considerably. The stress in the concrete due to initial prestress after transfer is p. The reduced stress in the concrete that results in an effective prestressing force Pe after all timedependent losses have occurred is (S.A' c where Ac is the net area of concrete in the section.15 Prestressed Tension Members 545 Figure S. the elongation is halved for the same tensile force F.25 compares the elongation of a prestressed concrete member in direct tension with a structural steel member of similar capacity.25c is All = Ag + (np .8. (S. while the elongation of the unstressed tendon in part (a) due to force F is.45 gives the elongation of the tension tie due to the external load F at service load.41) and if the change in stress in the concrete is Afc=A tl (S.
we have.5 Laboratory prestressing bed. (Courtesy. the change in length due to creep is ACR = .15.50b) Due to creep.1M + "F A. the change in length IlLpc (elongation) at service load. England. Building Research Establishment. which could lead to structural fa ilure.42 o n Equation 8. is essentially eq uivalent to the red uction in length 6. Garslon. Watford. (P. If the member is post· tensioned and fully bonded. for the total stress in the concrete. + P .P = . (8.PI = r. F t.. I =ArE~ P.47a for the total effect of the external ten· sile force F and the prestressing fo rce P~ . then the reduction in length due to the initial prestress Pj alone is t.)] 2 t (8..49) If crack ing is not allowed in the tension member. the initial prestressing fo rce PI reduces to the effective force p•.L (8. A~ A The corresponding stress in the tendon is (8.49.) . from Equation 8.c =+.. P. as in Chapter 7.L AJ.5 \) Photo 8. So using a creep coeffi cient C~ and assuming. an average force (PI + Pt)n.48) t. (8.2 Deformation Behavior Evaluation of the deformation of the tension member is critical to the overall design of the enti re structure. P.P due to the erfective prestressing force P~ (see next).546 Chapter 8 Prestressed Compression and Tension Members Superimposing Equation 8. Changes in the length of the member can induce seve re stresses in the adjoining members.A "E L [C. as sufficiently accurate for evaluating creep loss. 8.5Oa) and the elastic reduction in length aft er losses is t.
the entire tension in the member is assumed to be carried by the prestressing tendon. It is not unreasonable under certain conditions to use a safety factor of 2. from Equations 8.15 Prestressed Tension Members 547 To account for shrinkage.5 for the decompression load F dec ' The safety factor level is determined by the importance of the tension member in the structure... the change in length is /::i. the tensile stress in the concrete at the first cracking load Fer should not exceed the direct tensile strength of the concrete.e = {A~Ec [Pe + Cu (Pi: Pe)] + ESHL} (8.52) so that the total effective reduction in length becomes /::i. = 0 in Equation 8. and f. an additional prestressing force and the addition of nonprestressed reinforcement become necessary to control cracking.54) 8.15. with a consequent failure of the member. and 0. Assuming that only prestressed steel is provided. Equation 8.57) and the design ultimate load is (8. the nominal strength of the linear tension member is (8. sandlightweight and alllightweight concrete. 0.58) It is important to provide a minimum safety factor of 1. Vi'c Vi'c.75 for normalranging between t.4 Limit State at Failure and Safety Factors After cracking.51 and 8.3 Decompression and Cracking In considering decompression and cracking. the importance of the structure itself.55. . the load at t. The cracking load Fer can be evaluated from Equation 8. and the negative effects of longterm reductions in length of the tension member on the integrity of the overall structure.55) Any overload beyond Fer is expected to cause a dynamic increase in cracking such that all the applied load starts to be carried by the prestressing steel alone.55 then becomes (8. Consequently. If the probability of cracking exists due to a possible overload.53) Conversely.8. respectively. A decompression load.15.56) 8. f' t =  Pe + Fcr Ac At (8. it has to be assumed that no cracking is allowed at service load. SH = ESHL (8. the loss in tension due to creep and shrinkage alone.48 using the appropriate value oft.0 or more in a particular design. namely.85. is (8. provision of an adequate level of residual compressive stress in the concrete becomes necessary in major tension members. = 5~ where ~ = 1. = 3~ weight. Therefore.52. viz. should be the maximum allowable service load to which the member can be subjected.
J.5 against cracking and 1.5. Select the area Aps and the size of the prestressing strands..2 MPa) fpu = 270. normal weight 4.06 X 106 psi (28 MPa) Ec = 4.000 psi (1.L  FL AtEe due to external load (Equation 8. = 4vJ: = 310 psi (2.e. (41. compute the elongation A _ i.30 I~.6 m). and given data are as follows: f~ = 6. Compute the lengthshortening deformations due to creep and shrinkage (Equation 8.29 has a length L = 130 ft (39. Adopt the design if all requirements are satisfied.2 against failure. Choose a uniform concrete compressive stress value at service load due to Pe to range between Ie = 0. otherwise. 8.000 psi (1.16 SUGGESTED STEPBYSTEP PROCEDURE FOR THE DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS 1. 2. Determine the factored load Fu and the corresponding required nominal strength Fn=FJc}. A flowchart for the stepbystep trialandadjustment procedure that can be used for the design and/or analysis of linear tension members is presented in Figure 8. 5. Fdw and Fer to verity that they exceed the value 1. Next. Find the factors of safety due to forces F. proceed through another trialandadjustment cycle. using !in.548 Chapter 8 Prestressed Compression and Tension Members 8. 3.1)Aps.000 psi.14 MPa) Eci = 4. 4. The tie is to be designed for a net horizontal roof and earthfill dead load of thrust Fd = 115. 6.17 DESIGN OF LINEAR TENSION MEMBERS Example 8.53): Ile = e L 2 { AeEe [ Pe + Cu (Pi + P )] + ESHL } Then check whether the value obtained causes excessive stress in adjoining members.4 MPa).20 I~ and Ie = 0.000 lb (245 kN). = 0.69 X 106 psi (32. Then compute the first cracking load Fer.45) and verify whether the value obtained is within the specified limits of the design.000 lb (512 kN) and live load of thrust FL = 55. and then compute the net concrete area Ae = Ag . Compute the maximum allowable external force F based on decompression stress I.A duct and the transformed area At = Ag + (n . i.310 MPa) . (12.862 MPa) fpi = 190.26.J..4 A linear posttensioned fully grouted directtension tie for an underground shelter shown in Figure 8.000 psi (31. The maximum allowable elongation due to external load is !in. Design the tie with a safety factor not less than 1.0 MPa) f~i = f.7mm) dia 270K prestressing strands. find Fdee .
: + ft ) ~ CD No 0 0 Yes \ Fdec> F) I No Go to Yes / I SF I " > SF \ dec / r CD 0 Compute .<lallow. fei' f. fpu. + Cu Ci +.2P )] + €SH L } e . > 0. Fo + Ci.. LFS.HAps or Ag = Aps f pe fe F=Fo+FL 0 Go to PeAt Compute: Fdec = . q" .<l = _ { _ L • AcEe AtEc [ \ p. Eps ' CU ' €SH' SF. At = Ag + (n .30(..2FL' Fn = FuN Select fe = f.. Input: L. F o ' F L .8.<lL > . = 0.Ae Fer = At ( .A duc . f. "'" "'2 0. Ee.and Aps = Fnlfpu e Ae = Ag ... Compute required Fu = "'.20f.<lL=~ Go to CD Yes 0 ( No .17 Design of Linear Tension Members 549 ( START 8. .<lallOW. fpi' f pe . / END ") Figure 8. Flowchart for the design (analysis) of linear prestressed tension .. Fo + FL Select section size Ag = bh = .26 members.
93/0.4 cm2) From Equation 8.251..00010. 1 270K strands : .1)1.= 117.07 x 270.18 .000 = 288. . 2 (760 em? = 121 + (6.69 x 106 = 6.000 + 1.000 lb (1005 kN). So we use seven tendons and obtain Aps = 7 x 0. .1111270.2FD + 1.000 = 226. So Aps = FnlIpu = 251.93 in. The stressstrain diagram of the strands is given in Figure 8.08.07 = 126. we try a tie rod section 11 in. 2 (6. x 11 in.900 lb (1.500 lb and Ag = 160.000 = 160.153 = 1.000) = 107 in.9 = 251.2 (816.3.7.500/(0. Use a load factor of 1.9 cm 2). assuming the tendon duct has a 2in. Now. trying !in." . f' = 0 = t or Pe + Fdec Ae At o=  160. ~«· ·_t_ Section A Figure 8.86 in. 1T(2? From Equation 8.27 Prestressed concrete tie in Example 8.034 MPa) Eps np =29 X 106 psi (200 x 103 MPa) = Ep/Ec = 29 x 106/4.l)Aps Check of Forces F.35 ESH X 106 in. 7· w l r e . diameter.: . Then the available nominal strength is Fn = 1.000 psi (1... .153 = 6.6 x 55... .7mm) dia 7wire strands. assume that the uniform compressive stress that is caused by the prestressing force Pe is Ie = 0.6FL = 1. yI . ·.56.07 in. The factored load is Fu = l.54 in. . h ::EJ.86 + 126.77 cm2). (279 mm x 279 mm) and obtain Ag = 121 in. Then Pe = 1. 2 Accordingly. 2 Then.2 for FD and 1. Hence.2 x 115.000 = 0.25 x 6./in.500 Fdec 117.41.6 for Fv Solution: Factored Loads and Choice of Strands (Steps 1 and 2).07 x 150. Ae = Ag .550 Chapler 8 Prestressed CompressIon and TensIon Members 1 1 Prestressing tendon A ps = "2 " d·la.4...2 (6. (12. F dec' and Fcr (Steps 3 and 4)..285 kN)..54 .18 = 700 Cu = 2. the transformed concrete area is At = Ag + (n . and the required nominal strength is Fn = Fu 1<1> = 226.111 lb (1116 kN). Ipe = 150. we find that the number of strands = 0.
From Equation 8. Finally.55.69 X 10 =  .2.000 = 310 psi. tie prestressed with seven !in.010/170.45. This is close to 1. the decompression SF is FjFdec = 260.50(a).57 lll.1 ACI Committee 318. which is satisfactory since the allowable .0.5 + 2. the effective prestress shortening and longterm shortening due to creep and shrinkage is = _{ 130 X 12 X 10 [160.320 lb (766 kN) and the actual F = FD + FL = 115.69 X 10 6 c = 0.000 = 1.548 lb From before.53.300 X 130 X 12 6 117. We know that Pi = fp.500 Fer 310 = . .900 = 260.0 x V6.:1 is ! in. we can adopt the design of an 11 in.86 X 4.000 + 55.117.:1L =AE = t FL 170. which is satisfactory. Deformation Check (Step 5). the initial shortening at prestress transfer is .000(130 X 12) 126.75 in. a deformation of this magnitude has to be imposed on the adjoin ing elements in order to determine whether the resulting stresses are within the allowable limits.51 and the actual SF is <l>FJF= 260.000 lb.010 lb > required Fu = 226. the available nominal strength is Fn = 288.6(130 X 12)} =  2. So the net shortening is .86 + 126.300 lb (904 kN). Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (AC! 31808) (ACI 318R08). Assuming they are.000 x 1.320 lb.:1i = PiL A E = c c 203. (72 mm). The cracking SF is FjFcr = 260.0101172.45 . which is satisfactory. 0. = 4 x 1.5.23. indicating that once the member is cracked it almost reaches its limit state at failure. the available SF is greater than the required SF = 1. (12 mm) .Aps = 190.3 + 160.35 (203.5)] 117.54 X 4.53. Thus. Farmington Hills.86 X 4.57 = .900 lb. The first cracking load Fer is obtained from Equation 8.000 = 170. (70 mm) From Equation 8. 465 pp.07 = 203.2.000 lb < 172. American Concrete Institute.2. Thus.75 + 0. MI. Assume that the maximum tensile stress in the concrete at the first cracking load is 4A vfi.~~~ X 126. the elongation due to external load is . Then or 160. SELECTED REFERENCES 8.320 = 1.54 Fer = 211. So the design strength is Fu = <l> Fn = 0.45 lll.010/211. (15 mm) From Equation 8.References 551 So the maximum allowable Fdec is \610.87 in. which is satisfactory.69 X 106 2 3 + 700 X 10. 2008. 7wire 270K straight tendons. x 11 in.548 = 1.54 = 172.9 x 288.
1970. Boca Raton. Jr. W." ACI Struct. 5th ed. 8. normalweight concrete f:i = 4. The First International Conference on Recent Advances in Concrete Technology. dia 7wire 270K stressrelieved prestressing strands having the stressstrain properties shown in figure 8. and Zia. pp. Phoenix. 8." Keynote Address Paper. P.. 8. 8. G... 2009. 1988. Washington. R. MarchApril 1988. and design the size and spacing of the necessary ties. MarchApril. Ece = 0.0038 in. The column is prestressed with six Hn. 8. 6th ed.. T. 936 pp. 2008. Prestressed Concrete Institute.000 psi (1. PROBLEMS 8. Determine the type of initial failure of the column. 2001. Washington. "Analysis and Design of Square and Rectangular Columns by Equation of Failure Surface. "ConcreteThe Sustainable Infrastructure Material for the 21 st. 8. 8. c.1 Compute the nominal strengths P n and Mn of the precast prestressed tied concrete nonslender column having the cross section shown in Figure P8. 8. 167189. pp. Crystal City. EC103. T." Journal of the Structural Division. D. J. G. No. B.l and an eccentricity e = 9 in. 1560 p. D. Y. G. Concrete Construction Engineering Handbook. Construction of Prestressed Concrete Structures. "Effects of Creep and Shrinkage on Prestressed Concrete Columns. September 2006. Reston. 2007. American Society of Civil Engineers.C. Proceedings." PC! Journal 11 (1986): 3749. G.. J. E. 29 X 106 psi (200 X 103 MPa) Eps = d' = 2 in. PCI Design Handbook. 96.6 Gerwick. P.6 MPa). Post.13 Nawy.5 Lin.8 mm) . T. 105 (1979): 14711487. 1991. 123.2 Nawy.jin.12 Nawy. John Wiley and Sons. C. B.jin. "Prestressed Concrete Developments in Japan. c. Jr. E.900 psi (33. 1999. MI. Century. 1985). "Ultimate Strength of Eccentrically Loaded Partially Prestressed Columns. Transportation Research Board. 124.. 8.. and Lakhwara.034 MPa) Ecu = 0. E. American Concrete Institute.000 psi (48. "Ultimate Load Capacity of Prestressed Concrete Columns." Journal of the American Concrete Institute 63 (1986): 767788.0008 in.758 MPa) fpe = 150. 2nd ed.. September 19. E. 8.000 psi (1. Upper Saddle River. National Research Council.. G. E. CRC Press.Tensioning Manual. 8. Va. Given data are as follows: f~ = 7. FL.552 Chapter 8 Prestressed Compression and Tension Members 8.. (50..9 Wheen. F. pp. WileyInterscience. "ConcreteThe Sustainable Infrastructure Material for the 21 st. 2nd ed.15 Nawy.. Century. 21032123. editorinchief. American Society of Civil Engineers. 8. PostTensioning Institute. Chicago... 1993.9. New York. New York.. R.11 Hsu.4 PostTensioning Institute.14 Nawy. Fundamentals of High Performance Concrete.862 MPa) fpy = 255.000 psi (1. Reinforced ConcreteA Fundamental Approach.8 Gerwick. (1st ed.7 Zia.C. 8.3 Prestressed Concrete Institute. and Moriadith. NJ: Prentice Hall..440p. T." Journal of the Prestressed Concrete Institute 23 (1978): 6676.10 Wilhelm.. Farmington Hills. 5th ed." Journal of the Structural Division.8 MPa) fpu = 270. "Prestressed Concrete Members in Direct Tension. L." Keynote Address Paper. J.
Ib.2 with lu = 15 ft (4. and compare the section obtained with the section of the 130ft (39. half of which are placed at each face parallel to the neutral axis. Compare the size needed in Problem 8. 2. assuming that lateral sidesway due to wind is negligible. Gravity loading only. 8.2 for lu = 20 ft to the size of the column in Example 8.4 if its length L = 90 ft (27. Sidesway of the force and moment magnitudes of Example 8. . dia 7wire 270K. 8.1 ~11".4 m).S Design the prestressed tension member in Example 8. 8. (508 mm) x 20 in. Use the Modified Load Contour Method in the solution.1 if the overall sectional dimensions of the column are 20 in. (508 mm) and the prestressing reinforcement is twelve !in.Problems 553 (2~.2.4 Design the column in Problem 8. _LJ Column section. The column is loaded with the same magnitudes of loads and moments and is constructed of the same properties as the materials used in Example 8.10 m) and which is not braced against sidesway.100.rrl Figure PS.2 Construct the nominal loadmoment Pn .Mn and the design P u .3 as a biaxially loaded nonslender braced column subjected to factored moments Mux = Muy = 1.3 Design a square tied prestressed bonded slender column having a clear height lu = 20 ft (6. 8.~'~)1 1_ r(381mm)~ 15"_~ 0 0 0 0 2" 8" I 1 p~ 0 0 12" (305mm 2" r.Mu diagrams for the prestressed concrete columns in Example 8.2. The design should cover the following two loading conditions: 1.6m)long tie in the example.:r.000 in.57 m).
and (3) serviceabilit y beha vior. 1 encompasses more than one aspect o f such systems. Sometimes. are used University of Wyoming. however. as shown in part (a) of the fi gure.TWOWAY PRESTRESSED CONCRETE FLOOR SYSTEMS 9. The prestressing is normally posttensioned after the twoway pla te is cast. Essentially the same principles are used in the a nalysis o f continuous twoway prestressed concrete nat pl ate systems as in the analysis o f reinforced concrete plate systems. called lilt slabs. The present state of knowledge permits reasonable evaluatio n of (I ) the moment capacity. Th e analysis and design of framed floor slab systems represented in Figure 9. Note that flat plates are sla bs supported directly on columns with o ut beams. (Cou rtesy. addition. compared to pari (b) for slabs on beams. as determined by defl ection control and crack control. and part (c) for waffl e slab noors. (2) the slabcolumn shear capacity. and it is oft en un likely that economic considerations alo ne can justify using prestressed twoway Ooor systems o f the types shown in Figures 9.1 (b) and (c). Prestressed Concrete Institute. onsite precast twoway slabs. Twoway slabs and plates are those pane ls in which the dimensional ratio of length \0 width is less than 2.1 INTRODUCTION: REVIEW OF METHODS Supported fl oor systems are usually constructed o f reinforced concrele cast in place. The tech niques o f construction diffe r.) 554 .
9. (b) Twoway slab floor on beams. (a) Twoway flatplate floor.1 Twowayaction floor systems.1 Introduction: Review of Methods 555 Spandrel beam (optional) Exterior column Basement wall (a) Interior column (b) (e) Figure 9. (c) Waffle slab floor. .
which empirically allowed limited moment redistribution. assuming the material to be homogeneous and isotropic. formed the basis of ACI Code recommendations with moment coefficient tables. 0Slabs for succeeding floors are cast and layered atop each other. starting with the top one. causing slabs below and beside also to fall. the construction technique in lift slabs and the absence of the expertise required for such construction can create hazardous conditions which may result in loss of stability and structural collapse. guided the . with steel collars having sufficient clearance to permit lifting (jacking) of the slab or plate to the appropriate floor level. particularly in the United States. separated by a membrane. and are gradually worked up one at a time. Lifting is accomplished through the use of jacks placed on top of the columns and connected to threaded rods extending down the faces of the columns to the lifting collars embedded in the slabs. Slabs are raised. are built prior to the casting of the basic bottom slab extending to the building's height. principally by Westergaard. The smalldeflections theory of plates. which can be steel or concrete. However. separated by a membrane or sprayed parting agent. Simultaneous activation of all the jacks is essential in order to maintain the slab in a totally horizontal state to avoid imbalance. as shown in Figure 9.556 Chapter 9 TwoWay Prestressed Concrete Floor Systems l o T (d) (Dsupport columns are set in place. ®JaCk failure could cause slab to become unlevel and fall. Figure 9. All the other slabs are cast around the columns. o 0JaCks are fastened on top of support columns. CD Groundfloor slab is cast. The work. The technique for producing lift slabs involves casting a groundlevel slab which can double as a casting bed over which all the other floor slabs are cast and stacked.1 Continued (d) Liftslab installation technique. as a distinct structural system that is fast to construct and perhaps more economical than castinplace prestressed twoway slabs. The columns. The analysis of slab behavior in flexure up to the 1940s and early 1950s followed the classical theory of elasticity.1(d).
Since practical considerations require the reinforcement to be placed in orthogonal directions.1 The Semielastic ACI Code Approach The ACI approach gives two alternatives for the analysis and design of a framed twoway action slab or plate system: the direct design method and the equivalent frame method.9. Both methods are discussed in more detail in Section 9. made it mandatory to idealize. Variable reinforcement permits the lower bound solution still to be valid. Provided that serviceability constraints are applied. The various methods that are used for the analysis and design of twoway action slabs and plates are summarized in the following subsections. the slab is assumed to be completely rigid until collapse. contributed immensely to a further understanding of the limitstate behavior of slabs and plates at failure as well as at serviceable load levels. Park. This topic will be discussed in more detail in Section 9. 9. complicated even for simple shapes and boundary conditions when no computers were available. hence the name "strip method.1. and sometimes render empirical. Johansen's yieldline theory represents the true behavior of concrete slabs and plates. the elastic solutions.14. conditions beyond economic bounds. Further work at Rutgers by Nawy incorporated the deflection effect at high load levels as well as the compressive membrane force effects in predicting the collapse load. Hence. Wood.1 Introduction: Review of Methods 557 thinking of the code writers. GambleSozenSiess. Powell. My. Hillerborg set twisting moments equal to zero and transformed the slab into intersecting beam strips. an upper bound solution requiring a valid mechanism when applying the work equation was sought. For limitstate solutions.4 The Strip Method The strip method was proposed by Hillerborg.2 The YieldLine Theory Whereas the semielastic code approach applies to standard cases and shapes and has an inherent excessively large safety factor with respect to capacity. permitting evaluation of the bending moments from an assumed collapse mechanism which is a function of the type of external load and the shape of the floor panel. 9. Mansfield. Hence.1. and Park.1.3 The Limit Theory of Plates The interest in developing a limit solution became necessary due to the possibility of finding a variation in the collapse field which could give a lower failure load. 9. 9. Sawczuk.1) where M x.1. Rzhanitsyn. and Mxy are the bending moments and w is the unit intensity of load. Wood. as well as a lower bound solution requiring that the stress field satisfy everywhere the differential equation of equilibrium. Studies by many investigators. In 1943. The equivalent frame method will be used in the design and analysis of prestressed slabs and plates. extensive research into the ultimate behavior of reinforced concrete slabs has been undertaken." . and other researchers have given more accurate semiexact predictions of the collapse load. the yieldline theory is a plastic theory easy to apply to irregular shapes and boundary conditions. Since that time. a2 _ a2 M a2 M _M x _ 2__x_y + y ax2 ax ay ay2 = w (9.3. that is. in attempting to fit the reinforcement to the strip fields. Johansen presented his yieldline theory for evaluating the collapse capacity of slabs. such as those of Ockleston.
The simple case of the panel in part (a) of Figure 9. 9. we get W AB   wS4 L4 + S4 (9.2a) and W DE   wL 4 L4 + S4 (9. supporting the foregoing discussion of the steepness of the curvature contours in Figure 9. The panel will deflect in a dishlike form under the external load. the shorter span of such a slab panel on unyielding supports is subjected to the larger moment. as the behavior is highly statically indeterminate. Evaluation of the division of moments in the x and y directions is extremely complex. i. the distribution of moments in the short and long directions is considerably more complex. or flat plates supported by a grid of columns. We seek to visualize the physical behavior of the panel under gravity load.2(a).1. Equating the deflections of the two strips at the central point C. it is preferable to continue the traditional practice of identifying the load intensity as "w. The yieldline theory for the limit state at failure evaluation of slabs and plates will also be concisely presented. In either case.2. Note that while the ACI 318 Code proposes using "q" for the unit intensity of load for twoway slabs.. 9. the deflection of strip AB is kw ABL4 and the deflection of strip DE is kWDE S4. respectively. Hence. where W AB and w DE are the portions of the total load intensity W transferred to strips AB and DE. one has to consider a slab panel supported by flexible supports such as beams and columns.2b) It is seen from these equations that the shorter span S of strip DE carries the heavier por tion of the load. such that the deflection of both strips at the central point C is the same." as is done in this chapter. and its corners will lift if it is not monolithically cast with the supports. most of the other solutions are lower bound..1 TwoWay Action Consider a single rectangular panel supported on all four sides by unyielding supports such as shear walls or stiff beams.2 FLEXURAL BEHAVIOR OF TWOWAY SLABS AND PLATES 9. i. Ll = kw/ 4 .2 is expounded by taking strips AB and DE at midspan.2(a) indicate that the curvatures and consequently the moments at the central area Care more severe in the shorter direction y with its steep contours than in the longer direction x.2 Relative Stiffness Effects Alternatively. 9.558 Chapter 9 TwoWay Prestressed Concrete Floor Systems Except for Johansen's yieldline theory. This complexity arises from the fact that the degree of stiffness of the yielding supports determines the intensity of steepness of the curvature contours in Figure 9.2(a) in both the x and y directions and the redistribution of moments. where k is a constant. because of the limitations of the use of the direct design method in its applicability to twoway prestressed floor systems and the need for more refined determination of the stiffnesses at the columnslab joints in the design process. . The deflection of a simply supported uniformly loaded beam is 5w/4/384EI. If the thickness of the two strips is the same.5 Summary The equivalent frame method will be the chief method discussed. as in part (b). W = W AB + W DE. Johansen's upperbound solution can give the highest collapse load as long as a valid failure mechanism is used in predicting the collapse load. The contours shown in Figure 9.e.e.2.
as slabs are flexible and highly underreinforced.9. Overstress in one region is reduced by such redistribution of moments to the lesser stressed regions. The Code assumes that vertical panels cut through an en .1 Introduction The following discussion of the equivalent frame method of analysis for twoway systems summarizes the ACI Code approach to the evaluation and distribution of the total moments in a twoway slab panel. 9. If the long span L in such floor systems of slab panels without beams is considerably larger than the short span S. (b) Central slips in a twoway slab panel.3 The Equivalent Frame Method y 559 (a) ~ Corner crack ____ if the corner is prevented from lifting L (b) Figure 9. the maximum moment at the center of a plate panel would approximate the moment at the middle of a uniformly loaded strip of span L that is clamped at both ends.2 Deflection of panels and strips. redistribution of moments in both the long and short directions depends on the relative stiffnesses of the supports and the supported panels. as the total floor behaves as an orthotropic plate supported on a grid of columns without beams.3.3 THE EQUIVALENT FRAME METHOD 9. The ratio of the stiffness of the beam supports to the slab stiffness can result in curvatures and moments in the long direction larger than those in the short direction. In sum. (a) Curvature and deflection contours in a floor panel.
2 or greater than 5. The equivalent frame method thus treats the idealized frame in a manner similar to an actual frame. 9. the relative stiffness of the beams in two perpendicular directions shall not be less than 0. If the panel is supported by beams on all sides. Basically. Columns may be offset a maximum of 10 percent of the span in the direction of the offset from either axis between the center lines of successive columns. Given these limitations.0.560 Chapter 9 TwoWay Prestressed Concrete Floor Systems tire rectangularly planned multistory building along lines AB and CD in Figure 9.0. A rigid frame results in the x direction.3 . A solution of such an idealized frame consisting of horizontal beams or equivalent slabs and supporting columns enables the design of the slab as the beam part of the frame. it is necessary to use the equivalent frame method. 4. y I F t_ Equivalent frame width.J in the y direction ] 1 I H I ~~ I Figure 9. and hence is more exact and has fewer limitations than the direct design method. 5. 2. There is a minimum of three continuous spans in each direction. vertical planes EF and HG result in a rigid frame in the y direction. which involves a onecycle moment distribution approximation.3 midway between columns. it involves a full moment distribution of many cycles as compared to the direct design method. The live load shall not exceed three times the dead load. 4 I I C Floor plan with equivalent frame (shaded area in x direction). Successive span lengths in each direction should not differ by more than onethird the length of the longer span.3. Similarly. 6.2 Limitations of the Direct Design Method The following are the limitations of the direct design method: 1. The ratio of the longer to the shorter span within a panel should not exceed 2. for prestressed concrete floor slabs. All loads shall be due to gravity only and uniformly distributed over the entire panel. 3. .
Determine the total statical moment in each of the two perpendicular directions. If one cuts at midspan.4. Mo in the x direction would be distributed to the supports and midspan such that (9.3 Determination of the Statical Moment Mo There are basically four major steps in the design of the floor panels: 1. the idealization of the structure through conversion to an equivalent frame makes it possible to compute Mo once in the x direction and again in the orthogonal y direction. The total statical moment of a uniformly loaded simply supported beam as a onedimensional member is Mo = w1 2/S.3. If one takes as a freebody diagram the typical interior panel shown in Figure 9. M~.9. Proportion the size and distribution of the reinforcement in the two perpendicular directions.6511' and circular supports shall be treated as square supports having the same crosssectional area. and considers half the panel as a freebody diagram. correct determination of the values of the distributed moments becomes a principal objective. 2. In the orthogonal direction.5) . Distribute the negative and positive moments to the column and middle strips and to the panel beams.4a) The distribution would depend on the degree of stiffness of the support. the moment Mo at midspan would be Mo or (9.5(a). In a similar manner. as in Figure 9.4b) where M~. and M'c are at 90 degrees to M o. the panel would be considered simply supported in the span In direction. Also.3) Due to the existence of restraint at the supports. Consider typical interior panels having center line dimensions II in the direction of the moments being considered and dimensions 12 in the direction perpendicular to II' as shown in Figure 9. M~. Its value should not be less than 0. if any. The clear span In extends from face to face of columns. M B. and Me> respectively.4a becomes Mb = = 22 .3. (9. and whose middle strip is the balance of the equivalent frame width. in an analogous manner to Equation 9. 4.3 The Equivalent Frame Method 561 9. Mo in the y direction would be the sum of the moments at midspan and the average of the moments at the supports in that direction. Equation 9. In a twoway slab panel as a twodimensional member. 3. A column strip is a width that is 25 percent of the equivalent frame width on each side of the column center line. M A .5(b). Distribute the total moment for the design of sections for negative and positive moment. symmetry reduces the shears and twisting moments to zero along the edges of the cut segment.24 Wl2 Inl Inl Wl2 Inl Inl M'c + ~ (MA + MB ) (9. If no restraint existed at ends A and B. Given the above. or walls. capitals.
.=. 1 I ~ <t.+GJ I (/2).::T "" '" '" 013 . m 12 = "2 (/2). i j . Q..UI I\) 0'1 _ h I 1 Edge equivalent frame ~ <t. + m 1 I ~ I 12 = width of desicin frame I • = "2 [(12).4 Column and middle strips of the equivalent frame (y direction). ____I _ I 1 : Half middle strip I Column strip Lf midJ I strip I ... + 1 {/2)bl I ~ I T a' ~ I I o @" 10 .3 !!!. [81 I '" 1 ... [±J~ I Figure 9.. I <t. I ._ 1 : i I I 1 1 1 I " '" ~a '" iil 4 (/2). Interior equivalent frame . . . 0 ~. +1~  ! I +.+ I.1. t:T~ o· <t.11~ [±] (/2)b~_1 I I . 1 4 (/2)b 1 I _. " 01 ~ I I Q ~.
(a) Moment on panel.. Each [Ioor is analyzed separately.9. each equivalen t frame musl carry Ihe lotal applied load.3.1 Sydney Opera House during construction . '" Figure 9. To satisfy statica l and equilibrium considerations.6 for frame s in both orthogonal directions. . 9..4 Equivalent Frame Analysis The structure. The load in tensity W at service load in the prestressed concrete slab would be W. alternate span loading has to be used fo r the worst liveload cond iLion.5 Simple moment Mo acting on an interior twoway slab panel in x di· rection. would have the row of columns and a wide continuous beam (slab) ABCD E for gravi ty loading.. . < Reaction . divided into con tinuous frames as shown in Figure 9. (b) Freebody diagram. whereby the columns are assumed fix ed at the floors above and below.3 The Equivalent Frame Method 563 Photo 9.. pe r unit area.
(9. The exterior ends of the slab stri p rOlate more than the central section because of torsional deformation. moment per unit rotation.~...:i+t~m' r~yp.ior . dirKl iOr> NS .'in.+ K«: I I I IKr K. Typical interior equivalent l'lme. .) fb' Figure 9.. the actual column and the transverse slab stri p are conceptually replaced by an equivalent column such that the fl exibility of the equivalent column is equal to the slim of the flexibilities of the actual column and the slab strip. In such cases.. . . It is necessary to account for the rotational resistance of the column at the joint when running a moment relaxation or distribution . In order to account for this rotation and deformation. as.. in lift slab construction . l ' ' I I I  MjUiVitient freme. This assumption is represented by the equation . l..6 Idealized structure divided into equivalent Irames...~ J+ri.S .K( = sum of fl exural Sliffnesses of the upper and lower columns at the joint. direction N.~' ~ 1 ~llrtt(' .~ . The slab strips are assumed to be supported by transverse slabs. I . for example. mo ment per unit rotation Kr = torsional stiffn ess of the torsional beam. moment per unit rotation "f.7.. A schematic illustration of the constituent elements of the equivalent frame is given in Fig· ure 9.c=~:c===*==::i:===<F I I=:====~R ct ct It..' fi I I I 1+' ____¥F===~:====fc i l. direction EW I : __ I I ~L_ I :.c. Typical interior equivalent frame. (b) Section in EW direction. on ly a continuous beam is necessary. .564 Chapter 9 TwoWay Prestressed Concrete Floor Systems Panel Edge ct Panel Column P_I Column P.... (a) Plan. .. The column provides a resisting torque MT equivalenl to the applied torsional moment intensity m. except when the columns are so slender as 10 have very small rigidity compared to the rigidity of the slab al the joint.6) where K« =fl exural stiffness of the equivalent column . W + N E s P.
2h (9.9) can be defined as Kc = ~I [1 + 3(~.6 can be written as the stiffness equation Kec = 1+ 2:. L is the centerline span.3 The Equivalent Frame Method 565 Floor height COlumnl above Torsional Slab strip Attached torsional member Slab strip Figure 9.J] I (9.10) gives results within 5 percent of the more refined values from Equation 9. K c = 4EI Ln .7) Kc Kt and the column stiffness for an equivalent frame (Ref. 9.9) where h is the slab thickness. Alternatively.7 Constituent elements of the equivalent frame. The torsional stiffness of the slab in the column line is 9Ecs C Kt = 2:. (9. Equation 9.10a) L2 where L2 = band width Ln = span C2 = column dimensions in the direction parallel to the torsional beam and the torsional constant is . viz. and L is the clear span of the equivalent beam.8) where I is the column moment of inertia. An exact computation of the carryover factor can be made by the columnanalogy method using the slab as an analogous column. 9. L ( 2 1 C2 )3 (9.. The carryover factors are approximated by ! (1 + 3h1L).8. A simpler expression for Kc (Ref. K c 2:.9.
The slab stiffness is given by the equation 9Es C K = 4EcsIs s Ln . the suggested patterns for the live load are shown in Figure 9.K = Kec + Ks(left) + Ks(right). The fixedend moment FEM for a uniformly distributed load is wI2 (ln)2/12 at the supports. It should be noted that the torsional stiffness K t = [ 3 denotes the value of L2 1 .lOa gives the value for the total length of the torsional beam.o.1 566 Chapter 9 TwoWay Prestressed Concrete Floor Systems 1 C = ~(1 .cd2 (9.5 Pattern Loading of Spans Loading all spans simultaneously does not necessarily produce the maximum positive and negative flexural stresses. ff f f I 1 ~w< I I I if if f f f f f f +f Figure 9. if the adjacent spans are equal.(c21 L 2)] only the part of the torsional beam at one side of the equivalent frame column. Hence.lOb) in which x = shorter dimension of the rectangular part of the cross section at the column junction (such as the slab depth) y = longer dimension of the rectangular part of the cross section at the column junction (such as the column width). For a threes