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ASME Piping Code 2007

B31 Code for pressure piping, developed by American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASME, covers Power Piping, Fuel Gas Piping, Process Piping, Pipeline Transportation
Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons and Other Liquids, Refrigeration Piping and Heat
Transfer Components and Building Services Piping. ASME B31 was earlier known as
ANSI B31.

B31.1 - 2001 - Power Piping


Piping for industrial plants and marine applications. This code prescribes minimum
requirements for the design, materials, fabrication, erection, test, and inspection of power
and auxiliary service piping systems for electric generation stations, industrial
institutional plants, central and district heating plants.
The code covers boiler external piping for power boilers and high temperature, high
pressure water boilers in which steam or vapor is generated at a pressure of more than 15
PSIG; and high temperature water is generated at pressures exceeding 160 PSIG and/or
temperatures exceeding 250 degrees F.

B31.2 - 1968 - Fuel Gas Piping


This has been withdrawn as a National Standard and replaced by ANSI/NFPA Z223.1,
but B31.2 is still available from ASME and is a good reference for the design of gas
piping systems (from the meter to the appliance).

B31.3 - 2002 - Process Piping


Design of chemical and petroleum plants and refineries processing chemicals and
hydrocarbons, water and steam. This Code contains rules for piping typically found in
petroleum refineries; chemical, pharmaceutical, textile, paper, semiconductor, and
cryogenic plants; and related processing plants and terminals.
This Code prescribes requirements for materials and components, design, fabrication,
assembly, erection, examination, inspection, and testing of piping. This Code applies to
piping for all fluids including: (1) raw, intermediate, and finished chemicals; (2)
petroleum products; (3) gas, steam, air and water; (4) fluidized solids; (5) refrigerants;
and (6) cryogenic fluids. Also included is piping which interconnects pieces or stages
within a packaged equipment assembly.

B31.4 - 2002 - Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons


and Other Liquids

This Code prescribes requirements for the design, materials, construction, assembly,
inspection, and testing of piping transporting liquids such as crude oil, condensate,
natural gasoline, natural gas liquids, liquefied petroleum gas, carbon dioxide, liquid
alcohol, liquid anhydrous ammonia and liquid petroleum products between producers'
lease facilities, tank farms, natural gas processing plants, refineries, stations, ammonia
plants, terminals (marine, rail and truck) and other delivery and receiving points.
Piping consists of pipe, flanges, bolting, gaskets, valves, relief devices, fittings and the
pressure containing parts of other piping components. It also includes hangers and
supports, and other equipment items necessary to prevent overstressing the pressure
containing parts. It does not include support structures such as frames of buildings,
buildings stanchions or foundations
Requirements for offshore pipelines are found in Chapter IX. Also included within the
scope of this Code are:

(A) Primary and associated auxiliary liquid petroleum and liquid anhydrous
ammonia piping at pipeline terminals (marine, rail and truck), tank farms, pump
stations, pressure reducing stations and metering stations, including scraper traps,
strainers, and prover loop;
(B) Storage and working tanks including pipe-type storage fabricated from pipe
and fittings, and piping interconnecting these facilities;
(C) Liquid petroleum and liquid anhydrous ammonia piping located on property
which has been set aside for such piping within petroleum refinery, natural
gasoline, gas processing, ammonia, and bulk plants;
(D) Those aspects of operation and maintenance of liquid pipeline systems
relating to the safety and protection of the general public, operating company
personnel, environment, property and the piping systems.

B31.5 - 2001 - Refrigeration Piping and Heat Transfer Components


This Code prescribes requirements for the materials, design, fabrication, assembly,
erection, test, and inspection of refrigerant, heat transfer components, and secondary
coolant piping for temperatures as low as -320 deg F (-196 deg C), whether erected on
the premises or factory assembled, except as specifically excluded in the following
paragraphs.
Users are advised that other piping Code Sections may provide requirements for
refrigeration piping in their respective jurisdictions.
This Code shall not apply to:

(a) any self- contained or unit systems subject to the requirements of Underwriters
Laboratories or other nationally recognized testing laboratory:
(b) water piping;

(c) piping designed for external or internal gage pressure not exceeding 15 psi
(105 kPa) regardless of size; or
(d) pressure vessels, compressors, or pumps,

but does include all connecting refrigerant and secondary coolant piping starting at the
first joint adjacent to such apparatus.

B31.8 - 2003 - Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems


This Code covers the design, fabrication, installation, inspection, and testing of pipeline
facilities used for the transportation of gas. This Code also covers safety aspects of the
operation and maintenance of those facilities.

B31.8S-2001 - 2002 - Managing System Integrity of Gas Pipelines


This Standard applies to on-shore pipeline systems constructed with ferrous materials and
that transport gas.
Pipeline system means all parts of physical facilities through which gas is transported,
including pipe, valves, appurtenances attached to pipe, compressor units, metering
stations, regulator stations, delivery stations, holders and fabricated assemblies.
The principles and processes embodied in integrity management are applicable to all
pipeline systems. This Standard is specifically designed to provide the operator (as
defined in section 13) with the information necessary to develop and implement an
effective integrity management program utilizing proven industry practices and
processes.
The processes and approaches within this Standard are applicable to the entire pipeline
system.

B31.9 - 1996 - Building Services Piping


This Code Section has rules for the piping in industrial, institutional, commercial and
public buildings, and multi-unit residences, which does not require the range of sizes,
pressures, and temperatures covered in B31.1.
This Code prescribes requirements for the design, materials, fabrication, installation,
inspection, examination and testing of piping systems for building services. It includes
piping systems in the building or within the property limits.

B31.11 - 2002 - Slurry Transportation Piping Systems


Design, construction, inspection, security requirements of slurry piping systems.

Covers piping systems that transport aqueous slurries of no hazardous materials, such as
coal, mineral ores and other solids between a slurry processing plant and the receiving
plant.

B31G - 1991 - Manual for Determining Remaining Strength of Corroded


Pipelines
A supplement To B31 Code-Pressure Piping
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Related Topics

Codes and Standards Piping codes and standards - ASME, ANSI, ASTM, AGA,
API, AWWA, BS, ISO, DIN and more...
Pressure Ratings Pressure ratings of pipes and tubes and their fittings - carbon
steel , stainless steel, plastic, copper and more

Related Documents

ASME - American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASME is one of the leading


organizations in the world developing codes and standards
ASME B31.9 - Working Pressure and Temperature Limits The working pressure
and temperature limits of ASME Code B31.9 - Building Services Piping
ASME - Performance Test Codes The ASME Performance Test Codes provide
standard directions and rules for conducting and reporting tests
Slurry Transport and Minimum Flow Velocity Settling of solids in slurry
transport pipes or tubes can be avoided with flow velocities above certain levels
ASTM A106, API 5L and ASTM A53 Seamless Carbon Steel Pipes - Pressure
and Temperature Ratings Pressure (kPa) and temperature (oC) ratings of ASTM
A106, API 5L and ASTM A53 Seamless Carbon Steel Pipes - temperatures
ranging -29 oC - 450 oC

ASME B31.9 - Working Pressure and Temperature Limits

The working pressure and temperature limits of ASME


Code B31.9 - Building Services Piping
ASME B31.9 Building Services Piping applies to the following building services:

Condensing water
Water for heating and cooling

Steam and condensate


Vacuum
Compressed air and nontoxic nonflammable gases

The working pressure and temperature limits of B31.9 can be summarized to:
Service
Steam and condensate
Air, gases and vapors
Nonflammable Liquids

Temperature Limits
maximum 366oF (186oC),
minimum 0oF (-18oC)
maximum 200oF (93oC),
minimum 0oF (-18oC)
maximum 250oF (121oC),
minimum 0oF (-18oC)

Pressure Limit
150 psig (1000 kPa)
150 psig (1000 kPa)
350 psig (2300 kPa)

ASME/ANSI B16 - Standards of Pipes and Fittings

The ASME B16 Standards covers pipes and fittings in


cast iron , cast bronze, wrought copper and steel
The ASME - American Society of Mechanical Engineers - ASME/ANSI B16 Standards
covers pipes and fittings in cast iron , cast bronze, wrought copper and steel.

ASME/ANSI B16.1 - 1998 - Cast Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings
This Standard for Classes 25, 125, and 250 Cast Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings
covers:

(a) pressure-temperature ratings,


(b) sizes and method of designating openings of reducing fittings,
(c) marking,
(d) minimum requirements for materials,
(e) dimensions and tolerances,
(f) bolt, nut, and gasket dimensions and
(g) tests.

ASME/ANSI B16.3 - 1998 - Malleable Iron Threaded Fittings


This Standard for threaded malleable iron fittings Classes 150, and 300 provides
requirements for the following:

(a) pressure-temperature ratings


(b) size and method of designating openings of reducing fittings
(c) marking
(d) materials
(e) dimensions and tolerances
(f) threading
(g) coatings

ASME/ANSI B16.4 - 1998 - Cast Iron Threaded Fittings


This Standard for gray iron threaded fittings, Classes 125 and 250 covers:

(a) pressure-temperature ratings


(b) size and method of designating openings of reducing fittings
(c) marking
(d) material
(e) dimensions and tolerances
(f) threading, and
(g) coatings

ASME/ANSI B16.5 - 1996 - Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings


The ASME B16.5 - 1996 Pipe Flanges and Flange Fittings standard covers pressuretemperature ratings, materials, dimensions, tolerances, marking, testing, and methods of
designating openings for pipe flanges and flanged fittings.
The standard includes flanges with rating class designations 150, 300, 400, 600, 900,
1500, and 2500 in sizes NPS 1/2 through NPS 24, with requirements given in both metric
and U.S units. The Standard is limited to flanges and flanged fittings made from cast or
forged materials, and blind flanges and certain reducing flanges made from cast, forged,
or plate materials. Also included in this Standard are requirements and recommendations
regarding flange bolting, flange gaskets, and flange joints.

ASME/ANSI B16.9 - 2001 - Factory-Made Wrought Steel Buttwelding


Fittings
This Standard covers overall dimensions, tolerances, ratings, testing, and markings for
wrought factory-made buttwelding fittings in sizes NPS 1/2 through 48 (DN 15 through
1200).

ASME/ANSI B16.10 - 2000 - Face-to-Face and End-to-End Dimensions of


Valves
This Standard covers face-to-face and end-to-end dimensions of straightway valves, and
center-to face and center-to-end dimensions of angle valves. Its purpose is to assure

installation interchangeability for valves of a given material, type size, rating class, and
end connection

ASME/ANSI B16.11 - 2001 - Forged Steel Fittings, Socket-Welding and


Threaded
This Standard covers ratings, dimensions, tolerances, marking and material requirements
for forged fittings, both socket-welding and threaded.

ASME/ANSI B16.12 - 1998 - Cast Iron Threaded Drainage Fittings


This Standard for cast iron threaded drainage fittings covers:

(a) size and method of designating openings in reducing fittings


(b) marking
(c) materials
(d) dimensions and tolerances
(e) threading
(f) ribs
(g) coatings
(h) face bevel discharge nozzles, input shafts, base plates, and foundation bolt
holes (see Tables 1 and 2).

ASME/ANSI B16.14 - 1991 - Ferrous Pipe Plugs, Bushings and Locknuts


with Pipe Threads
This Standard for Ferrous Pipe Plugs, Bushings, and Locknuts with Pipe Threads covers:

(a) pressure-temperature ratings:


(b) size;
(c) marking;
(d) materials;
(e) dimensions and tolerances;
(f) threading; and
(g) pattern taper.

ASME/ANSI B16.15 - 1985 (R1994) - Cast Bronze Threaded Fittings


This Standard pertains primarily to cast Class 125and Class 250 bronze threaded pipe
fittings. Certain requirements also pertain to wrought or cast plugs, bushings, couplings,
and caps. This Standard covers:

(a) pressure-temperature ratings;


(b) size and method of designating openings of reducing pipe fittings;
(c) marking;
(d) minimum requirements for casting quality and materials;

(e) dimensions and tolerances in U.S. customary and metric (SI) units;
(f) threading.

ASME/ANSI B16.18 - 1984 (R1994) - Cast Copper Alloy Solder Joint


Pressure Fittings
This Standard for cast copper alloy solder joint pressure fittings designed for use with
copper water tube, establishes requirements for:

(a) Pressure-temperature ratings;


(b) Abbreviations for end connections;
(c) Sizes and method of designating openings of fittings;
(d) Marking;
(e) Material;
(f) Dimensions and tolerances; and
(g) Tests.

ASME/ANSI B16.20 - 1998 - Metallic Gaskets for Pipe Flanges-Ring-Joint,


Spiral-Would, and Jacketed
This standard covers materials, dimensions, tolerances, and markings for metal ring-joint
gaskets, spiral-wound metal gaskets, and metal jacketed gaskets and filler material. These
gaskets are dimensionally suitable for used with flanges described in the reference flange
standards ASME/ANSI B16.5, ASME B16.47, and API-6A. This standard covers spiralwound metal gaskets and metal jacketed gaskets for use with raised face and flat face
flanges. Replaces API-601 or API-601.

ASME/ANSI B16.21 - 1992 - Nonmetallic Flat Gaskets for Pipe Flanges


This Standard for nonmetallic flat gaskets for bolted flanged joints in piping includes:

(a) types and sizes;


(b) materials;
(c) dimensions and allowable tolerances.

ASME/ANSI B16.22 - 1995 - Wrought Copper and Copper Alloy Solder


Joint Pressure Fittings
The Standard establishes specifications for wrought copper and wrought copper alloy,
solder-joint, seamless fittings, designed for use with seamless copper tube conforming to
ASTM B 88 (water and general plumbing systems), B 280 (air conditioning and
refrigeration service), and B 819 (medical gas systems), as well as fittings intended to be
assembled with soldering materials conforming to ASTM B 32, brazing materials
conforming to AWS A5.8, or with tapered pipe thread conforming to ASME B1.20.1.
This Standard is allied with ASME B16.18, which covers cast copper alloy pressure

fittings. It provides requirements for fitting ends suitable for soldering. This Standard
covers:

(a) pressure temperature ratings;


(b) abbreviations for end connections;
(c) size and method of designating openings of fittings;
(d) marking;
(e) material;
(f) dimension and tolerances; and
(g) tests.

ASME/ANSI B16.23 - 1992 - Cast Copper Alloy Solder Joint Drainage


Fittings (DWV)
The Standard establishes specifications for cast copper alloy solder joint drainage fittings,
designed for use in drain, waste, and vent (DWV) systems. These fittings are designed for
use with seamless copper tube conforming to ASTM B 306, Copper Drainage Tube
(DWV), as well as fittings intended to be assembled with soldering materials conforming
to ASTM B 32, or tapered pipe thread conforming to ASME B1.20.1. This standard is
allied with ASME B16.29, Wrought Copper and Wrought Copper Alloy Solder Joint
Drainage Fittings - DWV. It provides requirements for fitting ends suitable for soldering.
This standard covers:

(a) description;
(b) pitch (slope);
(c) abbreviations for end connections;
(d) sizes and methods for designing openings for reducing fittings;
(e) marking;
(f) material; and
(g) dimensions and tolerances.

ASME/ANSI B16.24 - 1991 (R1998) - Cast Copper Alloy Pipe Flanges and
Flanged Fittings
This Standard for Classes 25, 125, 250, and 800 Cast Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged
Fittings covers:

(a) pressure temperature ratings,


(b) sizes and methods of designating openings for reduced fittings,
(c) marking,
(d) minimum requirements for materials,
(e) dimensions and tolerances,
(f) bolt, nut, and gasket dimensions, and
(g) tests.

ASME/ANSI B16.25 - 1997 - Buttwelding Ends

The Standard covers the preparation of butt welding ends of piping components to
be joined into a piping system by welding. It includes requirements for welding
bevels, for external and internal shaping of heavy-wall components, and for
preparation of internal ends (including dimensions and tolerances). Coverage
includes preparation for joints with the following.
(a) no backing rings;
(b) split or non continuous backing rings;
(c) solid or continuous backing rings;
(d) consumable insert rings;
(e) gas tungsten are welding (GTAW) of the root pass. Details of preparation for
any backing ring must be specified in ordering the component.

ASME/ANSI B16.26 - 1988 - Cast Copper Alloy Fittings for Flared Copper
Tubes
This standard for Cast Copper Alloy Fitting for Flared Copper Tubes covers:

(a) pressure rating;


(b) material;
(c) size;
(d) threading;
(e) marking.

ASME/ANSI B16.28 - 1994 - Wrought Steel Buttwelding Short Radius


Elbows and Returns
This Standard covers ratings, overall dimensions, testing, tolerances, and markings for
wrought carbon and alloy steel buttwelding short radius elbows and returns. The term
wrought denotes fittings made of pipe, tubing, plate, or forgings.

ASME/ANSI B16.29 - 1994 - Wrought Copper and Wrought Copper Alloy


Solder Joint Drainage Fittings (DWV)
The standard for wrought copper and wrought copper alloy solder joint drainage fittings,
designed for use with copper drainage tube, covers:

(a) Description,
(b) Pitch (slope),
(c) Abbreviations for End Connections,
(d) Sizes and Method of Designating Openings for Reducing Fittings,
(e) Marking,
(f) Material,
(g) Dimensions and Tolerances.

ASME/ANSI B16.33 - 1990 - Manually Operated Metallic Gas Valves for


Use in Gas Piping Systems Up to 125 psig
General This Standard covers requirements for manually operated metallic valves sizes
NPS 1.2 through NPS 2, for outdoor installation as gas shut-off valves at the end of the
gas service line and before the gas regulator and meter where the designated gauge
pressure of the gas piping system does not exceed 125 psi (8.6 bar). The Standard applies
to valves operated in a temperature environment between .20 degrees F and 150 degrees
F (.29 degrees C and 66 degrees C). Design This Standard sets forth the minimum
capabilities, characteristics, and properties, which a valve at the time of manufacture
must possess, in order to be considered suitable for use in gas piping systems.

ASME/ANSI B16.34 - 1996 - Valves - Flanged, Threaded, and Welding


End
This standard applies to new valve construction and covers pressure-temperature ratings,
dimensions, tolerances, materials, nondestructive examination requirements, testing, and
marking for cast, forged, and fabricated flanged, threaded, and welding end, and wafer or
flangeless valves of steel, nickel-base alloys, and other alloys shown in Table 1. Wafer or
flangeless valves, bolted or through-bolt types, that are installed between flanges or
against a flange shall be treated as flanged end valves.

ASME/ANSI B16.36 - 1996 - Orifice Flanges


This Standard covers flanges (similar to those covered in ASME B16.5) that have orifice
pressure differential connections. Coverage is limited to the following:

(a) welding neck flanges Classes 300, 400, 600, 900, 1500, and 2500
(b) slip-on and threaded Class 300

Orifice, Nozzle and Venturi Flow Rate Meters

ASME/ANSI B16.38 - 1985 (R1994) - Large Metallic Valves for Gas


Distribution
The standard covers only manually operated metallic valves in nominal pipe sizes 2 1/2
through 12 having the inlet and outlet on a common center line, which are suitable for
controlling the flow of gas from open to fully closed, for use in distribution and service
lines where the maximum gage pressure at which such distribution piping systems may
be operated in accordance with the code of federal regulations (cfr), title 49, part 192,
transportation of natural and other gas by pipeline; minimum safety standard, does not
exceed 125 psi (8.6 bar). Valve seats, seals and stem packing may be nonmetallic.

ASME/ANSI B16.39 - 1986 (R1998) - Malleable Iron Threaded Pipe


Unions

This Standard for threaded malleable iron unions, classes 150, 250, and 300, provides
requirements for the following:

(a) design
(b) pressure-temperature ratings
(c) size
(d) marking
(e) materials
(f) joints and seats
(g) threads
(h) hydrostatic strength
(i) tensile strength
(j) air pressure test
(k) sampling
(l) coatings
(m) dimensions

ASME/ANSI B16.40 - 1985 (R1994) - Manually Operated Thermoplastic


Gas
The Standard covers manually operated thermoplastic valves in nominal sizes 1.2 through
6 (as shown in Table 5). These valves are suitable for use below ground in thermoplastic
distribution mains and service lines. The maximum pressure at which such distribution
piping systems may be operated is in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulation
(CFR) Title 49, Part 192, Transportation of Natural and Other Gas by Pipeline; Minimum
Safety Standards, for temperature ranges of .20 deg. F to 100 deg. F (.29 deg. C to 38
deg. C). This Standard sets qualification requirements for each nominal valve size for
each valve design as a necessary condition for demonstrating conformance to this
Standard. This Standard sets requirements for newly manufactured valves for use in
below ground piping systems for natural gas [includes synthetic natural gas (SNG)], and
liquefied petroleum (LP) gases (distributed as a vapor, with or without the admixture of
air) or mixtures thereof.

ASME/ANSI B16.42 - 1998 - Ductile Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged


Fittings, Classes 150 and 300
The Standard covers minimum requirements for Class 150 and 300 cast ductile iron pipe
flanges and flanged fittings. The requirements covered are as follows:

(a) pressure-temperature ratings


(b) sizes and method of designating openings
(c) marking
(d) materials
(e) dimensions and tolerances
(f) blots, nuts, and gaskets
(g) tests

ASME/ANSIB16.44 - 1995 - Manually Operated Metallic Gas Valves for


Use in House Piping Systems
This Standard applies to new valve construction and covers quarter turn manually
operated metallic valves in sizes NPS 1/2-2 which are intended for indoor installation as
gas shutoff valves when installed in indoor gas piping between a gas meter outlet & the
inlet connection to a gas appliance.

ASME/ANSI B16.45 - 1998 - Cast Iron Fittings for Solvent Drainage


Systems
The Standard for cast iron drainage fittings used on self-aerating, one-pipe Solvent
drainage systems, covers the following:

(a) description
(b) sizes and methods for designating openings for reducing fittings
(c) marking
(d) material
(e) pitch
(f) design
(g) dimensions and tolerances
(h) tests

ASME/ANSI B16.47 - 1996 - Large Diameter Steel Flanges: NPS 26


through NPS 60
This Standard covers pressure-temperature ratings, materials, dimensions, tolerances,
marking, and testing for pipe flanges in sizes NPS 26 through NPS 60 and in ratings
Classes 75, 150,0300, 400, 600, and 900. Flanges may be cast, forged, or plate (for blind
flanges only) materials. Requirements and recommendations regarding bolting and
gaskets are also included.

ASME/ANSI B16.48 - 1997 - Steel Line Blanks


The Standard covers pressure-temperature ratings, materials, dimensions, tolerances,
marking, and testing for operating line blanks in sizes NPS 1/2 through NPS 24 for
installation between ASME B16. 5 flanges in the 150, 300, 600, 900, 1500, and 2500
pressure classes.

ASME/ANSI B16.49 - 2000 - Factory-Made Wrought Steel Buttwelding


Induction Bends for Transportation and Distribution Systems
This Standard covers design, material, manufacturing, testing, marking, and inspection
requirements for factory-made pipeline bends of carbon steel materials having controlled
chemistry and mechanical properties, produced by the induction bending process, with or

without tangents. This Standard covers induction bends for transportation and distribution
piping applications (e.g., ASME B31.4, B31.8, and B31.11) Process and power piping
have differing requirements and materials that may not be appropriate for the restrictions
and examinations described herein, and therefore are not included in this Standard.

Carbon, Alloy and Stainless Steel Pipes - ASME/ANSI


B36.10/19

Pipe sizes, inside and outside diameters, wall thickness,


schedules, weight and weight of pipe filled with
water - Metric Units
Covers the standardization of dimensions of welded and seamless wrought steel pipe for
high and low temperatures and pressures.
The steel pipe data chart below can be used to find pipe sizes, diameters, wall thickness,
working pressures and more The chart is based on ASME/ANSI B 36.10 Welded and
Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe and ASME/ANSI B36.19 Stainless Steel Pipe.
Regardless of schedule number, pipes of a particular size all have the same outside
diameter (not withstanding manufacturing tolerances). As the schedule number increases,
the wall thickness increases, and the actual bore is reduced. For example:

A 4 inches (100 mm) Schedule 40 pipe has an outside diameter of 4.500 inches
(114.30 mm), a wall thickness of 0.237 inches (6.02 mm), giving a bore of 4.026
inches (102.26 mm)
A 4 inches (100 mm) Schedule 80 pipe has an outside diameter of 4.500 inches
( 114.30 mm), a wall thickness of 0.337 inches (8.56 mm), giving a bore of 3.826
inches (97.18 mm).

Diameter
Nominal

Schedule

(inches) (mm)
1/8

1/4

10S
Std
XS
10S

40
80

Outside
Diameter
-D(mm)
10.3
13.7

Wall
Thickness
-t(mm)
1.245
1.727
2.413
1.651

Inside
Diameter
-d(mm)
7.811
6.846
5.474
10.398

Inside Pipe
Water
Area Weight Weight
(cm2) (kg/m) (kg/m)
0.479
0.368
0.235
0.846

0.277
0.364
0.468
0.489

0.048
0.037
0.024
0.085

3/8

10

1/2

15

3/4

1 1/4

1 1/2

20

25

32

40

Std
XS
10S
Std
XS
5S
10S
Std
XS
XXS
5S
10S
Std
XS
XXS
5S
10S
Std
XS
XXS
5S
10S
Std
XS
XXS
5S
10S
Std
XS
XXS

40
80
40
80

40
80
160

40
80
160

40
80
160

40
80
160

17.145

21.336

26.67

33.401

42.164

48.26
40
80
160

2.235
3.023
1.651
2.311
3.2
1.651
2.108
2.769
3.734
4.75
7.468
1.651
2.108
2.87
3.912
5.537
7.823
1.651
2.769
3.378
4.547
6.35
9.093
1.651
2.769
3.556
4.851
6.35
9.703
1.651
2.769
3.683
5.08
7.137
10.16
13.335

9.23
7.654
13.843
12.523
10.745
18.034
17.12
15.798
13.868
11.836
6.4
23.368
22.454
20.93
18.846
15.596
11.024
30.099
27.863
26.645
24.307
20.701
15.215
38.862
36.626
35.052
32.462
29.464
22.758
44.958
42.722
40.894
38.1
33.986
27.94
21.59

0.669
0.460
1.505
1.232
0.907
2.554
2.302
1.960
1.510
1.100
0.322
4.289
3.960
3.441
2.790
1.910
0.954
7.115
6.097
5.576
4.640
3.366
1.818
11.862
10.536
9.650
8.276
6.818
4.068
15.875
14.335
13.134
11.401
9.072
6.131
3.661

0.630
0.794
0.629
0.843
1.098
0.799
0.997
1.265
1.617
1.938
2.247
1.016
1.273
1.680
2.190
2.878
3.626
1.289
2.086
2.494
3.227
4.225
5.436
1.645
2.683
3.377
4.452
5.594
7.747
1.893
3.098
4.038
5.395
7.219
9.521
11.455

0.067
0.046
0.151
0.123
0.091
0.255
0.230
0.190
0.151
0.110
0.032
0.429
0.396
0.344
0.279
0.191
0.095
0.712
0.610
0.558
0.464
0.337
0.182
1.186
1.054
0.965
0.828
0.682
0.407
1.587
1.433
1.313
1.140
0.907
0.613
0.366

50

5S
10S
Std
XS

40
80
160

60.325

XXS

2 1/2

65

5S
10S
Std
XS

40
80
160

73.025

XXS

80

5S
10S
Std
XS

40
80
160

88.9

XXS

3 1/2

90

100

5S
10S
Std
XS
XXS
5S
10S
Std
XS

40
80

101.6

114.3

40
80
120

15.875
1.651
2.769
3.912
5.537
8.712
11.074
14.275
17.45
2.108
3.048
5.156
7.01
9.525
14.021
17.145
20.32
2.108
3.048
5.486
7.62
11.1
15.24
18.415
21.59
2.108
3.048
5.74
8.077
16.154
2.108
3.048
4.775
6.02
8.56
11.1

16.51
57.023
54.787
52.501
49.251
42.901
38.177
31.775
25.425
68.809
66.929
62.713
59.005
53.975
44.983
38.735
32.385
84.684
82.804
77.928
73.66
66.7
58.42
52.07
45.72
97.384
95.504
90.12
85.446
69.292
110.084
108.204
104.75
102.26
97.18
92.1

2.141
25.538
23.575
21.648
19.051
14.455
11.447
7.930
5.077
37.186
35.182
30.889
27.344
22.881
15.892
11.784
8.237
56.324
53.851
47.696
42.614
34.942
26.805
21.294
16.417
74.485
71.636
63.787
57.342
37.710
95.179
91.955
86.179
82.130
74.173
66.621

12.645
2.383
3.920
5.428
7.461
11.059
13.415
16.168
18.402
3.677
5.246
8.607
11.382
14.876
20.348
23.564
26.341
4.5
6.436
11.255
15.233
21.240
27.610
31.925
35.743
5.158
7.388
13.533
18.579
33.949
5.817
8.340
12.863
16.033
22.262
28.175

0.214
2.554
2.357
2.165
1.905
1.446
1.145
0.793
0.508
3.719
3.518
3.089
2.734
2.288
1.589
1.178
0.824
5.632
5.385
4.770
4.261
3.494
2.680
2.129
1.642
7.448
7.164
6.379
5.734
3.771
9.518
9.196
8.618
8.213
7.417
6.662

160
XXS

5S
10S
Std
XS
5

125

40
80
120
160

XXS

5S
10S

150

Std
XS

40
80
120
160

XXS

200

5S
10S

Std
XS

20
30
40
60
80
100
120
140
160

12.7
13.487
17.12
20.32
23.495
2.769
3.404
6.553
9.525
141.3
12.7
15.875
19.05
22.225
25.4
2.769
3.404
5.563
7.112
10.973
168.275
14.275
18.237
21.946
25.4
28.575
219.075 2.769
3.759
5.563
6.35
7.036
8.179
10.312
12.7
15.062
18.237
20.625
23.012

88.9
87.326
80.06
73.66
67.31
135.762
134.492
128.194
122.25
115.9
109.55
103.2
96.85
90.5
162.737
161.467
157.149
154.051
146.329
139.725
131.801
124.383
117.475
111.125
213.537
211.557
207.949
206.375
205.003
202.717
198.451
193.675
188.951
182.601
177.825
173.051

62.072
59.893
50.341
42.614
35.584
144.76
142.06
129.07
117.38
105.50
94.254
83.647
73.670
64.326
208.00
204.77
193.96
186.39
168.17
153.33
136.44
121.51
108.39
96.987
358.13
351.52
339.63
334.51
330.07
322.75
309.31
294.60
280.41
261.88
248.36
235.20

31.736
33.442
40.920
46.970
52.474
9.435
11.545
21.718
30.871
40.170
48.973
57.280
65.091
72.406
11.272
13.804
22.263
28.191
42.454
54.070
67.300
78.985
89.258
98.184
14.732
19.907
29.217
33.224
36.694
42.425
52.949
64.464
75.578
90.086
100.671
110.970

6.207
5.989
5.034
4.261
3.558
14.476
14.206
12.907
11.738
10.550
9.426
8.365
7.367
6.433
20.800
20.477
19.396
18.639
16.817
15.333
13.644
12.151
10.839
9.699
35.813
35.152
33.963
33.451
33.007
32.275
30.931
29.460
28.041
26.188
24.836
23.520

25.4
28.575

168.275 222.40 120.994 22.240


161.925 205.93 133.887 20.593

Carbon, Alloy and Stainless Steel Pipes - ASME/ANSI


B36.10/19
Pipe sizes, inside and outside diameters, wall thickness, schedules, moment of inertia,
transverse area, weight of pip The steel pipe data chart below can be used to find pipe
sizes, diameters, wall thickness, working pressures and more The chart is based on
ASME/ANSI B 36.10 Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe and ASME/ANSI
B36.19 Stainless Steel Pipe.
Regardless of schedule number, pipes of a particular size all have the same outside
diameter (not withstanding manufacturing tolerances). As the schedule number increases,
the wall thickness increases, and the actual bore is reduced. For example:

A 4 inches (100 mm) Schedule 40 pipe has an outside diameter of 4.500 inches
(114.30 mm), a wall thickness of 0.237 inches (6.02 mm), giving a bore of 4.026
inches (102.26 mm)
A 4 inches (100 mm) Schedule 80 pipe has an outside diameter of 4.500 inches
( 114.30 mm), a wall thickness of 0.337 inches (8.56 mm), giving a bore of 3.826
inches (97.18 mm)

Outside Diameter, Identification, Wall Thickness, Inside Diameter

Area of Metal, Transverse Internal Area, Moment of Inertia, Weight Pipe, Weight
Water, External Surface, Elastic Section Modulus

Pipe Size
(inches)

Outside
Diameter
(inches)

1/8

0.405

1/4

0.540

3/8

0.675

Identification
Steel
Iron Pipe
Size

Schedule
No.

.
STD
XS
.
STD
XS
.
STD

.
40
80
.
40
80
.
40

Stainless
Steel
Schedule
No.
10S
40S
80S
10S
40S
80S
10S
40S

Wall
Thickness
-t(inches)

Inside
Diameter
-d(inches)

.049
.068
.095
.065
.088
.119
.065
.091

.307
.269
.215
.410
.364
.302
.545
.493

1/2

3/4

0.840

1.050

1.315

1 1/4

1.660

1 1/2

1.900

2.375

2 1/2

2.875

3.500

XS
.
.
STD
XS
.
XXS
.
.
STD
XS
.
XXS
.
.
STD
XS
.
XXS
.
.
STD
XS
.
XXS
.
.
STD
XS
.
XXS
.
.
STD
XS
.
XXS
.
.
STD
XS
.
XXS
.

80
.
.
40
80
160
.
.
.
40
80
160
.
.
.
40
80
160
.
.
.
40
80
160
.
.
.
40
80
160
.
.
.
40
80
160
.
.
.
40
80
160
.
.

80S
5S
10S
40S
80S
.
.
5S
10S
40S
80S
.
.
5S
10S
40S
80S
.
.
5S
10S
40S
80S
.
.
5S
10S
40S
80S
.
.
5S
10S
40S
80S
.
.
5S
10S
40S
80S
.
.
5S

.126
.065
.083
.109
.147
.187
.294
.065
.083
.113
.154
.219
.308
.065
.109
.133
.179
.250
.358
.065
.109
.140
.191
.250
.382
.065
.109
.145
.200
.281
.400
.065
.109
.154
.218
.344
.436
.083
.120
.203
.276
.375
.552
.083

.423
.710
.674
.622
.546
.466
.252
.920
.884
.824
.742
.612
.434
1.185
1.097
1.049
.957
.815
.599
1.530
1.442
1.380
1.278
1.160
.896
1.770
1.682
1.610
1.500
1.338
1.100
2.245
2.157
2.067
1.939
1.687
1.503
2.709
2.635
2.469
2.323
2.125
1.771
3.334

3 1/2

4.000

4.500

5.563

6.625

8.625

10

10.750

.
STD
XS
.
XXS
.
.
STD
XS
.
.
STD
XS
.
.
XXS
.
.
STD
XS
.
.
XXS
.
.
STD
XS
.
.
XXS
.
.
.
.
STD
.
XS
.
.
.
XXS
.
.
.

.
40
80
160
.
.
.
40
80
.
.
40
80
120
160
.
.
.
40
80
120
160
.
.
.
40
80
120
160
.
.
.
20
30
40
60
80
100
120
140
.
160
.
.

10S
40S
80S
.
.
5S
10S
40S
80S
5S
10S
40S
80S
.
.
.
5S
10S
40S
80S
.
.
.
5S
10S
40S
80S
.
.
.
5S
10S
.
.
40S
.
80S
.
.
.
.
.
5S
10S

.120
.216
.300
.438
.600
.083
.120
.226
.318
.083
.120
.237
.337
.438
.531
.674
.109
.134
.258
.375
.500
.625
.750
.109
.134
.280
.432
.562
.718
.864
.109
.148
.250
.277
.322
.406
.500
.594
.719
.812
.875
.906
.134
.165

3.260
3.068
2.900
2.624
2.300
3.834
3.760
3.548
3.364
4.334
4.260
4.026
3.826
3.624
3.438
3.152
5.345
5.295
5.047
4.813
4.563
4.313
4.063
6.407
6.357
6.065
5.761
5.501
5.187
4.897
8.407
8.329
8.125
8.071
7.981
7.813
7.625
7.437
7.187
7.001
6.875
6.813
10.482
10.420

12

12.75

14

14.00

16

16.00

.
.
STD
XS
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
STD
.
XS
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
STD
.
XS
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
.
.
STD
XS
.
.
.
.

20
30
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
.
.
20
30
.
40
.
60
80
100
120
140
160
.
.
10
20
30
40
.
60
80
100
120
140
160
.
.
10
20
30
40
60
80
100
120

.
.
40S
80S
.
.
.
.
.
5S
10S
.
.
40S
.
80S
.
.
.
.
.
.
5S
10S
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
5S
10S
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.250
.307
.365
.500
.594
.719
.844
1.000
1.125
.156
.180
.250
.330
.375
.406
.500
.562
.688
.844
1.000
1.125
1.312
156
.188
.250
.312
.375
.438
.500
.594
.750
.938
1.094
1.250
1.406
.165
.188
.250
.312
.375
.500
.656
.844
1.031
1.219

10.250
10.136
10.020
9.750
9.562
9.312
9.062
8.750
8.500
12.438
12.390
12.250
12.090
12.000
11.938
11.750
11.626
11.374
11.062
10.750
10.500
10.126
13.688
13.624
13.500
13.376
13.250
13.124
13.000
12.812
12.500
12.124
11.812
11.500
11.188
15.670
15.624
15.500
15.376
15.250
15.000
14.688
14.312
13.938
13.562

18

18.00

20

20.00

22

22.00

24

24.00

.
.
.
.
.
.
STD
.
XS
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
STD
XS
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
STD
XS
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
STD
XS
.
.

140
160
.
.
10
20
.
30
.
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
.
.
10
20
30
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
.
.
10
20
30
60
80
100
120
140
160
.
10
20
.
30
40

.
.
5S
10S
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
5S
10S
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
5S
10S
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
5S
10S
.
.
.
.

1.438
1.594
.165
.188
.250
.312
.375
.438
.500
.562
.750
.938
1.156
1.375
1.562
1.781
.188
.218
.250
.375
.500
.594
.812
1.031
1.281
1.500
1.750
1.969
.188
.218
.250
.375
.500
.875
1.125
1.375
1.625
1.875
2.125
.218
.250
.375
.500
.562
.688

13.124
12.812
17.670
17.624
17.500
17.376
17.250
17.124
17.000
16.876
16.500
16.124
15.688
15.250
14.876
14.438
19.624
19.564
19.500
19.250
19.000
18.812
18.376
17.938
17.438
17.000
16.500
16.062
21.624
21.564
21.500
21.250
21.000
20.250
19.75
19.25
18.75
18.25
17.75
23.564
23.500
23.250
23.000
22.876
22.624

26

28

30

32

34

36

42

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
26.00
STD
XS
.
STD
28.00
XS
.
.
.
30.00
STD
XS
.
.
STD
32.00
XS
.
.
.
STD
34.00
XS
.
.
.
STD
36.00
XS
.
.
STD
XS
42.00
.
.
1 in (inch) = 25.4 mm

60
80
100
120
140
160
10
.
20
10
.
20
30
.
10
.
20
30
10
.
20
30
40
10
.
20
30
40
10
.
20
30
40
.
20
30
40

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
5S
10S
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.969
1.219
1.531
1.812
2.062
2.344
.312
.375
.500
.312
.375
.500
.625
.250
.312
.375
.500
.625
.312
.375
.500
.625
.688
.344
.375
.500
.625
.688
.312
.375
.500
.625
.750
.375
.500
.625
.750

22.062
21.562
20.938
20.376
19.876
19.312
25.376
25.250
25.000
27.376
27.250
27.000
26.750
29.500
29.376
29.250
29.000
28.750
31.376
31.250
31.000
30.750
30.624
33.312
33.250
33.000
32.750
32.624
35.376
35.250
35.000
34.750
34.500
41.250
41.000
40.720
40.500

Area of Metal, Transverse Internal Area, Moment of Inertia, Weight Pipe,


Weight Water, External Surface, Elastic Section Modulus
Pipe Size Area of

Transverse Internal Moment Weight

Weight

External Elastic

Area

Surface
Metal
Pipe
Water
(square
-A(inches) (square - a (pounds (pounds feet per
-linches) (square (square
per foot) per foot) foot of
(inches4)
inches) feet)
pipe)
.0548
.0740
.00051 .00088 .19
.032
.106
1/8
.0720
.0568
.00040 .00106 .24
.025
.106
.0925
.0364
.00025 .00122 .31
.016
.106
.0970
.1320
.00091 .00279 .33
.057
.141
1/4
.1250
.1041
.00072 .00331 .42
.045
.141
.1574
.0716
.00050 .00377 .54
.031
.141
.1246
.2333
.00162 .00586 .42
.101
.178
3/8
.1670
.1910
.00133 .00729 .57
.083
.178
.2173
.1405
.00098 .00862 .74
.061
.178
.1583
.3959
.00275 .01197 .54
.172
.220
.1974
.3568
.00248 .01431 .67
.155
.220
.2503
.3040
.00211 .01709 .85
.132
220
1/2
.3200
.2340
.00163 .02008 1.09
.102
.220
.3836
.1706
.00118 .02212 1.31
.074
220
.5043
.050
.00035 .02424 1.71
.022
.220
.2011
.6648
.00462 .02450 .69
.288
.275
.2521
.6138
.00426 .02969 .86
.266
.275
.3326
.5330
.00371 .03704 1.13
.231
.275
3/4
.4335
.4330
.00300 .04479 1.47
.188
.275
.5698
.2961
.00206 .05269 1.94
.128
.275
.7180
.148
.00103 .05792 2.44
.064
.275
.2553
1.1029 .00766 .04999 .87
.478
.344
.4130
.9452
.00656 .07569 1.40
.409
.344
.4939
.8640
.00600 .08734 1.68
.375
.344
1
.6388
.7190
.00499 .1056
2.17
.312
.344
.8365
.5217
.00362 .1251
2.84
.230
.344
1.0760 .282
.00196 .1405
3.66
.122
.344
.3257
1.839
.01277 .1038
1.11
.797
.435
.4717
1.633
.01134 .1605
1.81
.708
.435
.6685
1.495
.01040 .1947
2.27
.649
.435
1 1/4
.8815
1.283
.00891 .2418
3.00
.555
.435
1.1070 1.057
.00734 .2839
3.76
.458
.435
1.534
.630
.00438 .3411
5.21
.273
.435
.3747
2.461
.01709 .1579
1.28
1.066
.497
.6133
2.222
.01543 .2468
2.09
.963
.497
.7995
2.036
.01414 .3099
2.72
.882
.497
1 1/2
1.068
1.767
.01225 .3912
3.63
.765
.497
1.429
1.406
.00976 .4824
4.86
.608
.497
1.885
.950
.00660 .5678
6.41
.42
.497
of Inertia

Section
Modulus
(in3)
.00437
.00523
.00602
.01032
.01227
.01395
.01736
.02160
.02554
.02849
.03407
.04069
.04780
.05267
.05772
.04667
.05655
.07055
.08531
.10036
.11032
.07603
.11512
.1328
.1606
.1903
.2136
.1250
.1934
.2346
.2913
.3421
.4110
.1662
.2598
.3262
.4118
.5078
.5977

2 1/2

3 1/2

.4717
.7760
1.075
1.477
2.190
2.656
.7280
1.039
1.704
2.254
2.945
4.028
.8910
1.274
2.228
3.016
4.205
5.466
1.021
1.463
2.680
3.678
1.152
1.651
3.174
4.407
5.595
6.621
8.101
1.868
2.285
4.300
6.112
7.953
9.696
11.340
2.231
2.733
5.581
8.405
10.70
13.32
15.64
2.916

3.958
3.654
3.355
2.953
2.241
1.774
5.764
5.453
4.788
4.238
3.546
2.464
8.730
8.347
7.393
6.605
5.408
4.155
11.545
11.104
9.886
8.888
14.75
14.25
12.73
11.50
10.31
9.28
7.80
22.44
22.02
20.01
18.19
16.35
14.61
12.97
32.24
31.74
28.89
26.07
23.77
21.15
18.84
55.51

.02749
.02538
.02330
.02050
.01556
.01232
.04002
.03787
.03322
.02942
.02463
.01710
.06063
.05796
.05130
.04587
.03755
.02885
.08017
.07711
.06870
.06170
.10245
.09898
.08840
.07986
.0716
.0645
.0542
.1558
.1529
.1390
.1263
.1136
.1015
.0901
.2239
.2204
.2006
.1810
.1650
.1469
.1308
.3855

.3149
.4992
.6657
.8679
1.162
1.311
.7100
.9873
1.530
1.924
2.353
2.871
1.301
1.822
3.017
3.894
5.032
5.993
1.960
2.755
4.788
6.280
2.810
3.963
7.233
9.610
11.65
13.27
15.28
6.947
8.425
15.16
20.67
25.73
30.03
33.63
11.85
14.40
28.14
40.49
49.61
58.97
66.33
26.44

1.61
2.64
3.65
5.02
7.46
9.03
2.48
3.53
5.79
7.66
10.01
13.69
3.03
4.33
7.58
10.25
14.32
18.58
3.48
4.97
9.11
12.50
3.92
5.61
10.79
14.98
19.0
22.51
27.54
6.36
7.77
14.62
20.78
27.04
32.96
38.55
7.60
9.29
18.97
28.57
36.39
45.35
53.16
9.93

1.72
1.58
1.45
1.28
.97
.77
2.50
2.36
2.07
1.87
1.54
1.07
3.78
3.62
3.20
2.6
2.35
1.80
5.00
4.81
4.29
3.84
6.39
6.18
5.50
4.98
4.47
4.02
3.38
9.72
9.54
8.67
7.88
7.09
6.33
5.61
13.97
13.75
12.51
11.29
10.30
9.16
8.16
24.06

.622
.622
.622
.622
.622
.622
.753
.753
.753
.753
.753
.753
.916
.916
.916
.916
.916
.916
1.047
1.047
1.047
1.047
1.178
1.178
1.178
1.178
1.178
1.178
1.178
1.456
1.456
1.456
1.456
1.456
1.456
1.456
1.734
1.734
1.734
1.734
1.734
1.734
1.734
2.258

.2652
.4204
.5606
.7309
.979
1.104
.4939
.6868
1.064
1.339
1.638
1.997
.7435
1.041
1.724
2.225
2.876
3.424
.9799
1.378
2.394
3.140
1.249
1.761
3.214
4.271
5.178
5.898
6.791
2.498
3.029
5.451
7.431
9.250
10.796
12.090
3.576
4.346
8.496
12.22
14.98
17.81
20.02
6.131

10

12

14

3.941
6.57
7.26
8.40
10.48
12.76
14.96
17.84
19.93
21.30
21.97
4.36
5.49
8.24
10.07
11.90
16.10
18.92
22.63
26.24
30.63
34.02
6.17
7.11
9.82
12.87
14.58
15.77
19.24
21.52
26.03
31.53
36.91
41.08
47.14
6.78
8.16
10.80
13.42
16.05
18.66
21.21
24.98
31.22
38.45

54.48
51.85
51.16
50.03
47.94
45.66
43.46
40.59
38.50
37.12
36.46
86.29
85.28
82.52
80.69
78.86
74.66
71.84
68.13
64.53
60.13
56.75
121.50
120.57
117.86
114.80
113.10
111.93
108.43
106.16
101.64
96.14
90.76
86.59
80.53
147.15
145.78
143.14
140.52
137.88
135.28
132.73
128.96
122.72
115.49

.3784
.3601
.3553
.3474
.3329
.3171
.3018
.2819
.2673
.2578
.2532
.5992
.5922
.5731
.5603
.5475
.5185
.4989
.4732
.4481
.4176
.3941
.8438
.8373
.8185
.7972
.7854
.7773
.7528
.7372
.7058
.6677
.6303
.6013
.5592
1.0219
1.0124
.9940
.9758
.9575
.9394
.9217
.8956
.8522
.8020

35.41
57.72
63.35
72.49
88.73
105.7
121.3
140.5
153.7
162.0
165.9
63.0
76.9
113.7
137.4
160.7
212.0
244.8
286.1
324.2
367.8
399.3
122.4
140.4
191.8
248.4
279.3
300.3
361.5
400.4
475.1
561.6
641.6
700.5
781.1
162.6
194.6
255.3
314.4
372.8
429.1
483.8
562.3
678.3
824.4

13.40
22.36
24.70
28.55
35.64
43.39
50.95
60.71
67.76
72.42
74.69
15.19
18.65
28.04
34.24
40.48
54.74
64.43
77.03
89.29
104.13
115.64
20.98
24.17
33.38
43.77
49.56
53.52
65.42
73.15
88.63
107.32
125.49
139.67
160.27
23.07
27.73
36.71
45.61
54.57
63.44
72.09
85.05
106.13
130.85

23.61
22.47
22.17
21.70
20.77
19.78
18.83
17.59
16.68
16.10
15.80
37.39
36.95
35.76
34.96
34.20
32.35
31.13
29.53
27.96
26.06
24.59
52.65
52.25
51.07
49.74
49.00
48.50
46.92
46.00
44.04
41.66
39.33
37.52
34.89
63.77
63.17
62.03
60.89
59.75
58.64
57.46
55.86
53.18
50.04

2.258
2.258
2.258
2.258
2.258
2.258
2.258
2.258
2.258
2.258
2.258
2.814
2.814
2.814
2.814
2.814
2.814
2.814
2.814
2.814
2.814
2.814
3.338
3.338
3.338
3.338
3.338
3.338
3.338
3.338
3.338
3.338
3.338
3.338
3.338
3.665
3.665
3.665
3.665
3.665
3.665
3.665
3.665
3.665
3.665

8.212
13.39
14.69
16.81
20.58
24.51
28.14
32.58
35.65
37.56
38.48
11.71
14.30
21.15
25.57
29.90
39.43
45.54
53.22
60.32
68.43
74.29
19.2
22.0
30.2
39.0
43.8
47.1
56.7
62.8
74.6
88.1
100.7
109.9
122.6
23.2
27.8
36.6
45.0
53.2
61.3
69.1
80.3
98.2
117.8

16

18

20

22

44.32
50.07
55.63
8.21
9.34
12.37
15.38
18.41
24.35
31.62
40.14
48.48
56.56
65.78
72.10
9.25
10.52
13.94
17.34
20.76
24.17
27.49
30.79
40.64
50.23
61.17
71.81
80.66
90.75
11.70
13.55
15.51
23.12
30.63
36.15
48.95
61.44
75.33
87.18
100.33
111.49
12.88
14.92
17.08
25.48

109.62
103.87
98.31
192.85
191.72
188.69
185.69
182.65
176.72
169.44
160.92
152.58
144.50
135.28
128.96
245.22
243.95
240.53
237.13
233.71
230.30
226.98
223.68
213.83
204.24
193.30
182.66
173.80
163.72
302.46
300.61
298.65
290.04
283.53
278.00
265.21
252.72
238.83
226.98
213.82
202.67
367.25
365.21
363.05
354.66

.7612
.7213
.6827
1.3393
1.3314
1.3103
1.2895
1.2684
1.2272
1.1766
1.175
1.0596
1.0035
.9394
.8956
1.7029
1.6941
1.6703
1.6467
1.6230
1.5990
1.5763
1.5533
1.4849
1.4183
1.3423
1.2684
1.2070
1.1369
2.1004
2.0876
2.0740
2.0142
1.9690
1.9305
1.8417
1.7550
1.6585
1.5762
1.4849
1.4074
2.5503
2.5362
2.5212
2.4629

929.6
1027.0
1117.0
257.3
291.9
383.7
473.2
562.1
731.9
932.4
1155.8
1364.5
1555.8
1760.3
1893.5
367.6
417.3
549.1
678.2
806.7
930.3
1053.2
1171.5
1514.7
1833.0
2180.0
2498.1
2749.0
3020.0
574.2
662.8
765.4
1113.0
1457.0
1703.0
2257.0
2772.0
3315.2
3754.0
4216.0
4585.5
766.2
884.8
1010.3
1489.7

150.79
170.28
189.11
27.90
31.75
42.05
52.27
62.58
82.77
107.50
136.61
164.82
192.43
223.64
245.25
31.43
35.76
47.39
58.94
70.59
82.15
93.45
104.67
138.17
170.92
207.96
244.14
274.22
308.50
39.78
46.06
52.73
78.60
104.13
123.11
166.40
208.87
256.10
296.37
341.09
379.17
43.80
50.71
58.07
86.61

47.45
45.01
42.60
83.57
83.08
81.74
80.50
79.12
76.58
73.42
69.73
66.12
62.62
58.64
55.83
106.26
105.71
104.21
102.77
101.18
99.84
98.27
96.93
92.57
88.50
83.76
79.07
75.32
70.88
131.06
130.27
129.42
125.67
122.87
120.46
114.92
109.51
103.39
98.35
92.66
87.74
159.14
158.26
157.32
153.68

3.665
3.665
3.665
4.189
4.189
4.189
4.189
4.189
4.189
4.189
4.189
4.189
4.189
4.189
4.189
4.712
4.712
4.712
4.712
4.712
4.712
4.712
4.712
4.712
4.712
4.712
4.712
4.712
4.712
5.236
5.236
5.236
5.236
5.236
5.236
5.236
5.236
5.236
5.236
5.236
5.236
5.760
5.760
5.760
5.760

132.8
146.8
159.6
32.2
36.5
48.0
59.2
70.3
91.5
116.6
144.5
170.5
194.5
220.0
236.7
40.8
46.4
61.1
75.5
89.6
103.4
117.0
130.1
168.3
203.8
242.3
277.6
305.5
335.6
57.4
66.3
75.6
111.3
145.7
170.4
225.7
277.1
331.5
375.5
421.7
458.5
69.7
80.4
91.8
135.4

24

26

28

30

32

34

36

33.77
58.07
73.78
89.09
104.02
118.55
132.68
16.29
18.65
27.83
36.91
41.39
50.31
70.04
87.17
108.07
126.31
142.11
159.41
25.18
30.19
40.06
27.14
32.54
43.20
53.75
23.37
29.10
34.90
46.34
57.68
31.06
37.26
49.48
61.60
67.68
36.37
39.61
52.62
65.53
72.00
34.98
41.97
55.76

346.36
322.06
306.35
291.04
276.12
261.59
247.45
436.10
433.74
424.56
415.48
411.00
402.07
382.35
365.22
344.32
326.08
310.28
292.98
505.75
500.74
490.87
588.61
583.21
572.56
562.00
683.49
677.76
671.96
660.52
649.18
773.19
766.99
754.77
742.64
736.57
871.55
868.31
855.30
842.39
835.92
982.90
975.91
962.11

2.4053
2.2365
2.1275
2.0211
1.9175
1.8166
1.71840
3.0285
3.0121
2.9483
2.8853
2.8542
2.7921
2.6552
2.5362
2.3911
2.2645
2.1547
2.0346
3.5122
3.4774
3.4088
4.0876
4.0501
3.9761
3.9028
4.7465
4.7067
4.6664
4.5869
4.5082
5.3694
5.3263
5.2414
5.1572
5.1151
6.0524
6.0299
5.9396
5.8499
5.8050
6.8257
6.7771
6.6813

1952.5
3244.9
4030.4
4758.5
5432.0
6053.7
6626.4
1151.6
1315.4
1942.0
2549.5
2843.0
3421.3
4652.8
5672.0
6849.9
7825.0
8625.0
9455.9
2077.2
2478.4
3257.0
2601.0
3105.1
4084.8
5037.7
2585.2
3206.3
3829.4
5042.2
6224.0
3898.9
4658.5
6138.6
7583.4
8298.3
5150.5
5599.3
7383.5
9127.6
9991.6
5569.5
6658.9
8786.2

114.81
197.41
250.81
302.88
353.61
403.00
451.06
55.37
63.41
94.62
125.49
140.68
171.29
238.35
296.58
367.39
429.39
483.12
542.13
85.60
102.63
136.17
92.26
110.64
146.85
182.73
79.43
98.93
118.65
157.53
196.08
105.59
126.66
168.21
209.43
230.08
123.65
134.67
178.89
222.78
244.77
118.92
142.68
189.57

150.09
139.56
132.76
126.12
119.65
113.36
107.23
188.98
187.95
183.95
179.87
178.09
174.23
165.52
158.26
149.06
141.17
134.45
126.84
219.16
216.99
212.71
255.07
252.73
248.11
243.53
296.18
293.70
291.18
286.22
281.31
335.05
332.36
327.06
321.81
319.18
377.67
376.27
370.63
365.03
362.23
425.92
422.89
416.91

5.760
5.760
5.760
5.760
5.760
5.760
5.760
6.283
6.283
6.283
6.283
6.283
6.283
6.283
6.283
6.283
6.283
6.283
6.283
6.806
6.806
6.806
7.330
7.330
7.330
7.330
7.854
7.854
7.854
7.854
7.854
8.378
8.378
8.378
8.378
8.378
8.901
8.901
8.901
8.901
8.901
9.425
9.425
9.425

117.5
295.0
366.4
432.6
493.8
550.3
602.4
96.0
109.6
161.9
212.5
237.0
285.1
387.7
472.8
570.8
652.1
718.9
787.9
159.8
190.6
250.5
185.8
221.8
291.8
359.8
172.3
213.8
255.3
336.1
414.9
243.7
291.2
383.7
474.0
518.6
303.0
329.4
434.3
536.9
587.7
309.4
369.9
488.1

69.46
83.06
49.08
65.18
81.28
97.23

42

948.42
934.82
1336.3
1320.2
1304.1
1288.2

6.5862
6.4918
.
.
.
.

10868.4
12906.1
10627
14037
17373
20689

236.13
282.35
167
222
276
330

417.22
405.09
579.3
572.3
565.4
558.4

9.425
9.425
10.99
10.99
10.99
10.99

603.8
717.0
506.1
668.4
827.3
985.2

STD, XS and XXS


To distinguish different weights of pipe, three long standing traditional designations are
used:

standard wall - STD


extra strong wall - XS
double extra strong wall - XXS

The last two designations are sometimes referred to as extra heavy wall (XH), and double
extra heavy wall (XXH).

Stainless Steel Pipes - Dimensions and Weights


ANSI/ASME 36.19

Dimensions, wall thickness and weights of stainless steel


pipes according ASME B36.10M Welded and
Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe and ASME B36.19
Stainless Steel Pipe
Stainless steel pipes are used in constructions, food industry, pharmaceutical industry,
petrochemical industry, automotive industry, municipal and decorative purposes.
Range of Stainless Steel pipes according to ANSI/ASME B36.10 Welded and Seamless
Wrought Steel Pipe - and ANSI/ASME 36.19M Stainless Steel Pipe.
Schedule
Outside
Nominal Diameter
5S
10S
40S
Pipe
Wall Thickness and Weight
Size
mm
mm
(inches) (mm) (inches) mm
kg/m
kg/m
kg/m
(in)
(in)
(in)
1.25
1.73
1/8
10.3 0.405 0.28
0.37
(0.049)
(0.068)
1/4
13.7 0.540 1.66 0.49 2.24 0.63

80S

160S

mm
kg/m
(in)
2.42
0.47
(0.095)
3.03 0.80

mm
(in)

kg/m

3/8

17.2 0.675

1/2

21.3 0.840

3/4
1
1 1/4
1 1/2
2
2 1/2
3
3 1/2
4
5
6
8
10
12

1.66
0.81
(0.065)
1.66
26.7 1.050
1.02
(0.065)
1.66
33.4 1.315
1.30
(0.065)
1.66
42.2 1.660
1.66
(0.065)
1.66
48.3 1.900
1.91
(0.065)
2.11
60.3 2.375
2.40
(0.065)
2.11
73.0 2.875
3.69
(0.083)
2.11
88.9 3.500
4.52
(0.083)
2.11
101.6 4.000
5.18
(0.083)
2.11
114.3 4.500
5.84
(0.083)
2.77
141.3 5.563
9.46
(0.109)
2.77
168.3 6.625
11.3
(0.109)
2.77
219.1 8.625
14.8
(0.109)
3.41
273.1 10.750
22.7
(0.134)
3.97
323.9 12.750
31.3
(0.156)

(0.065)
1.66
0.63
(0.065)
2.11
1.00
(0.083)
2.11
1.28
(0.083)
2.77
2.09
(0.109)
2.77
2.69
(0.109)
2.77
3.11
(0.109)
2.77
3.93
(0.109)
3.05
5.26
(0.120)
3.05
6.46
(0.120)
3.05
7.41
(0.120)
3.05
8.37
(0.120)
3.41
11.6
(0.134)
3.41
13.9
(0.134)
3.76
20.0
(0.148)
4.20
27.8
(0.165)
4.58
36.1
(0.180)

(0.088)
2.32
0.85
(0.091)
2.77
1.27
(0.109)
2.87
1.68
(0.113)
3.38
2.50
(0.133)
3.56
3.39
(0.140)
3.69
4.06
(0.145)
3.92
5.45
(0.154)
5.16
8.64
(0.203)
5.49
11.3
(0.216)
5.74
13.6
(0.226)
6.02
16.1
(0.237)
6.56
21.8
(0.258)
7.12
28.3
(0.280)
8.18
42.5
(0.322)
9.28
60.4
(0.365)
9.53
73.9
(0.375)

(0.119)
3.20
1.10
(0.126)
3.74
1.62
(0.147)
3.92
2.20
(0.154)
4.55
3.24
(0.179)
4.86
4.47
(0.191)
5.08
5.41
(0.200)
5.54
7.49
(0.218)
7.01
11.4
(0.276)
7.62
15.3
(0.300)
8.08
18.6
(0.318)
8.56
22.3
(0.337)
9.53
31.0
(0.375)
10.98
42.6
(0.432)
12.70
64.6
(0.500)
12.70
81.5
(0.500)
12.70
97.4
(0.500)

4.78 1.90
5.57 2.90
6.35 4.20
6.35 5.60
7.14 7.20
8.74 11.1
9.53 14.9
11.13 21.3
-

13.49 33.5
15.88 49.1
18.27 67.6
23.02 111
28.58 172
33.33 239

The ANSI/ASME B36.10 Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe - standard
covers the standardization of dimensions of welded and seamless wrought steel
pipe for high or low temperatures and pressures. The word pipe is used as
distinguished from tube to apply to tubular products of dimensions commonly
used for pipeline and piping systems. Pipe NPS 12 (DN 300) and smaller have
outside diameters numerically larger than corresponding sizes. In contrast, the

outside diameters of tubes are numerically identical to the size number for all
sizes
The ANSI/ASME 36.19M Stainless Steel Pipe - covers the standardization of
dimensions of welded and seamless wrought stainless steel pipe
Stainless Steel Fittings

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Related Topics

Piping Systems Dimensions of pipes and tubes - dimensions, materials, capacities


- pressure drop calculations and charts - insulation and heat loss diagrams
Dimensions Sizes and dimensions of pipes and tubes, and their fittings - inside
and outside diameter, weight and more

Related Documents

Stainless Steel Pipes - Comparing American and European Standards Comparing


American - US - and European - German, British (UK) and Swedish - stainless
steel pipe standards
Carbon, Alloy and Stainless Steel Pipes - ASME/ANSI B36.10/19 Pipe sizes,
inside and outside diameters, wall thickness, schedules, moment of inertia,
transverse area, weight of pipe filled with water - U.S. Customary Units
Heating Systems - Steel Pipe Pressure Loss Diagram Steel pipes and tubes pressure loss diagram hot water heating systems
Stainless Steel Pipes - Pressure Ratings Pressure ratings for standard seamless
A312-TP316/316L stainless steel pipes - temperatures 100oF to 750oF
Identification Tests for Stainless Steels Magnetic, spark, hardness and acid
identification tests of austenitic, martensitic and ferritic stainless steels
Stainless Steel Weld Fittings - Dimensions ANSI/ASME B36.19 Dimensions of
stainless steel weld fittings according ANSI/ASME B36.19
Pipe Equations Calculate cross-sectional area, weight of empty pipes, weight of
pipes filled with water, inside and outside surface area
Expansion of Copper, Carbon and Stainless Steel Pipes Thermal expansion of
stainless steel, carbon steel pipes and copper tubes
Pipe Formulas Pipe and Tube Equations - moment of inertia, section modulus,
traverse metal area, external pipe surface and traverse internal area - imperial
units

Briggs Standard Pipe Taps - Drill Sizes

Drill sizes for Briggs Standard Pipe taps


Drill sizes for Briggs Standard Pipe taps for direct tapping without reaming can be taken
from the table below:

Size of Pipe
(inches)
1/8
1/4
3/8
1/2
3/4
1
1 1/4
1 1/2
2
2 1/2
3
3 1/2
4

Size of Pipe
(inches)
21/64
7/16
9/16
45/64
29/32
1 9/64
1 31/64
1 47/64
2 13/64
2 5/8
3 1/4
3 47/64
4 15/64

Coefficients of Linear Expansion

Linear temperature expansion coefficients for some


common materials as aluminum, copper, glass, iron
and many more
Thermal expansion coefficients for some common materials can be found in the table
below:

Product

Linear Temperature Expansion Coefficient


- (10-6 m/m K)
(10-6 in/in oF)

ABS (Acrylonitrile butadiene


73.8
styrene) thermoplastic
ABS -glass fiber-reinforced 30.4
Acetal
106.5
Acetal - glass fiber-reinforced 39.4

41
17
59.2
22

Acrylic, sheet, cast


Acrylic, extruded
Alumina
Aluminum
Antimony
Arsenic
Barium
Beryllium
Beryllium Copper (Cu 75, Be
25)
Bismuth
Brass
Brick masonary
Bronze
Cadmium
Calcium
Carbon - diamond
Cast Iron Gray
Cellulose acetate (CA)
Cellulose acetate butyrate
(CAB)
Cellulose nitrate (CN)
Cement
Cerium
Chlorinated
polyvinylchloride (CPVC)
Chromium
Clay tile structure
Cobalt
Concrete
Concrete structure
Constantan
Copper
Corundum, sintered
Cupronickel 30%
Diamond

81
234
5.4
22.2
10.4
4.7
20.6
11.5

45
130
3.0
12.3
5.8
2.6
11.4
6.4

16.7

9.3

13
18.7
5.5
18.0
30
22.3
1.2
10.8
130

7.3
10.4
3.1
10.0
16.8
12.4
0.67
6.0
72.2

25.2

14

100
10.0
5.2

55.6
6.0
2.9

66.6

37

6.2
5.9
12
14.5
9.8
18.8
16.6
6.5
16.2
1.1

3.4
3.3
6.7
8.0
5.5
10.4
9.3
3.6
9
0.6

Dysprosium
Ebonite
Epoxy, castings resins &
compounds, unfilled
Erbium
Ethylene ethyl acrylate
(EEA)
Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)
Europium
Fluoroethylene propylene
(FEP)
Gadolinium
Germanium
Glass, hard
Glass, Pyrex
Glass, plate
Gold
Granite
Graphite, pure
Hafnium
Hard alloy K20
Hastelloy C
Holmium
Ice
Inconel
Indium
Invar
Iridium
Iron, pure
Iron, cast
Iron, forged
Lanthanum
Lead
Limestone
Lithium
Lutetium

9.9
76.6

5.5
42.8

55

31

12.2

6.8

205

113.9

180
35

100
19.4

135

75

9
6.1
5.9
4.0
9.0
14.2
7.9
7.9
5.9
6
11.3
11.2
51
12.6
33
1.5
6.4
12.0
10.4
11.3
12.1
28.0
8
46
9.9

5
3.4
3.3
2.2
5.0
8.2
4.4
4.4
3.3
3.3
6.3
6.2
28.3
7.0
18.3
0.8
3.6
6.7
5.9
6.3
6.7
15.1
4.4
25.6
5.5

Magnesium
Manganese
Marble
Masonry
Mica
Molybdenum
Monel
Mortar
Neodymium
Nickel
Niobium (Columbium)
Nylon, general purpose
Nylon, Type 11, molding and
extruding compound
Nylon, Type 12, molding and
extruding compound
Nylon, Type 6, cast
Nylon, Type 6/6, molding
compound
Osmium
Palladium
Phenolic resin without fillers
Plaster
Platinum
Plutonium
Polyallomer
Polyamide (PA)
Polycarbonate (PC)
Polycarbonate - glass fiberreinforced
Polyester
Polyester - glass fiberreinforced
Polyethylene (PE)
Polyethylene terephthalate
(PET)
Polyphenylene - glass fiber-

25
22
5.5 - 14.1
4.7 - 9.0
3
5
13.5
7.3 - 13.5
9.6
13.0
7
72

14
12.3
3.1 - 7.9
2.6 - 5.0
1.7
2.8
7.5
4.1-7.5
5.3
7.2
3.9
40

100

55.6

80.5

44.7

85

47.2

80

44.4

5
11.8
80
16.4
9.0
54
91.5
110
70.2

2.8
6.6
44.4
9.2
5.0
30.2
50.8
61.1
39

21.5

12

123.5

69

25

14

200

111

59.4

33

35.8

20

reinforced
Polypropylene (PP), unfilled
Polypropylene - glass fiberreinforced
Polystyrene (PS)
Polysulfone (PSO)
Polyurethane (PUR), rigid
Porcelain
Potassium
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
Polyvinylidene fluoride
(PVDF)
Porcelain
Potassium
Praseodymium
Promethium
Quartz
Rhenium
Rhodium
Rubber, hard
Ruthenium
Samarium
Sandstone
Scandium
Selenium
Silicon
Silver
Slate
Sodium
Solder 50 - 50
Steatite
Steel
Steel Stainless Austenitic
(304)
Steel Stainless Austenitic
(310)

90.5

50.3

32

18

70
55.8
57.6
3.6
83
110

38.9
31
32
2.0
46.4
61.1

127.8

71

4.5
83
6.7
11
0.77 - 1.4
6.7
8
77
9.1
12.7
11.6
10.2
3.7
5.1
19.5
10.4
70
24.0
8.5
13.0

2.5
46.1
3.7
6.1
0.43 - 0.79
3.7
4.5
42.8
5.1
7.1
6.5
5.7
2.8
1.7
10.7
5.8
39.1
13.4
4.7
7.3

17.3

9.6

14.4

8.0

Steel Stainless Austenitic


(316)
Steel Stainless Ferritic (410)
Strontium
Tantalum
Tellurium
Terbium
Terne
Thallium
Thorium
Thulium
Tin
Titanium
Tungsten
Uranium
Vanadium
Vinyl Ester
Wood, fir
Wood, oak parallel to grain
Wood, oak across to grain
Wood, pine
Ytterbium
Yttrium
Zinc
Zirconium

16.0

8.9

9.9
22.5
6.5
36.9
10.3
11.6
29.9
12
13.3
23.4
8.6
4.3
13.9
8
16 - 22
3.7
4.9
5.4
5
26.3
10.6
29.7
5.7

5.5
12.5
3.6
20.5
5.7
6.5
16.6
6.7
7.4
13.0
4.8
2.4
7.7
4.5
8.7 - 12
2.1
2.7
3.0
2.8
14.6
5.9
16.5
3.2

T(oC) = 5/9[T(oF) - 32]


1 in (inch) = 25.4 mm
1 ft (foot) = 0.3048 m

Calculate Thermal Pipe Expansion

Thermal Expansion of Steam Pipes - mm

A steam pipe heated from surrounding temperature to


operation temperature expands

The table below can be used to calculate the expansion of steam pipes at different
operating temperatures.
Production Temperature
(oC)
66
93
121
149
177
204
232
260

Expansion pr. 100 m Pipe


(mm)
63
96
136
166
203
246
279
323

To avoid unacceptable stress and damage of the pipe lines - its important to handle the
expansion properly.

Steel Pipes and Temperature Expansion

Temperature expansion of carbon steel pipes


The maximum and minimum length of a pipe depends to the maximum and minimum
temperature of the pipe - in cold (non operating) and running (operating) condition. The
temperature expansion coefficient steel pipes per degree change of temperature is nearly
constant:

6.5 10-6 (in/in oF)


14.0 10-6 (m/m oC)

Carbon Steel Pipes - Temperature Expansion - Fahrenheit


The temperature expansion of carbon steel pipes expressed in inches per 100 feet per
degree Fahrenheit:

Carbon Steel Pipes - Temperature Expansion - Celcius


The temperature expansion of carbon steel pipes expressed in mm per m per degree
Celsius:

Sponsored Links

Related Topics

Piping Systems Dimensions of pipes and tubes - dimensions, materials, capacities


- pressure drop calculations and charts - insulation and heat loss diagrams
Temperature Expansion Thermal expansion of pipes and tubes - stainless steel,
carbon steel, copper, plastics and more

Related Documents

Coefficients of Linear Expansion Linear temperature expansion coefficients for


some common materials as aluminum, copper, glass, iron and many more
Pipes and Tubes - Temperature Expansion Pipes expands when heated and
contracts when cooled. The expansion of the pipes can be expressed with the
expansion formula
Expansion of Copper, Carbon and Stainless Steel Pipes Thermal expansion of
stainless steel, carbon steel pipes and copper tubes
Steel Pipe - Expansion Loop Capacity Steel pipes - thermal expansion and
expansion loop capacities

Pipes and Tubes - Temperature Expansion

Pipes expands when heated and contracts when cooled.


The expansion of the pipes can be expressed with
the expansion formula
The temperature expansion of pipes depends on the start and final temperature of the pipe
and the expansion coefficient of the piping material at the actual temperature. The general
expansion formula can be expressed as:
dl = Lo dt

(1)

where
dl = expansion (m, inch)
Lo = length of pipe (m, inch)
dt = temperature difference (oC, oF)
= linear expansion coefficient (m/moK, inch/inchoF)
Mean expansion coefficient may vary with temperature as:
Mean Expansion Coefficient - - (10-6 inch/inch oF)
Temperature Range (oF)
Material
32 32 32 32 - 32
212
400
600
750
Alloy Steel
(1% Cr. 1/2% 7.7
8.0
8.4
8.8
9.2
Mo)
Mild Steel
7.1
7.8
8.3
8.7
9.0
(0.1 - 0.2% C)
Stainless Steel
(18% Cr. 8% 10.8
11.1
11.5
11.8
12.1
Ni)

32 900

32 1100

9.6

9.8

9.5

9.7

12.4

12.6

32 1300

12.8

Formula (1) can also be used with SI units. The expansion coefficient must be adjusted to
o
C.

T(oC) = 5/9[T(oF) - 32]

1 in (inch) = 25.4 mm
1 ft (foot) = 0.3048 m
Expansion coefficients for some common materials

Example - Thermal Expansion of Heated Alloy Steel


100 feet of alloy steel pipe is heated from 32 to 212oF. The expansion coefficient is 8 10-6
(inch/inchoF).
The expansion can be expressed as:
dl = (8 10-6 in/inoF)(100 feet) (12 in/ft) ((212 oF) - (32 oF))
= 1.728 inch

Steel Tubes - Working Pressures

Normal maximum working pressures for steel tubes- in


psi (lb/in2) and kPa (kN/m2)
The working pressures below are conservative estimates. Be aware that domestic rules
may give lower limits.
Nominal
bore

Water

Light
inches mm psi kPa
1/4
8
150 1000
3/8
10 150 1000
1/2
15 150 1000
3/4
20 150 1000
1
25 150 1000
1 1/4 32 125 850
1 1/2 40 125 850
2
50 100 700
2 1/2 65 100 700
3
80 100 700
4
100 80 550
5
125
6
150

Medium
psi kPa
300 2000
300 2000
300 2000
300 2000
300 2000
250 1750
250 1750
200 1400
200 1400
200 1400
150 1000
150 1000
125 850

Heavy
psi kPa
350 2400
350 2400
350 2400
350 2400
350 2400
300 2000
300 2000
250 1750
250 1750
250 1750
200 1400
200 1400
150 1400

Steam / Air, screwed


connections
Medium Heavy
psi kPa psi kPa
150 1000 175 1200
150 1000 175 1200
150 1000 175 1200
150 1000 175 1200
150 1000 175 1200
125 850 150 1000
125 850 150 1000
100 700 125 850
100 700 125 850
100 700 125 850
80 550 100 700
80 550 100 700
60 400 80 550

Steam / Air, welded


connections
Medium Heavy
psi kPa psi kPa
250 1750 300 2000
250 1750 300 2000
250 1750 300 2000
250 1750 300 2000
250 1750 300 2000
200 1400 300 2000
200 1400 300 2000
200 1400 300 2000
200 1400 300 2000
150 1000 200 1400
150 1000 200 1400
150 1000 200 1400
125 850 75 1200

Note!

psi = lb/in2
kPa = kN/m2

Carbon, Alloy and Stainless Steel Pipes - ASME/ANSI


B36.10/19

Pipe sizes, inside and outside diameters, wall thickness,


schedules, moment of inertia, transverse area,
weight of pipe filled with water - U.S. Customary
Units
The steel pipe data chart below can be used to find pipe sizes, diameters, wall thickness,
working pressures and more The chart is based on ASME/ANSI B 36.10 Welded and
Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe and ASME/ANSI B36.19 Stainless Steel Pipe.
Regardless of schedule number, pipes of a particular size all have the same outside
diameter (not withstanding manufacturing tolerances). As the schedule number increases,
the wall thickness increases, and the actual bore is reduced. For example:

A 4 inches (100 mm) Schedule 40 pipe has an outside diameter of 4.500 inches
(114.30 mm), a wall thickness of 0.237 inches (6.02 mm), giving a bore of 4.026
inches (102.26 mm)
A 4 inches (100 mm) Schedule 80 pipe has an outside diameter of 4.500 inches
( 114.30 mm), a wall thickness of 0.337 inches (8.56 mm), giving a bore of 3.826
inches (97.18 mm)

Outside Diameter, Identification, Wall Thickness, Inside Diameter

Area of Metal, Transverse Internal Area, Moment of Inertia, Weight Pipe, Weight
Water, External Surface, Elastic Section Modulus

Pipe Size
(inches)

Outside
Diameter
(inches)

1/8

0.405

Identification
Steel
Iron Pipe
Size

Schedule
No.

.
STD
XS

.
40
80

Stainless
Steel
Schedule
No.
10S
40S
80S

Wall
Thickness
-t(inches)

Inside
Diameter
-d(inches)

.049
.068
.095

.307
.269
.215

1/4

0.540

3/8

0.675

1/2

0.840

3/4

1.050

1.315

1 1/4

1.660

1 1/2

1.900

2.375

2 1/2

2.875

.
STD
XS
.
STD
XS
.
.
STD
XS
.
XXS
.
.
STD
XS
.
XXS
.
.
STD
XS
.
XXS
.
.
STD
XS
.
XXS
.
.
STD
XS
.
XXS
.
.
STD
XS
.
XXS
.
.

.
40
80
.
40
80
.
.
40
80
160
.
.
.
40
80
160
.
.
.
40
80
160
.
.
.
40
80
160
.
.
.
40
80
160
.
.
.
40
80
160
.
.
.

10S
40S
80S
10S
40S
80S
5S
10S
40S
80S
.
.
5S
10S
40S
80S
.
.
5S
10S
40S
80S
.
.
5S
10S
40S
80S
.
.
5S
10S
40S
80S
.
.
5S
10S
40S
80S
.
.
5S
10S

.065
.088
.119
.065
.091
.126
.065
.083
.109
.147
.187
.294
.065
.083
.113
.154
.219
.308
.065
.109
.133
.179
.250
.358
.065
.109
.140
.191
.250
.382
.065
.109
.145
.200
.281
.400
.065
.109
.154
.218
.344
.436
.083
.120

.410
.364
.302
.545
.493
.423
.710
.674
.622
.546
.466
.252
.920
.884
.824
.742
.612
.434
1.185
1.097
1.049
.957
.815
.599
1.530
1.442
1.380
1.278
1.160
.896
1.770
1.682
1.610
1.500
1.338
1.100
2.245
2.157
2.067
1.939
1.687
1.503
2.709
2.635

3.500

3 1/2

4.000

4.500

5.563

6.625

8.625

STD
XS
.
XXS
.
.
STD
XS
.
XXS
.
.
STD
XS
.
.
STD
XS
.
.
XXS
.
.
STD
XS
.
.
XXS
.
.
STD
XS
.
.
XXS
.
.
.
.
STD
.
XS
.
.

40
80
160
.
.
.
40
80
160
.
.
.
40
80
.
.
40
80
120
160
.
.
.
40
80
120
160
.
.
.
40
80
120
160
.
.
.
20
30
40
60
80
100
120

40S
80S
.
.
5S
10S
40S
80S
.
.
5S
10S
40S
80S
5S
10S
40S
80S
.
.
.
5S
10S
40S
80S
.
.
.
5S
10S
40S
80S
.
.
.
5S
10S
.
.
40S
.
80S
.
.

.203
.276
.375
.552
.083
.120
.216
.300
.438
.600
.083
.120
.226
.318
.083
.120
.237
.337
.438
.531
.674
.109
.134
.258
.375
.500
.625
.750
.109
.134
.280
.432
.562
.718
.864
.109
.148
.250
.277
.322
.406
.500
.594
.719

2.469
2.323
2.125
1.771
3.334
3.260
3.068
2.900
2.624
2.300
3.834
3.760
3.548
3.364
4.334
4.260
4.026
3.826
3.624
3.438
3.152
5.345
5.295
5.047
4.813
4.563
4.313
4.063
6.407
6.357
6.065
5.761
5.501
5.187
4.897
8.407
8.329
8.125
8.071
7.981
7.813
7.625
7.437
7.187

10

10.750

12

12.75

14

14.00

16

16.00

.
XXS
.
.
.
.
.
STD
XS
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
STD
.
XS
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
STD
.
XS
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
.
.
STD

140
.
160
.
.
20
30
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
.
.
20
30
.
40
.
60
80
100
120
140
160
.
.
10
20
30
40
.
60
80
100
120
140
160
.
.
10
20
30

.
.
.
5S
10S
.
.
40S
80S
.
.
.
.
.
5S
10S
.
.
40S
.
80S
.
.
.
.
.
.
5S
10S
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
5S
10S
.
.
.

.812
.875
.906
.134
.165
.250
.307
.365
.500
.594
.719
.844
1.000
1.125
.156
.180
.250
.330
.375
.406
.500
.562
.688
.844
1.000
1.125
1.312
156
.188
.250
.312
.375
.438
.500
.594
.750
.938
1.094
1.250
1.406
.165
.188
.250
.312
.375

7.001
6.875
6.813
10.482
10.420
10.250
10.136
10.020
9.750
9.562
9.312
9.062
8.750
8.500
12.438
12.390
12.250
12.090
12.000
11.938
11.750
11.626
11.374
11.062
10.750
10.500
10.126
13.688
13.624
13.500
13.376
13.250
13.124
13.000
12.812
12.500
12.124
11.812
11.500
11.188
15.670
15.624
15.500
15.376
15.250

18

18.00

20

20.00

22

22.00

24

24.00

XS
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
STD
.
XS
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
STD
XS
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
STD
XS
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

40
60
80
100
120
140
160
.
.
10
20
.
30
.
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
.
.
10
20
30
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
.
.
10
20
30
60
80
100
120
140
160
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
5S
10S
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
5S
10S
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
5S
10S
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
5S

.500
.656
.844
1.031
1.219
1.438
1.594
.165
.188
.250
.312
.375
.438
.500
.562
.750
.938
1.156
1.375
1.562
1.781
.188
.218
.250
.375
.500
.594
.812
1.031
1.281
1.500
1.750
1.969
.188
.218
.250
.375
.500
.875
1.125
1.375
1.625
1.875
2.125
.218

15.000
14.688
14.312
13.938
13.562
13.124
12.812
17.670
17.624
17.500
17.376
17.250
17.124
17.000
16.876
16.500
16.124
15.688
15.250
14.876
14.438
19.624
19.564
19.500
19.250
19.000
18.812
18.376
17.938
17.438
17.000
16.500
16.062
21.624
21.564
21.500
21.250
21.000
20.250
19.75
19.25
18.75
18.25
17.75
23.564

26

28

30

32

34

36

42

.
STD
XS
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
26.00
STD
XS
.
STD
28.00
XS
.
.
.
30.00
STD
XS
.
.
STD
32.00
XS
.
.
.
STD
34.00
XS
.
.
.
STD
36.00
XS
.
.
STD
XS
42.00
.
.
1 in (inch) = 25.4 mm

10
20
.
30
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
10
.
20
10
.
20
30
.
10
.
20
30
10
.
20
30
40
10
.
20
30
40
10
.
20
30
40
.
20
30
40

10S
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
5S
10S
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.250
.375
.500
.562
.688
.969
1.219
1.531
1.812
2.062
2.344
.312
.375
.500
.312
.375
.500
.625
.250
.312
.375
.500
.625
.312
.375
.500
.625
.688
.344
.375
.500
.625
.688
.312
.375
.500
.625
.750
.375
.500
.625
.750

23.500
23.250
23.000
22.876
22.624
22.062
21.562
20.938
20.376
19.876
19.312
25.376
25.250
25.000
27.376
27.250
27.000
26.750
29.500
29.376
29.250
29.000
28.750
31.376
31.250
31.000
30.750
30.624
33.312
33.250
33.000
32.750
32.624
35.376
35.250
35.000
34.750
34.500
41.250
41.000
40.720
40.500

Area of Metal, Transverse Internal Area, Moment of Inertia, Weight Pipe,


Weight Water, External Surface, Elastic Section Modulus
Transverse Internal
Moment
Area of Area
Weight
of Inertia
Pipe Size Metal
Pipe
a
A
(inches) (square
(pounds
-linches) (square (square
per foot)
(inches4)
inches) feet)
1/8

1/4

3/8

1/2

3/4

1 1/4

1 1/2

.0548
.0720
.0925
.0970
.1250
.1574
.1246
.1670
.2173
.1583
.1974
.2503
.3200
.3836
.5043
.2011
.2521
.3326
.4335
.5698
.7180
.2553
.4130
.4939
.6388
.8365
1.0760
.3257
.4717
.6685
.8815
1.1070
1.534
.3747

.0740
.0568
.0364
.1320
.1041
.0716
.2333
.1910
.1405
.3959
.3568
.3040
.2340
.1706
.050
.6648
.6138
.5330
.4330
.2961
.148
1.1029
.9452
.8640
.7190
.5217
.282
1.839
1.633
1.495
1.283
1.057
.630
2.461

.00051
.00040
.00025
.00091
.00072
.00050
.00162
.00133
.00098
.00275
.00248
.00211
.00163
.00118
.00035
.00462
.00426
.00371
.00300
.00206
.00103
.00766
.00656
.00600
.00499
.00362
.00196
.01277
.01134
.01040
.00891
.00734
.00438
.01709

.00088
.00106
.00122
.00279
.00331
.00377
.00586
.00729
.00862
.01197
.01431
.01709
.02008
.02212
.02424
.02450
.02969
.03704
.04479
.05269
.05792
.04999
.07569
.08734
.1056
.1251
.1405
.1038
.1605
.1947
.2418
.2839
.3411
.1579

.19
.24
.31
.33
.42
.54
.42
.57
.74
.54
.67
.85
1.09
1.31
1.71
.69
.86
1.13
1.47
1.94
2.44
.87
1.40
1.68
2.17
2.84
3.66
1.11
1.81
2.27
3.00
3.76
5.21
1.28

External
Weight Surface
Water
(square
(pounds feet per
per foot) foot of
pipe)
.032
.106
.025
.106
.016
.106
.057
.141
.045
.141
.031
.141
.101
.178
.083
.178
.061
.178
.172
.220
.155
.220
.132
220
.102
.220
.074
220
.022
.220
.288
.275
.266
.275
.231
.275
.188
.275
.128
.275
.064
.275
.478
.344
.409
.344
.375
.344
.312
.344
.230
.344
.122
.344
.797
.435
.708
.435
.649
.435
.555
.435
.458
.435
.273
.435
1.066
.497

Elastic
Section
Modulus
(in3)
.00437
.00523
.00602
.01032
.01227
.01395
.01736
.02160
.02554
.02849
.03407
.04069
.04780
.05267
.05772
.04667
.05655
.07055
.08531
.10036
.11032
.07603
.11512
.1328
.1606
.1903
.2136
.1250
.1934
.2346
.2913
.3421
.4110
.1662

2 1/2

3 1/2

.6133
.7995
1.068
1.429
1.885
.4717
.7760
1.075
1.477
2.190
2.656
.7280
1.039
1.704
2.254
2.945
4.028
.8910
1.274
2.228
3.016
4.205
5.466
1.021
1.463
2.680
3.678
1.152
1.651
3.174
4.407
5.595
6.621
8.101
1.868
2.285
4.300
6.112
7.953
9.696
11.340
2.231
2.733
5.581

2.222
2.036
1.767
1.406
.950
3.958
3.654
3.355
2.953
2.241
1.774
5.764
5.453
4.788
4.238
3.546
2.464
8.730
8.347
7.393
6.605
5.408
4.155
11.545
11.104
9.886
8.888
14.75
14.25
12.73
11.50
10.31
9.28
7.80
22.44
22.02
20.01
18.19
16.35
14.61
12.97
32.24
31.74
28.89

.01543
.01414
.01225
.00976
.00660
.02749
.02538
.02330
.02050
.01556
.01232
.04002
.03787
.03322
.02942
.02463
.01710
.06063
.05796
.05130
.04587
.03755
.02885
.08017
.07711
.06870
.06170
.10245
.09898
.08840
.07986
.0716
.0645
.0542
.1558
.1529
.1390
.1263
.1136
.1015
.0901
.2239
.2204
.2006

.2468
.3099
.3912
.4824
.5678
.3149
.4992
.6657
.8679
1.162
1.311
.7100
.9873
1.530
1.924
2.353
2.871
1.301
1.822
3.017
3.894
5.032
5.993
1.960
2.755
4.788
6.280
2.810
3.963
7.233
9.610
11.65
13.27
15.28
6.947
8.425
15.16
20.67
25.73
30.03
33.63
11.85
14.40
28.14

2.09
2.72
3.63
4.86
6.41
1.61
2.64
3.65
5.02
7.46
9.03
2.48
3.53
5.79
7.66
10.01
13.69
3.03
4.33
7.58
10.25
14.32
18.58
3.48
4.97
9.11
12.50
3.92
5.61
10.79
14.98
19.0
22.51
27.54
6.36
7.77
14.62
20.78
27.04
32.96
38.55
7.60
9.29
18.97

.963
.882
.765
.608
.42
1.72
1.58
1.45
1.28
.97
.77
2.50
2.36
2.07
1.87
1.54
1.07
3.78
3.62
3.20
2.6
2.35
1.80
5.00
4.81
4.29
3.84
6.39
6.18
5.50
4.98
4.47
4.02
3.38
9.72
9.54
8.67
7.88
7.09
6.33
5.61
13.97
13.75
12.51

.497
.497
.497
.497
.497
.622
.622
.622
.622
.622
.622
.753
.753
.753
.753
.753
.753
.916
.916
.916
.916
.916
.916
1.047
1.047
1.047
1.047
1.178
1.178
1.178
1.178
1.178
1.178
1.178
1.456
1.456
1.456
1.456
1.456
1.456
1.456
1.734
1.734
1.734

.2598
.3262
.4118
.5078
.5977
.2652
.4204
.5606
.7309
.979
1.104
.4939
.6868
1.064
1.339
1.638
1.997
.7435
1.041
1.724
2.225
2.876
3.424
.9799
1.378
2.394
3.140
1.249
1.761
3.214
4.271
5.178
5.898
6.791
2.498
3.029
5.451
7.431
9.250
10.796
12.090
3.576
4.346
8.496

10

12

14

8.405
10.70
13.32
15.64
2.916
3.941
6.57
7.26
8.40
10.48
12.76
14.96
17.84
19.93
21.30
21.97
4.36
5.49
8.24
10.07
11.90
16.10
18.92
22.63
26.24
30.63
34.02
6.17
7.11
9.82
12.87
14.58
15.77
19.24
21.52
26.03
31.53
36.91
41.08
47.14
6.78
8.16
10.80
13.42
16.05

26.07
23.77
21.15
18.84
55.51
54.48
51.85
51.16
50.03
47.94
45.66
43.46
40.59
38.50
37.12
36.46
86.29
85.28
82.52
80.69
78.86
74.66
71.84
68.13
64.53
60.13
56.75
121.50
120.57
117.86
114.80
113.10
111.93
108.43
106.16
101.64
96.14
90.76
86.59
80.53
147.15
145.78
143.14
140.52
137.88

.1810
.1650
.1469
.1308
.3855
.3784
.3601
.3553
.3474
.3329
.3171
.3018
.2819
.2673
.2578
.2532
.5992
.5922
.5731
.5603
.5475
.5185
.4989
.4732
.4481
.4176
.3941
.8438
.8373
.8185
.7972
.7854
.7773
.7528
.7372
.7058
.6677
.6303
.6013
.5592
1.0219
1.0124
.9940
.9758
.9575

40.49
49.61
58.97
66.33
26.44
35.41
57.72
63.35
72.49
88.73
105.7
121.3
140.5
153.7
162.0
165.9
63.0
76.9
113.7
137.4
160.7
212.0
244.8
286.1
324.2
367.8
399.3
122.4
140.4
191.8
248.4
279.3
300.3
361.5
400.4
475.1
561.6
641.6
700.5
781.1
162.6
194.6
255.3
314.4
372.8

28.57
36.39
45.35
53.16
9.93
13.40
22.36
24.70
28.55
35.64
43.39
50.95
60.71
67.76
72.42
74.69
15.19
18.65
28.04
34.24
40.48
54.74
64.43
77.03
89.29
104.13
115.64
20.98
24.17
33.38
43.77
49.56
53.52
65.42
73.15
88.63
107.32
125.49
139.67
160.27
23.07
27.73
36.71
45.61
54.57

11.29
10.30
9.16
8.16
24.06
23.61
22.47
22.17
21.70
20.77
19.78
18.83
17.59
16.68
16.10
15.80
37.39
36.95
35.76
34.96
34.20
32.35
31.13
29.53
27.96
26.06
24.59
52.65
52.25
51.07
49.74
49.00
48.50
46.92
46.00
44.04
41.66
39.33
37.52
34.89
63.77
63.17
62.03
60.89
59.75

1.734
1.734
1.734
1.734
2.258
2.258
2.258
2.258
2.258
2.258
2.258
2.258
2.258
2.258
2.258
2.258
2.814
2.814
2.814
2.814
2.814
2.814
2.814
2.814
2.814
2.814
2.814
3.338
3.338
3.338
3.338
3.338
3.338
3.338
3.338
3.338
3.338
3.338
3.338
3.338
3.665
3.665
3.665
3.665
3.665

12.22
14.98
17.81
20.02
6.131
8.212
13.39
14.69
16.81
20.58
24.51
28.14
32.58
35.65
37.56
38.48
11.71
14.30
21.15
25.57
29.90
39.43
45.54
53.22
60.32
68.43
74.29
19.2
22.0
30.2
39.0
43.8
47.1
56.7
62.8
74.6
88.1
100.7
109.9
122.6
23.2
27.8
36.6
45.0
53.2

16

18

20

18.66
21.21
24.98
31.22
38.45
44.32
50.07
55.63
8.21
9.34
12.37
15.38
18.41
24.35
31.62
40.14
48.48
56.56
65.78
72.10
9.25
10.52
13.94
17.34
20.76
24.17
27.49
30.79
40.64
50.23
61.17
71.81
80.66
90.75
11.70
13.55
15.51
23.12
30.63
36.15
48.95
61.44
75.33
87.18
100.33

135.28
132.73
128.96
122.72
115.49
109.62
103.87
98.31
192.85
191.72
188.69
185.69
182.65
176.72
169.44
160.92
152.58
144.50
135.28
128.96
245.22
243.95
240.53
237.13
233.71
230.30
226.98
223.68
213.83
204.24
193.30
182.66
173.80
163.72
302.46
300.61
298.65
290.04
283.53
278.00
265.21
252.72
238.83
226.98
213.82

.9394
.9217
.8956
.8522
.8020
.7612
.7213
.6827
1.3393
1.3314
1.3103
1.2895
1.2684
1.2272
1.1766
1.175
1.0596
1.0035
.9394
.8956
1.7029
1.6941
1.6703
1.6467
1.6230
1.5990
1.5763
1.5533
1.4849
1.4183
1.3423
1.2684
1.2070
1.1369
2.1004
2.0876
2.0740
2.0142
1.9690
1.9305
1.8417
1.7550
1.6585
1.5762
1.4849

429.1
483.8
562.3
678.3
824.4
929.6
1027.0
1117.0
257.3
291.9
383.7
473.2
562.1
731.9
932.4
1155.8
1364.5
1555.8
1760.3
1893.5
367.6
417.3
549.1
678.2
806.7
930.3
1053.2
1171.5
1514.7
1833.0
2180.0
2498.1
2749.0
3020.0
574.2
662.8
765.4
1113.0
1457.0
1703.0
2257.0
2772.0
3315.2
3754.0
4216.0

63.44
72.09
85.05
106.13
130.85
150.79
170.28
189.11
27.90
31.75
42.05
52.27
62.58
82.77
107.50
136.61
164.82
192.43
223.64
245.25
31.43
35.76
47.39
58.94
70.59
82.15
93.45
104.67
138.17
170.92
207.96
244.14
274.22
308.50
39.78
46.06
52.73
78.60
104.13
123.11
166.40
208.87
256.10
296.37
341.09

58.64
57.46
55.86
53.18
50.04
47.45
45.01
42.60
83.57
83.08
81.74
80.50
79.12
76.58
73.42
69.73
66.12
62.62
58.64
55.83
106.26
105.71
104.21
102.77
101.18
99.84
98.27
96.93
92.57
88.50
83.76
79.07
75.32
70.88
131.06
130.27
129.42
125.67
122.87
120.46
114.92
109.51
103.39
98.35
92.66

3.665
3.665
3.665
3.665
3.665
3.665
3.665
3.665
4.189
4.189
4.189
4.189
4.189
4.189
4.189
4.189
4.189
4.189
4.189
4.189
4.712
4.712
4.712
4.712
4.712
4.712
4.712
4.712
4.712
4.712
4.712
4.712
4.712
4.712
5.236
5.236
5.236
5.236
5.236
5.236
5.236
5.236
5.236
5.236
5.236

61.3
69.1
80.3
98.2
117.8
132.8
146.8
159.6
32.2
36.5
48.0
59.2
70.3
91.5
116.6
144.5
170.5
194.5
220.0
236.7
40.8
46.4
61.1
75.5
89.6
103.4
117.0
130.1
168.3
203.8
242.3
277.6
305.5
335.6
57.4
66.3
75.6
111.3
145.7
170.4
225.7
277.1
331.5
375.5
421.7

22

24

26

28

30

32

34

111.49
12.88
14.92
17.08
25.48
33.77
58.07
73.78
89.09
104.02
118.55
132.68
16.29
18.65
27.83
36.91
41.39
50.31
70.04
87.17
108.07
126.31
142.11
159.41
25.18
30.19
40.06
27.14
32.54
43.20
53.75
23.37
29.10
34.90
46.34
57.68
31.06
37.26
49.48
61.60
67.68
36.37
39.61
52.62

202.67
367.25
365.21
363.05
354.66
346.36
322.06
306.35
291.04
276.12
261.59
247.45
436.10
433.74
424.56
415.48
411.00
402.07
382.35
365.22
344.32
326.08
310.28
292.98
505.75
500.74
490.87
588.61
583.21
572.56
562.00
683.49
677.76
671.96
660.52
649.18
773.19
766.99
754.77
742.64
736.57
871.55
868.31
855.30

1.4074
2.5503
2.5362
2.5212
2.4629
2.4053
2.2365
2.1275
2.0211
1.9175
1.8166
1.71840
3.0285
3.0121
2.9483
2.8853
2.8542
2.7921
2.6552
2.5362
2.3911
2.2645
2.1547
2.0346
3.5122
3.4774
3.4088
4.0876
4.0501
3.9761
3.9028
4.7465
4.7067
4.6664
4.5869
4.5082
5.3694
5.3263
5.2414
5.1572
5.1151
6.0524
6.0299
5.9396

4585.5
766.2
884.8
1010.3
1489.7
1952.5
3244.9
4030.4
4758.5
5432.0
6053.7
6626.4
1151.6
1315.4
1942.0
2549.5
2843.0
3421.3
4652.8
5672.0
6849.9
7825.0
8625.0
9455.9
2077.2
2478.4
3257.0
2601.0
3105.1
4084.8
5037.7
2585.2
3206.3
3829.4
5042.2
6224.0
3898.9
4658.5
6138.6
7583.4
8298.3
5150.5
5599.3
7383.5

379.17
43.80
50.71
58.07
86.61
114.81
197.41
250.81
302.88
353.61
403.00
451.06
55.37
63.41
94.62
125.49
140.68
171.29
238.35
296.58
367.39
429.39
483.12
542.13
85.60
102.63
136.17
92.26
110.64
146.85
182.73
79.43
98.93
118.65
157.53
196.08
105.59
126.66
168.21
209.43
230.08
123.65
134.67
178.89

87.74
159.14
158.26
157.32
153.68
150.09
139.56
132.76
126.12
119.65
113.36
107.23
188.98
187.95
183.95
179.87
178.09
174.23
165.52
158.26
149.06
141.17
134.45
126.84
219.16
216.99
212.71
255.07
252.73
248.11
243.53
296.18
293.70
291.18
286.22
281.31
335.05
332.36
327.06
321.81
319.18
377.67
376.27
370.63

5.236
5.760
5.760
5.760
5.760
5.760
5.760
5.760
5.760
5.760
5.760
5.760
6.283
6.283
6.283
6.283
6.283
6.283
6.283
6.283
6.283
6.283
6.283
6.283
6.806
6.806
6.806
7.330
7.330
7.330
7.330
7.854
7.854
7.854
7.854
7.854
8.378
8.378
8.378
8.378
8.378
8.901
8.901
8.901

458.5
69.7
80.4
91.8
135.4
117.5
295.0
366.4
432.6
493.8
550.3
602.4
96.0
109.6
161.9
212.5
237.0
285.1
387.7
472.8
570.8
652.1
718.9
787.9
159.8
190.6
250.5
185.8
221.8
291.8
359.8
172.3
213.8
255.3
336.1
414.9
243.7
291.2
383.7
474.0
518.6
303.0
329.4
434.3

65.53
72.00
34.98
41.97
55.76
69.46
83.06
49.08
65.18
81.28
97.23

36

42

842.39
835.92
982.90
975.91
962.11
948.42
934.82
1336.3
1320.2
1304.1
1288.2

5.8499
5.8050
6.8257
6.7771
6.6813
6.5862
6.4918
.
.
.
.

9127.6
9991.6
5569.5
6658.9
8786.2
10868.4
12906.1
10627
14037
17373
20689

222.78
244.77
118.92
142.68
189.57
236.13
282.35
167
222
276
330

365.03
362.23
425.92
422.89
416.91
417.22
405.09
579.3
572.3
565.4
558.4

8.901
8.901
9.425
9.425
9.425
9.425
9.425
10.99
10.99
10.99
10.99

536.9
587.7
309.4
369.9
488.1
603.8
717.0
506.1
668.4
827.3
985.2

STD, XS and XXS


To distinguish different weights of pipe, three long standing traditional designations are
used:

standard wall - STD


extra strong wall - XS
double extra strong wall - XXS

The last two designations are sometimes referred to as extra heavy wall (XH), and double
extra heavy wall (XXH).

Expansion of Copper, Carbon and Stainless Steel Pipes

Thermal expansion of stainless steel, carbon steel pipes


and copper tubes
Thermal expansion of stainless steel, carbon steel pipes
and copper tubes

(oF)
0
10
20
321)
40

Linear Temperature Expansion (inches/100 feet)


Temperature Brass and
Stainless Carbon
Cast Iron Wrought
Copper
Steel Pipes Steel Pipes Pipes
Iron Pipes
Tubes
0
0
0
0
0
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.4
0.4
0.2
0.4
0.5
0.3

50
60
70
80
90
100
120
140
160
180
200
2122)
220
240
260
280
300
320
340
360
380
400

0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.1
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.8
3.0
3.2
3.5
3.7
3.9
4.2
4.4
4.9

1)

Freezing point of water

2)

Boiling point of water

0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.4
2.5
2.7
2.9
3.2
3.4
3.6
3.9
4.1
4.4
4.6

0.4
0.5
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.1
1.2
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.9
2.0
2.2
2.4
2.5
2.7
2.9
3.1
3.2

T(oC) = 5/9[T(oF) - 32]


1 ft (foot) = 0.3048 m
1 in (inch) = 25.4 mm

Difference between Pipes and Tubes

Pipes and tubes are not the same


Pipes

0.4

0.4

0.7
0.9
1.1

0.8
1.0
1.2

1.3
1.5

1.4
1.7

1.7

1.9

1.9
2.2
2.4

2.1
2.4
2.6

2.8

2.9

3.2
3.3

3.5
3.6

The purpose with a pipe is the transport of a fluid like water, oil or similar, and the most
import property is the capacity or the inside diameter.

For a ASME/ANSI B 36.10 Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe the inside
diameter - ID - of a NPS 2 inches pipe with

schedule 40 is 2.067"
schedule 80 is 1.939"

The inside diameters are close to 2" and the nominal diameter related to the inside
diameter. Outside diameter are 2.375" for both schedules.
Since the outside diameter of a single nominal pipe size is kept constant the inside
diameter of a pipe will depend on the "schedule" or the thickness of the pipe. The
schedule and the actual thickness of a pipe varies with the size of the pipe.
It is common to identify pipes in inches by using NPS or "Nominal Pipe Size". The
metric equivalent is called DN or "diametre nominel". The metric designations conform
to International Standards Organization (ISO) usage and apply to all plumbing, natural
gas, heating oil, and miscellaneous piping used in buildings. The use of NPS does not
conform to American Standard pipe designations where the term NPS means "National
Pipe Thread Straight".
Nominal Bore (NB) may be specified under British standards classifications along with
schedule (wall thickness).
The tolerances are looser to pipes compared with tubes and they are often less expensive
to produce.

Tubes
The nominal dimensions of tubes are based on the outside diameter. If we look at Copper
Tubes - ASTM B88 the outside diameter of a 2" pipe is 2.125", relatively close to 2".

The inside diameter of a tube will depend on the thickness of the tube. The thickness is
often specified as a gauge. If we look at Copper Tubes - ASTM B88 the wall thickness of
0.083"of a 2" pipe is gauge 14.
The tolerances are higher with tubes compared to pipes and tubes are often more
expensive to produce than pipes.

Thermal Expansion Metals

Thermal expansion of some common metals


The coefficient of linear thermal expansion is the ratio of the change in length per degree
F (imperial) to the length.
Linear thermal expansion for some common metals can be found in the table below:
Metal
Admiralty Brass
Aluminum
Aluminum Bronze
Antimony
Beryllium
Beryllium Copper
Bismuth
Cast Iron, gray
Chromium
Cobalt
Copper
Cupronickel
Gold
Hastelloy C
Inconel

Temperature Range
(oF)
68 - 572
68 - 212
68 - 572

68 - 212
32 - 212

68 - 572
68 - 572
70 - 200
68 - 212

Thermal Expansion
(microinch/(in oF))
11.2
13.1
9.0
5
6.7
9.3
7.2
5.8
3.3
6.7
9.8
9.0
7.9
5.3
6.4

Incoloy
Iridium
Iron, nodular pearlitic
Iron, pure
Magnesium
Manganese
Manganese Bronze
Molybdenum
Monel
Nickel Wrought
Niobium (Columbium)
Red Brass
Osmium
Platinum
Plutonium
Potassium
Rhodium
Selenium
Silicon
Silver
Sodium
Tantalum
Thorium
Tin
Titanium
Tungsten
Uranium
Vanadium
Wrought Carbon Steel
Yellow Brass
Zinc

32 - 212
68 - 212
68 - 212

68 - 572
32 - 212
77 - 212
68 - 572

32 - 212
68 - 200

70 - 800
68 - 572

T(oC) = 5/9[T(oF) - 32]


1 in (inch) = 25.4 mm
1 ft (foot) = 0.3048 m

8.0
3.3
6.5
6.8
14
12
11.8
3.0
7.8
7.4
3.9
10.4
2.8
5
19.84
46
4.4
21
2.8
11
39
3.6
6.7
12.8
4.8
2.5
7.4
4.4
7.8
11.3
19

Steel Pipe - Expansion Loop Capacity

Steel pipes - thermal expansion and expansion loop


capacities
The expansion loop is a common way to absorb the temperature expansion in steel pipes.
Expansion loops can be fabricated from standard pipes and elbows.

Approximate Expansion Capacity (mm)


Nominal Pipe Width of Expansion Loop - w - (m)
Size (mm)
0.5
1.0
1.5
25
35
130
32
25
100
210
40
20
70
150
50
65
125
65
50
100
80
40
75
100
35
65

2.0

2.5

200
150
125
115

220
190
150

Thermal Expansion - Linear

Linear temperature expansion - online calculator


Linear thermal expansion can be expressed as
dl = L0 (t1 - t0)

(1)

where
dl = change in length (m)
L0 = initial length (m)
= linear expansion coefficient
t0 = initial temperature (oC)
t1 = final temperature (oC)

Online Thermal Linear Expansion Calculator

L0 - initial length (m)


- linear expansion coefficient
t0 - initial temperature (oC)
t1 - final temperature (oC)
Change in length (dL): 0.0016 (m)
Final length (L1): 1.0016 (m)

Linear Temperature Coefficients - - of some common metals

aluminum : 0.000023 (m/m oC)


steel: 0.000016 (m/m oC)
copper: 0.000017 (m/m oC)

Thermal Expansion of Steam Pipes - inches

When a steam pipes is heated from surrounding


temperature to operation temperature - it expands
The table below can be used to calculate the expansion of steam pipes at different
operating temperatures.
Production Temperature
(oF)
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500

Expansion pr. 100 ft Pipe


(inch)
0.75
1.15
1.6
2.0
2.4
2.9
3.3
3.8

To avoid unacceptable stress and damage of the pipe lines - its important to handle the
expansion properly.

Thermal Expansion of Steam Pipes - mm

A steam pipe heated from surrounding temperature to


operation temperature expands
The table below can be used to calculate the expansion of steam pipes at different
operating temperatures.
Production Temperature
(oC)
66
93
121
149
177
204
232
260

Expansion pr. 100 m Pipe


(mm)
63
96
136
166
203
246
279
323

To avoid unacceptable stress and damage of the pipe lines - its important to handle the
expansion properly

Steel Pipe Schedule 40 - Friction loss and Velocity


Diagram

Friction loss and velocity diagrams - in imperial


(psi/100 ft, ft/s) and SI (Pa/100m, m/s) units
The diagram below indicates friction loss for water flow through ASME/ANSI B36.10/19
schedule 40 steel pipe.
The pressure drop calculations are made with the D'Arcy-Weisbach Equation.

Fluid : Water
Pipe : Steel Pipe - Schedule 40
Temperature : 20.0 oC (68.0 oF)
Density : 998.3 kg/m3 (62.0 lb/ft3)
Kinematic Viscosity : 1.004 10-6 m2/s (0.01 stokes) (1.08E-5 ft2/s)

Pipe Roughness Coefficient : 4.5 10-5

Pressure Drop - Imperial Units

1 gal (US)/min =6.30888x10-5 m3/s = 0.0227 m3/h = 0.06309 dm3(litre)/s =


2.228x10-3 ft3/s = 0.1337 ft3/min
1 ft/s = 0.3048 m/s
1 psi (lb/in2) = 6,894.8 Pa (N/m2) = 6.895x10-3 N/mm2 = 6.895x10-2 bar = 27.71
in H2O at 62oF (16.7oC) = 703.1 mm H2O at 62oF (16.7oC) = 2.0416 in mercury
at 62oF (16.7oC) = 51.8 mm mercury at 62oF (16.7oC) = 703.6 kg/m2 = 2.307 Ft.
H2O

Pressure Drop - SI Units

1 Pa = 10-6 N/mm2 = 10-5 bar = 0.1020 kp/m2 = 1.02x10-4 m H2O = 9.869x10-6


atm = 1.45x10-4 psi (lbf/in2)
1 liter/s = 10-3 m3/s = 3.6 m3/h = 0.03532 ft3/s = 2.1189 ft3/min (cfm) = 13.200
Imp.gal (UK)/min = 15.852 gal (US)/min = 792 Imp. gal (UK)/h
1 m/s = 3.6 km/h = 196.85 ft/min = 2.237 mph

A table presentation of the diagrams above can be found in "Steel Pipe Schedule 40 Friction loss and Velocities".

Steel Pipe Schedule 80 - Friction loss and Velocity


Diagram

Water flow in steel pipes schedule 80 - pressure drop


and velocity diagrams in SI and Imperial units
The diagrams below indicates pressure drop for water flow through ASME/ANSI
B36.10/19 schedule 80 steel pipes.
The pressure drop calculations are made with the D'Arcy-Weisbach Equation.

Fluid : Water
Pipe : Steel Pipe - Schedule 80
Temperature : 20.0 oC (68.0 oF)
Density : 998.3 kg/m3 (62.0 lb/ft3)
Kinematic Viscosity : 1.004 10-6 m2/s (0.01 stokes) (1.08E-5 ft2/s)
Pipe Roughness Coefficient : 4.5 10-5

Pressure Drop - SI units

1 Pa = 10-6 N/mm2 = 10-5 bar = 0.1020 kp/m2 = 1.02x10-4 m H2O = 9.869x10-6


atm = 1.45x10-4 psi (lbf/in2)
1 liter/s = 10-3 m3/s = 3.6 m3/h = 0.03532 ft3/s = 2.1189 ft3/min (cfm) = 13.200
Imp.gal (UK)/min = 15.852 gal (US)/min = 792 Imp. gal (UK)/h
1 m/s = 3.6 km/h = 196.85 ft/min = 2.237 mph

Pressure Drop - Imperial Units

Friction Loss Table


Friction loss table in pdf-format.

1 gal (US)/min =6.30888x10-5 m3/s = 0.0227 m3/h = 0.06309 dm3(litre)/s =


2.228x10-3 ft3/s = 0.1337 ft3/min
1 ft/s = 0.3048 m/s
1 psi (lb/in2) = 6,894.8 Pa (N/m2) = 6.895x10-3 N/mm2 = 6.895x10-2 bar = 27.71
in H2O at 62oF (16.7oC) = 703.1 mm H2O at 62oF (16.7oC) = 2.0416 in mercury
at 62oF (16.7oC) = 51.8 mm mercury at 62oF (16.7oC) = 703.6 kg/m2 = 2.307 Ft.
H2O

Valve Selection Guide (ASME)

An applications guide for selecting valves


The suitability of a valve for a particular application is decided by the materials used in
relation to the conveyed fluid as well as its mechanical design. The table below can be
used as a valve selection guide.
Conveyed Fluid

Nature of Fluid

Valve Function

Type of Disc

Liquid

Gate
Rotary ball
On/Off

Plug
Diaphragm
Butterfly

Neutral
(Water, Oil, etc)

Plug gate
Globe
Control valve,
modulating

Butterfly
Plug gate
Diaphragm
Needle
Gate
Plug gate

On/Off

Rotary ball
Plug
Diaphragm

Corrosive
(Acid, alkaline etc.)

Butterfly
Globe
Control valve,
modulating

Diaphragm
Butterfly
Plug gate

On/Off
Hygienic
(Food, beverages,
drugs etc)

Butterfly
Diaphragm
Butterfly

Control valve,
modulating

Diaphragm
Squeeze
Pinch

Slurry

On/Off

Rotary ball
Butterfly
Diaphragm
Plug
Pinch
Squeeze

Butterfly
Control valve,
modulating

Diaphragm
Squeeze
Pinch
Gate
Gate

On/Off,
Fibrous Suspensions Control valve,
modulating

Diaphragm
Squeeze
Pinch
Gate
Globe

On/Off

Rotary ball
Plug
Diaphragm

Neutral
(Air, Steam etc)

Globe
Control valve,
modulating

Needle
Butterfly
Diaphragm
Gate
Butterfly

Gas
On/Off
Corrosive
(Acid vapors,
chlorine etc.)

Rotary ball
Diaphragm
Plug
Butterfly

Control valve,
modulating

Globe
Needle
Diaphragm
Gate

Vacuum

On/Off

Globe
Rotary ball
Butterfly

Solids

Abrasive Powder
(Silica, etc)

On/Off,
Control valve,

Pinch
Squeeze

modulating
On/Off,
Lubricating powder
Control valve,
(graphite, talcum, etc
modulating

Spiral sock
Pinch
Gate
Spiral sock
Squeeze

download Some Standard from American Society Of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)


ASME B16.5 -1996 Tables - PIPE FLANGES AND FLANGED FITTINGS
ASME B16.10-2000 - Face-to-face and end-to-end dimensions of valves
ASME B16.5a (1998) - ADDENDA to ASME 816.5-1996 PIPE FLANGES AND
FLANGED FITTINGS NPS 1;2 Through NPS 24
ASME B31.1-2004 Power Piping ASME Code for Pressure Piping, B31 (Revision of
ASME B31.1-2001)
ASME B16.47-1996 (BRIDAS GRANDES) LARGE DIAMETER STEEL FLANGES
NPS 28 Through NPS 80
ASME B31.2 (1968) Fuel Gas Piping USAS B31.2 - 1968
Asme b16.34 1996 Valve-Flanged Threaded Welded End -THREADED, AND
WELDING END - (Revision of ASMEANSI B16.34-1988)
ASME b31.4-2002 Pipeline Trasportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbon and Other
Liquids
ASME B16.5a-1998 - Addenda to ASME B16.5-1996 Pipe Flanges & Flanged Fittings
ASME B31.4-2002 - Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons and
Other Liquids
ASME B16.11 Forged Fittings, Socket-welding and Threated (1996)
[url]http://rapidshare.com/files/56087760/ASME_B16.5_-1996__Tables_____PIPE_FLANGES_AND_FLANGED_FITTINGS.pdf[/url]
[url]http://rapidshare.com/files/56089265/ASME_B16.10-2000_-_Face-to-face_and_endto-end_dimensions_of_valves.pdf[/url]
[url]http://rapidshare.com/files/56091002/ASME_B31.12004__Power_Piping_ASME_Code_for_Pressure_Piping__B31__Revision_of_ASME_
B31.1-2001_.pdf[/url]
[url]http://rapidshare.com/files/56091335/API_Standard_650_Addendum_2__2001_Wel
ded_Steel_Tanks_For_Oil_Storage.pdf[/url]
[url]http://rapidshare.com/files/56092116/ASME_B16.5a__1998___ADDENDA_to_ASME_816.51996_PIPE_FLANGES_AND_FLANGED_FITTINGS_NPS_1_2_Through_NP[/url]
[url]http://rapidshare.com/files/56093438/ASME_B16.471996__BRIDAS_GRANDES___LARGE_DIAMETER_STEEL_FLANGES_NPS_28_T
hrough_NPS_80.pdf[/url]
[url]http://rapidshare.com/files/56093737/ASME_B31.2__1968___Fuel_Gas_Piping_US

AS_B31.2_-_1968.pdf[/url]
[url]http://rapidshare.com/files/56095890/Asme_b16.34_1996_ValveFlanged_Threaded_Welded_End_-THREADED__AND_WELDING_END____Revision_of_ASMEAN[/url]
[url]http://rapidshare.com/files/56096174/ASME_b31.42002_Pipeline_Trasportation_Systems_for_Liquid_Hydrocarbon_and_Other_Liquids.pdf
[/url]
[url]http://rapidshare.com/files/56099344/ASME_B31.4-2002__Pipeline_Transportation_Systems_for_Liquid_Hydrocarbons_and_Other_Liquids.pdf[/u
rl]
[url]http://rapidshare.com/files/56100281/Asme_b31-03_Int_No18.pdf[/url]
[url]http://rapidshare.com/files/55917503/Heat_Transfer__Arpaci____solution_manual.r
ar[/url]
[url]http://rapidshare.com/files/56064029/vargaftik_1_.djvu[/url]
[url]http://rapidshare.com/files/56070432/2_AIChE_Journal__Vol._50__No._9___Septe
mber_2004_.pdf[/url]
[url]http://rapidshare.com/files/56072349/AIChE_Journal__Vol._50__No._6___June_20
04_.pdf[/url]
[url]http://rapidshare.com/files/56075711/AIChE_Journal__Vol._51__No._7___July_20
05_.pdf[/url]
[url]http://rapidshare.com/files/56077806/AIChE_Journal__Vol._51__No._8___August_
2005_.pdf[/url]
[url]http://rapidshare.com/files/56077933/AIChE_Journal__Vol._51__No._5___May_20
05_.pdf[/url]
[url]http://rapidshare.com/files/56079497/AIChE_Journal__Vol._51__No._10___Octobe
r_2005_.pdf[/url]
[url]http://rapidshare.com/files/56081028/AIChE_Journal__Vol._51__No._11___Novem
ber_2005_.pdf[/url]
[url]http://rapidshare.com/files/56081151/API_MPMS_8.2_Manual_of_Petro_Measure_
Standards_Chapter_8-Sampling_SECOND_EDITION________Copyright___[/url]
[url]http://rapidshare.com/files/56081971/Api_Standard_674_Positive_Displacement_Pu
mp-Reciprocating.pdf[/url]
[url]http://rapidshare.com/files/56083636/API_Standard_675__1994__Positive_displace
ment_pumps_-_Controlled_volume_2ed.pdf[/url]
[url]http://rapidshare.com/files/56084107/Api_Standard_610__1995___Centrifugal_Pumps_For_Petroleum__Heavy_Duty_Chemical_And_Gas_Industry_Serv[
/url]

Codes and Standards


Piping codes and standards - ASME, ANSI, ASTM, AGA, API, AWWA, BS, ISO, ... A
survey of one of the most important pressure pipe codes - ASME B31, ...
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Pressure Ratings - Pipes and Tubes - Pressure


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ASME B31 - Standards of Pressure Piping. A survey of one of the most important
pressure pipe codes - ASME B31, earlier known as ANSI B31 ...

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Codes and Standards Piping codes and standards - ASME, ANSI, ASTM, AGA, ...
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Fiberglass Pipes - common Standards

Commonly used standards for fiberglass pipes and their


applications
Some of the fiberglass related standards from the major standardization organizations:

ASME Standards
Fiberglass related standards from ASME - American Society of Mechanical Engineers:

ASME/ANSI B31.1 - POWER PIPING


ASME/ANSI B31.3 - PROCESS PIPING
ASME/ANSI B31.9 - BUILDING SERVICES PIPING

ASTM Standards
Fiberglass related standards from ASTM International

ASTM C 581 - STANDARD PRACTICE FOR DETERMINING CHEMICAL


RESISTANCE OF THERMOSETTING RESINS USED IN GLASS-FIBERREINFORCED STRUCTURES INTENDED FOR LIQUID SERVICE
ASTM C 582 - STANDARD SPECIFICATION FOR CONTACT-MOLDED
REINFORCED THERMOSETTING PLASTIC (RTP) LAMINATES FOR
CORROSION RESISTANT EQUIPMENT

ASTM D 149 - STANDARD TEST METHOD FOR DIELECTRIC


BREAKDOWN VOLTAGE AND DIELECTRIC STRENGTH OF SOLID
ELECTRICAL INSULATING MATERIALS AT COMMERCIAL POWER
FREQUENCIES
ASTM D 257 - TEST METHODS FOR DC RESISTANCE OR
CONDUCTANCE OF INSULATING MATERIALS
ASTM D 638 - STANDARD TEST METHOD FOR TENSILE PROPERTIES
OF PLASTICS
ASTM D 695M - TEST METHOD FOR COMPRESSIVE PROPERTIES OF
RIGID PLASTICS (METRIC)
ASTM D 696 - STANDARD TEST METHOD FOR COEFFICIENT OF
LINEAR THERMAL EXPANSION OF PLASTICS BETWEEN - 30 DEGREES
C AND 30 DEGREES C WITH A VITREOUS SILICA DILATOMETER
ASTM D 790 - STANDARD TEST METHODS FOR FLEXURAL
PROPERTIES OF UNREINFORCED AND REINFORCED PLASTICS AND
ELECTRICAL INSULATING MATERIALS
ASTM D 792 - TEST METHODS FOR DENSITY AND SPECIFIC GRAVITY
(RELATIVE DENSITY) OF PLASTICS BY DISPLACEMENT
ASTM D 1598 - STANDARD TEST METHOD FOR TIME-TO-FAILURE OF
PLASTIC PIPE UNDER CONSTANT INTERNAL PRESSURE
ASTM D 1599 - STANDARD TEST METHOD FOR RESISTANCE TO
SHORT-TIME HYDRAULIC PRESSURE OF PLASTIC PIPE, TUBING, AND
FITTINGS
ASTM D 2105 - STANDARD TEST METHOD FOR LONGITUDINAL
TENSILE PROPERTIES OF "FIBERGLASS" (GLASS-FIBER-REINFORCED
THERMOSETTING-RESIN) PIPE AND TUBE
ASTM D 2143 - STANDARD TEST METHOD FOR CYCLIC PRESSURE
STRENGTH OF REINFORCED, THERMOSETTING PLASTIC PIPE
ASTM D 2290 - STANDARD TEST METHOD FOR APPARENT HOOP
TENSILE STRENGTH OF PLASTICOR REINFORCED PLASTIC PIPE BY
SPLIT DISK METHOD
ASTM D 2310 - STANDARD CLASSIFICATION FOR MACHINE-MADE
"FIBERGLASS" (GLASS-FIBER REINFORCED THERMOSETTING-RESIN)
PIPE
ASTM D 2412 - STANDARD TEST METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF
EXTERNAL LOADING CHARACTERISTICS OF PLASTIC PIPE BY
PARALLEL-PLATE LOADING
ASTM D 2444 - TEST METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF THE IMPACT
RESISTANCE OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPE AND FITTINGS BY MEANS OF
A TUP (FALLING WEIGHT)
ASTM D 2583 - STANDARD TEST METHOD FOR INDENTATION
HARDNESS OF RIGID PLASTICS BY MEANS OF A BARCOL IMPRESSOR
ASTM D 2584 - STANDARD TEST METHOD FOR IGNITION LOSS OF
CURED REINFORCED RESINS

ASTM D 2924 - STANDARD TEST METHOD FOR EXTERNAL PRESSURE


RESISTANCE OF "FIBERGLASS" (GLASS-FIBER-REINFORCED
THERMOSETTING-RESIN) PIPE
ASTM D 2925 - STANDARD TEST METHOD FOR BEAM DEFLECTION OF
"FIBERGLASS" (GLASS- FIBER-REINFORCED THERMOSETTING RESIN)
PIPE UNDER FULL BORE FLOW
ASTM D 2992 - STANDARD PRACTICE FOR OBTAINING HYDROSTATIC
OR PRESSURE DESIGN BASIS FOR "FIBERGLASS" (GLASS-FIBERREINFORCED THERMOSETTING-RESIN) PIPE AND FITTINGS
ASTM D 2996 - STANDARD SPECIFICATION FOR FILAMENT-WOUND
"FIBERGLASS" (GLASS- FIBER-REINFORCED THERMOSETTING-RESIN)
PIPE
ASTM D 2997 - STANDARD SPECIFICATION FOR CENTRIFUGALLY
CAST "FIBERGLASS" (GLASS-FIBER-REINFORCED THERMOSETTINGRESIN) PIPE
ASTM D 3262 - STANDARD SPECIFICATION FOR "FIBERGLASS"
(GLASS-FIBER-REINFORCED THERMOSETTING-RESIN) SEWER PIPE
ASTM D 3517 - STANDARD SPECIFICATION FOR "FIBERGLASS"
(GLASS-FIBER-REINFORCED THERMOSETTING-RESIN) PRESSURE PIPE
ASTM D 3567 - STANDARD PRACTICE FOR DETERMINING
DIMENSIONS "FIBERGLASS" (GLASS- FIBER-REINFORCED
THERMOSETTING RESIN) PIPE AND FITTINGS
ASTM D 3615 - CHEMICAL RESISTANCE OF THERMOSET MOLDING
COMPOUNDS
ASTM D 3681 - STANDARD TEST METHOD FOR CHEMICAL
RESISTANCE OF "FIBERGLASS" (GLASS-FIBER-REINFORCED
THERMOSETTING-RESIN) PIPE IN A DEFLECTED CONDITION
ASTM D 3754 - STANDARD SPECIFICATION FOR "FIBERGLASS"
(GLASS-FIBER-REINFORCED THERMOSETTING-RESIN) SEWER AND
INDUSTRIAL PRESSURE PIPE
ASTM D 3840 - STANDARD SPECIFICATION FOR "FIBERGLASS"
(GLASS-FIBER-REINFORCED THERMOSETTING-RESIN) PIPE FITTINGS
FOR NONPRESSURE APPLICATIONS
ASTM D 4024 - STANDARD SPECIFICATION FOR MACHINE MADE
"FIBERGLASS" (GLASS-FIBER REINFORCED THERMOSETTING RESIN)
FLANGES
ASTM D 4161 - STANDARD SPECIFICATION FOR "FIBERGLASS"
(GLASS-FIBER-REINFORCED THERMOSETTING-RESIN) PIPE JOINTS
USING FLEXIBLE ELASTOMERIC SEALS
ASTM D 5365 - STANDARD TEST METHOD FOR LONG-TERM RINGBENDING STRAIN OF "FIBERGLASS" (GLASS-FIBER-REINFORCED
THERMOSETTING-RESIN) PIPE
ASTM D 5421 - STANDARD SPECIFICATION FOR CONTACT MOLDED
"FIBERGLASS" (GLASS-FIBER-REINFORCED THERMOSETTING RESIN)
FLANGES

ASTM D 5677 - STANDARD SPECIFICATION FOR FIBERGLASS (GLASSFIBER-REINFORCED THERMOSETTING-RESIN) PIPE AND PIPE
FITTINGS, ADHESIVE BONDED JOINT TYPE, FOR AVIATION JET
TURBINE FUEL LINES
ASTM D 5685 - STANDARD SPECIFICATION FOR "FIBERGLASS"
(GLASS-FIBER-REINFORCED THERMOSETTING-RESIN) PRESSURE PIPE
FITTINGS
ASTM D 6041 - STANDARD SPECIFICATION FOR CONTACT-MOLDED
"FIBERGLASS" (GLASS-FIBER-REINFORCED THERMOSETTING RESIN)
CORROSION RESISTANT PIPE AND FITTINGS
ASTM E 228 - LINEAR THERMAL EXPANSION OF SOLID MATERIALS
WITH A VITREOUS SILICA DILATOMETER
ASTM F 1173 - STANDARD SPECIFICATION FOR THERMOSETTING
RESIN FIBERGLASS PIPE SYSTEMS TO BE USED FOR MARINE
APPLICATIONS

AWWA Standards
Fiberglass related standards from AWWA - American Water Works Association

AWWA C950-01 - Fiberglass Pressure Pipe


AWWA D120-84 (R89) - Thermosetting Fiberglass-Reinforced Plastic Tanks
AWWA F101-02 - Contact-Molded, Fiberglass-Reinforced Plastic Wash Water
Troughs and Launders
AWWA F102-02 - Matched-Die-Molded, Fiberglass-Reinforced Plastic Weir
Plates, Scum Baffles, and Mounting Brackets

BSi Standards
Fiberglass related standards from BSi - British Standards institute

BS 5480 - Specification for glass reinforced plastics (GRP) pipes, joints and
fittings for use for water supply or sewerage
BS 6464 - Specification for reinforced plastics pipes, fittings and joints for
process plants
BS 7159 - Code of practice for design and construction of glass-reinforced
plastics (GRP) piping systems for individual plants or sites
BS 8010-2.5 - Code of practice for pipelines - Pipelines on land: design,
construction and installation - Glass reinforced thermosetting plastics

DIN Standards
Fiberglass related standards from DIN - Deutsches Institut fr Normung

DIN 53393 - Testing of Textile Glass-reinforced Plastics; Behavior to the Effect


of Chemicals

DIN 53758 - Testing of plastics articles; determination of the effect of internal


pressure on hollow objects by short-time test
DIN 53768 - Determination by extrapolation of the long-term behavior of glass
fiber reinforced plastics
DIN 53769-1 - Testing of glass fiber reinforced plastics pipes; determination of
the longitudinal shear strength of type B pipe fittings
DIN 53769-2 - Testing of glass fiber reinforced plastics pipes; long-term
hydrostatic pressure test
DIN 53769-3 - Testing of glass fiber reinforced plastics pipes; determination of
initial and long-term ring stiffness
DIN 53769-6 - Testing of glass fiber reinforced plastics pipes; Testing of pipes
and fittings under pulsating internal pressure
DIN EN 59 - Glass Reinforced Plastics; Measurement of Hardness by Means of a
Barcol Impressor
DIN EN 637 - Plastics piping systems - Glass-reinforced plastics components Determination of the amounts of constituents using the gravimetric method
DIN EN 705 - Plastics piping systems - Glass-reinforced thermosetting plastics
(GRP) pipes and fittings - Methods for regression analyses and their use
DIN EN 761 - Plastics piping systems - Glass-reinforced thermosetting plastics
(GRP) pipes - Determination of the creep factor under dry conditions
DIN EN 1393 - Plastics piping systems - Glass-reinforced thermosetting plastics
(GRP) pipes; Determination of initial longitudinal tensile properties
DIN EN 1447 - Plastics piping systems - Glass-reinforced thermosetting plastics
(GRP) pipes - Determination of long-term resistance to internal pressure
DIN EN 1448 - Plastics piping systems - Glass-reinforced thermosetting plastics
(GRP) components - Test methods to prove the design of rigid locked socket- and
-spigot joints with elastomeric seals
DIN EN 1449 - Plastics piping systems - Glass-reinforced thermosetting plastics
(GRP) components - Test methods to prove the design of a cemented socket- and
-spigot joints
DIN EN 1450 - Plastics piping systems - Glass-reinforced thermosetting plastics
(GRP) components - Test methods to prove the design of bolted flange joints

ISO Standards
Fiberglass related standards from ISO - International Organization for Standardization

ISO 178 - Plastics - Determination of flexural properties


ISO 527-4 - Plastics - Determination of tensile properties - Part 4: Test conditions
for isotropic and orthotropic fibre-reinforced plastic composites
ISO 7370 - Glass fiber reinforced thermosetting plastics (GRP) pipes and fittings;
Nominal diameters, specified diameters and standard lengths
ISO 7510 - Plastics piping systems - Glass-reinforced plastics (GRP) components
- Determination of the amounts of constituents using the gravimetric method
ISO 7684 - Plastics piping systems - Glass-reinforced thermosetting plastics
(GRP) pipes - Determination of the creep factor under dry conditions

ISO 10466 - Plastics piping systems - Glass-reinforced thermosetting plastics


(GRP) pipes - Test method to prove the resistance to initial ring deflection
ISO 10928 - Plastics piping systems - Glass-reinforced thermosetting plastics
(GRP) pipes and fittings - Methods for regression analysis and their use
ISO/TR 10465-1 - Underground installation of flexible glass-reinforced
thermosetting resin (GRP) pipes; part 1: installation procedures
ISO/TR 10465-2 - Underground installation of flexible glass-reinforced
thermosetting resin (GRP) pipes - Part 2: Comparison of static calculation
methods
ISO/TR 10465-3 - Underground installation of flexible glass-reinforced
thermosetting resin (GRP) pipes - Part 3: Installation parameters and application
limits

Capacity of Sewer Pipes

Carrying capacity of sewer and wastewater pipes - gpm


and liter per second
The diagrams below can be used for design of sewage and wastewater gravity conveying
systems where capacities in GPM or liter per second and the slopes of the pipe lines are
known.

Sewage Pipe Capacity - Imperial units - gpm

Sewage Pipe Capacity - SI Units - liter per second

The table below indicates sewage pipe capacity in gpm:


Carrying Capacity of Sewer Pipe (gallons per minute)
Size of Decline per 100 ft pipe (feet)
pipe
2
3
6
9
(inches) 1
3
13
19
23
32
40
4
27
38
47
66
81
6
75
105
129
183
224
8
153
211
265
375
460
9
205
290
355
503
617
10
267
378
463
655
803
12
422
596
730
1033
1273
15
740
1021
1282
1818
2224
18
1168
1651
2022
1860
3508

12

24

36

46
93
258
527
712
926
1468
2464
4045

64
131
364
750
1006
1310
2076
3617
5704

79
163
450
923
1240
1613
2554
4467
7047

24
27
30
36

2396
4407
5906
9700

3387
6211
8352
13769

4155
7674
10223
16816

5874
10883
14298
23760

7202
13257
17717
29284

8303
15344
20204
33722

11744
21770
28129
47523

14466
26622
35513
58406

The discharge rate is based on clean water and half filled pipes.

1 gal (US)/min = 6.30888x10-5 m3/s = 0.0227 m3/h = 0.06309 dm3(liter)/s =


2.228x10-3 ft3/s = 0.1337 ft3/min = 0.8327 Imperial gal (UK)/min

Sponsored Links

Related Topics

Fluid Flow and Pressure Drop Pipe lines - fluid flow and pressure loss - water,
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Water Systems Hot and cold water systems - design properties, capacities, sizing
and more

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Fiberglass Pipes - common Standards Commonly used standards for fiberglass
pipes and their applications
Drainage Fixture Unit Values (DFU) DFU are used to determine the drainage
from fixtures and the necessary capacity of the sewer service systems
Drainage Fixture Unit Loads for Sanitary Piping Maximum Drainage Fixture
Unit - DFU - Loads for sanitary piping
Expected Loads in Sanitary Drainage Systems Calculate expected loads in
sanitary drainage systems
Fixture-Unit Requirements on Trap Sizes Trap size and no. fixture units
Drainage Piping and Hanger Spacing Support of drainage pipes
Septic Systems A septic system handles the waste from the drain system
Ditch-Filling Materials - Densities Weight or density of ditch-filling materials

Drainage Piping and Hanger Spacing

Support of drainage pipes

Both vertical and horizontal drainage pipes must be supported properly. Recommended
maximum distances between the hangers are indicated in the table below.
Piping Material
ABS plastic
Galvanized steel
DWV Copper
Cast Iron
PVC plastic
1)

Distance between Supports (ft)


Horizontal Pipe
Vertical Pipe
4
4
12
15
10
10
5
151)
4
4

For cast iron stacks, the base of each stack must be supported

Waste Water and Flow Capacity

In sewage piping and pumping systems the fluid flow


rate must be kept within certain limits to avoid
operating problems
n a sewage piping and pumping system the flow velocity must exceed certain limits to
maintain trouble free operation and avoid settling and sedimentation of solids:

For horizontal wastewater pipe systems with solids the speed should exceed 3
ft/sec.
For wastewater water system with organic solids the speed should exceed 2
ft./sec.

The flow velocity waste water systems must not exceed certain limits to reduce the
potential for wear and tear due to the effects of erosion and abrasion:

The speed in high-grit sewage handling systems should not exceed 12 ft/sec.
The flow and velocity in sewage systems with low grit concentrations should not
exceed 18 ft/sec.

The flow rate capacity in US gal for a sewage piping and pumping systems with this
limitations are expressed below for different pipe sizes:
Flow Rate (US GPM)
Pipe Dimension
(inches)
Minimum Velocity
2 ft/sec
3 ft/sec

Maximum Velocity
12 ft/sec
18 ft/sec

3
4
6
8
10
12

(0.6 m/s)
45
80
180
300
500
700

(0.9 m/s)
65
120
260
500
750
1100

(3.6 m/s)
270
480
1050
1900
3000
4300

(5.4 m/s)
400
700
1600
2800
4400
6400

Thermal Expansion of PVC, CPVC, Carbon Steel,


Stainless Steel and Fiberglass Pipes

Typical thermal expansion of PVC, CPVC, Carbon and


Stainless Steel and Fiberglass pipes
Thermal expansion of pipes in PVC, CPVC, Fiberglass and Carbon or Stainless Steel in
inches per 100 feet can be found in the diagrams and table below:

Thermal Expansion (inches/100 feet)

Temperature
Change
(oF)
25
50
75
100
150

Fiberglass

PVC1)

CPVC1)

Carbon Steel Stainless Steel

0.31
0.61
0.92
1.23
1.84

0.90
1.80
2.70
3.60
5.40

1.14
2.28
3.42
4.56
6.84

0.18
0.36
0.54
0.72
1.08

0.27
0.54
0.82
1.09
1.63

For temperature change: oF = 5/9 oC


1)

Note the relative huge thermal expansion of thermoplastic plastic materials as PVC and
CPVC compared to steel.

How to calculate thermal expansions of pipes?

CPVC Pipes - Operating and Collapsing Pressure


Ratings

Maximum operating and bursting pressures of CPVC Chlorinated Poly(Vinyl Chloride) - piping systems
Maximum operating and collapsing pressures at 70oF (21oC) for CPVC piping systems
according

ASTM F441 / F441M - 02 Standard Specification for Chlorinated Poly(Vinyl


Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe, Schedules 40 and 80
ASTM D2846 / D2846M - 06 Standard Specification for Chlorinated Poly(Vinyl
Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Hot- and Cold-Water Distribution Systems

are indicated in the diagram and table below:

CPVC
Nominal Pipe
Size
(inches)
1/2
3/4
1
1 1/4
1 1/2
2
2 1/2
3
4
6
8
10
12

Collapse Pressure
(psi)
Schedule 40
Schedule 80
1605
2006
1219
1740
948
1628
511
1399
366
1034
213
653
276
758
179
521
108
334
54
214
37
146
27
125
22
116

1 psi (lb/in2) = 6,894.8 Pa (N/m2)

Maximum Operating Pressure


(psi)
Schedule 40
Schedule 80
590
850
480
690
450
630
365
520
330
470
275
400
300
420
260
370
220
320
180
280
160
250
140
230
130
230

Note! The maximum operating pressures derates with temperature. At the maximum
operating temperature for CPVC - 200oF (93oC) - the strength is derated to approximately
20% of the strength at 73oF (23oC).
Be aware that maximum operating pressures varies with the fittings design. Consult the
manufacturing data.

Plastic Pipes - Friction Head Loss

Friction head loss (ft/100 ft) in plastic pipes, PVC, PP,


PE, PEH
The pressure head loss (feet H2O per 100 feet pipe) in straight plastic pipes made of
materials as PVC, PP, PE, PEH or similar, can be estimated from the table below.
The friction head loss are calculated for PVC pipes Schedule 40 with the Hazen-Williams
equation and a Hazen-Williams roughness constant c = 145. Minor loss in fittings must
be added.
Pressure Friction Head Loss (ft H2O/100 ft pipe)
Volume Flow
Nominal Pipe Diameter (inches)
Gallons Gallons
3/8 1/2 3/4 1
1 1/4 1 1/2
Per
Per
Minute Hour
Nominal Inside Diameter (inches)
1)
2)
(GPM) (GPH) 0.493 0.622 0.824 1.049 1.380 1.610
1
60
3.3 1.1 0.3
2
120
11.8 3.8 1.0 0.3 0.1
4
240
42.5 13.7 3.5 1.1 0.3 0.1
5
300
64.2 20.7 5.3 1.6 0.4 0.2
6
360
29.0 7.4 2.3 0.6 0.3
8
480
49.5 12.6 3.9 1.0 0.5
10
600
74.7 19.0 5.9 1.6 0.7
20
1200
68.6 21.2 5.6 2.6
30
1800
11.8 5.6
40
2400
20.1 9.5
50
3000
14.4
60
3600
20.1

2 1/2 3

2.067 2.469 3.068 4.026 6.065

0.1
0.2
0.8
1.7
2.8
4.3
6.0

0.1
0.3
0.7
1.2
1.8
2.5

0.1
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.9

0.1
0.2
0.2

70
80
90
100
125
150

4200
4800
5400
6000
7500
9000

1)

GPM = gallons per minute

2)

GPH = gallons per hour

7.9 3.3
10.2 4.3
12.6 5.3
6.5
9.8

1.2
1.5
1.9
2.3
3.4
4.8

0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.9
1.3

0.1
0.1
0.2

1 gal (US)/min =6.30888x10-5 m3/s = 0.227 m3/h = 0.0631 dm3(liter)/s =


2.228x10-3 ft3/s = 0.1337 ft3/min = 0.8327 Imperial gal (UK)/min
1 ft H2O = 0.3048 m H2O = 0.4335 psi = 62.43 lbs/ft2

Example of Friction Head Loss in Plastic Pipes


A flow of 10 GPM in a 2" pipe gives a head loss of 0.2 feet water column per 100 feet of
pipe

CPVC Pipes - Support Spacing

Support spacing for CPVC pipes


Maximum support spacing for CPVC - Chlorinated Poly Vinyl Chloride - pipes depends
on the operating temperature. Maximum spacing between supports at different
temperatures can be found in the tables below:
CPVC - Wall Schedule 40 - Support Spacing (feet)
Operating Temperature (oF)
NPS
(inches)
60
100
140
1/2
5
4 1/2
4
3/4
5 1/2
5
4
1
6
5 1/2
4 1/2
1 1/4
6
5 1/2
5
1 1/2
6 1/2
6
5
2
6 1/2
6
5

3
4
6
8

8
8 1/2
9 1/2
9 1/2

7
7 1/2
8 1/2
8 1/2

6
6 1/2
7 1/2
7 1/2

CPVC - Wall Schedule 80 - Support Spacing (feet)


Operating Temperature (oF)
NPS
(inches)
60
100
140
1/2
5
4 1/2
2 1/2
3/4
5 1/2
4 1/2
2 1/2
1
6
5
3
1 1/2
6 1/2
5 1/2
3 1/2
2
7
6
3 1/2
3
8
7
4
4
9
7 1/2
4 1/2
6
10
9
5
8
10
9
5

1 ft (foot) = 0.3048 m
T(oC) = 5/9[T(oF) - 32]

Chlorinated Poly Vinyl Chloride - CPVC - is a thermoplastic pipe and fitting material
made with CPVC compounds meeting the requirements of ASTM Class 23447 as defined
in ASTM Specification D1784.
CPVC applications are for potable water distribution, corrosive fluid handling in
industry, and fire suppression systems.

Thermoplastic Pipes - Temperature and Maximum


Support Spacing
Maximum support spacing PVC, CPVC, PVDF and PP pipes
Temperature and maximum support spacing for pipes made of

PVDF - PolyVinylidene Fluoride


CPVC - Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride
PVC - Polyvinyl Chloride
PP - PolyPropylene

are indicated in the diagrams below.

PVC Pipes

1 ft (foot) = 0.3048 m
T(oF) = [T(oC)](9/5) + 32

CPVC Pipes

PVDF Pipes

PP Pipes

Sponsored Links

PVC Pipes - Pressure Ratings

Maximum operating and required burst pressure of


PVC - Polyvinyl Chloride - pipe fittings
Maximum operating and required minimum bursting pressures at 73oF (23oC) for PVC
pipe fittings according ASTM D1785 "Standard Specification for Poly Vinyl Chloride
(PVC) Plastic Pipes Schedules 40 and 80 are indicated in the diagram and table below:

PVC
Nominal Pipe
Size
(inches)
1/2
3/4
1
1 1/4
1 1/2

Required Minimum Burst Pressure


(psi)
Schedule 401)
Schedule 802)
1910
2720
1540
2200
1440
2020
1180
1660
1060
1510

Maximum Operating Pressure


(psi)
Schedule 40
Schedule 80
358
509
289
413
270
378
221
312
198
282

2
2 1/2
3
4
5
6
8
10
12

890
870
840
710
620
560
500
450
420

1290
1360
1200
1110
1040
930
890
790
600

166
182
158
133
117
106
93
84
79

243
255
225
194
173
167
148
140
137

1. ASTM D2466 - 06 Standard Specification for Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic


Pipe Fittings, Schedule 40
2. ASTM D2467-04e1 Standard Specification for Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC)
Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 80

1 psi (lb/in2) = 6,894.8 Pa (N/m2)

Note! The maximum operating pressures derates with temperature. At the maximum
operating temperature for PVC - 140oF (60oC) - the strength is derated to approximately
20% of the strength at 73oF (23oC).
Be aware that maximum operating pressures varies with the fittings design. Consult the
manufacturing data.

Ball Valves and typical Flow Coefficients - Cv

Typical flow coefficients - Cv - for ball valves - reduced


and full bore
Conventional ball valves are normally not used as throttling valves since partial flow will
create high velocity flow tear at the ball and seals.

Full Bore Valves


Typical flow coefficients - Cv - for full bore valves:
Valve Size
inches
mm
Flow

1
2
2
3
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
1/2
1/2
12 19 25 37.5 50 62.5 75 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
26 50 94 260 480 750 1300 2300 5400 1000 1600 2400 3140 4300 57000
1/2 3/4 1

Coefficien
t
Cv

14
350

16
400

Reduced Bore Valves


Typical flow coefficients - Cv - for reduced bore valves:
Valve Size
inches
3
mm
75
Flow Coefficient
420
Cv

4
100

6
150

8
200

10
250

12
300

18
450

20
500

770

1800 2500 4500 8000 12000 14000 18000 22000

Thermoplastic Pipes - Temperature and Strength


Derating

Increased temperature derates the strength of


thermoplastic piping materials
Thermoplastic materials loose their strength to pressure and tension with increasing
temperature. The table below can be used as a guide to common thermoplastics and their
derated strength with temperature. Manufacturing data should always be consulted.
Derating Factor
Temperature
(oC)
(oF)
21
70
27
80
32
90
38
100
43
110
49
120
54
130
60
140
66
150
71
160
82
180

PVDF

CPVC

PVC

PB

PEX

PE

1.0
0.9
0.9
0.8
0.8
0.7
0.7
0.6
0.6
0.5
0.5

1.0
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.3

1.0
0.9
0.8
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2

1.0
1.0
0.9
0.9
0.8
0.8
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.6
0.5

1.0
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.6

1.0
0.9
0.9
0.8
0.8
0.7
0.5
0.4
0.2

1)
1)
1)

1)
1)

93
104
121
138

200
220
250
280

0.4
0.4
0.4
0.3

0.2

1)

0.4

0.5

1)

1)

1)

1)

1)

1)

1)

1)

1)

1)

1)

1)

1)

1)

1)

1)

1)

The thermoplastic is not resistant for long term service at this temperature. Operating
conditions should be avoided.

PVDF - PolyVinylidene Fluoride


CPVC - Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride
PVC - Polyvinyl Chloride
PB - Polybutylene
PEX - Cross Linked Polyethylene
PE - Polyethylene

Plastic Pipes Temperature Derating Diagram

Example - Higher Temperature and Reduced Strength


If operating pressure for a 6" Schedule 80 CPVC pipe is 167 psi, the maximum operating
pressure at 150 oF (66 oC) is reduced to
(167 psi) 0.5
= 83.5 psi

PVC Pipes - Friction Loss and Flow Velocity - Schedule


40

Water flow in thermoplastic PVC and CPVC pipes


Schedule 40 - friction loss (ft/100 ft, psi/100 ft) and
flow velocities at dimensions from 1/2 inch to 16
inches

Friction loss and flow velocity in PVC and CPVC pipes Schedule 40 with water can be
found in the table below. The table may be also be used for pipes in other thermoplastic
materials where the inner diameter corresponds to PVC Schedule 40.

1 ft (foot) = 0.3048 m
1 ft/s = 0.3048 m/s
1 gal (US)/min =6.30888x10-5 m3/s = 0.0227 m3/h = 0.0631 dm3(liter)/s =
2.228x10-3 ft3/s = 0.1337 ft3/min
1 psi/100 ft = 2.3 ftH2O/100 ft = 2288 mmH2O/100 ft = 22.46 kPa/100 m

Note! Velocity should not exceed 5 feet per second.


The values can be used to calculate pressure loss with the Equivalent Pipe Length
Method.
1/2 inches
Volume Volume
Flow
Flow
(gal/min) (gal/hr)
1
60
2
120
5
300
7
420
10
600
3/4 inches
Volume Volume
Flow
Flow
(gal/min) (gal/hr)
1
60
2
120
5
300
7
420
10
600
15
900
20
1200
1 inches
Volume
Flow
(gal/min)
2

Volume
Flow
(gal/hr)
120

Friction
Velocity
Head
(ft/sec)
(ft/100 ft)
1.1
2.1
2.3
4.2
5.6
23.4
7.9
43.1
11.3
82.0

Friction
Loss
(psi/100 ft)
0.9
1.8
10.5
18.6
35.5

Friction
Velocity
Head
(ft/sec)
(ft/100 ft)
0.6
0.5
0.3
1.0
3.2
5.7
4.4
10.5
6.3
20.0
9.5
42.5
12.7
72.3

Friction
Loss
(psi/100 ft)
0.2
0.4
2.5
4.6
8.7
18.4
31.3

Friction
Velocity
Head
(ft/sec)
(ft/100 ft)
0.8
0.6

Friction
Loss
(psi/100 ft)
0.2

5
300
7
420
10
600
15
900
20
1200
25
1500
30
1800
1 1/4 inches
Volume Volume
Flow
Flow
(gal/min) (gal/hr)
2
120
5
300
7
420
10
600
15
900
20
1200
25
1500
30
1800
35
2100
40
2400
45
2700
50
3000
1 1/2 inches
Volume Volume
Flow
Flow
(gal/min) (gal/hr)
2
120
5
300
7
420
10
600
15
900
20
1200
25
1500
30
1800
35
2100

1.9
2.7
3.9
5.8
7.7
9.7
11.6

1.7
3.2
6.0
12.8
21.8
32.9
46.1

0.8
1.4
2.6
5.5
9.4
14.2
20.0

Friction
Velocity
Head
(ft/sec)
(ft/100 ft)
0.4
0.1
1.1
0.4
1.6
0.8
2.2
1.6
3.3
3.3
4.4
5.6
5.5
8.5
6.6
11.9
7.7
15.8
8.8
20.2
9.9
25.1
11.1
30.5

Friction
Loss
(psi/100 ft)
0.1
0.2
0.4
0.7
1.4
2.4
3.7
5.1
6.8
8.7
10.9
13.2

Friction
Velocity
Head
(ft/sec)
(ft/100 ft)
0.3
0.1
0.8
0.2
1.1
0.4
1.6
0.7
2.4
1.5
3.2
2.6
4.0
4.0
4.9
5.5
5.7
7.4

Friction
Loss
(psi/100 ft)
0.03
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.7
1.1
1.7
2.4
3.2

40
45
50
60
2 inches
Volume
Flow
(gal/min)
5
7
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
60
70
75
80
90
100

2400
2700
3000
3600

6.5
7.3
8.1
9.7

9.4
11.7
14.3
20.0

4.1
5.1
6.2
8.7

Volume
Flow
(gal/hr)
300
420
600
900
1200
1500
1800
2100
2400
2700
3000
3600
4200
4500
4800
5400
6000

Friction
Velocity
Head
(ft/sec)
(ft/100 ft)
0.5
0.07
0.7
0.1
1.0
0.2
1.5
0.5
2.0
0.8
2.4
1.2
2.9
1.6
3.4
2.2
3.9
2.8
4.4
3.4
4.9
4.2
5.9
5.8
6.8
7.8
7.3
8.8
7.8
9.9
8.8
12.4
9.8
15.0

Friction
Loss
(psi/100 ft)
0.03
0.05
0.09
0.2
0.3
0.5
0.7
0.9
1.2
1.5
1.8
2.5
3.4
3.8
4.3
5.4
6.5

2 1/2 inches
Volume Volume
Flow
Flow
(gal/min) (gal/hr)
5
300
7
420
10
600
15
900
20
1200
25
1500
30
1800

Friction
Velocity
Head
(ft/sec)
(ft/100 ft)
0.3
0.04
0.5
0.05
0.7
0.1
1.0
0.2
1.4
0.3
1.7
0.5
2.1
0.7

Friction
Loss
(psi/100 ft)
0.02
0.02
0.04
0.08
0.1
0.2
0.3

35
40
45
50
60
70
75
80
90
100
125
150
3 inches
Volume
Flow
(gal/min)
5
7
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
60
70
75
80
90
100
125
150
175

2100
2400
2700
3000
3600
4200
4500
4800
5400
6000
7500
9000

2.4
2.7
3.1
3.4
4.1
4.8
5.1
5.5
6.2
6.8
8.6
10.3

0.9
1.2
1.4
1.8
2.5
3.3
3.7
4.2
5.2
6.3
9.6
13.4

Volume
Flow
(gal/hr)
300
420
600
900
1200
1500
1800
2100
2400
2700
3000
3600
4200
4500
4800
5400
6000
7500
9000
10500

Friction
Velocity
Head
(ft/sec)
(ft/100 ft)
0.2
0.02
0.3
0.02
0.4
0.03
0.7
0.07
0.9
0.1
1.1
0.2
1.3
0.2
1.6
0.3
1.8
0.4
2.0
0.5
2.2
0.6
2.7
0.9
3.1
1.1
3.3
1.3
3.5
1.4
4.0
1.8
4.4
2.2
5.5
3.3
6.6
4.6
7.7
6.2

0.4
0.5
0.6
0.8
1.1
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.3
2.7
4.2
5.8
Friction
Loss
(psi/100 ft)
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.03
0.05
0.07
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.6
0.8
0.9
1.4
2.0
2.7

200
250
4 inches
Volume
Flow
(gal/min)
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
60
70
75
80
90
100
125
150
175
200
250
300
350
400
5 inches
Volume
Flow
(gal/min)
30
35
40
45
50

12000
15000

8.8
11.0

7.9
11.9

3.4
5.2

Volume
Flow
(gal/hr)
1200
1500
1800
2100
2400
2700
3000
3600
4200
4500
4800
5400
6000
7500
9000
10500
12000
15000
18000
21000
24000

Friction
Velocity
Head
(ft/sec)
(ft/100 ft)
0.5
0.03
0.6
0.04
0.8
0.06
0.9
0.08
1.0
0.1
1.2
0.1
1.3
0.2
1.5
0.2
1.8
0.3
1.9
0.3
2.1
0.4
2.3
0.5
2.6
0.6
3.2
0.9
3.8
1.2
4.5
1.6
5.1
2.1
6.4
3.2
7.7
4.4
9.0
5.9
10.2
7.5

Friction
Loss
(psi/100 ft)
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.7
0.9
1.4
1.9
2.6
3.3

Volume
Flow
(gal/hr)
1800
2100
2400
2700
3000

Friction
Velocity
Head
(ft/sec)
(ft/100 ft)
0.5
0.02
0.6
0.03
0.7
0.03
0.7
0.04
0.8
0.05

Friction
Loss
(psi/100 ft)
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.02

60
70
75
80
90
100
125
150
175
200
250
300
350
400
450
500

3600
4200
4500
4800
5400
6000
7500
9000
10500
12000
15000
18000
21000
24000
27000
30000

1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.5
1.6
2.0
2.4
2.8
3.3
4.1
4.9
5.7
6.5
7.3
8.1

0.07
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.7
1.1
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.1
3.7

6 inches
Volume
Flow
(gal/min)
50
60
70
75
80
90
100
125
150
175
200
250
300
350
400
450

Volume
Flow
(gal/hr)
3000
3600
4200
4500
4800
5400
6000
7500
9000
10500
12000
15000
18000
21000
24000
27000

Friction
Velocity
Head
(ft/sec)
(ft/100 ft)
0.6
0.02
0.7
0.03
0.8
0.04
0.8
0.05
0.9
0.05
1.0
0.06
1.1
0.08
1.4
0.1
1.7
0.2
2.0
0.2
2.3
0.3
2.8
0.4
3.4
0.6
3.9
0.8
4.5
1.0
5.1
1.3

0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.5
0.6
0.9
1.1
1.3
1.6
Friction
Loss
(psi/100 ft)
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.07
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.6

500
750
1000
8 inches
Volume
Flow
(gal/min)
125
150
175
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
750
1000
1250
1500
2000
10 inches
Volume
Flow
(gal/min)
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
750
1000
1250

30000
45000
60000

5.6
8.4
11.2

1.5
3.3
5.5

0.7
1.4
2.4

Volume
Flow
(gal/hr)
7500
9000
10500
12000
15000
18000
21000
24000
27000
30000
45000
60000
75000
90000
120000

Friction
Velocity
Head
(ft/sec)
(ft/100 ft)
0.7
0.03
0.8
0.04
1.0
0.04
1.1
0.06
1.3
0.07
1.6
0.1
1.9
0.2
2.3
0.2
2.6
0.3
2.9
0.3
3.2
0.4
4.9
0.9
6.5
1.5
8.1
2.2
9.7
3.1

Friction
Loss
(psi/100 ft)
0.01
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.05
0.07
0.09
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.4
0.6
1.0
1.3

Volume
Flow
(gal/hr)
12000
15000
18000
21000
24000
27000
30000
45000
60000
75000

Friction
Velocity
Head
(ft/sec)
(ft/100 ft)
0.8
0.03
1.0
0.04
1.2
0.05
1.4
0.07
1.6
0.09
1.9
0.1
2.1
0.1
3.1
0.3
4.1
0.5
5.1
0.7

Friction
Loss
(psi/100 ft)
0.01
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.1
0.2
0.3

1500
2000
2500
12 inches
Volume
Flow
(gal/min)
350
400
450
500
750
1000
1250
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
14 inches
Volume
Flow
(gal/min)
500
750
1000
1250
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000

90000
120000
150000

6.2
8.2
10.3

1.0
1.7
2.6

0.4
0.7
1.1

Volume
Flow
(gal/hr)
21000
24000
27000
30000
45000
60000
75000
90000
120000
150000
180000
210000
240000

Friction
Velocity
Head
(ft/sec)
(ft/100 ft)
1
0.03
1.2
0.04
1.3
0.05
1.5
0.06
2.2
0.1
2.9
0.2
3.6
0.3
4.3
0.4
5.8
0.7
7.2
1.1
8.7
1.6
10.1
2.1
11.1
2.7

Friction
Loss
(psi/100 ft)
0.01
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.05
0.09
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.5
0.7
0.9
1.2

Volume
Flow
(gal/hr)
30000
45000
60000
75000
90000
120000
150000
180000
210000
240000
270000
300000

Friction
Velocity
Head
(ft/sec)
(ft/100 ft)
1.2
0.03
1.8
0.07
2.4
0.1
3.0
0.2
3.6
0.3
4.7
0.5
5.9
0.7
7.1
1.0
8.3
1.3
9.5
1.7
10.7
2.1
11.9
2.5

Friction
Loss
(psi/100 ft)
0.01
0.03
0.05
0.08
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.6
0.7
0.9
1.1

5500
6000
6500
7000
7500
16 inches
Volume
Flow
(gal/min)
500
750
1000
1250
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
5500
6000
6500
7000
7500
8000
8500
9000
9500
10000

330000
360000
390000
420000
450000

13.1
14.2
15.4
16.6
17.8

3.0
3.6
4.1
4.7
5.4

Volume
Flow
(gal/hr)
30000
45000
60000
75000
90000
120000
150000
180000
210000
240000
270000
300000
330000
360000
390000
420000
450000
480000
510000
540000
570000
600000

Friction
Velocity
Head
(ft/sec)
(ft/100 ft)
0.9
0.02
1.4
0.04
1.8
0.07
2.3
0.1
2.7
0.1
3.6
0.2
4.5
0.4
5.5
0.5
6.4
0.7
7.3
0.9
8.2
1.1
9.1
1.3
10.0
1.6
10.9
1.9
11.8
2.2
12.7
2.5
13.6
2.8
14.5
3.2
14.4
3.5
16.5
3.9
17.3
4.3
18.2
4.8

1.3
1.5
1.8
2.0
2.3
Friction
Loss
(psi/100 ft)
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.06
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.1
1.2
1.4
1.5
1.7
1.9
2.1

Pressure loss values can be calculated with the Hazen-Williams Equation or the DarcyWeisbach Formula.

Hanger Spacing and Rod Size for Horizontal Pipes

Recommended maximum span between hangers - and


rod sizes for straight horizontal pipes
Recommended maximum space between hangers for straight horizontal pipes and tubes
can be found in the table below. The values does not apply where loads are concentrated
with flanges, valves, specialties, etc. A common rule of thumb is to support load of this
type with hangers on both sides of the load.

Recommended maximum space between


Nominal
Recommended Rod Size
Diameter Pipe Hangers (feet)
(inches)
NPS
Standard Steel Pipe
Copper Tube
(inches)
Stainless
Water
Steam
Water
Copper
Steel
1/2
7
8
5
3/8
3/8
3/4
7
9
5
3/8
3/8
1
7
9
6
3/8
3/8
1 1/2
9
12
8
3/8
3/8
2
10
13
8
3/8
3/8
2 1/2
11
14
9
1/2
1/2
3
12
15
10
1/2
1/2
4
14
17
12
1/2
5/8
6
17
21
14
5/8
3/4
8
19
24
16
3/4
3/4
10
22
26
18
3/4
7/8
12
23
30
19
3/4
7/8
14
25
32
1
16
27
35
1
18
28
37
1
20
30
39
1-1/4
24
32
42
1-1/4

1 ft (foot) = 0.3048 m

PVC Pipes - Friction Loss and Flow Velocity - Schedule


80

Water flow in thermoplastic PVC and CPVC pipes


Schedule 80 - friction loss (ft/100 ft, psi/100 ft) and
flow velocities at dimensions from 1/2 inch to 16
inches
Friction loss and flow velocity in PVC and CPVC pipes Schedule 80 with water can be
found in the table below. The table may be also be used for pipes in other thermoplastic
materials where the inner diameter corresponds to PVC Schedule 80.

1 ft (foot) = 0.3048 m
1 ft/s = 0.3048 m/s
1 gal (US)/min =6.30888x10-5 m3/s = 0.0227 m3/h = 0.0631 dm3(liter)/s =
2.228x10-3 ft3/s = 0.1337 ft3/min
1 psi/100 ft = 2.3 ftH2O/100 ft = 2288 mmH2O/100 ft = 22.46 kPa/100 m

Note! Velocity should in general not exceed 5 feet per second to avoid damaging noise
and wear and tear of pipes and fittings.
The values can be used to calculate pressure loss with the Equivalent Pipe Length
Method.
1/2 inches
Volume Volume
Flow
Flow
(gal/min) (gal/hr)
1
60
2
120
5
300
7
420

Friction
Velocity
Head
(ft/sec)
(ft/100ft)
1.5
4.0
3.0
8.0
7.4
45.2
10.3
83.1

Friction
Loss
(psi/100 ft)
1.7
3.5
19.6
36.0

3/4 inches
Volume Volume
Flow
Flow
(gal/min) (gal/hr)
1
60
2
120
5
300

Friction
Velocity
Head
(ft/sec)
(ft/100ft)
0.7
0.9
1.6
1.7
3.9
9.7

Friction
Loss
(psi/100 ft)
0.4
0.7
4.2

7
10
15

420
600
900

5.5
7.8
11.8

11.8
33.8
71.7

7.7
14.7
31.1

1 inches
Volume
Flow
(gal/min)
2
5
7
10
15
20
25
30

Volume
Flow
(gal/hr)
120
300
420
600
900
1200
1500
1800

Friction
Velocity
Head
(ft/sec)
(ft/100ft)
0.9
0.9
2.3
2.6
3.3
5.0
4.7
9.6
7.0
20.4
9.4
34.7
11.7
52.4
14.0
73.5

Friction
Loss
(psi/100 ft)
0.4
1.2
2.2
4.2
8.8
15.0
22.7
31.8

1 1/4 inches
Volume Volume
Flow
Flow
(gal/min) (gal/hr)
2
120
5
300
7
420
10
600
15
900
20
1200
25
1500
30
1800
35
2100
40
2400
45
2700
50
3000

Friction
Velocity
Head
(ft/sec)
(ft/100ft)
0.5
0.2
1.3
0.7
1.8
1.2
2.6
2.3
3.9
4.9
5.2
8.3
6.5
12.6
7.8
17.6
9.1
23.4
10.4
30.0
11.7
37.3
13.0
45.3

Friction
Loss
(psi/100 ft)
0.1
0.3
0.5
1.0
2.1
3.6
5.4
7.6
10.1
13.0
16.1
19.6

1 1/2 inches
Volume Volume
Flow
Flow

Velocity Friction
(ft/sec)
Head

Friction
Loss

(gal/min)
2
5
7
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
60

(gal/hr)
120
300
420
600
900
1200
1500
1800
2100
2400
2700
3000
3600

0.4
0.9
1.3
1.9
2.8
3.8
4.7
5.6
6.6
7.5
8.4
9.4
11.3

(ft/100ft)
0.1
0.3
0.6
1.0
2.2
3.8
5.7
8.0
10.6
13.6
16.9
20.5
28.7

(psi/100 ft)
0.04
0.1
0.2
0.5
1.0
1.6
2.5
3.4
4.6
5.9
7.3
8.9
12.4

2 inches
Volume
Flow
(gal/min)
5
7
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
60
70
75
80
90
100

Volume
Flow
(gal/hr)
300
420
600
900
1200
1500
1800
2100
2400
2700
3000
3600
4200
4500
4800
5400
6000

Friction
Velocity
Head
(ft/sec)
(ft/100ft)
0.6
0.1
0.8
0.2
1.1
0.3
1.7
0.6
2.2
1.1
2.8
1.6
3.4
2.3
3.9
3.0
4.5
3.8
5.0
4.8
5.6
5.8
6.7
8.1
7.8
10.8
8.4
12.3
8.9
13.8
10.1
17.2
11.2
20.9

Friction
Loss
(psi/100 ft)
0.04
0.07
0.1
0.3
0.5
0.7
1.0
1.3
1.7
2.1
2.5
3.5
4.7
5.3
6.0
7.5
9.1

2 1/2 inches
Volume Volume
Flow
Flow
(gal/min) (gal/hr)
5
300
7
420
10
600
15
900
20
1200
25
1500
30
1800
35
2100
40
2400
45
2700
50
3000
60
3600
70
4200
75
4500
80
4800
90
5400
100
6000
125
7500
150
9000

Friction
Velocity
Head
(ft/sec)
(ft/100ft)
0.4
0.05
0.5
0.07
0.8
0.1
1.2
0.3
1.6
0.4
2.0
0.7
2.3
0.9
2.7
1.3
3.1
1.6
3.5
2.0
3.9
2.4
4.7
3.4
5.5
4.5
5.9
5.1
6.2
5.8
7.0
7.2
7.8
8.7
9.8
13.2
11.7
18.5

Friction
Loss
(psi/100 ft)
0.02
0.03
0.05
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.7
0.9
1.1
1.5
2.0
2.2
2.5
3.1
3.8
5.7
8.0

3 inches
Volume
Flow
(gal/min)
5
7
10
15
20
25
30
35

Friction
Velocity
Head
(ft/sec)
(ft/100ft)
0.3
0.02
0.4
0.03
0.5
0.04
0.8
0.09
1.0
0.2
1.3
0.2
1.5
0.3
1.7
0.4

Friction
Loss
(psi/100 ft)
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.04
0.07
0.1
0.1
0.2

Volume
Flow
(gal/hr)
300
420
600
900
1200
1500
1800
2100

40
45
50
60
70
75
80
90
100
125
150
175
200
250

2400
2700
3000
3600
4200
4500
4800
5400
6000
7500
9000
10500
12000
15000

2.0
2.2
2.5
3.0
3.5
3.7
4.0
4.5
5.0
6.2
7.5
8.7
10.0
12.5

0.5
0.7
0.8
1.1
1.5
1.7
1.9
2.4
2.9
4.4
6.2
8.3
10.6
16.0

4 inches
Volume
Flow
(gal/min)
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
60
70
75
80
90
100
125
150
175
200

Volume
Flow
(gal/hr)
1200
1500
1800
2100
2400
2700
3000
3600
4200
4500
4800
5400
6000
7500
9000
10500
12000

Friction
Velocity
Head
(ft/sec)
(ft/100ft)
0.6
0.04
0.7
0.06
0.9
0.08
1.0
0.1
1.2
0.1
1.3
0.2
1.4
0.2
1.7
0.3
2.0
0.4
2.2
0.5
2.3
0.5
2.6
0.6
2.9
0.8
3.6
1.2
4.3
1.6
5.0
2.2
5.7
2.8

0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.7
0.7
0.8
1.0
1.3
1.9
2.7
3.6
4.6
6.9

Friction
Loss
(psi/100 ft)
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.09
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.3
0.5
0.7
0.9
1.2

250
300
350
400

15000
18000
21000
24000

7.2
8.6
10.0
11.5

4.2
5.8
7.8
9.9

1.8
2.5
3.4
4.3

5 inches
Volume
Flow
(gal/min)
30
35
40
45
50
60
70
75
80
90
100
125
150
175
200
250
300
350
400
450
500

Volume
Flow
(gal/hr)
1800
2100
2400
2700
3000
3600
4200
4500
4800
5400
6000
7500
9000
10500
12000
15000
18000
21000
24000
27000
30000

Friction
Velocity
Head
(ft/sec)
(ft/100ft)
0.5
0.03
0.6
0.04
0.7
0.04
0.8
0.06
0.9
0.07
1.1
0.1
1.3
0.1
1.3
0.1
1.4
0.2
1.6
0.2
1.8
0.2
2.3
0.4
2.7
0.5
3.2
0.7
3.6
0.9
4.5
1.3
5.4
1.9
6.3
2.5
7.2
3.2
8.1
4.0
9.0
4.8

Friction
Loss
(psi/100 ft)
0.01
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.06
0.06
0.07
0.09
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.1
1.4
1.7
2.1

6 inches
Volume
Flow
(gal/min)
50
60

Volume
Flow
(gal/hr)
3000
3600

Friction
Velocity
Head
(ft/sec)
(ft/100ft)
0.6
0.03
0.8
0.04

Friction
Loss
(psi/100 ft)
0.01
0.02

70
75
80
90
100
125
150
175
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
750
1000

4200
4500
4800
5400
6000
7500
9000
10500
12000
15000
18000
21000
24000
27000
30000
45000
60000

0.9
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.3
1.6
1.9
2.2
2.5
3.1
3.8
4.4
5.0
5.6
6.3
9.4
12.5

0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.3
1.7
2.0
4.3
7.2

8 inches
Volume
Flow
(gal/min)
125
150
175
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
750
1000
1250
1500

Volume
Flow
(gal/hr)
7500
9000
10500
12000
15000
18000
21000
24000
27000
30000
45000
60000
75000
90000

Friction
Velocity
Head
(ft/sec)
(ft/100ft)
0.9
0.05
1.1
0.05
1.3
0.08
1.4
0.09
1.8
0.1
2.1
0.2
2.5
0.3
2.9
0.3
3.2
0.4
3.6
0.5
5.4
1.1
7.1
1.8
8.9
2.8
10.7
4.0

0.02
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.07
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.9
1.8
3.1

Friction
Loss
(psi/100 ft)
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.06
0.09
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.5
0.8
1.2
1.7

10 inches
Volume
Flow
(gal/min)
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
750
1000
1250
1500
2000
2500

Volume
Flow
(gal/hr)
12000
15000
18000
21000
24000
27000
30000
45000
60000
75000
90000
120000
150000

Friction
Velocity
Head
(ft/sec)
(ft/100ft)
0.9
0.04
1.1
0.05
1.4
0.07
1.6
0.09
1.8
0.1
2.0
0.1
2.3
0.2
3.4
0.4
4.5
0.6
5.7
0.9
6.8
1.3
9.1
2.2
11.3
3.3

Friction
Loss
(psi/100 ft)
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.6
1.0
1.4

12 inches
Volume
Flow
(gal/min)
350
400
450
500
750
1000
1250
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000

Volume
Flow
(gal/hr)
21000
24000
27000
30000
45000
60000
75000
90000
120000
150000
180000
210000
240000

Friction
Velocity
Head
(ft/sec)
(ft/100ft)
1.1
0.04
1.3
0.05
1.4
0.06
1.6
0.07
2.4
0.2
3.2
0.3
4.0
0.4
4.8
0.6
6.4
0.9
8.0
1.4
9.6
2.0
11.2
2.7
12.8
3.4

Friction
Loss
(psi/100 ft)
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.07
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.9
1.2
1.5

14 inches
Volume
Flow
(gal/min)
500
750
1000
1250
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
5500
6000
6500
7000

Volume
Flow
(gal/hr)
30000
45000
60000
75000
90000
120000
150000
180000
210000
240000
270000
300000
330000
360000
490000
420000

Friction
Velocity
Head
(ft/sec)
(ft/100ft)
1.3
0.04
2.0
0.09
2.6
0.2
3.3
0.3
3.9
0.3
5.2
0.6
6.5
0.9
7.9
1.2
9.2
1.7
10.5
2.1
11.8
2.6
13.1
3.2
14.4
3.8
15.7
4.5
17.0
5.2
18.3
6.0

Friction
Loss
(psi/100 ft)
0.02
0.04
0.07
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.7
0.9
1.1
1.4
1.7
2.0
2.3
2.6

16 inches
Volume
Flow
(gal/min)
500
750
1000
1250
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000

Volume
Flow
(gal/hr)
30000
45000
60000
75000
90000
120000
150000
180000
210000
240000
270000
300000

Friction
Velocity
Head
(ft/sec)
(ft/100ft)
1.0
0.02
1.5
0.05
2.0
0.08
2.5
0.1
3.0
0.2
4.0
0.3
5.0
0.5
6.0
0.6
7.0
0.9
8.0
1.1
9.0
1.4
10.0
1.7

Friction
Loss
(psi/100 ft)
0.01
0.02
0.04
0.05
0.08
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7

5500
6000
6500
7000
7500
8000
8500
9000

330000
360000
490000
420000
450000
480000
510000
540000

11.0
12.0
13.0
14.0
15.0
16.0
17.0
18.0

2.0
2.3
2.7
3.1
3.5
4.0
4.4
4.9

0.9
1.0
1.2
1.3
1.5
1.7
1.9
2.1

Pressure loss values can be calculated with the Hazen-Williams Equation or the DarcyWeisbach Formula.

PVC - Equivalent Length Friction Loss in Fittings

Minor loss for PVC and CPVC fittings in equivalent


length of straight pipe
Approximate friction loss for PVC and CPVC fittings in Equivalent Length in feet of
Straight Pipe for water can be found in the table below:
Friction Loss Equivalent Length - feet of Straight Pipe (ft)
Nominal Pipe Size (inches)
Fitting
1/2 3/4 1
1 1/4 1 1/2 2
2 1/2 3
4
90o Elbow
1.5 2.0 2.5 3.8 4.0 5.7 6.9 7.9 12.0
o
45 Elbow
0.8 1.1 1.4 1.8 2.1 2.6 3.1 4.0 5.1
Gatevalve
0.3 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.5 2.0 3.0
Tee Flow 1.0 1.4 1.7 2.3 2.7 4.3 5.1 6.2 8.3
Run
Tee Flow 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 12.0 15.0 16.0 22.0
Branch
Male/Female
1.0 1.5 2.0 2.8 3.5 4.5 5.5 6.5 9.0
Adapter

6
8
10 12
18.0 22.0 26 32
8.0 10.6 13.5 15.5
12.5 16.5 17.5 20.0
32.7 49.0 57.0 67.0
14

The table can also used for other thermoplastic pipes materials with similar design.
The values can be used to calculate pressure loss with the Equivalent Pipe Length
Method.

Equivalent Pipe Length Method - Calculating Pressure


Loss in Piping Systems

Calculating pressure loss in piping systems with the


Equivalent Pipe Length Method
An efficient and simple way to calculate the pressure loss in a piping system is the
"Equivalent Pipe Length Method".

1. Make a Diagram of the Piping System


Make a diagram where the system is structured with nodes as shown below.

In the very simply circulating system used in this example the first node (0) is the pump.
The next node is the tees (2) where the piping system splits up. The other nodes are the
heating radiators.
In many systems the structure can be simplified as above since the piping in both
directions are of same size. If a more fine grained approach is required, additional nodes
can be added in both directions as shown below.

2. Make a calculation table


With the most simplified nodes structure above a calculation table can be made as shown
below. Each section from node to node is calculated by supplying length, volume flow,
pipe size, pressure loss from diagrams or tables for the actual pipes and components in
the sections and their individual equivalent length substituting the the minor loss.

An excel template with the table above can be downloaded here:

Equivalent Pipe Length Method - Excel Template

Note! The flow and pressure units must be adjusted to the data available for your piping
system.

3. Add Volume flow, Pipe Size and Pressure Loss for each Section
Add actual pipe size and in each section. Use tabulated data or a diagrams.
The pressure loss may alternatively be calculated with the Hazen-Williams Equation or
the Darcy-Weisbach Formula.

Pressure loss for many types of pipes can be found here.

4. Add Equivalent Length of all Valves, Fittings and Straight Pipes

Add the equivalent length of all valves, components, fittings and straight pipes in the
sections.

5. Summarize the Pressure Loss in each Section


Calculate and summarize the pressure loss in each section.

6. Summarize the Pressure Loss in all Paths


Finally, add up the pressure loss in all sections that form unique paths. In the example
above there are two unique paths - one is section 0 - 2 - 3, the other is section 0 - 2 - 4.
Add extra columns for additional paths in more complicated systems.
The highest pressure loss determines the pump head.

7. Add Balancing Valves


Add valves where it is necessary to balance the system. In the example above a balancing
valve is added in section 2-4.
Note! The Equivalent Pipe Length Method can be adapted to most piping systems - like
water supply systems, gravity heating systems and similar.

PVC Pipes - Expansion Loops

Temperature expansion and contraction in PVC piping


systems
Temperature expansion and contraction in PVC piping systems can be compensated
through

expansion loops consisting of pipes and 90o elbows


flexible bends
bellows and rubber expansion joints
piston type expansion joints

Expansion Loops
Expansion loops are made of standard pipes and elbows and can be produced on the site
adapted to the actual situation.

The length of leg A can be calculated by formula


A = 0.72 (D l)1/2

(1)

where
A = length of leg (ft)
D = nominal outside diameter (inches)
l = thermal expansion of pipe (inches)
The length of leg B can be calculated by formula
B = 1.44 (D l)1/2

(2)

where
B = length of leg (ft)

Example - Expansion Loop


A length of 300 ft straight pipe of 2" diameter PVC Schedule 40 is installed at 75oF and
operating at 120oF. The expansion coefficient of PVC is set to 29 10-6 in./inoF.
The expansion can be calculated as
l = Lo t
= (29 10-6 in/in oF) (300 ft) (12 in/ft) ((120 oF) - (75 oF))
= 4.7 inches

where
l = expansion (inch)
Lo = length of pipe (inch)
t = temperature difference (oF)
= linear expansion coefficient (in./in.oF)
The length of leg A can be calculated as:
A = 0.72 (D l)1/2
= 0.72 [(2.375 in) (4.7 in)]1/2
= 2.4 ft
The length of leg B can be calculated as:
B = 1.44 (D l)1/2
= 1.44 [(2.375 in) (4.7 in)]1/2
= 4.8 ft

The Expansion Loop calculation as Excel file

PVC Pipe Schedule 40 - Friction loss and Velocity


Diagram

Friction loss (psi/100 ft) and velocity for water flow in


plastic PVC pipe schedule 40
The diagram below indicates friction loss for water flow through plastic schedule 40 PVC
pipe.
The diagram below indicates friction loss for water flow through plastic schedule 40 PVC
pipe.

The calculation is based on the Hazen-Williams Equation with a Hazen-Williams


coefficient c = 140. Note that velocities above 5 feet per second should be avoided.

1 gal (US)/min =6.30888x10-5 m3/s = 0.0227 m3/h = 0.06309 dm3(litre)/s =


2.228x10-3 ft3/s = 0.1337 ft3/min
1 ft/s = 0.3048 m/s
1 psi (lb/in2) = 6,894.8 Pa (N/m2) = 6.895x10-3 N/mm2 = 6.895x10-2 bar = 27.71
in H2O at 62oF (16.7oC) = 703.1 mm H2O at 62oF (16.7oC) = 2.0416 in mercury
at 62oF (16.7oC) = 51.8 mm mercury at 62oF (16.7oC) = 703.6 kg/m2 = 2.307 Ft.
H2O

Comparing Friction Loss in Steel, Copper and Plastic


Pipes

Water flow and friction head loss (ft/100 ft) - steel,


copper and PVC plastic pipes
Due to difference in inside cross sectional area, wet surface and roughness of the surface,
there is significant difference in friction head loss in steel, copper and plastic PVC pipes.
The difference will vary with the size of pipe and the flow rate.

The difference will increase with decreased dimensions and increased flow rates

The friction loss in feet of head per 100 feet of Steel pipes Schedule 40, Copper pipes
Type L and thermoplastic PVC pipes Schedule 40 are compared below.

1 ftH2O/100 ft = 0.44 psi/100ft = 9.8 kPa/100 m = 1000 mmH2O/100 m

3 in.
Flow Rate
(gal/min)
50
60
70
80
90
100
150
200
250

Friction Loss (ft/100 ft)


Steel Pipe Copper Pipe
Schedule 40 Type L
0.7
0.8
1.0
1.1
1.3
1.5
1.7
1.8
2.1
2.3
2.5
2.7
5.3
5.7
9.1
9.5
13.6
14.2

PVC Pipe
Schedule 40
0.6
0.9
1.2
1.5
1.8
2.2
4.8
8.1
12.8

300
400

19.8
34.2

19.8
33.4

17.1
29.0

4 in.
Flow Rate
(gal/min)
100
150
200
250
300
400

Friction Loss (ft/100 ft)


Steel Pipe Copper Pipe
Schedule 40 Type L
0.7
0.7
1.4
1.5
2.4
2.5
3.6
3.7
5.0
5.1
8.7
8.6

PVC Pipe
Schedule 40
0.6
1.3
2.2
3.3
4.6
7.8

Friction Loss (ft/100 ft)


Steel Pipe Copper Pipe
Schedule 40 Type L
0.5
0.8
0.8
0.8
1.2
1.3
1.6
1.8
2.8
2.9
4.3
4.4

PVC Pipe
Schedule 40
0.4
0.7
1.1
1.5
2.6
3.9

Friction Loss (ft/100 ft)


Steel Pipe Copper Pipe
Schedule 40 Type L
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.7
0.7
1.1
1.2
1.7
1.8
3.7
3.8

PVC Pipe
Schedule 40
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.6
1.1
1.6
3.4

5 in.
Flow Rate
(gal/min)
150
200
250
300
400
500
6 in.
Flow Rate
(gal/min)
150
200
250
300
400
500
750

1000

6.3

6.5

5.8

8 in.
Flow Rate
(gal/min)
150
200
250
300
400
500
750
1000
1250
1500
2000

Friction Loss (ft/100 ft)


Steel Pipe
PVC Pipe
Schedule 40
Schedule 40
0.05
0.05
0.08
0.08
0.12
0.12
0.17
0.16
0.3
0.28
0.4
0.4
0.9
0.9
1.6
1.5
2.4
2.3
3.5
3.2
6.0
5.5

10 in.

200
250
300
400
500
750
1000
1250
1500
2000

Friction Loss (ft/100 ft)


Steel Pipe
PVC Pipe
Schedule 40
Schedule 40
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.06
0.05
0.1
0.09
0.15
0.14
0.3
0.3
0.5
0.5
0.8
0.8
1.1
1.1
1.9
1.8

12 in.
Flow Rate
(gal/min)

Friction Loss (ft/100 ft)


Steel Pipe
PVC Pipe

Flow Rate
(gal/min)

400
500
750
1000
1250
1500
2000
3000

Schedule 40
0.04
0.06
0.13
0.2
0.3
0.5
0.8
1.7

Schedule 40
0.04
0.06
0.13
0.21
0.32
0.45
0.8
1.6

The steel and copper calculations are made with the Online Fluid Flow
Calculator.
The PVC pipe calculation are made with the Online Hazens-Williams Calculator
with a roughness coefficient c = 145.

Hazen-Williams Equation - calculating Friction Head


Loss in Water Pipes

Friction head loss (ftH2O per 100 ft pipe) in water pipes


can be estimated by using the empirical HazenWilliams equation
The Darcy-Weisbach equation with the Moody diagram are considered to be the most
accurate model for estimating frictional head loss in steady pipe flow. Since the approach
requires a not so efficient trial and error iteration an alternative empirical head loss
calculation like the Hazen-Williams equation may be preferred:
f = 0.2083 (100/c)1.852 q1.852 / dh4.8655

(1)

where
f = friction head loss in feet of water per 100 feet of pipe (fth20/100 ft pipe)
c = Hazen-Williams roughness constant
q = volume flow (gal/min)
dh = inside hydraulic diameter (inches)

Note that the Hazen-Williams formula is empirical and lacks a theoretical basis. Be aware
that the roughness constants are based on "normal" condition with approximately 1 m/s
(3 ft/sec).

Online Hazens-Williams Calculator


The calculator below can used to calculate the head loss:
l - pipe or tube length (ft)
c - design coefficient determined for the type of pipe or tube
q - flow rate (gal/min)
dh - inside hydraulic diameter (inch)

Hazen-Williams equation in an Excel template

The Hazen-Williams equation is not the only empirical formula available. Manning's
formula is common for gravity driven flows in open channels.
The flow velocity can be calculated as
v = 0.408709 q / dh2

(2)

where
v = flow velocity (ft/s)
The Hazen-Williams equation can be assumed to be relatively accurate for piping
systems with Reynolds Numbers above 105 (turbulent flow).

1 ft (foot) = 0.3048 m
1 in (inch) = 25.4 mm
1 gal (US)/min =6.30888x10-5 m3/s = 0.0227 m3/h = 0.0631 dm3(liter)/s =
2.228x10-3 ft3/s = 0.1337 ft3/min = 0.8327 Imperial gal (UK)/min

Note! The Hazen-Williams formula gives accurate head loss due to friction for fluids
with kinematic viscosity of approximately 1.1 cSt. More about fluids and kinematic
viscosity.
The results for the formula is acceptable for cold water at 60 oF (15.6 oC) with kinematic
viscosity 1.13 cSt. For hot water with a lower kinematic viscosity (0.55 cSt at 130 oF
(54.4 oC)) the error will be significant.

Since the Hazen Williams method is only valid for water flowing at ordinary
temperatures between 40 to 75 oF, the Darcy Weisbach method should be used for other
liquids or gases.

Williams Hazens Equation of Pressure Drop

The Hazen-Williams equation can be used to calculate


pressure drop (psi) in pipes or tubes due to friction
The Hazen-Williams formula for calculating head loss in pipes and tubes due to friction
can be expressed as:
Pd = 4.52 q1.85 / (c1.85 dh4.8655)

(1)

where
Pd = pressure drop (psi/ft pipe)
c = design coefficient determined for the type of pipe or tube - the higher the factor, the
smoother the pipe or tube
q = flow rate (gpm)
dh = inside hydraulic diameter (inch)
Note! The Hazen-Williams formula gives accurate head loss due to friction for fluids
with kinematic viscosity of approximately 1.1 cSt. More about fluids and kinematic
viscosity.
The results for the formula is acceptable for cold water at 60 oF (15.6 oC) with kinematic
viscosity 1.13 cSt. For hot water with a lower kinematic viscosity (0.55 cSt at 130 oF
(54.4 oC)) the error will be significant.
Since the Hazen Williams method is only valid for water flowing at ordinary
temperatures between 40 to 75 oF, the Darcy Weisbach method should be used for other
liquids or gases.

Online Hazens-Williams Calculator


The calculator below can used to calculate the head loss:
l - pipe or tube length (ft)
c - design coefficient determined for the type of pipe or tube

q - flow rate (gal/min)


dh - hydraulic diameter (inch)

The Design Factor - c


The design factor is determined for the type of pipe or tube used:

The c-value for cast iron and wrought iron pipes or tubes ranges from 80 to
150, with average value 130 and design value 100.
The c-value for copper, glass or brass pipes or tubes ranges from 120 to 150,
with average value 140 and design value 140.
The c-value for cement lined steel or iron pipes has average value of 150 and
design value 140.
The c-value for epoxy and vinyl ester pipes can be set to 150.

Hazen-Williams Coefficients

Hazen-Williams factor for some common piping


materials
Hazen-Williams coefficients are used in the Hazen-Williams equation for friction loss
calculation in ducts and pipes. Coefficients for some common materials used in ducts and
pipes can be found in the table below:
Material
ABS - Acrylonite Butadiene Styrene
Aluminum
Asbestos Cement
Asphalt Lining
Brass
Brick sewer
Cast-Iron - new unlined (CIP)
Cast-Iron 10 years old
Cast-Iron 20 years old
Cast-Iron 30 years old
Cast-Iron 40 years old
Cast-Iron, asphalt coated
Cast-Iron, cement lined

Hazen-Williams Coefficient
-c130
130 - 150
140
130 - 140
130 - 140
90 - 100
130
107 - 113
89 - 100
75 - 90
64-83
100
140

Cast-Iron, bituminous lined


Cast-Iron, sea-coated
Cast-Iron, wrought plain
Cement lining
Concrete
Concrete lined, steel forms
Concrete lined, wooden forms
Concrete, old
Copper
Corrugated Metal
Ductile Iron Pipe (DIP)
Ductile Iron, cement lined
Fiber
Fiber Glass Pipe - FRP
Galvanized iron
Glass
Lead
Metal Pipes - Very to extremely smooth
Plastic
Polyethylene, PE, PEH
Polyvinyl chloride, PVC, CPVC
Smooth Pipes
Steel new unlined
Steel, corrugated
Steel, welded and seamless
Steel, interior riveted, no projecting rivets
Steel, projecting girth and horizontal rivets
Steel, vitrified, spiral-riveted
Steel, welded and seamless
Tin
Vitrified Clay
Wrought iron, plain
Wooden or Masonry Pipe - Smooth
Wood Stave

140
120
100
130 - 140
100 - 140
140
120
100 - 110
130 - 140
60
140
120
140
150
120
130
130 - 140
130 - 140
130 - 150
140
130
140
140 - 150
60
100
110
100
90 - 110
100
130
110
100
120
110 - 120

Pressure Loss of Water Due to Friction in Copper Tubes

Pressure Loss (psi/ft) of Water Due to Friction in


Copper Tubes Types K, L and M Copper Tube ASTM B88
Pressure loss of water due to friction (major loss) in copper pipes, Types K, L and M
tubes according ASTM B88, can be found in the diagram and tables below:

The diagram as pdf-file pressure loss copper pipes ASTM B88 - Type K.

The pressure loss is based on the Hazen-Williams formula with roughness coefficient c =
145.
Copper Tubes Types K, L and M - Dimensions

Lined Pipes - Pressure Loss Diagram

Pressure drop diagrams for PTFE, PP, PFA and PVDFlined pipes
The diagrams below indicates the pressure loss with water flow in PTFE-lined steel pipes
schedule 40.
The pressure drop calculations are made with the D'Arcy-Weisbach Equation.

Fluid : Water
Pipe : PTFE-lined Steel Pipes - Schedule 40
Temperature : 20.0 oC (68.0 oF)
Density : 998.3 kg/m3 (62.0 lb/ft3)
Kinematic Viscosity : 1.004 10-6 m2/s (0.01 stokes) (1.08E-5 ft2/s)
Pipe Roughness Coefficient : 3.0 10-6 m

Pressure Drop - Imperial Units

1 gal (US)/min =6.30888x10-5 m3/s = 0.0227 m3/h = 0.06309 dm3(litre)/s =


2.228x10-3 ft3/s = 0.1337 ft3/min
1 ft/s = 0.3048 m/s
1 psi (lb/in2) = 6,894.8 Pa (N/m2) = 6.895x10-3 N/mm2 = 6.895x10-2 bar = 27.71
in H2O at 62oF (16.7oC) = 703.1 mm H2O at 62oF (16.7oC) = 2.0416 in mercury
at 62oF (16.7oC) = 51.8 mm mercury at 62oF (16.7oC) = 703.6 kg/m2 = 2.307 Ft.
H2O

Pressure Drop - SI units

1 Pa = 10-6 N/mm2 = 10-5 bar = 0.1020 kp/m2 = 1.02x10-4 m H2O = 9.869x10-6


atm = 1.45x10-4 psi (lbf/in2)
1 liter/s = 10-3 m3/s = 3.6 m3/h = 0.03532 ft3/s = 2.1189 ft3/min (cfm) = 13.200
Imp.gal (UK)/min = 15.852 gal (US)/min = 792 Imp. gal (UK)/h
1 m/s = 3.6 km/h = 196.85 ft/min = 2.237 mph

The diagram above is based on the inside thickness of schedule 40 steel pipes with PTFE
as the lining material. Common thickness of other lining materials are indicated in the
table below.
Common Thickness of Lining Material (inches)
Pipe Diameter (inches)
Lining
Material 1
1 1/2
2
3
*)
PTFE
0.130
0.150
0.160
0.160
PP
0.135
0.160
0.175
0.175
PFA
0.113
0.114
0.114
0.130
PVDF
0.125
0.125
0.125
0.125

*)

4
0.160
0.210
0.150
0.145

6
0.275
0.220
0.145
0.160

8
0.310
0.220
0.140
0.185

PTFE - PolyTetraFluoroEthylene
PP - PolyPropylene
PFA - Perfluoroalkoxy Fluorocarbon
PVDF - Polyvinylidene Fluoride

used in the diagrams above

Polypropylene PP - Chemical Resistance

Chemical resistance of PolyPropylene - PP - to some


common acids, bases, organic substances and
solvents
The chemical resistance of polypropylene to some common products and chemicals can
be found in the tables below:

Acids
Product
Benzoic acid
Boric acid

Rating 1)
20 oC
1
1

60 oC
2
1

Hydrobromic acid 25 %
Citric acid
Hydrocyanic acid
Hydrofluoric acid
Phosphoric acid 25 %
Phosphoric acid 85 %
Phthalic acid
Tannic acid
Chromic acid
Maleic acid
Oleic acid
Oxalic acid
Nitric acid 5 %
Nitric acid 65 %
Chlorhydric acid 10 %
Chlorhydric acid 37 %
Butyric acid
Sulphuric acid 10 %
Sulphuric acid 78 %
Sulphuric acid 93 %
Tartaric acid
Acetic acid 10 %
Acetic acid 50 %
Acetic acid 75 %
Acetic acid 100 %
Perchloric acid

2
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
4
1
2
1
1
2
3
1
1
1
1
2
1

3
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
3
1
3
4
1
3
1
1
4
4
1
1
1
1
3
2

Bases
Product
Aqua ammonia
Calciumhydroxide
Potassiumhydroxide
Caustic soda
Acid salt 2)

Rating 1)
20 oC
1
1
1
1
1

60 oC
1
1
1
1
1

Basic salt 3)
Neutral salt 4)
Various salt
Potassium bicarbonate
Potassium permanganate
Sodium cyanide
Natriumferricyanid
Sodium hypochlorite

1
1

1
1

1
1
1
1
2

2
2
1
2
3

Organic Substances, Solvents


Rating 1)
Product
20 oC
Acetone
3
Aniline
1
Benzol
3
Petrol
4
Butyl alcohol
1
Ethyl acetate
2
Ethyl alcohol
1
Ethyl dichloride
3
Ethyl ether
4
Phenol
2
Formalin 37%
1
Heptanes
3
Chlorobenzene
3
Chloroform
4
Carbon disulphide
4
Carbon tetrachloride
4
Methyl alcohol
1
Methylene (di)chloride 4
Methyl ethyle ketone 3
Nitrobenzene
3
Toluene
3
Trichlorethylene
4
Gases

60 oC
4
1
4
4
1
4
1
4
4
2
2
4
4
4
4
4
1
4
4
4
4
4

Chlorine (damp)
Chlorine (dry)
Carbon dioxide
Carbon monoxide
Sulphur dioxide (damp)
Sulphur dioxide (dry)
Hydrogen sulphide
1)

2
2
1
1
2
2
1

4
4
1
1
3
3
1

Rating:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Excellent (no attack)


Good (no significant attack)
Acceptable (light attack, limited use)
Unacceptable (significant attack)
Inferior (possible cracking or dissolving)

2)

Acid salt (normally aqueous) aluminum chloride, aluminum phosphate, copper


chloride, sulphate of copper, ferrous sulphate, ferric chloride, stannic chloride, chloride of
zinc, white vitriol etc
3)

Basic salt (normally aqueous) bicarbonate of potassium, potash, sodium bicarbonate,


sodium carbonate, sodium phosphate etc.
4)

Neutral salt (normally aqueous) calcium chloride, calcium nitrate, calcium sulphate,
magnesium chloride, nitrate of potassium, potassium sulphate, sodium chloride, sodium
nitrate, sodium sulphate etc.

PP Pipes - Support Spacing

Hanger spacing for PolyPropylene pipes


Maximum support spacing for PP - PolyPropylene - pipes depends on the operating
temperature. Maximum spacing between supports at different temperatures can be found
in the tables below:
PP - Wall Schedule 40 - Support Spacing (feet)
Operating Temperature (oF)
NPS
(inches)
60
100
140
1/2
1 1/2
1 1/2
1 1/2
3/4
2
2
1 1/2
1
2
2
2

180
1
1 1/2
1 1/2

1 1/4
1 1/2
2
3
4

2
2
2 1/2
3
3 1/2

2
2
2
2 1/2
3

PP - Wall Schedule 80 - Support Spacing (feet)


Operating Temperature (oF)
NPS
(inches)
60
100
140
1/2
2
2
2
3/4
2 1/2
2 1/2
2
1
2 1/2
2 1/2
2
1 1/4
3
2 1/2
2 1/2
1 1/2
3
3
2 1/2
2
3 1/2
3
3
3
4
4
3 1/2
4
4 1/2
4 1/2
4

180
1 1/2
2
2
2 1/2
2 1/2
2 1/2
3 1/2
3 1/2

2 1/2
2 1/2
3
3 1/2
4

2
2 1/2
2 1/2
2 1/2
3

1 ft (foot) = 0.3048 m
T(oC) = 5/9[T(oF) - 32]

Polypropylene is a thermoplastic polymer, used in a wide variety of applications.


Polypropylene is unusually resistant to chemical solvents, bases and acids.

Pressure Drop Diagram PE, PEH and PVC Pipes

A diagram with pressure drop (bar/100 m) and velocity


for PE, PEH and PVC pipes
The pressure drop in PE, PEH and PVC plastic pipes with water can be estimated from
the diagram below:

1 bar = 105 Pa (N/m2) = 0.1 N/mm2 = 10,197 kp/m2 = 10.20 m H2O = 0.9869 atm
= 14.50 psi (lbf/in2) = 106 dyn/cm2 = 750 mmHg
1 liter/s = 10-3 m3/s = 3.6 m3/h = 0.03532 ft3/s = 2.1189 ft3/min (cfm) = 13.200
Imp.gal (UK)/min = 15.852 gal (US)/min = 792 Imp. gal (UK)/h

Example - pressure drop in a PEH pipe


The pressure drop in a PEH pipe with inside diameter 250 mm and water flow 50 l/s can
be estimated to be approximately 3.5 bar/100 m as indicated in the diagram below. The
flow velocity is approximately 1 m/s.

The calculation is based on the Hazen-Williams Equation with a Hazen-Williams


coefficient c = 140. Note that velocities above 5 feet per second should be avoided.

1 gal (US)/min =6.30888x10-5 m3/s = 0.0227 m3/h = 0.06309 dm3(litre)/s =


2.228x10-3 ft3/s = 0.1337 ft3/min
1 ft/s = 0.3048 m/s
1 psi (lb/in2) = 6,894.8 Pa (N/m2) = 6.895x10-3 N/mm2 = 6.895x10-2 bar = 27.71
in H2O at 62oF (16.7oC) = 703.1 mm H2O at 62oF (16.7oC) = 2.0416 in mercury
at 62oF (16.7oC) = 51.8 mm mercury at 62oF (16.7oC) = 703.6 kg/m2 = 2.307 Ft.
H2O

Steam and Condensate - Thermodynamics


(Khusus untuk Power Plant)
Thermodynamics of steam and condensate applications
Air and Steam Mixture
With air in the steam the surface temperatures in heat exchangers will be lower - less heat
than excepted will be transferred

Arithmetic and Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference


Arithmetic Mean Temperature Difference - AMTD - and Logarithmic Mean Temperature
Difference - LMTD - formulas with examples - Online Mean Temperature Calculator

Boiler Capacity
It is common to express the output of steam boilers in Boiler Horsepowers, BTU or in
Pounds of Steam delivered per hour

Boiler Horsepower
Determine boiler horsepower from heat transfer area

Conductive Heat Transfer

Heat transfer takes place as conduction if there is a temperature gradient in a solid or


fluid

Cylinder or Pipe - Conductive Heat Loss


Conductive heat loss through cylinder or pipe walls

Enthalpy Entropy Diagram Steam


Enthalpy and entropy chart for steam

Enthalpy of Superheated Steam


A table with the enthalpy of steam superheated to temperatures above the boiling point
with corresponding temperatures

Enthalpy of Wet Steam


Wet steam, dryness fraction and enthalpy

Entropy of Superheated Steam


A table with the entropy of steam superheated to temperatures above the boiling point
with corresponding temperatures

Flash Steam Generation


Generation of flash steam - fundamentals of energy recovery

Heat Transferred by Condensing Steam


Calculate heat transferred by condensing steam

Heating Air with Steam


Calculating heating air with steam

Heating Water by Injection Steam


Water can be heated by injecting steam

Humidifying Air with Steam - SI units


The amount of vapor - kg per cubic meter - in humid air

Online Saturated Steam Table Calculator


Online calculator to compute the thermodynamic properties of saturated steam

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients for some common Fluids and Heat
Exchanger Surfaces
Average overall heat transmission coefficients for some common fluids and surface
combinations as Water to Air, Water to Water, Air to Air, Steam to Water and more

Power Plant Performance Factors


Power plants and heat rate, thermal efficiency, capacity factor, load factor, economic
efficiency, operational efficiency, energy efficiency

Properties of Saturated Steam - Imperial Units


A steam table with sensible, latent and total heat, and specific volume at different gauge
pressures and temperatures

Properties of Saturated Steam - Pressure in Bar


The Saturated Steam Table with properties as boiling point, specific volume, density,
specific enthalpy, specific heat and latent heat of vaporization

Properties of Saturated Steam - SI Units


A Saturated Steam Table with steam properties as specific volume, density, specific
enthalpy and specific entropy
Sponsored Links

Specific Volume of Wet Steam


Wet steam an specific volume

Steam & Condensate Equations


Steam consumption and condensate generation formulas heating liquids or gas flows

Steam and Vapor Enthalpy


Introduction and definition of vapor and steam enthalpy - specific enthalpy of saturated
liquid, saturated vapor and superheated vapor

Steam Entropy
Basic steam thermodynamics and the entropy diagram

Steam Flow Rate and kW Rating


Determine the steam flow rate from a kW rating

Steam Heating Processes - Load Calculating


Calculating the amount of steam in non-flow batch and continuous flow heating
processes

Steam Viscosity
Steam absolute viscosity at pressures ranging 1 - 10000 psia

Temperature and Moisture Holding Capacity of Air


The moisture holding capacity of air varies with temperature

Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)


In a boiler generating steam, impurities in the feedwater concentrates in the boiling water

Vapor and Steam


Introduction to vapor and steam

Water Saturation Pressure


Water saturation pressure at temperatures ranging 0 - 100 oC and 32 - 700 oF - Imperial
and SI Units

Water Steam - Critical Point


The level where vapor and liquid are indistinguishable

Wet Steam Quality and the Dryness Fraction