GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010

INTRODUCTION
Generally, any company or group that derives a quarter of its revenue from operations outside of its home country is considered a multinational corporation.
y y y

MNC must have substantial direct investment in foreign countries MNC must be engaged in the active management of these overseas assets MNC is also involved in the management integration of operations located in different countries

It is a corporation/business or entity/enterprise that manages production establishments or delivers services in at least two countries.MNC¶S is an enterprise that manage production or delivers services more than one country can also be referred to as international corporation. The term µMultinational¶ is widely used all over the world to denote large companies having vast financial, managerial and marketing resources. MNCs are like holding companies having its head office in one country and business activities spread within the country of origin and other countries.Multinational corporations play an important role in globalization some argue that a new form of MNC is evolving in response to globalization the 'globally integrated enterprise. First MNC was Dutch East India Co (1602), granted monopoly in colonial trade. Today, UN estimates about 62,000 MNCs with 900,000 affiliates.MNC¶s have existed since 1602, in which year the first MNC, the Dutch East India Company, was established. Germany, Belgium and Finland that have made a strong footing in India too. They are well flourishing and earning their share of maximum profit too. According to ILO report (i.e. International Labour Organisation) ³The essential nature of the multinational enterprises lies in the fact that its managerial headquarters are located in one country, while the enterprise carries out operations in number of other countries¶. MNCS will have a demand for many services such as meals, transport, raw materials, maintenance services that will be provided by domestic businesses, indirectly increasing employment. Wages should increase as MNC¶S will want the best people that the country has to offer.

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GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010 Wages may be lower on international standards but should be higher than the local standard, as logically the business will pay its workers more in order to motivate them. ‡ Often MNC¶S are criticised for their wage policies but recent research and statistics prove this wrong.

There are four categories of multinational corporations:
(1) A multinational, decentralized corporation with strong home country presence, (2) A global, centralized corporation that acquires cost advantage through centralized production wherever cheaper resources are available, (3) AN international company that builds on the parent corporation's technology or R&D, (4) A transnational enterprise that combines the previous three approaches. According to UN data, some 35,000 companies have direct investment in foreign countries, and the largest 100 of them control about 40 per cent of world trade.

The MNC: The Internalization Process 

Foreign involvement  export via agent or distributor  export through sales rep or subsidiary  Local packaging or assembly  FDI   License Time

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GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010

WHAT ISMULTINATIONAL ORGANISATION
An MNC (Multinational Corporation) is a corporation that has its management headquarters in one country, known as the home country, and operates in several other countries, known as host countries. As the name implies, a multinational corporation is a business concern with operations in more than one country. These operations outside the company's home country may be linked to the parent by merger, operated as subsidiaries, or have considerable autonomy. Multinational corporations are sometimes perceived as large, utilitarian enterprises with little or no regard for the social and economic well-being of the countries in which they operate, but the reality of their situation is more complicated. When a company operates in a home nation established its subsidiary inother nation it becomes an MNC and there starts the process of globalization where in a local company serves the entire worlds with itsproducts and services.India has experienced a dramatic increase in the presence of Multinational Corporation having a tremendous expansion in the amount of foreign direct investment inflows to the Indian economy. Internet tools like Google, Yahoo, MSN, E-Bay, Skype, and Amazon makeit easier for the MNCs to reach their potential customers in the country There are over 40,000 multinational corporations currently operating in the global economy, in addition to approximately 250,000 overseas affiliates running cross-continental businesses. In 1995, the top 200 multinational corporations had combined sales of $7.1 trillion, which is equivalent to 28.3 per cent of the world's gross domestic product. The top multinational corporations are headquartered in the United States, Western Europe, and Japan; they have the capacity to shape global trade, production, and financial transactions. Multinational corporations are viewed by many as favouring their home operations when making difficult economic decisions, but this tendency is declining as companies are forced to respond to increasing global competition. The modern multinational corporation is not necessarily headquartered in a wealthy nation. Many countries that were recently classified as part of the developing world, including Brazil, Taiwan, Kuwait, and Venezuela, are now home to large multinational concerns. The days of corporate colonization seem to be nearing an end.

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GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010 IBM computer and Pepsi-Cola from U.S.A., Siemens from Germany, Sony and Honda from Japan Philips from Holland etc., are some of the MNCs operating at international levels. Introduction Since 1991, India has experienced a dramatic increase in the presence of Multinational Corporation (MNCs), and with it, a tremendous expansion in the amount of FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT inflows to the Indian economy. This paper will analyse the effect with this change has had on Indian entrepreneur. The overall conclusion reached is that the increased presence of MNCs has had a positive impact on India entrepreneur. However, India entrepreneur has not even come close to reaching its potential, and thus, much more change needs to occur.

Country of Origin:
Coca Cola Dell Hitachi HSBC LG Nestle Samsung Sony Virgin Vodafone Nokia ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± USA USA Japan UK South Korea Switzerland South Korea Japan UK UK Finland

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GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010

CHARACTERISTICS OF MNC¶S
Following are the some of the important features/characteristics of MNCs:

1. AREA OF OPERATION: - The MNCs operate in many countries with multiple products on large scale. A MNC may operate both manufacturing and marketing activities in a number of countries. Some MNCs operate in several countries, whereas, others may operate in a few countries. Mostly MNCs from developed countries dominate in the world markets.

2. ORIGIN:-The development of MNCs dates back to several centuries, but their real growth started after the Second World War Majority of the MNCs are from developed countries like U.S.A, Japan, UK, Germany and European countries. In recent years MNCs from countries like Korea, Taiwan, India, China, etc. are operating in the world markets.

3. COMPREHENSIVE TERM: - In general, the term µMNC¶ is a Comprehensive term and includes international and transnational corporations. The term global corporation is also included in the list of µMNC¶.

4. PROFIT MOTIVE: - MNCs are profit oriented rather than social oriented. Such
corporations do not take much interest in the social welfare activities of the host country.

5. MANAGEMENT: - The Parent company works like a holding company. The subsidiary companies are to operate under control and guidance of parent company. The subsidiaries functions as per the policies and directions of parent organisation.

6. MANUFACTURE AND MARKETING ACTIVITIES: - MNCs undertake both Manufacturing and Marketing Activities and they are predominantly engaged in hi-tech and consumer goods industries. Majority of the MNCs are engaged in pharmaceutical, petrochemicals, engineering, consumer goods, etc.

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GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010

7. QUALITY CONSCIOUSNESS : - MNCs are quality and cost conscious and managed by professionals and experts. They have their own organisation culture and systems. MNCs believe in the concept of total quality management. 8.BRANDING STRATEGIES OF MNCS IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETS:In today s global marketplace, MNCs need to set up effective brandingstrategies in order to be competitive. Depending on the structure of thecompany and the products offered, MNCs can use different strategies. 9. Their main aim is to obtain the HIGHEST POSSIBLE PROFIT 10. They invest LARGE SUMS OF MONEY 11. THEY AID LOCAL COMPANIES &attain their benefits 12. They operate in more than one country at the same time

Other characteristics are:
13. Big size 14. Huge intellectual capital 15. Operates in many countries 16. Large number of customer 17.Large number of competitors 18. Structured way of decision making 19. Single managerial authority control 20. Worldwide integration, better profitability 21. Global perspective 22.Close coordination in parents & affiliates 23. Worldwide market

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GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010

OBJECTIVE 
To expand the business beyond the boundaries of the home country.  Minimize cost of production, especially labour cost.  Capture lucrative foreign market against international competitors.  Avail of competitive advantage internationally.  Achieve greater efficiency by producing in local market and then exporting the products.  Make best use of technological advantages by setting up production facilities abroad.  Establish an international corporate image

MNC¶S STRUCTURE
1. Horizontally integrated multinational corporations: Horizontally integrated
multinational corporations manage production establishments located in different countries to produce the same or similar products. (example: McDonald's )

2. Vertically integrated multinational corporations:Vertically integrated
multinational corporations manage production establishment in certain country/countries to produce products that serve as input to its production establishments in other country/countries. (example: Adidas )

3. Diversified multinational corporations:
diversified multinational Corporations do not manage production establishments located in different countries that are horizontally nor vertically nor straight, nor non-straight integrated. (example: Hilton Hotels )

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ADVANTAGES OF MNCS TO THE HOST COUNTRY:
1. Transfer of technology, capital and entrepreneurship.

2. Increase in the investment level and thus, the income and employment in the host Country.

4. Greater availability of products for local consumers. 5. Increase in exports and decrease in imports.

ADVANTAGES OF MNCS TO THE HOME COUNTRY.
1. Acquisition of raw materials from abroad. 2. Technology and management expertise acquired from competing in global markets. 3. Export of components and finished goods for assembly or distribution in foreign markets. 4. Inflow of income from overseas profits, royalties and management contracts.

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GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010

TYPES OF MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS:
ETHNOCENTRIC: These are the type of MNCs which have strong orientation

1.

towards home country. This means that home country people are considered as superior and allocated all key posts. 2.

POLYCENTRIC: Just opposite to Ethnocentric polycentric type of MNCs has

strong orientation towards host country where few key people are nationals and remaining are from the host country. 3.

REGIOCENTRIC AND GEOCENTRIC: These MNCs have their

concentration in whole world and they make selection for best employees whether they are from host country or home country it does not matter.

HOW IS A COMPANY CLASSIFIED AS AN A MNC¶S?
1. Subsidiary in foreign countries 2. Stakeholders are from different countries. 3. Operations in a number of countries 4. High proportion of assets in or/ and revenues from global operations;

The list of top ten MNCs working in Asia follows:
1. Microsoft
2. Nokia 3. McDonald's 4. IBM 5. Coca-Cola 6. Intel 7. Walt Disney 8. Nestle

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GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010

MNCS: BENEFITS & COSTS
MNCs benefit less-developed countries, but also impose costs on them 
MNC investments fuel the local growth-engines:  Higher wage-incomes, stimulating local businesses  Training, human capital build higher-skilled labour force  Contribute to government taxes & fees, or revenues by purchasing and privatizing existing national assets

COST OF CAPITAL
A firm¶s capital consists of equity (retained earnings and funds obtained by issuing stock) and debt (borrowed funds). The cost of equity reflects an opportunity cost, while the cost of debt is reflected in interest expenses. Firms want a capital structure that will minimize their cost of capital and hence the required rate of return on projects. The cost of capital for MNCs may differ from that for domestic firms because of the following differences.

1. Size of Firm: Because of their size, MNCs are often given preferential treatment by creditors. They can usually achieve smaller per unit flotation costs too.

2. Access to International Capital Markets : MNCs are normally able to obtain funds through international capital markets, where the cost of funds may be lower.

3. International Diversification: MNCs may have more stable cash inflows due to international diversification, such that their probability of bankruptcy may be lower.

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GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010 4. Exposure to Exchange Rate Risk: MNCs may be more exposed to exchange rate fluctuations, such that their cash flows may be more uncertain and their probability of bankruptcy higher.

5. Exposure to Country Risk.: MNCs that have a higher percentage of assets invested in foreign countries are more exposed to country risk.

Example: The coca cola recent annual report stated ³Our global presence and strong capital position afford us easy access to key financial markets around the world, enabling us to raise funds with a low effective cost. This posture, coupled with the aggressive management of our mix of short-term and long-term debt, results in a lower overall cost of borrowing.´

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PROFIT OF MNCS IN INDIA
It is too specify that the companies come and settle in India to earn profit. A company enlarges its jurisdiction of work beyond its native place when they get a wide scope to earn a profit and such is the case of the MNCs that have flourished here. More over India has wide market for different and new goods and services due to the ever increasing population and the varying consumer taste. The government FDI policies have somehow benefited them and drawn their attention too. The restrictive policies that stopped the company's inflow are however withdrawn and the country has shown much interest to bring in foreign investment here. Besides the foreign directive policies the labour competitive market, market competition and the macro-economic stability are some of the key factors that magnetize the foreign MNCs here.

Following are the reasons why multinational companies consider India as a preferred destination for business:

1. Huge market potential of the country

2. FDI attractiveness

3. Labour competitiveness

4. Macro-economic stability

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GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010

HISTORY AND EVALUTION OF MNCS FIRST MNC¶S IN WORLD: DUTCH EAST INDIA COMPANY

East India Company, Dutch, 1602±1798, chartered by the States-General of the Netherlands to expand trade and assure close relations between the government and its colonial enterprises in Asia. The company was granted a monopoly on Dutch trade E of the Cape of Good Hope and W of the Strait of Magellan. From its headquarters at Batavia (founded 1619) the company subdued local rulers, drove the British and Portuguese from Indonesia, Malaya, and Ceylon (Sri Lanka), and arrogated to itself the fabulous trade of the Spice Islands. A colony, established (1652) in South Africa at the Cape of Good Hope, remained Dutch until conquered by Great Britain in 1814. The company was dissolved when it became scandalously corrupt and nearly insolvent in the late 18th cent., and its possessions became part of the Dutch colonial empire in East Asia.

The history of the Dutch East India Company, founded in 1602 and declared bankrupt in 1799, spans almost the whole of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. For much of this time it was the world¶s largest trading company, owning, at the height of its wealth and power, more than half the world¶s sea-going shipping ± with its characteristic ship, the µfluyt¶, also being produced for the merchant marines of other countries, including England. It was known internationally by its distinctive VOC monogram, the initials standing for µVerenigde OstindischeCompagnie¶ ± or simply the United East India Company.

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GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010

FIRST MNC¶S IN INDIA: IBM (headquartered in Armonk, New
York, United States)

International Business Machines Corporation abbreviated IBM and nicknamed "Big Blue´ .It is a Multinational computer technology and IT consulting corporation. It¶s headquartered inArmonk, New York, United States The company is one of the few information technologyinformation technology and companies with acontinuous history dating back to the 19th century. IBM manufactures and sells computer hardware andsoftware (with a focus on the latter), and offersinfrastructure services, hosting service, and consultingservices in areas ranging from mainframe computers toand technology.

IBM was rated the No. 1 company amongst all IT companies in India on 'Employee Satisfaction with Training' in Dataquest Top Employer Survey 2003 - An indication of how Training is an integral part of life at IBM. Besides equipping our employees with newer sets of skills every day, IBM's Training & Learning programs reflect our core belief that our workforce is primed continually to face challenges every day. Join us and find out how far you can go with IBM«««

At IBM it is important to strike an optimum balance between work and play. So, while you work among other extremely bright and talented individuals like yourself who share the same desire and passion for what they do, you will also have a life along the way! IBM is committed to creating a supportive work environment that allows the employee control over how, where and when his/her work gets done. IBMers benefit from policies and programs supporting work/life balance, including flexi-timing, working from home and mobility options.

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GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010

FIRST INDIAN MNCS

: INFOSYS

These corporations originated early in the 20th century and expanded after World War II.A Multinational Corporation developed new products in its native country and manufactured them abroad.Almost all the earliest and largest multinational firms were either American, Japanese, or West European During the last three decades, many smaller corporations have also become multinational.Such enterprises maintain that they create employment, create wealth, and improve technology in countries. Multinational business operation is not a new concept. The British east India company, Hudson¶s bay corporation and Royal Africa companies are example of MNCs. The post second world war period has however, witnessed a changing hand in colonialism and there emerged a new thrusts for industrial and technological development as well as rise of the USA as the largest industrial power. . The Dutch East India Company was the first multinational corporation in the world and the first company to issue stock It was also arguably the world¶s first mega corporation possessing quasi-governmental powers, including the ability to wage war, negotiate treaties, coin money, and establish colonies. The first modern multinational corporation is generally thought to be the East India Company. Many corporations have offices, branches or manufacturing plants in different countries from where their original and main headquarters is located.

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GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010

HISTORY AND EVOLUTION OF ITC LTD

ITC was incorporated on August 24, 1910 under the name Imperial Tobacco Company of India Limited. As the Company's ownership progressively Indianised, the name of the Company was changed from Imperial Tobacco Company of India Limited to India Tobacco Company Limited in 1970 and then to I.T.C. Limited in 1974. In recognition of the Company's multi-business portfolio encompassing a wide range of businesses - Cigarettes & Tobacco, Hotels, Information Technology, Packaging, Paperboards & Specialty Papers, Agribusiness, Foods, Lifestyle Retailing, Education & Stationery and Personal Care - the full stops in the Company's name were removed effective September 18, 2001. The Company now stands rechristened 'ITC Limited'.ITC's Packaging & Printing Business was set up in 1925 as a strategic backward integration for ITC's Cigarettes business. It is today India's most sophisticated packaging house. ITC is a board-managed professional company, committed to creating enduring value for the shareholder and for the nation. It has a rich organisational culture rooted in its core values of respect for people and belief in empowerment. Its philosophy of all-round value creation is backed by strong corporate governance policies and systems The Company¶s beginnings were humble. A leased office on Radha Bazar Lane, Kolkata, was the centre of the Company's existence. The Company celebrated its 16th birthday on August 24, 1926, by purchasing the plot of land situated at 37, Chowringhee, (now renamed J.L. Nehru Road) Kolkata, for the sum of Rs 310,000. This decision of the Company was historic in more ways than one. It was to mark the beginning of a long and eventful journey into India's future. The Company's headquarter building, 'Virginia House', which came up on that plot of land two years later, would go on to become one of Kolkata's most venerated landmarks.

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GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010

Three Stages of Evolution
1.

Export stage
y y y

Initial inquiries => firms rely on export agents Expansion of export sales Further expansion þ foreign sales branch or assembly operations (to save transport cost)

2.

Foreign Production Stage

There is a limit to foreign sales (tariffs, NTBs)

DFI versus Licensing
Once the firm chooses foreign production as a method of delivering goods to foreign markets, it must decide whether to establish a foreign production subsidiary or license the technology to a foreign firm.

Licensing
Licensing is usually first experience (because it is easy) e.g.: Kentucky Fried Chicken in the U.K.
y y y

It does not require any capital expenditure It is not risky Payment = a fixed % of sales

Problem: the mother firm cannot exercise any managerial control over the licensee (it is independent) The licensee may transfer industrial secrets to another independent firm, thereby creating a rival.

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GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010

Direct Investment
It requires the decision of top management because it is a critical step.
y y y y

It is risky (lack of information) (US -> Canada) Plants are established in several countries Licensing is switched from independent producers to its subsidiaries. Export continues

3. Multinational

Stage

The company becomes a multinational enterprise when it begins to plan, organize and coordinate production, marketing, R& D, financing, and staffing. For each of these operations, the firm must find the best location.

Rule of Thumb
A company whose foreign sales are 25% or more of total sales. This ratio is high for small countries, but low for large countries, e.g. Nestle (98%: Dutch), Phillips (94%: Swiss).

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GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010

WHAT IS THE FUTURE OF MNCS IN INDIA?
Current trends in the international marketplace favour the continued development of multinational corporations. Countries worldwide are privatizing government-run industries, and the development of regional trading partnerships such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (a 1993 agreement between Canada, Mexico, and United States) and the European Union have the overall effect of removing barriers to international trade. Privatization efforts result in the availability of existing infrastructure for use by multinationals seeking to enter a new market, while removal of international trade barriers is obviously a boon to multinational operations. Perhaps the greatest potential threat posed by multinational corporations would be their continued success in a still underdeveloped world market. As the productive capacity of multinationals increases, the buying power of people in much of the world remains relatively unchanged;this could lead to the production of a worldwide glut of goods and services. Such a glut, which has occurred periodically throughout the history of industrialized economies, can in turn lead to wage and price deflation, contraction of corporate activities, and a rapid slowdown in all phases of economic life. Such a possibility is purely hypothetical, however, and for the foreseeable future the operations of multinational corporations worldwide are likely to continue to expand.

MNC IN INDIA ARE ATTRACTED TOWARDS:

y y y y

India¶s large market potential India presents a remarkable business opportunity by virtue of its sheer size and growth Labour competiveness FDI attractiveness

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GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010

GOVERNMENT SUPPORT: 
Both revenue and capital expenditure on R&D are 100% deductible from taxable income under the Income Tax Act.  A weighted tax deduction of 125% is allowed for sponsored research in approved national laboratories and institutions of higher technical education. 

A weighted tax deduction of 150% is allowed on R&D expenditure by companies in government-approved in- house R&D centres in selected industries.  A company whose principal objective is research and development is exempt from income tax for ten years from its inception.Accelerated depreciation is allowed for investment in plant and machinery made on the basis of indigenous technology. 

Customs and excise duty exemptions for capital equipments and consumables required for R&D. 

Excise duty exemption for three years on goods designed and developed by a wholly owned Indian company and patented in any two countries out of: India, the United States, Japan and any country of the European Union.

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GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010

POLICIES THAT HELPED MNCs GROW IN INDIA 
FDI Policy: Most sectors including manufacturing activities permitted 100% FDI under automatic route (No prior approval required) 

Industrial Licensing: Licensinglimited to only5 sectors (security, public health & safety considerations) 

Exchange Control: All investments are on repatriation basis. 

Original investment,profits and dividend can be freely repatriated 

Taxation: Companies incorporated in India treated as Indian companies for taxation 

Convention on Avoidance of Double Taxation with 71 countries including Korea

WHY MNC¶S IN INDIA
There are a number of reasons why the multinational companies are coming down to India. India has got a huge market. It has also got one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Besides, the policy of the government towards FDI has also played a major role in attracting the multinational companies in India. For quite a long time, India had a restrictive policy in terms of foreign direct investment. As a result, there was lesser number of companies that showed interest in investing in Indian market. However, the scenario changed during the financial liberalization of the country, especially after 1991. Government, nowadays, makes continuous efforts to attract foreign investments by relaxing many of its policies. As a result, a number of multinational companies have shown interest in Indian market.

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GROWTH OF MNC¶S IN INDIA NUMBER OF COMPANIES

Geographical distribution of largest companies
Most of the largest companies, by revenue, are American or Japanese. In 1996, 162 of the 500 largest companies globally were from the United States and 126 from Japan. Only a few of the largest companies are from developing countries. An exception is China, which has three entries in the top 500 list (Fortune Magazine, Top 500 and Biggest revenues and increases in revenues: http://www.fortune.com)

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GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010 Measured by foreign assets, the distribution of the largest companies looks very much the same. Most of the top 100 companies with largest foreign assets are from the United States, Japan, the United Kingdom, France and Germany. In this list, Japanese companies are not as prominent. In 1995, the list of the top 100 transnational corporations (TNCs), measured by foreign assets, included two companies from developing countries for the first time. These were Daewoo and Venezuela (Oil Company). Total foreign assets of the top 100 TNCs in 1995 amounted to $1.7 trillion, while total foreign sales were $2 trillion, and total employment 5,800,000. In 1996, the total revenues of the 500 largest companies globally were $11.4 trillion, total profits were $404 billion, total assets were $33.3 trillion, and the total number of employees was 35,517,692. The top ten companies accounted for 11.7% of the total revenues of the top 500, 15% of profits, and 13.6% of employment, according to Fortune Magazine.

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America was home to 31 of the 50 most profitable firms, and seven of the top ten. The most profitable, however, was Shell (the Netherlands) ± with profits of $8.9 billion. Shell's profits increased by 28.7% over 1995. In 1996, the top 500 companies did not get bigger, they got richer. Their profits increased by 25.1%, while revenues increased only by 0.5%, assets by 3.5%, and the number of employees by 1.1%.

Only in Western Europe and United States largest companies are top MNCs
Most of the largest American and European companies in terms of revenues are also the largest in terms of foreign assets. The largest American companies, by revenue, are GM, Ford and Exxon. By foreign assets, the largest American companies are Ford, GE, Exxon and GM (data of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, UNCTAD). Shell, which is the only European company among the ten largest by revenues, also had the largest foreign assets ($79.7 billion) in 1995 (Fortune Magazine and UNCTAD).Compared to their revenues; large Japanese companies have fairly modest foreign assets. For example, Mitsui had foreign assets of $16.6 billion, Itochu $15.1 billion, Marubeni $13.4 billion, Sumitomo $12.0 billion, and Toyota $36.0 billion in 1995 (UNCTAD).

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GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010

SECTOR WISEGROWTH:BANKING SECTOR
India's banking sector is booming at a great pace in spite of its relatively small size in comparison of its counterparts in other leading economies. Indian banking sector has been found lucrative by eminent players from the international world. For e.g.In India, Citibank and Standard Chartered Bank has more than half of all credit card receivables and personal loans, which has generated more than Rs. 200 crore of profit for both banks. In 2003, Oriental Bank of Commerce was listed by Forbes magazine in its 'Global 200 Best Companies' list. In 1990s, after a long gap of more than 20 years, the apex bank, Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has issued licenses to 9 new private banks. In this, Times Bank got merged with the HDFC Bank. The RBI also allowed Kotak Mahindra Finance Company to become a bank. These banks have shown their edge over each other¶s with the introduction of new products and technologies. Most of the banks paid their focus on the retail sector and provide internet banking, phone banking and mobile banking services to their customers and have cornered one of the largest segments of the India's banking sector by targeting the India's growing middle income class. The Indian banking sector has seen a proliferation of new services which has shown an improvement in customer service.

Indian banking sector's growth to remain high
MUMBAI: Despite intense competition and high inflationary pressures, India's banking sector will continue to show high growth owing to the country's strong economic expansion, credit rating agency Standard & Poor's (S&P) said on Thursday. "Growth in India's banking sector will remain high, bolstered by sound economic growth prospects. ³Thegross non-performing loans (NPLs) for our portfolio of rated Indian banks increased to 2.5 per cent as of March 31, 2010, from 2.2 per cent a year ago. This was in line with our expectations," the ratings agency said. It added, however, that the increase in NPLs was contained by the quick economic recovery, modest leverage and low sectorial concentration in the banks' loan books. Besides this, the banks had low exposure to sensitive sectors.

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GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010

Economic Reforms of the Banking Sector In India
Indian banking sector has undergone major changes and reforms during economic reforms. Though it was a part of overall economic reforms, it has changed the very functioning of Indian banks. This reform have not only influenced the productivity and efficiency of many of the Indian Banks, but has left everlasting footprints on the working of the banking sector in India.

1. Reduced CRR and SLR: The Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR) and Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR) are gradually reduced during the economic reforms period in India. By Law in India the CRR remains between 3-15% of the Net Demand and Time Liabilities. It is reduced from the earlier high level of 15% plus incremental CRR of 10% to current 4% level. Similarly, the SLR Is also reduced from early 38.5% to current minimum of 25% level. This has left more loanable funds with commercial banks, solving the liquidity problem.

2. Deregulation of Interest Rate: During the economic reforms period, interest rates of commercial banks were deregulated. Banks now enjoy freedom of fixing the lower and upper limit of interest on deposits. Interest rate slabs are reduced from Rs.20 Lakhs to just Rs. 2 Lakhs. Interest rates on the bank loans above Rs.2 lakhs are full decontrolled. These measures have resulted in more freedom to commercial banks in interest rate regime.

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GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010

3. Introduction of CRAR:Capital to Risk Weighted Asset Ratio (CRAR) was introduced in 1992. It resulted in an improvement in the capital position of commercial banks, all most all the banks in India has reached the Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR) above the statutory level of 9%. 4. Improved Profitability and Efficiency:During the reform period, the productivity and efficiency of many commercial banks has improved. It has happened due to the reduced Non-performing loans, increased use of technology, more computerization and some other relevant measures adopted by the government.

With these reforms, Indian banks especially the public sector banks have proved that they are no longer inefficient compared with their foreign counterparts as far as productivity is concerned.

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SERVICE SECTOR:
Service Sector in India today accounts for more than half of India's GDP. According to data for the financial year2006-2007, the share of services, industry and agriculture in India¶s GDP is 55.1% 26.4% and 18.5% respectively The sector, growing by 10 per cent annually, contributes 55.2 per cent to the GDP and a quarter of total employment. It also contributes over one-third of country's total exports, besides accounting for a higher share in foreign direct investment (FDI), the Survey noted. As per the advance estimates for 2010-11, the two broad services categories -- trade, hotels, transport and communication and financing, insurance, real estate and business services -have performed well with growth of 11 per cent and 10.6 per cent, respectively. The survey said only community; social and personal services have registered a low growth of 5.7 per cent, thuscontributing to the slight deceleration in the growth of the sector.

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GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010

Service sector and its growth
It mainly consists of following: Trade, Hotels and Restaurants , Railways ,Other Transport & Storage, Communication (Post, Telecom) ,Banking ,Insurance ,Dwellings, Real Estate, Business Services ,Public Administration, Defence ,Personal Services ,Community Services ETC.

Reasons for growth

1. Strong growth in foreign demand 2. Liberalisation 3. Sophistication in the information technology 4. Foreign Investment and Deregulation 5. (36% between 1992-2002) 6. Greater private sector participation 7. Increased private consumption of services ( 64 % of India¶s GDP-Europe-58%,Japan55%)

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GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010

Ministry of commerce FDI inflow 2000-2009
SHARE OF TOP INVESTING COUNTRIES: FDI EQUITY INFLOWS(FINANCIAL YEARWISE)

Amount Rupees in crores (US$ in million)
Rank

Country

2006-07 (AprilMarch)

2007-08 (AprilMarch

2008-09 (AprilMarch)

2009-10 (AprilOctober µ09)

Cumulative Inflows (April µ00 to October µ09)

Percentage to total Inflow (in terms of rupees)

1

Mauritius

28,759 (6,363)

44,483 (11,096) 12,319 (3,073) 4,377 (1,089) 4,690 (1,176) 2,780 (695) 3,336 (815) 3,385 (834) 2,075 (514) 583 (145) 1,039 (258) 98,664 (24,579)

50,794 (11,208) 15,727 (3,454) 8,002 (1,802) 3,840 (864) 3,922 (883) 1,889 (405) 5,983 (1,287) 2,750 (629) 2,098 (467) 1,133 (257 122,919 (27,329)

36,572 (7,550) 6,456 (1,335) 6,359 (1,322) 1,636 (340) 3,224 (670) 4,590 (950) 5,557 (1,155) 2,160 (449) 1,119 (234) 2,591 (537) 85,273 (17,644)

197,845 (44,415) 40,307 (9,146) 34,318 (7,657) 24,541 (5,567) 19,076 (4,260) 4,590 (950) 15,607 (3,428) 11,648 (2,622) 6,601 (1,461) 6,597 (1,457) 478,399 (107,484)

44

2

Singapore

2,662 (578)

9

3

Us

3,861 (856)

8

4

Uk

8,389 (1,878)

5

5

Netherlands

2,905 (644)

4

6

Japan

382 (85)

3

7

Cyprus

266 (58)

3

8

Germany

540 (120)

3

9

France

528 (117)

1

10

UAE

1,174 (260)

1

TOTAL FDI INFLOWS *

70,630 (15,726)

------

30

GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010

COUNTRY WISE
FDI inflows into BRIC countries, 2005-08 (US$ billions
120

100

80 INDIA 60 RUSSIA BREZIL 40 CHINA

20

0 2005 2006 2007 2008

US
United States is India's second largest source of FDI, second largest trade partner after EU and the largest services export destination. There is significant potential for India and the US to further strengthen their economic ties, by effectively leveraging India¶s inherent advantages.

JAPAN:
India is certainly more friendly with Japan. There is a CEPA (comprehensive economic partnership agreement) signed for free trade and there are also plans to celebrate India and Japan's 60 years of partnership.

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GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010

As Asian MNCs grow in size, their need for executive talent, and their ability to pay for that talent, will rise proportionately, if not faster than their Western counterparts. Yet, Asia¶s emerging MNCs often can be at a disadvantage when recruiting top talent, despite their increasing need for such talent.

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GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010

This is the top 10 as published in July 2011. It is based on the companies' fiscal year ended on or before 31 March 2011

Rank

Company

Country

Feild

1

Wall mart stores

United stores

retail

2

Royal Dutch shell

Netherlands

petroleum

3

Exxon mobile

United states

petroleum

4

BP

united kingdom

petroleum

5

Sinopec

china

petroleum

6

China national petroleum

china

petroleum

7

State grid

china

power

8

Toyota motors

japan

automobile

33

GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010

SECTOR WISE GROWH OF MNC¶S

Sales
10% 8% banking and insurance chemicals and petrolium 15% 24% other sector consumer durables and other consumer products industrial equipment and system 28% 15% food products and beverages

34

GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010

Role of Multinational Corporations
Multinational corporations (MNCs) are huge industrial organizations having a wide network of branches and subsidiaries spread over a number of countries. The two main characteristics of MNCs are their large size and the fact that their worldwide activities are centrally controlled by the parent companies. Such a company may enter into joint venture with a company in another country. There may be agreement among companies of different countries in respect of division of production, market, etc. These companies are to be found in almost all the advanced countries, with the USA perhaps the biggest amongst them. Their operations extend beyond their own countries, and cover not only the advanced countries but also the LDCs. Many MNCs have annual sales volume in excess of the entire GNPs of the developing countries in which they operate. MNCs have great impact on the development process of the Underdeveloped countries. MNC's plays an important role in boosting up Indian Economy. In support of this we can say, MNC's bring foreign investors to India and hence helps in globalization of Indian Market.

35

GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010

Arguments for MNCs (The positive role:) The MNCs play an important role
in the economic development of underdeveloped countries.

1. Filling Savings Gap: The first important contribution of MNCs is its role in filling the resource gap between targeted or desired investment and domestically mobilized savings. For example, to achieve a 7% growth rate of national output if the required rate of saving is 21% but if the savings that can be domestically mobilised is only 16% then there is a µsaving gap¶ of 5%. If the country can fill this gap with foreign direct investments from the MNCs, it will be in a better position to achieve its target rate of economic growth.

2.Filling Trade Gap: The second contribution relates to filling the foreign exchange or trade gap. An inflow of foreign capital can reduce or even remove the deficit in the balance of payments if the MNCs can generate a net positive flow of export earnings.

3. Filling Revenue Gap: The third important role of MNCs is filling the gap between targeted governmental tax revenues and locally raised taxes. By taxing MNC profits, LDC governments are able to mobilize public financial resources for development projects.

4. Filling Management/Technological Gap: Fourthly, Multinationals not only provide financial resources but they also supply a ³package´ of needed resources including management experience, entrepreneurial abilities, and technological skills. These can be transferred to their local counterparts by means of training programs and the process of µlearning by doing¶. Moreover, MNCs bring with them the most sophisticated technological knowledge about production processes while transferring modern machinery and equipment to capital poor LDCs. Such transfers of knowledge, skills, and technology are assumed to be both desirable and productive for the recipient country.

36

GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010 5.Other Beneficial Roles: The MNCs also bring several other benefits to the host country. (a)The domestic labour may benefit in the form of higher real wages.

(b) The consumers benefits by way of lower prices and better quality products.

(c) Investments by MNCs will also induce more domestic investment. For example, ancillary units can be set up to µfeed¶ the main industries of the MNCs

(d) MNCs expenditures on research and development (R&D), although limited is bound to benefit the host country.

Apart from these there are indirect gains through the realization of external economies.

Arguments Against MNCs(The negative role):
arguments against MNCs which are discuss below.

There are several

1. Although MNCs provide capital, they may lower domestic savings and investment rates by stifling competition through exclusive production agreements with the host governments. MNCs often fail to reinvest much of their profits and also they may inhibit the expansion of indigenous firms. 2. Although the initial impact of MNC investment is to improve the foreign exchange position of the recipient nation, its long-run impact may reduce foreign exchange earnings on both current and capital accounts. The current account may deteriorate as a result of substantial importation of intermediate and capital goods while the capital account may worsen because of the overseas repatriation of profits, interest, royalties, etc.

3. While MNCs do contribute to public revenue in the form of corporate taxes, their contribution is considerably less than it should be as a result of liberal tax concessions, excessive investment allowances, subsidies and tariff protection provided by the host government.

37

GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010

4. The management, entrepreneurial skills, technology, and overseas contacts provided by the MNCs may have little impact on developing local skills and resources. In fact, the development of these local skills may be inhibited by the MNCs by stifling the growth of indigenous entrepreneurship as a result of the MNCs dominance of local markets.

5. MNCs¶ impact on development is very uneven. In many situations MNC activities reinforce dualistic economic structures and widen income inequalities. They tend to promote the interests of some few modern-sector workers only. They also divert resources away from the production of consumer goods by producing luxurious goods demanded by the local elites.

6. MNCs typically produce inappropriate products and stimulate inappropriate consumption patterns through advertising and their monopolistic market power. Production is done with capital-intensive technique which is not useful for labour surplus economies. This would aggravate the unemployment problem in the host country.

7. The behaviour pattern of MNCs reveals that they do not engage in R & D activities in underdeveloped countries. However, these LDCs have to bear the bulk of their costs.

8. MNCs often use their economic power to influence government policies in directions unfavourable to development. The host government has to provide them special economic and political concessions in the form of excessive protection, lower tax, subsidized inputs, cheap provision of factory sites. As a result, the private profits of MNCs may exceed social benefits.

38

GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010

REASON FOR SLOW GROWTH 
Some problems are shared by domestic corporations Taking advantage of limited liability 

Mining companies take out resources, distribute profits, leaving no money To clean up mess 

Use of economic power to get favourable legislation y Campaign contributions

Distorted information (cigarette companies oil companies) 

Massive cheating in hard-to-detect ways
y y Even in U.S.²Exxon in Alaska and Alabama cases Required extra-ordinarily sophisticated detection, beyond capability of most developing countries y If this happens in U.S., what must be happening elsewhere? 

power²to get special legislation and treatment that benefits themselves, regulations, short circuiting environmental, health, worker regulations 

Sometimes they seek, and get, special tax and tariff treatment; sometimes simply persuading governments not to enforce existing regulations 

Sometimes special treatment is above board²necessary to induce corporation to come; but sometimes based on corruption 

Leverage economic power with political power 

Lack of ³moral sensibilities´ (or weaknesses in public pressure)

39

GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010

R&D CENTERS IN INDIA HELP MNCS TO SAVE $40 BILLION
The cost of running R&D Centers in India has continued to decline over the last two years. R&D Centers of MNCs in India have generated significant cost savings for their headquarters because of the lower operating costs over the years. According to a study titled µR&D Operations Cost 2010 - The Need to Look Beyond Cost Control¶ by the management consulting firm Zinnov Management Consulting, R&D centers in India have helped parent organizations save a total of $40 billion in the last three years. Currently, the cost of running R&D centers in India stands at ` 18.2 lakh per person per year. It reveals that the cost has declined by 0.9 per cent in Rupee terms, 4 per cent in U.S. Dollar terms, and 3.3 per cent in Euro terms in FY 2010, indicating signs of continued cost optimization due to the constrained economic environment. The decline was primarily driven by strict budgetary constraints of R&D centers of global companies in the form of minimal or no salary increments, focus on variable pay, freeze on hiring, and cost optimization across infrastructure, travel, and communication. Bringing into perspective a comparative analysis of cities, the study says that the Bangalorebased companies incur higher cost as compared to the other cities.

40

GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010

FDI POLICY AND ITS IMPACT ON MNC¶S
FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT POLICY
MNCs are source of FDI, the movement of capital across national borders that grants the investor control over an acquired asset. FDI may comprise > 20% of global GDP. In its recent foreign direct investment (FDI) policy, the Government of India had announced additional methods for issue of shares for consideration other than cash, such as: (a) import of capital goods/ machinery/ equipment (including second-hand machinery); (b) pre-operative/ pre-incorporation expenses (including payments of rent, etc.). The RBI has now implemented these schemes by prescribing the detailed conditions on which this share issuance facility will be available to Indian companies.) Foreign direct investment (FDI) has become a key battleground for emerging markets and some developed countries. Government-level policies are needed to enable FDI inflows and maximize their returns for both investors and recipient countries. Foreign direct investment (FDI) has become a key battleground for emerging markets and some developed countries. Government-level policies are needed to enable FDI inflows and maximize their returns for both investors and recipient countries. Foreign direct investment (FDI) policies play a major role in the economic growth of developing countries around the world. Attracting FDI inflows with conductive policies has therefore become a key battleground in the emerging markets. Developed countries also seek to bring in more FDI and use various policies and incentives to attract overseas investors, particularly for capital-intensive industries and advanced technology. The primary aim of these policies is to create a friendly business environment where foreign investors feel comfortable with the legal and financial framework of the country, and have the potential to reap profits from economically viable businesses. The prospect of new growth opportunities and outsized profits encourages large capital inflows across a range of industry and opportunity types.

41

GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010 Investors tend to look for predictable environments where they understand how decisionmaking processes work. Governments therefore are incentivized to build up a track record of rational decision making. The business environment often requires work to remove onerous regulations, reduce corruption and encourage transparency. Governments often also seek to improve their domestic infrastructure to meet the operational needs of investors. Providing fiscal incentives for attracting FDI is a subject of controversy ± analysts have argued both in favour and against the idea. A general consensus is developing in favour of certain incentives which have been proven historically to grow profits and therefore foreign investments. When policies are effective, significant FDI investments are injected into countries that help the domestic economy to grow. Different countries and regions offer various kinds of fiscal incentives, with a related variance in the level of FDI investments attracted. Governments are increasingly setting up promotional agencies to foster foreign direct investment. These agencies promote FDI-friendly policies, identify prospective sectors and investors, and structure specific deals and incentives for major foreign investors such as multi-national corporations (MNCs). Global trade associations also play a major role in some of these investment activities. These associations are tasked with creating a positive environment for foreign direct investors and ensuring that both investors and recipient countries enjoy a favourable environment. The formation of human capital is vital for the continued growth of FDI inflows. To enable the most beneficial, technology and IP-driven FDI, highly skilled personnel are necessary. Governments must therefore enact policies to provide training and skills upgrading to develop their workforce and meet the employment needs of foreign investors.

The advantages of FDI are as follows.
1. It supplements the meagre domestic capital available for investment and helps set up productive enterprises. 2. It creates employment opportunities in diverse industries. 3. It boosts domestic production as it generally comes in a package - money, technology etc.

42

GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010 4. It paves the way for internationalisation of markets with global standards and quality assurance and performance based budgeting. 5. It pools resources productively - money, manpower, technology. 6. It creates more and new infrastructure. 7. For the home country it a good way to take advantage in a favourable foreign investment climate (e.g. low tax regime). 8. For the host country FDI is a good way of improving the BoP position.

FDI is prohibited in only the following activities:
i. Retail Trading (except single brand product retailing); ii. Atomic Energy; iii. Lottery Business; iv. Gambling and Betting; v. Business of chit fund; Vi.Nidhi Company; vii. Trading in Transferable Development Rights (TDRs); and viii. Activities/sectors not open to private sector Investment.

43

GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010

GROWTH IN FDI 

FDI equity inflows into India: y Thirteen-fold growth between 2003-04 and 2009-10 

FDI inflows into India: y In terms of international practices of calculating FDI (i.e. by taking into account reinvested earnings and other capital), FDI inflows were nearly US $ 37.18 billion during 2009-10 

Stable pace of inflows: y FDI inflows have somewhat flattened out over the course of the last three years However, the pace of inflows has been stable This is including during 2009-10, at the height of the global economic slowdown y  This is despite a significant fall in global FDI inflows

Global FDI flows to India down 31% in 2010
However, China and other countries in South-East Asia continued to witness massive FDI flows, UNCTAD said in its Global Investment Trends Monitor report issued on Tuesday. UNCTAD says global FDI flows remained almost stagnant in 2010, increasing by 1 per cent to $1.122 trillion. UNCTAD forecasts that global FDI flows are likely to remain between $1.3 trillion and $1.5 trillion in 2011. FDI inflows into India amounted to just $23.7 billion last year, as against US$34.6 billion in 2009. ³In India, we have seen a sharp decline and we can¶t explain why this has happened,´ said UNCTAD Investment & Enterprise Division Chief, James X Zhan, who prepared the investment report. ³We don¶t have the analysis,´ he said, maintaining that the decline in global FDI flows into India was based on the figures compiled by the central bank.

44

GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010 However, in sharp contrast, China received FDI worth$274.6 billion last year, compared to $233 billion in 2009. There is a ³structural change,´ Zhan said in regard to the higher FDI flows to China, which is receiving huge investments on services and research and development activities. Many Western companies have shifted their research facilities to China and there is rapid development in the hinterlands of the Communist country as well. The sharp increase in global FDI flows to East and South-East Asian countries and Latin American nations in 2010 marked the first time that developing countries outpaced rich nations in attracting foreign investments. China, Hong Kong and other South-East Asian countries like Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand were the main beneficiaries of the heightened FDI flows in the form of mergers and acquisitions (M&As) and greenfield investment. Part of the reason for the stagnant investment flows the world-over was largely due to the poor performance of the developed economies, especially European countries, which were the worst-hit by the global financial turmoil. The United States, which was the epicentre of the global economic meltdown in 2008, is gradually recovering from the crisis, with FDI flows increasing by 40 per cent last year to $186.1 billion from $129.9 billion in 2009. ³The quarterly fluctuations during 2010 indicate that the worldwide FDI recovery is still hesitant,´ said the report. Several risk factors such as the slow global economic recovery, investment protectionism, rising sovereign debt and continued volatility in the currency markets are likely to slow down the pace of foreign direct investment across the globe in 2011, it said.

45

GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010

FDI Approvals in 2007
The FDI Approvals in 2007 resulted in stupendous rise of the Indian Services, Computer Software & Hardware and Telecommunication sectors. The cumulative amount of Foreign Direct Investment in India during the period from April 2007 to October 2007 was Rs 269,786 Crores. This resulted in significant growth in areas like industrial production, agriculture, food grain production, imports, exports and wholesale price indexes, which further fuelled growth, productivity and employment in India.

The main countries that contributed to the inflow of FDI in India during April 2007 to October 2007 were -

Mauritius ,USA ,UK ,Netherlands ,Singapore ,Japan ,Germany ,France , Switzerland, Cyprus ,

The main sectors which contributed to the bulk of the FDI inflow in India during April 2007 to October 2007 were  Services sector - including financial and non-financial sector  Computer Software and Hardware  Telecommunication - including radio paging, cellular mobile and basic telephony  Automobile industry  Housing and real estate  Power  Chemicals - other than fertilizers  Metallurgical industries  Drug and pharmaceuticals

46

GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010

The main Indian states that attracted the bulk of the FDI inflow in India during April 2007 to October 2007 were -

Maharashtra, Delhi,Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Chandigarh, Goa, Madhya Pradesh, Kerala, Orissa, Rajasthan, Utter Pradesh, Assam, Bihar

The FDI Approvals in 2007 and its effects on the economy of India are as follows - 

FDI - India envisage of attracting $10 billion of foreign direct investment (FDI) this year as inflows have nearly doubled to US$ 4.4 billion.  FIIs - net investments in equities crossed US$ 7 billion.  Industrial Growth exceeded 10% till October 2007.  Manufacturing growth rate has exceeded 12 % till October 2007.  The mining and quarrying sector has registered a growth of 4% till October 2007.  The electricity sector recorded 12% growth till October 2007.  Consumer durables and non-durables have also recorded upswings.  Telecommunication sector with inflows of US$ 405 million has registered the maximum growth of 950%. 

Merchandise exports recorded strong growth.  The automotive industry achieved a growth rate of over 20% till October 2007.

47

GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010 

The biotechnology industry registered more than 40% growth till October 2007.  Encouraged by the stupendous growth in 2005-06 the IT and ITES industry is targeting US$ 60 billion milestone in exports by 2010. 

The US$ 47 billion Indian textile industry is expected to grow to US$ 115 billion by the year 2012. 

The US$6.4 billion Indian retail industry is expected to grow over 20% annually to US$ 23 billion by 2010. 

The robust pharmaceutical market in India ranks 4th worldwide and is expected to cross business worth Rs 100,000 crores in formulations and bulk drug production by 2010. 

Corporate India has recorded its highest rise in salaries at 22% till October 2007.  India's Balance of Payments remained comfortable.  The Invisibles Account - remained positive and financed 2/3 of the trade deficit.

48

GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010

India got $4.8bn FDI in 2001-02
PTI May 26, 2002, 01.07pm IST NEW DELHI: Foreign Direct Investment increased marginally to $4.8 billion in 2001-02 from $4.5 billion in the previous fiscal despite the global recession following the September 11 terrorist attacks in the US. Total FDI inflow last fiscal was $4.826 billion, which works out to Ds 22,168 core, as per the latest data compiled by the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion. However, inflows declined by over 19 per cent in April this year at $221.8 million against $275.1 million in the same month a year earlier. Total FDI inflows including ADRs/GDRs and pending advance in April was marginally lower at Rs 1064.77 crore as against Rs 1238 crore in April 2001. During the fiscal year under review, telecommunication sector attracted the highest FDI inflow at $867.39 million, accounting for over 17 per cent of total FDI. Power, oil and refinery sector attracted the second highest FDI amount at $633.09 million, accounting for 13.58 per cent of the total FDI, followed by the electrical equipment sector a distant third with $435.27 million, translating to nine per cent of the total FDI. The transportation sector attracted FDI inflows of $189.66 million accounting for 3.86 per cent of the total while service sector garnered $157.78 million accounting for 3.24 per cent of the total inflows.

49

GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010

FDI inflows post 87% growth in May 2002
PTI Aug 9, 2002, 04.33pm IST
NEW DELHI: India's foreign direct investment inflows registered an impressive growth of 87 per cent at $501 million (net of ADRs/GDRs) in May against $268 million in the same period last year. As per latest data compiled by the industry ministry, FDI inflows continue to post impressive growth in the current calendar year with cumulative FDI inflows during January-may registering a growth of 60 per cent at $1.89 billion as compared to $1.18 billion in the corresponding period a year earlier. The impressive growth in FDI has been achieved at a time when there has been a steep decline in the global FDI flows. Government in May2002, approved 254 foreign collaboration proposals amounting to $471.2 million which in rupee terms amounted to Rs 2,261.54 crore. A sector-wise break-up reveals that telecommunications attracted the highest FDI approvals in the month of May at 195.6 million dollars cornering 41.51 per cent share of the total FDI approval in the month. Service sector including both financial and non-financial services attracted $114.1 million accounting for a share of 24.22 per cent while fuels attracted the third highest FDI approvals with $47.8 million accounting for a share of 10.14 per cent. Himachal Pradesh with $168.8 million accounting for a share of 35.83 per cent received the highest number of FDI approvals during May. Delhi, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Goa were the other states in the top five.

50

GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010

FDI inflows cross $3 bn mark in July
ET Bureau Sep 11, 2009, 09.59am IST
MUMBAI: The Indian economy could well be on its way out of the woods if the money pumped into the country by foreigners is anything to go by.

For the first time in more than one year, foreign direct investment (FDI) crossed the $3billion mark on a monthly basis. Total FDI inflows amounted to $3,476 million in July, up 55% from $2,247 million a year ago, latest data from the RBI monthly bulletin released on Thursday show. More heartening though is the fact that cumulative inflows from April-July , despite being lower at $10.5 billion compared with $12.3 billion in the year-ago period, are marginally higher than inflows through the portfolio route, which amounted to $10.35 billion over the same period.

51

GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010

Global FDI flow slows down
TNN Sep 18, 2002, 04.40am IST
NEW DELHI: The World Investment Report of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), released on Tuesday, revealed a decline of 51 per cent in global FDI flows in 2001. But the global fall primarily concerned the developed countries. Some developing countries like India, in fact, experienced a sizeable jump in FDI inflows. After stagnation of FDI inflows at around $ 2.5 billion for three years, India recorded inflows of $3.6 billion in 2001. And, outward flow of FDI (that is investments made by Indian companies abroad) amounted to $ 745 million in 2001 ² a big sum indeed in view of the capital-scarce nature of the economy. But, the only Indian company, Reliance, which used to figure among the large transnationals in the World Investment Report in previous years, does not find mention this year. This is because the report now lists companies which are not just large but have large assets abroad. With this new criteria, ONGC, with its proposed investments of billions of dollars abroad in Sakhalin and Sudan, may perhaps find a mention in future reports. Globally, 2001 has turned out to be an watershed year regarding FDI flows. The trend of annual growth of over 40 per cent was reversed. The report offers a few explanations for the drastic drop. One, mergers and acquisitions in the developed world, main driver of FDI flows in the late 90s and in 2000, might have reached a saturation point. Second, the events of September 11, though did not directly affect FDI flows, depressed economic sentiments and accentuated the global economic slowdown, resulting into a massive fall in FDI flows. The report ranks India low in terms of indices of FDI performance and FDI potential. But economists Nagesh Kumar said the indices have been prepared with crude method and do not reflect the true position of large economies like India.

52

GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010

Global FDI flows to India down 31% in 2010: UNCTAD
PTI Jan 17, 2011, 10.31pm IST
GENEVA: Global foreign direct investment (FDI) flows into India dropped by over 31 per cent in 2010 despite robust economic growth, according to the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). However, China and other countries in South-East Asia continued to witness massive FDI flows, UNCTAD said in its Global Investment Trends Monitor report issued on Monday. UNCTAD says global FDI flows remained almost stagnant in 2010, increasing by 1 per cent to USD 1.122 trillion. UNCTAD forecasts that global FDI flows are likely to remain between USD 1.3 trillion and USD 1.5 trillion in 2011. FDI inflows into India amounted to just USD 23.7 billion last year, as against USD 34.6 billion in 2009. "In India, we have seen a sharp decline and we can't explain why this has happened," said the UNCTAD's investment and enterprise division chief, James X Zhan, who prepared the investment report. "We don't have the analysis," he said, maintaining that the decline in global FDI flows into India was based on the figures compiled by the central bank. However, in sharp contrast, China received FDI worth USD 274.6 billion last year, compared to USD 233 billion in 2009. There is a "structural change," Zhan said in regard to the higher FDI flows to China, which is receiving huge investments on services and research and development activities. Many Western companies have shifted their research facilities to China and there is rapid development in the hinterlands of the Communist country as well. The sharp increase in global FDI flows to East and South-East Asian countries and Latin American nations in 2010 marked the first time that developing countries outpaced rich nations in attracting foreign investments.

53

GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010 China, Hong Kong and other South-East Asian countries like Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand were the main beneficiaries of the heightened FDI flows in the form of mergers and acquisitions (M&As) and greenfield investment.

Part of the reason for the stagnant investment flows the world-over was largely due to the poor performance of the developed economies, especially European countries, which were the worst-hit by the global financial turmoil.

The United States, which was the epicentre of the global economic meltdown in 2008, is gradually recovering from the crisis, with FDI flows increasing by 40% last year to USD 186.1 billion from USD 129.9 billion in 2009. "The quarterly fluctuations during 2010 indicate that the worldwide FDI recovery is still hesitant," said the report. Several risk factors suchas the slow global economic recovery, investment protectionism, rising sovereign debt and continued volatility in the currency markets are likely to slow down the pace of foreign direct investment across the globe in 2011, it said.

54

GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010

FDI climbs 55% in July
ET Bureau Sep 11, 2009, 02.00am IST
MUMBAI: The Indian economy could well be on its way out of the woods, if the money pumped into the country by foreigners is anything to go by. For the first time in more than one year, foreign direct investment crossed the $3-billion mark on a monthly basis. Total FDI inflows amounted to $3,476 million in July, up 55% from $2,247 million a month ago, shows the latest data from RBI monthly bulletin that was released on Thursday. More heartening though is the fact that cumulative inflows from April-July, despite being lower at $10.5 billion compared with $12.3 billion in a year-ago period, are marginally higher than inflows through the portfolio route, which amounted to $10.35 billion over the same period. This, according to experts, points to the foreign investors' faith in the resilience of the Indian economy, which has weathered the recessionary headwinds better than most countries and is set once again to move to a high growth trajectory. FDI inflows are inherently more stable than the portfolio money that is invested into shares and considered more volatile. "Inflows overall are looking up since sentiment in the India story is bullish, considering the new government's stress on infrastructure, an improvement in industrial production and the growth in exports in absolute terms since April. We believe going ahead, inflows will continue to remain buoyant," said ShubhadaRao, chief economist, YES Bank. According to SidharthSanyal, economist at Edelweiss Securities: "We are bullish on capital inflows through all routes such as FDI as well as the portfolio route including QIPs. As far as FDI is concerned, it is less volatile than foreign portfolio flows. So we might see it picking up steadily over a period of time, as investors here is betting on the country's long-term growth story." However, around $1.5 billion is through acquisition of shares of Indian companies by foreigners, which technically does not qualify as Greenfield investments. Though this is a

55

GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010 secondary investment, it indicates the prospects and promise that India holds for overseas investors, said an economist with a research firm, who declined to be named. Notably, India has also in some way done better than neighbours China and Pakistan, which saw a dip in FDI inflows. In July, China's FDI plunged by 35.7% ($5.36 billion), though in absolute terms, it annually receives much higher FDI than India. The government has scaled down its FDI target for FY10 by $5 billion to $30 billion. This works out to average monthly inflows of around $2.5 billion. The current trend indicates growth in line with target. FDI inflow in India came down as the global recession deepened in the months after the Lehman collapse last year. It hit a low of $1 billion in November 2008. But things started looking up after April this year, when inflows started picking up on improved global liquidity conditions.

Share of top investing countries FDI equity inflow

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GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010

SECTORS ATTRACTING HIGHEST FDI EQUITY INFLOWS

Cumulative RANK SECTOR inflows(august 1991- march2010) amount in Rs.crore(US $ IN MILLION) 1 SERVICES SECTOR (financial 101,019 (22,687) & non-financial) 2 3 Computer software & hardware TELECOMMUNICATIONS (radio paging, cellular mobile, basic telephone services) 4 5 Housing & real estate Construction activities (including roads& highways) 6 7 8 9 10 Power Automobile industry Metallurgical industries Petroleum & natural gas Chemicals(other than fertilizers) Total FDI inflow 2,32,014 20,006 (4,428) 19,566 (4,322) 12,990 (3,032) 11,261 (2,612) 10,567 (2,343) 34,348 (7,701) 30,557 (6,945) 42,259 (9,529) 39,179 (8,600)

PERCENTAGEOF TOTAL INFLOWS (RS)

22(%)

9(%) 8(%)

7(%) 7(%)

4(%) 4(%) 3(%) 2(%) 2(%)

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GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010

Analysis of FDI inflow and outflow in India

Total FDI inflows in India
Total FDI Sr. Number Financial year Total FDI(Rscrore) Inflows(U S mill) % Growth Over Previous Year

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

2001-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09

18406 29235 24367 19860 27188 39674 103367 138276 161481

4,029 6,130 5,035 4,322 6,051 8,961 22,826 34,362 35,168

----------(+)52 (-)18 (-)14 (+)40 (+)48 (+)146 (+)51 (+)02

In 2006-07 the total FDI inflow in India was US $ 22,826 million while the outflow of FDI from India was US $ -15046 million resulting in total FDI of US $ 7693 million. Thesame trend continued and the total FDI substantially increased to US $ 15401 million inthe year 2007-08 due to an increase in the inflow of US $ 34236 million. During theglobal slowdown period the FDI showed a positive trend in 2008-09 with an increase of FDI to US $ 17496 million.

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GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010

Classification of Net FDI in India
Classification of Net FDI in India (Amount in US $ million)

particulars

2006-07 Credit debit 87 87 0 net 22739 16394 5828

2007-08 credit 34361 26866 7168
debit

2008-09 net 34236 26758 7168 credit 35148 27975 6426
debit

net 34982 27809 6426

(i)In India Equity Reinvested earning Other capital ii)abroad Equity Reinvested earning

22826 16481 5828

125 108 0

166 166 0

517 764 764 0

0 15810 13368 1076

517 15046 12604 -1076

327 2477 2477 0

17 21312 16898 1084

310 18835 14421 -1084

747 1110 1110 0

0 18596 14668 1084

747 -17486 -03558 -1084

Other capital

0

1366

-1366

0

3330

-3330

0

2844

-2844

India has emerged as the second most attractive destination for FDI after China and aheadof the US, Russia and Brazil. India has experienced a marked rise in FDI inflows in thelast few years. Not surprisingly India¶s growth strategy has depended predominantly ondomestic enterprises and domestic demand as opposed to FDI and export demand.1 For instance, India¶s FDI as a share of GDP in 2007 represented only about 1.7 percentcompared to 2.8 percent in China and even below Pakistan, and its share of gross fixedinvestment is 5.2 percent compared to 7.0 in China and 16.7 per cent in Pakistan

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GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010

Share of top 7 investing Countries: FDI equity inflows
(Percentage to total inflows - in terms of US$)

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GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010

China may overtake India in MNC R&D investment: study
A recent study by consultation firm Zinnov reveals that China is likely to take over India in terms of investment in research and development in the next few years as it is driven by various government incentives, schemes and high level of innovation. So much is the interest in Chinese markets that of the Fortune 500 companies worldwide, over 400 already have R&D centres in China, according to a study by management consulting firm Zinnov. The country plans to increase its investment in R&D to 2.5% by 2020 from 1.45% of GDP in 2006.On the other hand, India is home to only half of the Fortune 500 companies¶ R&D centres. In fact, this growth may become a threat for India. Global firms¶ R&D investment in China stands at $7.65 billion, which may soon overtake India¶s market, whose size is estimated at $7.75 billion. India had a clear edge over China till a few years ago but now China is competing head-to-head with India, the study says. Moreover, the fresh R&D talent pool availability in China has also increased over the years and Chinese centres are rapidly expanding their headcount base. The fresh talent pool in China is estimated at 56,000 while that of India is at 45,000 - a gap which will soon become narrow. Also, unlike India, tier-II cities in China are expanding fast and aiming at a significant share of the MNC R&D pie. ³While the Chinese MNC R&D subsidiary market is growing at 16% annually, more than India¶s 11%, the market has also undergone a transformed innovation process where the market growth and competition from local companies made MNCs to review their business models. This reverse innovation process, coupled with constant innovation, played a significant role in the evolution of the Chinese R&D ecosystem. China today hosts one-third of the global 1,000 R&D spenders with their R&D subsidiary centres,´ said Praveen Bhadada, manager-consulting, Zinnov Management Consulting. R&D subsidiary refers to centres other than the company¶s headquarters. A firm can have multiple centres in a country. Significantly, China is increasingly becoming an R&D hub for many of auto companies such as Audi, Toyota and Volvo. Besides, its secondary locations now account for nearly 50% of the MNC R&D centres.Bhadada added that manufacturing was the single largest contributor to the R&D in China followed by semiconductors, software and telecom.

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GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010

RECESSION IMPACT on FDI
The recession had an impact on the total foreign investments in India, as in the year 200708:Q4 the net FI was $ 4760 million which fell from $ 16892 million in 2007-08:Q3.This stagnant growth continued till 2008-09:Q3 where this further fell to $ -5376million and in 2008-09:Q4 $ 492.However there are signs of recovery as the results of 2009-10:Q1 shows positive growth of $ 15101 million

Why Indian youth prefer MNC'S than domestic companies
Many of Indian youth's prefer MNC's Because of Saturday and Sunday Off .One of the reason is the fast work, promotion according to growth, no ego between employees everyone sharing equal platform and no attitude of sluggish work. Above all is the better packages being offered and chances of going abroad. There are various opportunities provided in MNC's like cross functional responsibilities, etc. which is definitely missing in Indian companies hence work become monotonous and people loose interest.... Secondly, MNC's try to make work culture employee friendly and help people to get a break from there usual hectic schedule like organising cultural events.

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GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010

MNCS FOCUS ON SENIOR INDIAN PROFESSIONALS FOR TOP GLOBAL ROLES
KOLKATA: At a time when India is being noticed for becoming the fastest-growing market for global corporations, senior managers, too, may grab greater attention in the boardrooms of their company headquarters. Some top MNCs, who are betting on India like never before, have started instituting mentoring programmes for executives here to prepare them and make them ready to take on leadership roles abroad. If things go as planned, India may soon turn out to be a talent hub for senior management from its current status of churning out capable, though mostly middlemanagement, staff. For instance, Japan's largest consumer electronics maker, Panasonic, has identified 10 employees in its offices in India who might make it to global roles. The $105-billion company has structured a mentoring programme specifically for senior managers who have been identified for this. many of them are currently undergoing training, including being groomed directly by the company's board of directors. "We have found that Indian managers have huge potential, which has encouraged us to make the country a sort of global recruitment hub," says Panasonic India president, Daizo Ito. "Indian managers could well become CEOs of markets [similar to those in Asia] in the Middle East and Africa, or even regional and business heads."

Panasonic, which wants to become India's largest electronics company by 2018, has already charted a career plan for the identified talent, which will be carried out over a fixed timeframe.

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GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010

Multinationals and India²A Plan for Progress
India¶s economy has seen a slowdown after nearly a decade of unprecedented growth, as its companies have been vulnerable to the varying fortunes of their customers, partners and suppliers around the world. As we begin to emerge from this crisis, there is a new sense of urgency amongst business leaders and policymakers to address long-term challenges and exploit fresh opportunities. Multinational companies (MNCs) will feature prominently in efforts to overcome these challenges and drive the next phase of sustainable economic growth, not least by driving inward investment, nurturing talent and encouraging innovation. Although India¶s recent growth has been impressive²second only to China since mid-2008²the country still does not rank as high as it could on comparisons of national competitiveness. This report demonstrates how MNCs can continue to build on best practice and help generate growth in the future. The report also sets out recommendations for policymakers that will help create the right regulatory and administrative environment for inclusive growth.

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GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010

CONCLUSION
They serve the customers and the institution best and therefore chemistry between country and foreign MNCS has fruitful results .FDI attractiveness, labour competitiveness. Huge market potential of the country. Policies such as FDI, Industrial licencing, taxation, exchange control has helped MNCS to grow .there is a growth of MNCS in India because of huge market and fast growing economies in world has played important role. Due these MNC¶S competition increase and more employment opportunities are available & there will be reduction in reasonal disparities To conclude, we would opine that MNC¶S having a wide ambit is enviable to us, as to the fact that, there exists lots of job opportunity paves a path for the increase in national income. And also to create a better society, with better standard of living,and it increases labour productivity , decrease in unemployment, and also increases the net national income of the country. This will help the government and this will lead to increase in the export and imports in the country. Gives advantages to Domestic Companies throughpurchasing of raw material &resources. New company having network to expand their business. The present scenario is a highly transformed one. Multinational giants are vying with one other to launch their models. Big names of the vehicle industry like the Korean giant, Hyundai, general motors, Mitsubishi etc. Have already opened their account. In other vehicle segments too, Volvo, Mercedes Benz, and Audi etc. Have carved out their niche. One of the fastest growing sectors in the country, telecommunications has been growing at a feverish pace in the past few years. The speed of growth can be judged by the fact that in 2004, ten years after private telephony was introduced in India, the mobile subscriber base had crossed the number of fixed line connections.

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GROWTH OF MNC S IN INDIA FROM 2000 TO 2010

WEBLIOGRAPHY
www.enotes.com ¾ Business http://www.itcportal.com businessmanagement.wordpress.com/ www.vpmthane.org/. http://business.mapsofindia.com United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD Accenture/Confederation of Indian Industry Survey CMIE TIMES OF INDIA in.answers.yahoo.com ¾ THE ECONOMICS TIMES http://www.vpmthane.org http://EzineArticles.com/5817471 http://en.wikipedia.org http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com http://www.accenture.com http://www.smetimes.in http://www.managementparadise.com

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