heinemann

Physics
4

12
2n
d
ed

s u nit

3

Rob Chapman Keith Burrows Alex Mazzolini Carmel Fry Doug Bail Jacinta Devlin Henry Gersh Geoff Millar

&

it i

on

Heinemann HARCOURT EDUCATION 22 Salmon Street, Port Melbourne, Victoria 3207 World Wide Web hi.com.au Email info@hi.com.au © Doug Bail, Keith Burrows, Robert Chapman, Carmel Fry, Henry Gersh, Alex Mazzolini, Geoff Millar Pty Ltd 2004 First published 2004 2007 2006 2005 2004 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Copying for educational purposes The Australian Copyright Act 1968 (the Act) allows a maximum of one chapter or 10% of this book, whichever is the greater, to be copied by any educational institution for its educational purposes provided that that educational institution (or the body that administers it) has given a remuneration notice to Copyright Agency Limited (CAL) under the Act. For details of the CAL licence for educational institutions contact CAL, Level 19, 157 Liverpool Street, Sydney, NSW, 2000, tel (02) 9394 7600, fax (02) 9394 7601, email info@copyright.com.au. Copying for other purposes Except as permitted under the Act, for example any fair dealing for the purposes of study, research, criticism or review, no part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written permission. All enquiries should be made to the publisher at the address above. This book is not to be treated as a blackline master; that is, any photocopying beyond fair dealing requires prior written permission. Publisher: Malcolm Parsons Editor: Catherine Greenwood Text designer: Cynthia Nge Cover designer: Effie Evgenikos Illustrations: Guy Holt, Margaret Hastie Photograph researchers: Chandelle Battersby, Gwenda McGough Typeset in 9.5/12 Utopia by Palmer Higgs Film supplied by Digital Imaging Group (DIG) Printed in Hong Kong by H&Y Printing Limited National Library of Australia cataloguing-in-publication data: Heinemann Physics 12: Units 3 and 4. 2nd ed. Includes index. For year 12 VCE students. ISBN 1 74081 148 8. 1. Physics – Textbooks. I. Bail, Doug. II. Title: Physics 12 530.076. Reed International Books Australia Pty Ltd ACN 001 002 357

Acknowledgements The authors and publisher would like to thank the following for granting permission to reproduce the copyright material in this book. All Australian Nature& General, p. 52 (all), 269 (top); Auscape International, p. 60 (left) Australian Picture Library/Corbis/NASA, p. 96 (right); David Burton, p. 63; Coo-ee Picture Library, p. 12 (top); Malcolm Cross, pp. 128, 133 (right), 136, 149, 156, 159, 162 (all), 163, 165, 166 (all), 167 (bottom), 169 (all), 173, 175 (both), 177, 178 (both), 197 (bottom right and left), 198, 249, 250, 266, 294, 301, 303; Fairfax Photo Library, p. 44. (centre right and right, centre left); ITA Systems, p. 153; Dale Mann, p. 248 (both); Mary Evans Picture Library, pp. 2, 11 (top), 151 (all), 226 (bottom), 277, 278, 310; Mark Fergus, p. 56; NASA, pp. 12 (bottom), 46, 69, 83, 96 (both); PhotoDisc, pp. 36 (right), 39 (centre right), 44 (left), 89, 103, 104, 133 (left), 145, 189 (bottom), 193, 240 (top), 267, 268 (top), 307; Photolibrary.com. pp, 16, 188, 202 (both), 204, 221, 226 (top three), 231, 232, 240 (bottom), 254 (top), 263, 289, 298, 309; Quick-Sands Studio/Lisa Haskins, p. 1; Sport: The Library, pp. 6 (left), 14 (both), 36 (left), 39 (top left and centre, bottom right), 44 (all), 60 (right), 65; The Picture Source/Terry Oakley, pp. 6 (right), 25, 189 (top), 192 (top), 228 (all), 254 (bottom); Victorian Government, p. 269 (bottom) Volvo, p. 41. Every effort has been made to trace and acknowledge copyright. The authors and publisher would welcome any information from people who believe they own copyright to material in this book. The selection of Internet addresses (URLs) given in this book/resource were valid at the time of publication and chosen as being appropriate for use as a secondary education research tool. However, due to the dynamic nature of the Internet, some addresses may have changed, may have ceased to exist since publication, or may inadvertently link to sites with content that could be considered offensive or inappropriate. While the authors and publisher regret any inconvenience this may cause readers, no responsibility for any such changes or unforeseeable errors can be accepted by either the authors or the publisher.

CONTENTS
Introduction
About the authors

v
vii

Motion in One and Two Dimensions
Chapter 1 Motion 1.1 Mechanics review 1.2 Newton’s laws of motion 1.3 Frames of reference and the nature of space and time 1.4 The normal force and inclined planes 1.5 Projectile motion Chapter Review Chapter 2 Collisions and circular motion 2.1 Momentum and impulse 2.2 Conservation of momentum 2.3 Work, energy and power 2.4 Hooke’s law and elastic potential energy 2.5 Circular motion Chapter Review Chapter 3 Gravity and satellites 3.1 Newton’s law of universal gravitation 3.2 Gravitational fields 3.3 Satellites in orbit 3.4 Energy changes in gravitational fields Chapter Review Exam-style Questions—Motion in One and Two Dimensions

1
2 3 11 16 20 25 33 35 36 43 48 54 60 67 69 70 76 82 91 98 100

Electronics and Photonics
Chapter 4 Electronics 4.1 Analysing electronic circuits 4.2 Capacitors and diodes 4.3 Amplification Chapter Review Chapter 5 Introducing Photonics 5.1 Photonics in telecommunications 5.2 Optical transducers 5.3 Audio transmission via a light beam Chapter Review Exam-style questions—Electronics and Photonics

103
104 105 119 133 142 145 146 155 173 180 181

Interactions of Light and Matter
Chapter 6 The nature of light 6.1 Review of light and waves 6.2 The wave model established 6.3 The particle nature of light Chapter Review

187
188 189 197 208 218

Chapter 7 The nature of matter 7.1 Matter waves 7.2 Photons shed light on atom structure 7.3 Bohr, de Broglie and standing waves Chapter Review Exam-style questions—Interactions of Light and Matter

220 221 230 237 242 243

Electric Power
Chapter 8 Magnets and electricity 8.1 Fundamentals of magnetism 8.2 The foundations of electromagnetism 8.3 Currents, forces and fields 8.4 Magnetic fields around currents, magnets and atoms 8.5 Forces on moving charges 8.6 Electric motors Chapter Review Chapter 9 Electromagnetic induction 9.1 Magnetic flux and induced currents 9.2 Induced EMF: Faraday’s law 9.3 Direction of EMF: Lenz’s law 9.4 Electric power generation 9.5 Alternating voltage and current 9.6 Transformers 9.7 Using electrical energy Chapter Review Exam-style questions—Electric Power Solutions Glossary Index

246
247 248 254 258 261 266 271 275 277 278 282 287 292 297 301 305 312 315 319 331 334

iv

CONTENTS

Introduction
Heinemann Physics 12 is the second book in the exciting series, Heinemann Physics, written specifically for the VCE syllabus at years 11 and 12. First and foremost in the minds of the authors has been a desire to write a text that will support students’ learning in physics while making the subject interesting, enjoyable and meaningful. The book has been written using clear and concise language throughout, and all concepts have been fully explored first in general and then illustrated in context. Much care has been taken to use illustrative material that is fresh, varied and appealing to a wide range of students of both sexes. The book boasts many features that will help students and teachers find it easy to use. Each of the book’s nine chapters has been divided into a number of self-contained sections. At the end of each section is a set of homework-style questions that are designed to reinforce the main points. Further, more demanding questions are included at the end of the chapter. These could be used for assignment or tutorial work. A further set of exam-style questions is included to cover each Area of Study. These could be used for revision. There are over 1000 questions in the text and all answers are supplied. Within each section, the concept development and worked examples occupy the main 2/3rd column. The remaining 1/3rd column has been set aside for some of the 600 photographs and diagrams, as well as small snippets of interesting ‘Physics File’ information. The longer pieces of high-interest and context material are contained in the full-page-width ‘Physics in Action’ sections. Both Physics in Action and Physics Files are clearly distinguishable from other material.

Heinemann Physics 12 Second Edition
The second edition of Heinemann Physics 12 has been fully revised and upgraded to match the content and focus of Units 3 and 4 of the 2004 VCE Physics Study Design. Any section which contains background or extension material outside the syllabus is contained under a section heading in a nonshaded banner.

8.5

Forces on moving charges
Detailed Studies

The new edition is presented as a student pack consisting of textbook and ePhysics 12 student CD. Successful features of the first edition have been retained while improvements in design and presentation will make the book even easier and more stimulating to use. Heinemann ePhysics 12 features a complete electronic copy of the textbook plus all Detailed Studies. Each Detailed Study is a self-contained unit of work, structured to ensure efficient and effective coverage of the chosen topic. A major innovation is the inclusion of Interactive Tutorials that model and simulate key physics concepts. Cross references in the textbook to these and Practical Activities suggest when it is most appropriate to undertake these new activities.

See Heinemann ePhysics CD for an Interactive Tutorial

PRACTICAL ACTIVITY 1

v

Heinemann Physics 12 second edition Support Material: Heinemann Physics 12 Teacher’s Resource and Assessment Disk makes planning, structuring and implementing the new syllabus easy. It contains PhysicsBank 12, an electronic database of questions and worked solutions, a wide range of innovative and accessible practical activities and Sample Assessment Tasks, which teachers can use directly or modify. A detailed course outline and work program is also included.

vi

INTRODUCTION

Carmel is the author of numerous texts and multimedia resources. He led the development of the new Practical Activities which form part of the teacher support material. He has published many journal and conference articles on photonics and physics education. Rob has also produced physics trial examination papers and is the author of the acclaimed Physics 12— A student guide. CD and on-line curriculum materials for VCE physics. which are an exciting innovation on the student CD. He is a member of the Australian Institute of Physics Victorian Education Committee and was actively involved with the VCAA in the design of the new course. bringing with him an expertise and passion for electronics and photonics unlikely to be matched elsewhere. This includes many short activities for when time is limited! KEITH BURROWS Has been teaching senior physics in Victorian schools for many years. Carmel has led the development of the Interactive Tutorials. ROB CHAPMAN Has taught physics for over 20 years and has been keen to explore the possibilities presented by changing technologies over the years. CARMEL FRY Has 14 years’ involvement in development of text. He has been Head of Science and Agriculture at Tintern Anglican Girls Grammar School and maintains a passion for making physics relevant.About the Authors DOUG BAIL Is an experienced physics educator and writer with a particular interest in the development and integration of new technologies into science teaching. These activities were extensively trialled throughout Australia and include a range of activities from teacher demonstration to discovery-based investigation suiting a range of learning styles and needs. Rob is currently teaching Senior Physics at PEGS (Penleigh and Essendon Grammar School). DR ALEX MAZZOLINI Is a photonics and electronics lecturer at Swinburne University and the research director of the Centre for Imaging and Applied Optics. and has served on many Australian and international physics education committees. stimulating and accessible to all students. She is Senior Teacher and co-ordinator of Senior Physics at Eltham College of Education where she is currently managing the integration of IT into physics education. vii . He is particularly keen to portray ‘The Big Picture’ of physics to students. She was a VCAA representative involved in introducing the new VCE course to physics teachers in Victoria and running workshop sessions for teachers. Alex joined the Heinemann team for the second edition. He has written a wide variety of curriculum support material including physics units for the CSFII. Keith was a VCAA representative involved in introducing the new VCE course to physics teachers in Victoria and running workshop sessions for teachers. He has been Science Coordinator at St Columba’s College in Essendon where he was instrumental in introducing the use of datalogging technology to junior science and senior physics classes.

Catie Morrison. for assistance in researching and developing this unit. Jacinta acknowledges and thanks Stefanie Pearce. HENRY GERSH Has taught physics and mathematics in a wide variety of courses at TAFE colleges and universities. Lyndon Webb. Peter Kolsch. She has coauthored Heinemann Science Links 1 & 2 for junior students and contributed to the development of support material. Martin Mahy. The authors and publisher would like to thank the following people for their input: Dr Barbara Moss. maths and VCE Physics. He has been very involved in the development of good curriculum. Jacinta’s skills and experience have allowed her to make this cutting-edge topic not only exciting and relevant but also accessible to students of all backgrounds.JACINTA DEVLIN Is an experienced teacher of science. REVIEW PANEL Principal reviewer/consultant Dr Colin Gauld has taught mathematics and physics at secondary schools and science method to prospective science teachers at the University of New South Wales. utilising his vast experience in question creation and the writing of clear but detailed worked solutions. He has led the development of PhysicsBank. and has a continuing interest in the subject. Paul Sjogren and Colin Hopkins. At present he is a Visiting Fellow in the School of Education at the University of New South Wales. He was Director of Curriculum at Geelong College for 7 years. GEOFFREY MILLAR Has had 26 years’ experience teaching science and senior physics in two states. The teacher review panel consisted of experienced VCE physics teachers and physics educators. of the Australian Synchrotron Project. viii ABOUT THE AUTHORS . methodology and practice in physics.

birds flying. both on Earth and in the Universe generally. and some of the laws. we can detect the continual movement of atoms and molecules. the Universe as we know it began and its matter and energy have been occupying an increasing space ever since. water flowing. and for how much longer it may continue to move. and even the motion of the subatomic particles within atoms. At the smallest scale. can be used to describe the behaviour of a body. In order to describe all the motion we can observe. motors spinning. on any scale of nature. along with time. Mathematical models are used to analyse situations and are helpful in predicting the outcomes of events involving motion. Physicists have also formulated ‘laws’ to explain why various forms of motion occur. which physicists now believe occurred 14 billion years ago in the so-called ‘Big Bang’. Every type of motion can be described in terms of the same sets of quantities and laws of physics. At the very largest levels we can observe clusters of galaxies orbiting about their common centre of mass. velocity and acceleration. but will now be more fully developed in the following three chapters. In that one act.MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS O ur Universe has been in constant motion since its formation. rockets blasting off. . there is movement of one form or another. Energy is useful when considering what caused a body to move. leaves falling. Our own galaxy rotates about its centre every 250 million years. Most of the quantities. Displacement. Between these extremes are the types of motion we can see around us in the natural world—people walking. physicists have developed a system of quantities that describe the movement and help us to understand why it occurs. Today. spacecraft moving through space. were introduced in year 11. meteorites flashing through the night sky—and those that we have created ourselves—balls bouncing. but force is needed to explain why the body moves in the way it does. roller coasters plunging.

He developed his laws of motion. In this book. 2 MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS . It was here that he realised that the force that keeps the Moon in its orbit around the Earth was the same force that caused objects to fall to the ground. but also for contributions in optics. but returned to his birthplace of Woolsthorpe in 1665 when the plague swept through the cities of Europe. He is credited with some of the greatest scientific discoveries of all time. building upon work previously done by Galileo. However. Newton studied at Cambridge. He is considered to be one of the greatest scientific minds of all time.CHAPTER 1 Motion saac Newton was born in England in 1642. astronomy and the nature of light and colour. Newton was a reclusive man and never married or had children. for objects travelling at extreme speeds or in very strong gravitational fields. most famous for his laws of motion. This is what you will be studying in the following chapters. He was driven by a desire to better understand the Universe. His most famous publication. and developed theories to explain its behaviour. he demonstrated for the first time that complex motions as experienced by falling objects. These laws describe very precisely the behaviour of objects when forces act upon them and can be used with great confidence in everyday situations. His law of universal gravitation will be studied in Chapter 3. including: • motion in one and two dimensions • Newton’s laws of motion • relative motion and frames of reference • inclined planes • projectile motion. these laws are inaccurate. I BY THE END OF THIS CHAPTER you will have covered material from the study of motion. projectiles and satellites can be explained and predicted by using a few simple rules. Newton’s use of mathematics and the scientific method of investigation revolutionised the study and development of scientific ideas. the Principia Mathematica was written in Latin and published in 1687.

If the scalar is negative.1 to illustrate this technique. (b) The vector subtraction A − B results in vector R. the total distance travelled is 50 metres. General vectors are used in Figure 1. speed. The sum of the vectors is the resultant vector. displacement. acceleration. (a) A=3 + B=4 B = R=5 (b) A –B − A=3 B=4 = A + –B = A R=5 Figure 1. When adding vectors. • A vector quantity requires both a magnitude. or size. For example. if x = 5 m east.1 Mechanics review Before building on the mechanics that you learned in year 11. This section is designed to provide a brief tour of the ideas and concepts that are used to describe and understand the motion of an object. it will be useful to revise the concepts and ideas that have been covered in the year 11 course. force and momentum are common vector quantities. This is drawn as a directed line segment starting at the tail of the first vector and finishing at the head of the second vector.1 (a) The vector addition A + B results in vector R. To describe the resultant. Pythagoras’s theorem is used to find the size of the resultant factor. Motion 3 . If a person walked 20 metres and then a further 30 metres. the tail of the second vector is placed at the head of the first vector. Vector techniques Multiplying a vector by a scalar When a vector is multiplied by a number (i. a scalar) the magnitude of the vector is changed by the appropriate factor but the direction remains the same. seemingly unusual results are sometimes obtained. In mechanics. 3 + 4 = 5! This occurs because vectors have direction and are not always combined in one dimension. then 2x = 10 m east and −x = 5 m west.1. time. both the magnitude (given by the length of the vector) and its direction are required. drawn from the start of the first vector to the end of the second vector. regardless of direction. this is interpreted as reversing the direction of the vector. • A scalar quantity requires only a magnitude for it to be completely described. In adding two vectors. drawn from the start of the first vector to the end of the second vector. and a direction for it to be fully described. Common scalar quantities include distance travelled. The amounts are just added as one would add numbers. Vector addition and subtraction Adding scalars is straightforward. Vectors and scalars Physical quantities can be divided into two distinct groups: vectors and scalars. mass and energy. For example. velocity.e.

The average speed v of a body is given by its rate of change of distance. The speedometer in a car gives the instantaneous speed of the car. Distance d is a scalar quantity.0 seconds. The displacement of a year 12 student over a 24-hour period may be zero. The average acceleration of a body is given by the rate of change of velocity over a given time interval. but he or she may have travelled many kilometres during the day. and indicates how far and in what direction the body has moved from the starting point. m s−1. but speed is a scalar quantity and velocity is a vector quantity. its displacement x is the vector given by the directed line segment from the start of the motion to the finish of the motion. its average acceleration is 10 km h−1 per second. Describing motion When a body moves from one place to another. For example. The symbols u and v are used to denote the initial velocity and the final velocity of a body over a given time interval. PRACTICAL ACTIVITY 1 Analysing a student’s motion Worked example 1. if a car speeds up from 20 km h−1 to 60 km h−1 in 4. and does not require a direction. Determine the net horizontal force acting on the dog. For example.1A. The SI unit for both quantities is metres per second. The displacement of a body may be different from the distance it has travelled. Displacement is a vector. but with the direction of the subtracted vector being reversed. There is a frictional force of 10 N acting on the toy dog.Vector subtraction is required from time to time. ∆v v − u Average acceleration is given by a = = ∆t ∆t where ∆v is the change in velocity over the time interval ∆t. a change in velocity is given by: ∆v = v − u = v + (−u). distance travelled d Average speed v = = time taken ∆t displacement x Average velocity v = = ∆t time taken An instantaneous velocity or speed is the velocity or speed of a body at a particular instant in time. Speed and velocity both indicate how fast a body is travelling but there is an important difference between these quantities. whereas the average velocity v of a body is its rate of change of displacement. This technique should be handled as a vector addition. The odometer in a car measures the distance travelled by the car. 20 N 25˚ Ff = 10 N 4 MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS . Rebecca is pulling her toy dog along the lawn with a force of 20 N applied at an angle of 25° to the horizontal. Acceleration is a vector quantity with its SI unit being metres per second squared (m s−2).

0 The change in velocity of the billiard ball is 5. What is the ground speed of the plane. the contact time of 25 ms must first be converted to 0.1 N. v = vplane + vwind. The white ball has slowed from 3. A white cue ball travels over a pool table at 3.0 3.1B. The change in speed is: ∆v = v − u = 2. If the collision time with the cushion is 25 ms.0 m s−1 west. calculate: a b c 25° Fh the change in speed of the ball the change in velocity of the ball the average acceleration of the ball during its collision with the cushion.25.1 − 10 = 8.e.0 Acceleration = = = 200 m s−2 west ∆t 0. so θ = 14°.025 Worked example 1.025 s: ∆v 5. A pilot is trying to fly her plane due south at an air speed of 300 km h−1. c To determine the average acceleration of the ball during the collision.0 m s–1 Before collision W After collision E 2. and in what direction does it actually fly? θ Solution This involves a vector addition as shown in the diagram.0 m s−1 east. Solution a b 3. The change in velocity of the ball is found by vector subtraction. Using Pythagoras’s theorem: v = √3002 + 752 = √95 625 = 310 km h−1 Using trigonometry to find θ: tanθ = 75/300 = 0.0 m s−1 west. The ground speed of the plane is the magnitude of its actual velocity. as shown.0 2. 20 N Worked example 1. The wind causes the plane to fly at a ground speed of 310 km h−1 194°T.0 m s−1. vwind = 75 km h–1 W v vplane = 300 km h–1 S Motion 5 .0 m s–1 ∆v = v − u = = = 2.0 − 3. However.0 m s−1 east to 2.0 = −1. v. The velocity has changed from 3.0 − + 5. i. This is the vector sum of its air velocity vplane and the wind velocity vwind.0 m s−1.0 m s−1 west. It collides with the cushion and rebounds at 2.0 m s−1 to 2.Solution The horizontal component of the pulling force is: Fh = 20cos25° = 18.1C. it has been blown off course by a crosswind of 75 km h−1 to the west.0 3.1 N The net horizontal force is: 18.

Consider the multiflash photograph shown in Figure 1. so the centre of mass of the spanner is moving with a constant velocity.2. Position–time graphs A position–time graph indicates the position of a body relative to an arbitrary origin as a function of time. Graphing motion Figure 1. This point is called the centre of mass of the system. we treat her as a point mass located at her centre of mass. The positions of the centre of mass form a straight line and are equally spaced. The motion of a body in a straight line can be represented in graphical form. To analyse the motion of each of these body parts would be very complicated. The significance of the centre of mass is that it enables the motion of a complex object or system to be thought of as a simple point mass located at the centre of mass. while her arm that is swinging back is moving slower than this. the direction represented by a positive displacement (e. Centre of mass The motion of many objects is quite complex. velocity or acceleration can be drawn as a function of time.3 Even though Cathy Freeman is running at around 9 m s−1.2 The centre of mass (marked +) of a spanner moves with a constant velocity as it slides across an ice surface. her actual motion is rather more complicated. displacement. speed. Figure 1. For most people.4 shows the graph for a swimmer completing two 50 m laps of a pool. For example. Her foot that is in contact with the ground is stationary! To simplify this complex motion. as a person runs their arms and legs swing in different directions and with different speeds from that of the rest of their body. Use your ruler to confirm this. One significant advantage for this form of representation is that a complicated motion can be conveyed to the reader far more easily than a table of data. Graphs with any of distance. For motion in a straight line. An athlete sprinting down a track at 9 m s−1 with arms and legs in rapid motion can thus be treated as a single point mass moving down the track at 9 m s−1. An instan- PRACTICAL ACTIVITY 2 Locating the centre of mass 6 MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS . even though the spanner is spinning. east/west) must be agreed upon. the centre of mass is just above the waist.Figure 1. but we can simplify this system as a single mass located at a single point. left/right. The velocity of the body can be determined from the position– time graph as the gradient over the time interval in question. It is the view from above of a spanner sliding and spinning as it travels across an ice surface. The centre of mass of the spanner is marked with a cross.g. The motion is the same as for a simple point mass: the spanner is behaving as though its total mass is located at its centre of mass. Her arm and leg that are swinging forwards are travelling faster than 9 m s−1.

Figure 1. so he finishes the movement 8 m to the right of his starting position. PRACTICAL ACTIVITY 3 Velocity–time graphs Acceleration–time graphs An acceleration–time (a–t) graph indicates the acceleration of the body at any time.5 describes the motion of a dancer moving back and forth across a stage during a 6-second movement. For the final 2 seconds he moves with a constant velocity of 4 m s−1 towards the right. The dancer initially moves at 4 m s−1 towards the left. Motion 7 .1D. To establish the actual velocity of the object. By finding the area under the graph. For the final 2 seconds he is moving with a constant velocity and so has an acceleration of zero. The second lap is slower than the first. we see that during the first 2 seconds he moves 4 m to the left. 4 Velocity (m s–1) 2 0 –2 –4 1 2 3 4 5 6 Time (s) Figure 1. the average acceleration of the body whose motion is being investigated can be found as the gradient of the graph. he is back at his starting position). when momentarily stationary. say. Assume that motion to the right is in the positive direction. Where the graph cuts the time axis.e. This applies when he is moving left and slowing down. The graph can also be used to calculate the displacement of the dancer at any time. The gradient of the graph gives the acceleration of the dancer—a constant acceleration of +2 m s−2 for the first 4 seconds. and the total distance covered will be the scalar sum of the areas. The positive direction is understood to be east. and when moving right and speeding up.e. there must be agreement about what.4 A graph of the motion of a swimmer travelling 50 m in a pool.5 This v–t graph represents the motion of a dancer moving back and forth across a stage. the sign of the area is included in the calculation). The area under an a–t graph is the change in velocity for the object over the time in question. describe the motion of the car. After 4 seconds his displacement is zero (i. The displacement of the object being investigated can be found as the area under the graph. The sign of the velocity indicates the direction of the motion. The total displacement will be the vector sum of all the component displacements (i. After 6 seconds he has a displacement of +8 m. 25 0 40 Time (s) 80 120 Figure 1. a positive direction actually represents. but again. then moves towards the right of the stage and speeds up for 2 seconds. Worked example 1. a b c d e f In general terms. The following graph represents the motion of the car. A car being driven by a learner-driver travels along a straight-line path for 20 s.Position (m) taneous velocity can be found from a curved graph as the gradient of the tangent to the line at the time of interest. After 2 seconds the dancer stops.1D. the initial velocity must be known. 50 Velocity–time graphs A velocity–time (v–t) graph provides information about the speed and direction of a body during its motion. for the relevant time interval. the body is stationary. For the first 2 seconds he continues to move towards the left while slowing down. For how long does the car move in an easterly direction? What is the average acceleration of the car during the first 6 seconds? What is the instantaneous acceleration of the car after 12 seconds? What is the displacement of the car during its 20-second journey? Calculate the average velocity of the car over the 20 seconds. Further to this. This is shown in Worked example 1. then turning and swimming back to the starting position.

accelerating west for the last 4 seconds. This gives an instantaneous acceleration of: rise Acceleration = gradient = = −1. –10 The acceleration can be found by calculating the gradient of the line over the first 6 seconds. During this time the car has a constant acceleration of: 20 − 5 Acceleration = gradient = = +2. ‘Counting squares’ is a good way of doing this. still moving east. the following steps could be useful: 1 Try to visualise what is happening in the problem and draw a simple diagram of the situation. so that at = v − u. i. 8 MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS . The displacement between 8 and 16 seconds is an estimation due to the curved nature of the line. the following equations of motion developed in year 11 are used to quantitatively describe its motion. 4 Show your working. It stops and turns around at t = 16 s.0 m s−1. or v = u + at x Also. A quick method of deciding which equation to use is to look at which quantity you do not need. v and a and need to find x. The velocity of the car is positive for the first 16 seconds of its motion. 1 1 1 1 1 1 Notice that each equation contains four of the five quantities relating to the motion of the body. A quick glance through the five equations reveals that the last one (v2 = u2 + 2ax) is the only one that does not contain t. or x = vavt t Substituting for vav. call one direction positive and the other negative. x = 2(u + v)t and substituting v = u + at for v : x = 2(u + u + at)t x = ut + 2at2 Try to derive the other equations yourself. vav = .9 m s−2 run e The displacement is the area under the v–t graph. so that is the one you should use. 3 Identify all the facts given in the question so that you can select an equation that will solve the problem for you. For this graph. at = ∆v. The overall displacement for the 20 seconds is approximately 75 + 40 + 110 − 20 = +205 m.Solution 20 15 Velocity (m s–1) 10 5 0 2 –5 4 6 Time (s) 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 b a The car is initially moving east at 5. and make sure that you use the appropriate number of significant figures in your answer. 205 m towards the east. The equations are: x = 2(u + v)t v = u + at x = ut + 2at2 x = vt − 2at2 v2 = u2 + 2ax Physics file The equations of motion can be derived from the definitions for velocity and acceleration. It maintains this velocity for 2 seconds but then starts to slow down. ∆v a= t By rearrangement. and it is therefore moving east during this time. It then accelerates uniformly for 6 seconds until it reaches a velocity of 20 m s−1 east. the only quantity that you are not concerned with is t.5 m s−2 6−0 d To find the acceleration at 12 seconds. c f The average velocity over the 20 s time interval will be: displacement 205 m east vav = = = 10.3 m s−1 east time 20 s Equations of motion When an object is moving in a straight line with constant acceleration. 2 If the problem involves a change of direction. each ‘square’ represents a displacement of 5 × 2 = 10 m. if you know u.e. For example. When solving problems using the equations of motion. it is necessary to draw a tangent to the curve and calculate its gradient.

c 1.0 m s−2. • A position–time graph indicates the position of a body relative to an arbitrary origin. u = 8.0 × t t = 4. a When Alison stops. She begins with a speed of 8. • An object’s centre of mass is the point at which the total mass of the object can be considered to be concentrated.0 m s−1. Alison will be rolling down the ramp and so you should expect to get a negative answer for her velocity.0 × x −64 = −4x x = 16 m x=? b To find the time that she takes to reach her highest point on the ramp: u = 8.0 s After 5. u = 8.0 − 10.0 = −2. • Five equations are used to quantitatively describe motion with a uniform acceleration: 1 x = 2(u + v)t v = u + at 1 x = ut + 2at 2 x = vt − 2at 2 v 2 = u 2 + 2ax 1 Motion 9 . She travels some distance up the ramp before coming to rest. while vectors must have both magnitude and direction.1 SUMMARY MECHANICS REVIEW • Physical quantities can be divided into scalars and vectors. her velocity is zero.0 m s−2 v 2 = u 2 + 2ax 0 = 8.0 m s−1 but slows with a constant acceleration of 2. scalars can be described fully by a magnitude.0 m s−1 v = 0 a = −2. calculate: a b c the distance that Alison travels up the ramp before stopping the time that it takes Alison to reach this highest point.0 s she is rolling down the ramp at 2. • Vectors can be added and subtracted. then rolls down again.0 m s−1 v = 0 a = −2.0 × 5.0 m s−1 After 5.02 + 2 × −2.0 + −2. as a function of time. Ignoring air resistance and friction. and Alison’s velocity after 5.0 = 8.1E.0 s v = ? v = u + at = 8.0 s has elapsed.5 Include units with the answer.0 m s−2 x = 16 m t = ? v = u + at 0 = 8.0 s. and specify the direction if the quantity is a vector.0 m s−1 a = −2. Solution Take the direction up the ramp as positive.0 m s−2 t = 5. Alison rides her skateboard up a ramp. • A velocity–time (v–t) graph describes the speed and direction of a body during its motion. • An acceleration–time (a–t) graph indicates the acceleration of a body at any time. Worked example 1.0 + −2.

50 s? 6 3 The following velocity–time graph was derived from a test drive of a prototype sports car.0 s and What was the speed of the golf ball just before it landed? What was the speed of the tomato just before it hit the ground? Calculate the speed of the golf ball as it rebounded.50 s? ii 3.00 s.00 m and measures the rebound heights. B Average velocity over the time interval. How far will the ball fall in the first 2. What distance did the car travel: i during the first 4 seconds of its motion? ii between 4 s and 12 s? iii between 12 s and 28 s? Calculate the displacement of the car after 28 s. At what time will the policeman catch up with the car? In the following questions. The car started from rest and initially travelled north. If she takes 2.2 m long playground slide and slides to the bottom with a constant acceleration. C The displacement during the time interval.50 m and the tomato just splattered without rebounding at all.4 s to reach the bottom.0 m. A Calculate the velocity of the golf ball after 1. accelerating to 80 km h−1 in 10. 5 What is the velocity of the plane under the influence of this crosswind? In which direction should the pilot steer the plane to maintain a velocity of 100 m s−1 south? A golf ball is dropped from the top of a sheer cliff 78 m above the sea. ignore the effects of air resistance. a b Calculate the horizontal component of the pulling force. D The change in velocity for the object over the time interval. Then a crosswind with a velocity of 25 m s−1 towards the west begins to blow. 7 Andrew is dragging a 60 kg crate of books across the garage floor. Which of these objects experienced the greater change in velocity as it landed? Calculate the velocity change of this object. When will the golf ball hit the water? What is the acceleration of the golf ball at: i 1. The policeman sets off in pursuit. 1 A plane is flying due south at 100 m s−1 on an initially still day. a b reaching a constant speed of 100 km h−1 after a further 5. −1 b c d e Vinh is investigating the bouncing ability of a golf ball and a tomato.8 m s−2. What was the total distance that the car travelled during the trip? What was the average speed of the car during the 28 s interval? Calculate the acceleration of the car between 4 s and 12 s. a b c d e 2 Which of the following represents the area under a velocity–time graph? Average acceleration over the time interval.0 s. 10 MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS .00 s? Calculate the velocity of the golf ball after it has travelled 10. Calculate the vertical component of the pulling force. He drops both objects from a height of 2. assume that the acceleration due to gravity is 9.1. Which object had the greater change in speed as it landed? Calculate the speed change of this object. He found that the golf ball rebounded to 1. 20 Velocity (m s–1) 10 0 4 –10 –20 8 a Cassie starts from rest at the top of a 3.1 QUESTIONS In the following questions. Ignore air resistance when answering these questions. a b c d e 4 A car travelling with a constant speed of 80 km h passes a stationary motorcycle policeman. calculate: a b c d 8 12 16 20 24 28 t (s) her her her her average speed average acceleration final speed speed when she is halfway down the slide. He pulls with a force of 120 N on a rope that is at an angle of 35° to the horizontal.

even though Einstein’s theories have superseded those of Newton. and the third law states that all forces act in pairs. the object would move with a constant speed.2 Newton’s laws of motion When Newton published his three laws of motion in 1687. These ideas. In fact. it is only in situations involving extremely high speeds (greater than 10% of the speed of light) or strong gravitational fields that Newton’s laws become imprecise and Einstein’s theories must be used. we still use Newton’s laws for most situations. ΣF = 0). Jupiter and beyond. The ideas of the ancient Greeks were prevalent. Galileo and Newton showed them to be incorrect over 300 years ago! Today. the action force will be applied to the wall. This is also called the law of inertia. These forces will always be equal in PRACTICAL ACTIVITY 4 Newton’s laws of motion Motion 11 . people thought differently about why things moved the way they did. they use Newton’s laws. Newton’s laws describe how the concept of force can be used to explain why a body moves in the way that it does. Up until then. The second law explains how the body will respond when an unbalanced force is acting (i.1. To many people even today. Galileo had previously called this behaviour inertia.e. An important aspect of Newton’s laws is that the action and reaction forces highlighted in the third law act on different bodies. In fact. known as action–reaction pairs. Solar and lunar eclipses can be predicted with great precision many centuries into the future by using Newton’s laws. were that there were two types of motion—natural and violent. a.7 The passengers in this jumbo jet are moving with a constant velocity. when the mass is measured in kilograms (kg) and the acceleration. The first law describes what happens to a body when it experiences zero net force (i. When NASA scientists program the courses of spacecraft on flights to Mars. The forces acting on them.6 Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1727) is widely considered to be the greatest scientist of all. After a car accident. NEWTON’S THIRD LAW states that when one body exerts a force on another body (an action force). unless it experiences an unbalanced force. ΣF ≠ 0). proposed by Aristotle. This paved the way for others to extend the boundaries of knowledge and has led to the scientific and technological revolution that has transformed the world over the past 300 years. are in balance. F (A on B) = −F (B on A) Figure 1. If you run into a wall. or continues with constant velocity. NEWTON’S SECOND LAW states that the acceleration of a body experiencing an unbalanced force is directly proportional to the net force and inversely proportional to the mass of the body. but the reaction force will be applied to your body in the opposite direction. they can be applied to predict times and sizes of the tides that alter the ocean depths around the globe. according to Newton’s first law.e. Figure 1. is measured in metres per second squared (m s−2). ΣF = ma The net (or resultant) force ΣF is measured in newtons (N). It was also thought that when a constant force acted on an object. Similarly. investigators will use Newton’s laws to analyse the motion of the vehicles. these ideas seem to be correct. He developed the scientific method of experimental research. the second body exerts an equal force in the opposite direction on the first (the reaction force). he revolutionised our understanding of the physical world. NEWTON’S FIRST LAW states that every object continues to be at rest.

The forces acting on them.magnitude. and the fuel and gases exert an upward force on the rocket. (a) The hammer exerts a downward force on the nail. these forces are equal in magnitude.9 Action/reaction forces. 12 MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS . but since the masses are different the resulting accelerations of the wall and your body will also be different! Figure 1. (b) The rocket exerts a downward force on the fuel and gases. these forces are equal in magnitude. according to Newton’s second law. Worked example 1.2A. and the insect exerts a backward force on the car. A man drags a 60 kg Christmas tree across a floor at a constant speed of 1. calculate: a b c the net force on the tree the force that the man exerts on the tree the force that the tree exerts on the man. these forces are equal in magnitude. are unbalanced. (c) The car exerts a forward force on the insect. PRACTICAL ACTIVITY 5 Action and reaction (a) (b) (c) hammer F (N on H) F (I on C) F (C on I) nail F (H on N) Figure 1. If the force of friction between the tree and the floor is 50 N and it is being pulled at an angle of 35° to the horizontal.5 m s−1.8 The passengers in this rollercoaster ride are accelerating. and the nail exerts an upward force on the hammer.

82 So. F ii (a) (b) (c) FN Fg Solution i (a) F (b) (c) F F ii a b c Force exerted on head by ball. one of the forces in the action/reaction pair is given. F = 61 N (i.2B. According to Newton’s third law they are equal and opposite. If the net force on the tree is zero. This means that the frictional force of 50 N must be equal but opposite to the horizontal component of the pulling force. so from Newton's first law there is zero net force acting on it. being mindful of its location and size. Worked example 1.) Gravitational force exerted on brick by Earth.Solution a The tree has a constant velocity. Force exerted on floor by brick. the tree is being pulled with a force of 61 N at an angle of 35° to the horizontal). i In each case. the horizontal forces must be in balance. Thus the tree must exert a force on the man of 61 N at an angle of 35° below the horizontal.e. (Note: this is not the weight Fg. In each of the situations shown in the diagrams below. Motion 13 . draw the other force as suggested by Newton’s third law. b F=? 35° Fh = 50 N c The force that the man exerts on the tree and the force that the tree exerts on the man are an action/reaction pair. complete the following statement: Force exerted on _________by _________. For each of the forces that you have drawn. Fh = Fcos35° 50 = F × 0.

raindrops would be travelling at thousands of kilometres per hour by the time they reached the ground! Air resistance is a force that particularly affects objects with small masses and large surface areas. if it were not for air resistance.8 = 735 N ρ = 1.PHYSICS IN ACTION Air resistance and skysurfing Air resistance (or drag) acts whenever a solid or a liquid has to travel through air. The skysurfer is falling with a constant velocity.20 m2. If the arms of the skysurfer are raised. The density of air is 1. the surface area (A) perpendicular to the motion and the drag coefficient (CD) of the object. we can assume that the skysurfer and the equipment have a total mass of 75 kg and that they are falling vertically with a constant velocity of 170 km h−1 on a board with an area of about 0. To estimate the drag coefficient of the skysurfer. However.40 m2 v = 170 km h−1 = 47 m s−1 Since So Fa = 2 ρACDv2 735 = 0. Air resistance (Fa) varies as the square of the speed (v) of an object.25 kg m−3 A = 0. Figure 1.5 × 1. Hang-gliders are light and have a large wing area.e. The drag coefficient indicates how smoothly the air flows past the object.10 A major consideration in many competitive sports is the effect of air resistance. 1 14 MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS . skysurfers are able to control their motion to some extent and ‘surf’ through the air as they fall towards the ground. they contribute an additional area of about 0. so: Fa = Fg = mg = 75 × 9. Air resistance increases with the speed of an object and is also greatly affected by the object’s shape. The skysurfer makes use of air resistance to manoeuvre the board and to perform stunts. so their motion is strongly influenced by the air. Skysurfers attach their feet to a small surfboard.33 This would seem to be a reasonable value for the drag coefficient.40 × CD × 472 CD = 1. i. Streamlined bodies pass through the air more easily. The only forces acting on the skysurfer during the fall are the gravitational force Fg and air resistance Fa.25 × 0. Mathematically.25 kg m−3. As they fall. but it can be as high as 2 for oddly shaped bodies. If the board is horizontal the skysurfer will fall vertically. backwards or sideways. skysurfers can reach speeds of around 170 km h−1. place a parachute on their back and then jump from aeroplanes from an altitude of several kilometres. For example. this can be expressed as: Fa ∝ v2 or Fa = kv2 The constant k depends on the density (ρ) of the air. Greater speeds can be attained by these cyclists if the effects of air resistance are minimised by streamlining. The complete relationship for air resistance is: 1 Fa = 2 ρACDv2 Skysurfing depends entirely on air resistance.20 m2.5. when a raindrop falls it collides with millions of air molecules which impede its motion. In fact. Spheres have a drag coefficient of about 0. Fa = Fg. by tipping the board forwards. given the irregular shape of the skysurfer. and so these forces are in balance.

Is this a correct statement? Explain in terms of Newton’s laws.1. Explain. 9 10 5 Ishtar is riding a motorised scooter along a level bike path. exert an equal but opposite force on them. 7 2 During pre-season football training. Assuming that the force being provided by his legs is now 60 N. state what the force is acting on and what is providing the force. Ff Fg Motion 15 . C The force that acts on the willy wagtail is the same size as the force that acts on the window. a b c 3 4 What was the net force acting on the bag of sand? Calculate the size of the tension force acting in the rope.2 SUMMARY NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION • Newton’s first law states that a body will either remain at rest or continue with constant velocity unless it is acted upon by an unbalanced force. Due to this contact.0 m s−1.5 m s−1. The shopper wishes to push the trolley to their car. there are forces acting on both the ball and the bat. according to Newton’s third law.5 m s−2? 6 A cyclist and his bike have a combined mass of 80 kg. • Newton’s second law states that the acceleration of a body is directly proportional to the net force acting on it and inversely proportional to its mass. How do these forces compare in: a magnitude? b direction? A fully laden supermarket trolley is stationary at a checkout. in terms of Newton’s laws. which made an angle of 25° to the horizontal. A table tennis ball of mass 10 g is falling towards the ground with a constant speed of 8. A wayward willy wagtail crashes into a large window and knocks itself out. For each force that you draw. D The forces that act on the window and willy wagtail cancel each other out. When Matt ran with a constant speed of 4. B The force that acts on the willy wagtail is smaller than the force that acts on the window. 1. Len. The combined mass of Ishtar and her scooter is 80 kg. but then only one friend needs to push to keep the car rolling. When they push the trolley.0 s. It is therefore incorrect to add them and so they never cancel each other. it will. What is the magnitude of the driving force being provided by the motor if: a b Complete each of these force diagrams showing the reaction pair to the action force that is shown. a frictional force of 60 N was acting on the bag. Calculate the magnitude and direction of the air resistance force acting on the ball. Phil is standing inside a tram when it starts off suddenly. What was the magnitude of the force that the rope exerted on Matt as he ran? 8 During a game of table tennis. This is usually written as: ΣF = ma • Newton’s third law states that when one body exerts a force on another body (an action force). determine the magnitude of the frictional forces that are acting. Which one of the following statements correctly describes the forces that act during this collision? The force that acts on the willy wagtail is greater than the force that acts on the window. commented that Phil was thrown backwards as the tram took off. When starting off from traffic lights. why this is so. the cyclist accelerates uniformly and reaches a speed of 7. a b (c) (d) What is the acceleration during this time? Calculate the driving force being provided by the cyclist’s legs as he starts off. Will the trolley move? Explain. She gets a few friends to help push her car so that she can jumpstart it.2 QUESTIONS 1 Vickie’s car has a flat battery and will not start.5 m s−1 in 5.2 m s−1. Matt was required to run with a bag of sand dragging behind him. Assume that frictional forces are negligible during this time. The bag of mass 50 kg was attached to a rope. A c The cyclist keeps riding along with a constant speed of 7. who was sitting down. The frictional and drag forces that are acting total to 45 N. the table tennis ball is hit by the bat. (a) F (b) FN she is moving with a constant speed of 10 m s−1? she is accelerating at 1. Vickie is surprised to find that it takes six friends pushing to start the car rolling. the second body exerts an equal force in the opposite direction on the first (the reaction force): F(A on B) = −F(B on A) • It is important to remember that the action/reaction forces act on different objects.

10 m s–1 2 m s–1 A W E Figure 1. If you describe an emu as walking with a constant velocity. time. time slows down and lengths shrink! These ideas are outlined in Einstein’s theory of special relativity. its mass and acceleration are exactly the same in this stationary reference frame as they were when the car was moving with constant velocity. Newton wrote down his assumptions about the absolute nature of space and time. Newton’s book. remains always similar and immovable. is one of the most important publications in the history of science. this gives train A’s view of how fast train B seems to be moving. At the start of this book. say that you repeat exactly the same actions on the apple when the car is stationary. Albert Einstein showed that Newton’s laws did not work at speeds approaching the speed of light. applying only to situations involving comparatively slow-moving objects. Absolute space. Now. Principia. without relation to anything external. Now imagine that you sit down and that another train. What is the velocity of this train relative to your train? The velocity of train B relative to train A gives the apparent motion of train B when seen from train A. In this section. your velocity is 2 m s−1 east. Absolute. After all. distance and so on were absolute quantities. In this case. the mass of an object is greater. flows equably without relation to anything external. Newton’s ideas of the absolute nature of space and time were replaced by Einstein’s ideas of the relative nature of space and time. Einstein described the relativistic nature of the Universe. To a person sitting in the train. In the car. This means that their values did not change whatever the frame of reference. history has shown that Newton’s laws were a special case of Einstein’s theories. In fact. When you discuss the velocity of an object. Newton’s laws of motion are valid in these inertial frames of reference.3 Frames of reference and the nature of space and time Physics file Imagine that you are in a car that is travelling along a straight. that the frame of reference is the Earth. Imagine that you are in train A that is moving east with a constant speed of 10 m s−1 and you are walking along the aisle towards the front of the train at 2 m s−1. train B.’ Relative motion Figure 1. The motion of the apple. you really mean that the emu has a constant velocity relative to Earth. your frame of reference is the ground or Earth. A stationary frame of reference and a frame of reference with constant velocity are called inertial frames of reference. at these high speeds. to a person standing on the station platform. but their velocity relative to the other passengers is 2 m s−1 east. true and mathematical time. which were based on the absolute nature of the Universe. you usually assume. You have an apple in your hand that you toss up and down and side to side. without saying so. Newton also assumed that physical quantities such as mass. this omission has not been an issue because the frame of reference has usually been Earth. your velocity will be 12 m s−1 east. In other words. However. In the past. He wrote ‘The following two statements are assumed to be evident and true. the mass of an apple and the length of a metre ruler don’t change as they travel faster—or do they? About 200 years after Newton published his laws of motion. In this theory. passes in the opposite direction at 5 m s−1 relative to the ground. This would seem to make sense. What velocity are you travelling at? The answer to this question is that it depends on which frame of reference you are using. flat stretch of freeway at 100 km h−1. These ideas came to replace Newton’s theories. Here.12 The velocity of this person relative to the ground is 12 m s−1 east. however. in its own nature. 16 MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS . we can say that your frame of reference is moving with a constant velocity relative to the ground. we will be analysing motion from different frames of reference and so the frame of reference needs to be stated.1. In this theory. of itself. which you may be doing as a Detailed Study. In fact.11 Albert Einstein’s theory of special relativity was published in 1906 when he was 26 years old. and from its own nature. your frame of reference is the moving train.

During a game of netball. the shorter flight time is because the prevailing winds at the cruising altitude blow towards the east. it would be the same as a truck travelling at 220 km h−1 south smashing into a stationary car! Worked example 1. The return trip. b vB. A car is travelling along a highway at 110 km h−1 north as it overtakes a bus travelling in the same direction at 95 km h−1. the car is moving at 15 km h−1 north.B = vC − vB = Relative to the bus.0 m s−1 while her opponent Noor runs north at 3.C = vB − vC = 95 − 110 = 95 + 110 = N 15 Relative to the car. The speed of the plane relative to the air will be the same on each trip.A = vB − vA = = = 5m s–1 – + 5 m s–1 W 10 m s–1 E Figure 1. the bus is travelling at 15 km h−1 south. It is clear from this why head-on collisions are so dangerous.From your frame of reference in train A. If these vehicles collided. velocity of B relative to A = velocity of B − velocity of A vB.13 To determine the velocity of train B relative to train A. what is the velocity of a truck that is travelling south at 110 km h−1? Solution a Physics file 110 − 95 = 110 + 95 = N 15 vC. but the speed of the plane relative to the ground is greater with the benefit of a tailwind on the return trip. Mary runs east at 4. a b c PRACTICAL ACTIVITY 6 Relative motion What is the velocity of the car relative to the bus? What is the velocity of the bus relative to the car? Relative to the car.0 m s−1. train B seems to be travelling to the west but faster than 5 m s−1. 10 m s–1 5 m s–1 These topics are covered in the ‘Einstein’s Relativity’ Detailed Study on the Heinemann Physics 12 CD.3B. a b See Heinemann ePhysics CD for Interactive Tutorial 1 Relative Velocities What is the velocity of Mary relative to Noor? What is the velocity of Noor relative to Mary? Motion 17 . c vT. giving a relative velocity of 15 m s−1 west. a vector subtraction is performed. To calculate the relative velocity. 10 m s–1 15 m s–1 Worked example 1.A = vB − vA As shown below. Is the flight distance shorter on the way back? No. however. can be up to 1 hour less than this. a vector subtraction is required.3A.C = vT − vC = 110 − 110 = 110 + 110 = N 220 A flight from Melbourne to Perth usually takes over 4 hours. this gives a relative velocity of 15 m s−1 west. A B vB.

0 m s−1 at a bearing of 37° south of east or 127°T. a vM. 2 What is the velocity of the dog relative to the jogger? What is the velocity of the jogger relative to the dog? If they are now 100 m apart. to what value should the relative velocity of the runners be close? 18 MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS .3 QUESTIONS 1 Which one or more of these statements is correct? Newton’s laws apply to stationary frames of reference. Newton’s laws are valid in inertial frames of reference.0 m s−1. Noor is travelling at 5.0 = = 4.0 Relative to Noor.0 vN.0 + 3. Cathy is running at 8. A dog in the distance is running south at 6.7 m s−1? a 6 In a 400 m relay. This is the opposite of Mary’s motion relative to Noor. of: a man who stands on the walkway? b a girl who walks west on the walkway at 1.N = vM − vN = 4. B Newton’s laws apply to accelerating frames of reference. Cathy is passing the baton to Lauren.N = 5.Solution We will need to use trigonometry and Pythagoras’s theorem to answer these questions. • Relative motion is the apparent motion of one object when observed from a different frame of reference. How fast and in which direction must Sylvia run if she is to keep pace with her mother? A jogger is running north along a footpath at 4. Einstein’s theories on the relativistic nature of the Universe must be used. C Newton’s laws apply to constant velocity frames of reference.0 vM. Sylvia is on the moving walkway. Mary is travelling at 5.0 − 3.5 m s−1 east.0 53° 4.4 m s−1? c a boy who runs east on the walkway at 5.0 m s−1 at a bearing of 53° west of north.0 = = 3. how long will it be until their paths cross? What is the velocity. How fast and in which direction is he running? What is Cathy’s velocity relative to Lauren’s? What is Lauren’s velocity relative to Cathy’s? In a successful and smooth baton change.0 3. 1.0 4. a b c 3 Rami is running along the walkway so that his velocity relative to the ground is zero.M = vN − vM = 3.0 37° 3. One of the moving walkways at Tullamarine Airport carries people horizontally at 3.3 SUMMARY FRAMES OF REFERENCE AND THE NATURE OF SPACE AND TIME • An inertial frame of reference is one where the frame of reference is stationary or moving with a constant velocity.0 + 4. relative to the ground. A 4 Sylvia’s mother is walking along the floor with a velocity of 2.M = 5.5 m s−1 west.0 From Mary’s frame of reference.2 m s−1 south and Lauren’s velocity is 6.8 m s−1 south. The velocity of object A relative to object B is: vA. a b c 5 The following information relates to questions 2–4.B = vA − vB • In situations involving speeds approaching that of light.0 − 4. or in the presence of extreme gravitational fields. 1. D All of the above.0 m s−1 along the same footpath. b vN.

At the same time. a 9 Calculate the velocity of the Holden relative to the Ford when they are travelling in: i the same direction ii the opposite direction. a spaceship is travelling away from Earth at 2. 10 A ferry is cruising south towards Tasmania at a speed of 35 km h−1. Calculate the velocity of: the the c the d the a b albatross relative to the shag shag relative to the albatross crow relative to the drongo shag relative to the drongo.5 × 108 m s−1. What velocity does the container ship have relative to this passenger? b In which direction and how fast does the ferry seem to travel relative to the container ship? a b 8 Four birds are in flight as shown in the diagram.0 × 108 m s−1.7 A Ford is travelling at 59 km h−1 while a Holden has a speed of 60 km h−1. a According to Newton’s theories. a spaceship from an alien solar system is travelling in the opposite direction at 2. How serious would a collision be between these cars in each of the above situations? Explain. A passenger on the ferry is watching a container ship that is cruising at 25 km h−1 west. albatross In 2025. what is the speed of the alien craft relative to the spaceship from Earth? Is this answer possible according to Einstein’s theory of relativity? b N W S E 30 km h−1 15 km h−1 crow 40 km h−1 drongo 25 km h−1 shag Motion 19 .

the car will accelerate at a greater rate. from the floor.14. a normal force is one half of an action/reaction pair.1. so it is often called a normal reaction force. As can be seen in Figure 1. The normal force from the floor is greatest when the bouncing ball is stationary. Newton’s laws will be used to analyse these situations. The forces acting on a ball as it bounces (its weight Fg and the normal force FN) are not an action/reaction pair. (b) When Joe pushes hard against the wall. Both act on the same body. When contact has just been made. it is normal to the surface and is thus called a normal force. so it varies during the bounce. F on wall F on Joe Figure 1. (b) Joe A NORMAL force FN acts at right angles to a surface. the normal force is at its maximum value. indicating that the force from the floor is minimal.2. it will accelerate.e. To understand this motion we need to examine the motion of the toy car as it rolls freely across a smooth horizontal surface.15. it pushes back just as hard! During many interactions and collisions. For example. F on wall F on Joe Normal forces If you exert a force against a wall. i.15 The forces acting on a Inclined planes If a toy car is placed on a sloping surface it will accelerate uniformly down the slope. Here we saw that when unbalanced forces act on an object. Once again. This force then becomes larger and larger. but changes in magnitude throughout the bounce. the size of the normal force changes. FN. causing the ball to become more and more deformed. as shown in Figure 1. the wall will exert a small force on Joe. At the point of maximum compression. The force from the wall acts at right angles to the surface. whereas Newton’s third law describes forces that bodies exert on each other. a Fg FN = 0 falling freely bouncing ball. Like every force. If friction is ignored. The forces acting on the car are its weight Fg and the normal force FN from the surface.14 (a) If Joe exerts a small force on the wall. a v FN FN a v=0 Fg Fg at rest! FN a v Fg bouncing up a Fg FN = 0 free-fall again slowing down Figure 1. when a ball bounces.4 (a) The normal force and inclined planes Joe In Section 1. the wall will also exert a greater force. Newton’s third law says that the wall will exert an equal but opposite force on you. In this section. the car will move with a constant horizontal velocity. we will consider some examples of motion in two dimensions. If the angle of the slope is increased. The action/reaction forces that act during a bounce are the upward force FN that the floor exerts on the ball and the downward force that the ball exerts on the floor. This downward force is equal in magnitude to the normal force. the ball is compressed only slightly. If you push with greater force. we reviewed Newton’s laws of motion in one dimension. The car has no 20 MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS . the normal force is not constant. the forces that act on it during its contact with the floor are its weight Fg and the normal force.

the normal force FN must be equal in magnitude to the perpendicular component of the weight force. act on the car when it is (a) rolling horizontally or (b) rolling down an incline.16 The same two forces. the forces acting on the car must be in balance. so (as indicated by Newton’s first law) the vertical forces must be in balance.16a). The usual method of analysing the forces in this situation is to consider the weight Fg as having a component that is parallel to the incline and a component that is perpendicular to the incline (Figure 1. However. (b) If friction acts on the car. FN = −Fg (Figure 1. motion in the vertical direction. If friction is ignored. and so the forces will be in balance both perpendicular and parallel to the incline. The parallel component of the weight force is Fg sinθ. (c) A conventional physics diagram of (b) shows the forces acting through the centre of mass. the only forces acting on the car are still its weight Fg and the normal force FN. Fg and FN.e. the parallel component of the weight down the incline is the net force ΣF that causes the car to accelerate down the incline.17 (a) The motion of an object on a smooth inclined plane can be analysed by finding the components of the weight force that are parallel and perpendicular to the plane. but these forces cannot be balanced because they are not opposite in direction (Figure 1. When the car is moving down the incline with a constant velocity. The forces Motion 21 . the car will accelerate. causing it to move with a constant velocity.17a).17b).(a) FN (b) ΣF = 0 constant velocity car accelerating FN ΣF Fg Fg Figure 1. What if one of the wheels of the car becomes stuck. The car is rolling down the incline. that is. if the car now rolls down a smooth plane inclined at an angle θ to the horizontal. However. If friction is ignored.16b). When the forces are added they give a net force ΣF that is directed down the incline. so the car will accelerate in that direction. up the incline (Figure 1. The acceleration a of the car down the slope can then be determined from Newton’s second law: ΣF = Fg sinθ so ma = mg sinθ and a = g sinθ (a) (b) (c) PRACTICAL ACTIVITY 7 Motion on an inclined plane FN ΣF FN Ff ΣF = 0 Ff FN Fg cosθ θ Fg Fg sinθ accelerates constant velocity Fg θ Fg Figure 1. Since the car has no motion in the direction perpendicular to the incline. the net force on the car will be zero. these forces are not in balance when the car rolls downhill and so the car accelerates. i. This perpendicular component is Fg cosθ. The forces acting on the car are unbalanced. so that now a frictional force Ff will act? This will be in a direction opposite to the velocity of the car. so the force parallel to the incline must be responsible for the car’s motion.

4 m s−2 down the incline b If the skier is moving with a constant velocity. Worked example 1. 22 MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS . they crashed into a parked car and suffered serious injuries. FN (b) (a) FN g = 9. In other words. acting parallel to the incline—the frictional force Ff and the parallel component of the weight Fg sinθ—will therefore be equal in magnitude. If friction is ignored.Physics file The steepest road in the world is Baldwin St in Dunedin.8 m s–2 accelerating Ff θ 20° Fg = 490 N skiing over ice 20° Fg = 490 N skiing through slush Solution The diagrams show the forces acting on a skier who is (a) travelling down an icy slope with negligible friction. Ignoring friction. A skier of mass 50 kg is skiing down an icy slope that is inclined at 20° to the horizontal.8 m s–2 constant velocity g = 9. two university students jumped into a wheelie bin and rolled down Baldwin St. The acceleration of the skier can be determined by considering the forces parallel to the incline. FN = 460 N. ΣF a= m = 170 50 ii iii iv = 3. Ff = 170 N. Assume that friction is negligible and that the acceleration due to gravity is 9. runs into a patch of slushy snow that causes her to move with a constant velocity of 2. a car left with its handbrake off would accelerate down this street at: a = gsinθ = 9. That is. the net force acting in this direction is the parallel component of the weight. It has an incline of 52°. Ff = Fg sinθ. 170 N. the frictional force is equal in magnitude to the parallel component of the weight force (diagram b). a Determine: i ii iii iv the component of the weight of the skier perpendicular to the slope the component of the weight of the skier parallel to the slope the normal force that acts on the skier the acceleration of the skier down the slope. Calculate the magnitude of the frictional forces that act here. i.0 m s−1.8 = 490 N down. while on the same slope.e.4A. The perpendicular component of the weight is: Fgcosθ = 490cos20° = 460 N The parallel component of the weight is: Fgsinθ = 490sin20° = 170 N The normal force is equal to the component of the weight that is perpendicular to the incline. a i The weight of the skier Fg = mg = 50 × 9. and (b) skiing through slushy snow with a constant velocity. Unfortunately.e.8 m s−2. That is. New Zealand. In 2000.7 m s−2. the forces acting parallel to the slope must be in balance.8 × sin52° = 7. b The skier. i.

Table 1. the normal force becomes smaller. Frictional forces can be measured in different situations.5 0. dry and so on. • The normal force FN acting on an object on an inclined plane is equal to the component of the weight force perpendicular to the incline. and will decrease as the angle of inclination increases. This is because the forces that act between the surfaces are weakened when the surfaces are moving past each other.6 0. the normal force changes throughout the time of contact between the ball and the surface.1. the normal force is equal to the weight of the body. µst 0. polished. and the bonds are not able to form as strongly. the frictional force acts up the incline and is equal in magnitude to the component of the weight force down the slope.8 0.0 0.4 0. The size of the frictional force depends on the nature of the surfaces and the size of the normal force.4 SUMMARY THE NORMAL FORCE AND INCLINED PLANES • A normal force FN is the force that a surface exerts on an object that is in contact with it. wet. • When a ball bounces. Static friction is the force that keeps a body stationary even when a pushing or pulling force is acting on the body.01 1. causing the ball to return to the air. The coefficient of static friction (µst) is used to calculate values of static friction. It acts at right angles to a surface and changes as the force exerted on the surface changes. The relationship between the force of friction Ff and the normal force FN is expressed as: Ff = µFN The term µ is the coefficient of friction.01 µk 0. Notice that the static friction coefficients are always greater than the kinetic friction coefficients. However.1 Surfaces Wood on wood Steel on steel Ice on ice Rubber on dry concrete Rubber on wet concrete Human joints Coefficients of static friction (µst) and kinetic friction (µk) for various combinations of surfaces. On a horizontal surface. Kinetic friction (also known as sliding friction) applies when one body is moving across a surface.7 0. its acceleration depends on the angle of the slope and is given by: a = gsinθ Motion 23 . • For an object that is stationary on a rough inclined plane.2 0. on an inclined plane the normal force will be less than the weight of the body.03 0. Its value depends on the type of surfaces involved and whether they are rough. The normal force is greater than the weight of the bouncing ball for most of the time during their contact. As the incline becomes steeper.7 0. Some approximate values of kinetic and static friction for different surfaces are given in Table 1. • When an object slides on a smooth inclined plane. friction opposes its motion.PHYSICS IN ACTION Coefficient of friction When a body slides over a rough surface. leading to kinetic friction and static friction. A low coefficient of friction indicates a small degree of friction. The coefficient of kinetic friction (µk) is used to determine values of kinetic friction.1 1.

What is the magnitude of the initial acceleration? The bobsled now travels down the same slope again with the brakes off. This time he remains stationary. A 10 m long frictionless ramp is inclined at an angle of 30° to the horizontal. calculate his final speed as he reaches the bottom of the ramp. Which one of the arrows (A–F) represents the direction of the net frictional force acting on the sled? Which one of the arrows (A–F) represents the direction of the force that the slope exerts on the sled? The rider then releases the brakes and the sled accelerates. It now has an extra passenger so that its total mass is now 200 kg.1.0 m s−2 up the slope? Calculate the net frictional force acting on the sled. B A C Calculate the magnitude of the normal force acting on the skateboard and rider. Calculate the frictional force acting on the boy.0° with a constant speed of 2. 6 7 D E F 30° 2 a 3 The frictionless surface described above is replaced with a rough one. Discuss the relative sizes of the weight of the ball Fg and the normal force FN that the floor exerts on the ball when: a b c 8 4 9 10 5 11 the ball is in mid-air falling towards the floor the ball has just made contact with the floor and is slowing down the ball is at the point of its maximum compression.4 QUESTIONS For the following questions. what force must the motorcyclist in question 4 exert parallel to the slope in order to give the bike an acceleration of 2. b Draw a vector diagram of the forces acting on the skateboard and rider as he moves down the ramp. How will this affect the acceleration of the bobsled? A tennis ball bounces on a concrete floor. A bobsled is coasting down a snow-covered hill with a slope at 30° to the horizontal. The boy gets off his skateboard at the top of the ramp and stands on the incline while holding his board. A boy of mass 57 kg coasts down the incline on a skateboard of mass 3. 24 MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS . What is the magnitude of the frictional force acting on the bike? Assuming that the frictional force is constant. She achieves this by exerting a force on the bike of 450 N parallel to the slope. the acceleration due to gravity should be taken as 9. 1 a The following information applies to questions 6–10. The following information applies to questions 1–3.0 kg.0 m s−1. A woman pushes her 150 kg motorbike up a slope of 5. so the sled moves down the hill with a constant velocity. b What is the resultant force acting parallel to the ramp on the board plus rider? c What is the acceleration of the boy down the ramp? If the initial speed of the boy is zero at the top of the ramp.8 m s−2 and the effects of air resistance can be ignored. so friction can be ignored. The total mass of the sled and its rider is 100 kg. Initially the brakes are on.

a coin that is tossed and a gymnast performing a dismount are all examples of projectiles. the only force acting on a PROJECTILE during its flight is its weight. In fact. If air resistance is ignored.8 m s−2 downwards. the motion of a projectile will be symmetrical around the vertical axis through the top of the flight.5 Projectile motion A projectile is any object that is thrown or projected into the air and is moving freely. In the horizontal component. which is the force due to gravity Fg.18 A multiflash photograph of a tennis ball that has been bounced on a hard surface. the speed of the projectile will be the same. in the vertical direction. and causes the projectile to continually deviate from a straight line path to follow a parabolic path. This symmetry extends to calculations involving speed. and can be seen by studying Figure 1. the angle is the same but it is directed below the horizontal. this projectile travels greater distances as it falls. the motion of a projectile is one of uniform velocity since there are no forces acting in this direction. One ball was launched horizontally at 2.0 m s−1 while the other was released from rest. A netball as it is passed. This shows that the two components of motion are independent: the horizontal motion of the launched projectile has no effect on its vertical motion (and vice versa). the angle for the velocity vector will be directed above the horizontal. However. 9. it has a vertical acceleration. Motion 25 . The vertical and horizontal components of the motion are independent of each other and must be treated separately. the projectile will take exactly the same time to reach the top of its flight as it will to travel from the top of its flight to the ground. • The only force Fg that is acting on a projectile is vertical and so it has no effect on the horizontal motion. i.19. Figure 1. As seen in Figure 1.8 m s−2 downward. This force is constant and always directed vertically downwards. projectiles move in parabolic paths. In the vertical component. indicating that its horizontal velocity is constant. PRACTICAL ACTIVITY 8 Projectile motion Figure 1. and at any given height the velocities are related. a projectile accelerates with the acceleration due to gravity. In other words. The projectile launched horizontally travels an equal horizontal distance during each flash interval. both balls have a vertical acceleration of 9.8 m s−2. whereas on the way down. a projectile launched at 50 m s−1 at 80° above the horizontal will land at 50 m s−1 at 80° below the horizontal.1.e. • Given that the only force acting on a projectile is the force of gravity. velocity and time as well as position. The ball moves in a parabolic path. At any given height. On the way up. These points are fundamental to an understanding of projectile motion. For example. it has no power source (such as a rocket engine) driving it. If air resistance is ignored.19 A multiflash photo of two golf balls released simultaneously. Fg. so they both fall at exactly the same rate and land at the same time. If they are not launched vertically and if air resistance is ignored. • There are no horizontal forces acting on the projectile. it follows that the projectile must have a vertical acceleration of 9. so the horizontal component of velocity will be constant.20.

5 s 8. Such a force does not exist.0 m high cliff with a speed of 25. we get: 1 x 2 g y = 2g = x2 v 2v 2 Since g and v do not vary.80 m s−2 and ignoring air resistance. the horizontal displacement is given by: x = vt y= 1 2 2 gt (1) The vertical displacement at time t is: (2) Worked example 1. There is no driving force propelling the ball along. For example. but this force stops acting when the ball leaves your hand. Assuming an acceleration due to gravity of 9.8 m s−2 down). Consider a projectile launched horizontally with speed v. t=5s 8. and use this consistently throughout the problem.20 Ignoring air resistance.7 m s–1 Figure 1.7 m s–1 24. while the vertical component of the velocity will change with time. The motion of the projectile is symmetrical. Only the forces of gravity and air resistance act on the ball once it is in mid-air. Let x and y be the horizontal and vertical displacements respectively.6 m s–1 49. Physics file It can be shown mathematically that the path of a projectile will be a parabola. your hand exerts a force on the ball as it is being thrown.5 s 8.7 m s–1 80° 80° t = 10 s 8. which is the relationship for a parabola.2 m s–1 v = 50 m s–1 at 80° up t=0s 8. calculate: a b c Substituting (1) into (2) for time. and for a given height the ball will have the same speed.7 m s–1 t = 7. () ( ) the time that the ball takes to land the distance that the ball travels from the base of the cliff the velocity of the ball as it lands 26 MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS . Horizontal launch A golf ball of mass 150 g is hit horizontally from the top of a 40. 49. and so the equations of motion for uniform acceleration must be used. the velocity v of the projectile is constant and so the only formula needed is v = x/t. y ∝ x 2. the horizontal velocity of the ball will remain the same.5A. This is a medieval understanding of motion. when you toss a ball across the room. • In the horizontal component. and an acceleration down given by g. • For the vertical component.6 m s–1 t = 2.0 m s−1. At time t. • In the vertical component it is important to clearly specify whether up or down is the positive or negative direction. Distinguish between information supplied for each component of the motion. the projectile is moving with a constant acceleration (9.2 m s–1 v = 50 m s–1 at 80° down Tips for problems involving projectile motion • Construct a diagram showing the motion and set the problem out clearly.Physics file A common misconception is that there is a driving force acting to keep a projectile moving through the air.7 m s–1 24.

g = 9.0 m s−1 The actual velocity v of the ball is the vector sum of its vertical and horizontal components. 40. The vertical component of velocity when the ball lands is: uv = 0 a = 9. the range of the ball) it is necessary to use the horizontal component. the horizontal and vertical components must be found separately and then added as vectors.86 s to reach the ground.5 × 9.86 s Substituting in v = u + at for the vertical direction only.86) = 28. the ball has been airborne for 2.02 = √1409 = 37.0 m t = 2.80 m s−2 x v = 40. so its initial vertical velocity is zero.86 s The ball takes 2.80) = 2. you need only consider the vertical component.5 m The ball lands 71.00 s.e.0 = 0 + 0. From (a). The horizontal velocity of the ball is constant at 25. the range of the ball is 71.86 s when it lands. so t = √40.0 m t=? Substituting in x = ut + 1 2 2 at for the vertical direction only.0 m s–1 θ t = 2.0 m s−1.86 = 71. the ball is travelling only horizontally.5 × 9. b To find the horizontal distance travelled by the ball (i. v = 0 + (9.5 m s−1 28.0 m s−1 x h = uht x h = 25.80 m s−2 x v = 40.5 m). The magnitude of the velocity can be found by using Pythagoras’s theorem: v = √25. Taking down as the positive direction: uv = 0 a = 9.80 × t 2.0 m s–1 A – + 40. as shown in the diagram. The instant after it is hit.80 × 2.0 m B Solution a To find the time of flight of the ball.0 m s–1 v Motion 27 . 25.0/(0. uh = 25.02 + 28.5 m from the base of the cliff (i.e.d e f the net force acting on the ball at points A and B the acceleration of the ball at points A and B the displacement of the ball after 2.80 m s–2 25.0 × 2.86 s xh = ? c To determine the velocity of the ball as it lands.

50 m α 19. the ball travels 50 m horizontally during the first 2.80 = 1.00 s. d If air resistance is ignored. The displacement of the ball after 2.5 × 9.The angle at which it lands can be found by using trigonometry: 28.5 m s−1 and is travelling at an angle of 48. the angle α of the displacement can be found by using trigonometry: 19.0 = 1. the only force acting on the ball throughout its flight is its weight.0 s. Therefore the net force that is acting at point A and point B (and everywhere else!) is: ΣF = Fg = mg = 0. t = 2.00 s.80 × 2.0 tanθ = 25. in a horizontal direction t = 2.e.6 tanα = 50 = 0.6 m downwards during the first 2.47 N down e Since the ball is in free-fall.7 m From the adjacent diagram.002 = 19. x = 0 + 0.6 m i. 9.0 s x=u×t = 25.0 s must be determined separately and then added as vectors.6 m x 28 MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS .80 m s−2 down. To find the displacement of the ball after 2.150 × 9.e. The magnitude of the displacement x is found by using Pythagoras’s theorem: x = √ 502 + 19.2° When the ball hits the ground it has a speed of 37.00 s is the vector sum of the vertical and horizontal displacements.62 = √2884 = 53.0 × 2.392 so α = 21.12 θ = 48.7 m at 21.0 = 50 m i.0 m s−1 so.4° The ball has undergone a displacement of 53. uv = 0 a = 9.4° below the horizontal during the first 2. the vertical and horizontal displacements after 2.00 s of its motion.80 m s−2 1 f uh = 25.2° below the horizontal.00 s Substituting in x = ut + 2at 2.e. the ball travels 19. i. the acceleration of the ball at all points is equal to that determined by gravity.

752 + (2 × −9. As explained in (c). calculate: a b c d e f the horizontal component of the initial velocity the vertical component of the initial velocity the velocity when at the highest point the maximum height gained by the athlete the total time for which the athlete is in the air the horizontal distance travelled by the athlete’s centre of mass (assuming that it returns to its original height) the athlete’s acceleration at the highest point of the jump. uh.80 m s−2.50 × sin30.50 × cos30.717 m i. uv. Motion 29 .50 m s−1 in the horizontal direction.50 m s–1 uv b Again referring to the diagram. The vertical displacement of the athlete to the highest point is the maximum height that was reached: uv = 3. and using g as 9. To find the maximum height that is gained.0° to the horizontal.80 m s–2 + – 30˚ 7. The horizontal and vertical components of the initial speed can be found by using trigonometry.75 m s−1 upwards uh c At the highest point.5B. The actual velocity is given by the horizontal component of the velocity throughout the jump. the athlete is moving horizontally. ignoring air resistance.Worked example 1. 30° 7. Launch at an angle g = 9.80 × x) x = 0.0° = 6. of the athlete’s initial velocity is: uh = 7.80 m s−2 x=? 0 = 3.75 m s−1 v = u + 2ax 2 2 d v=0 a = −9. the horizontal component.e. we must work with the vertical component. the upward direction will be taken as positive. the vertical component. a As shown in the diagram at right. at the maximum height the athlete is moving horizontally and so the vertical component of velocity at this point is zero.50 m s−1 to the right This remains constant throughout the jump. The vertical component of the velocity at this point is therefore zero. of the initial velocity of the athlete is: uv = 7. Treating the athlete as a point mass. g Solution In this problem.50 m s−1 at 30.0° = 3. This was found in (a) to be 6. the centre of mass of the athlete rises by a maximum height of 72 cm.5 m s–1 A 65 kg athlete in a long-jump event leaps with a velocity of 7.

50 m s−1 x=? g At the highest point of the motion.75 + (−9.50 × 0. the net force on the parcel is not vertically down. we must work with the horizontal component. so x=v×t = 6.766 s and so: t = 0.98 m i. kicking with the wind is generally an advantage to a team. The interaction between a projectile and the air can have a significant effect on the motion of the projectile.383 s The time for the complete flight is double the time to reach maximum height. the parcel will fall in a parabolic path and remain directly below the plane. the time to complete the jump will be double that taken to reach the maximum height. weight).98 m. 30 MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS . From part e.766 s. In football games.766 = 4. across the wind or against the wind can have very different effects on the flight of the ball. First. over a shorter path. v=0 a = −9. The effect of air resistance In throwing events such as the javelin and discus. and in cricket. v = 6.75 m s−1 v = u + at 0 = 3. Using the vertical component: uv = 3.383 = 0.e. the athlete jumps a horizontal distance of 4. (b) When air resistance is acting.e As the motion is symmetrical. Air resistance makes the parcel fall more slowly. the time to reach the highest point must be found. (a) (b) Fa Fg Fg Fg Fa Fa Fg Fg Fg Fa Fg with air resistance Fa Fg without air resistance ΣF Fa Fg Fg Fg Fg Figure 1. the only force acting on the athlete is that due to gravity (i.766 s v = x/t.21 (a) The path of a parcel dropped from a plane. bowling with the wind. total time in the air: Σt = 2 × 0.80 m s−2 down.e. the athlete was in the air for a time of 0. new records are not accepted if the wind is providing too much assistance to the projectile. If the plane maintains a constant speed and in the absence of air resistance. The acceleration will therefore be 9.80 × t) t = 0.e.80 m s−2 t=? f To find the horizontal distance for the jump. particularly if the projectile has a large surface area and a relatively low mass. i.

1. the force of gravity Fg. • An object initially moving horizontally. It would continue moving horizontally at the same rate as the plane.21 shows a food parcel being dropped from a plane moving at a constant velocity. will fall at exactly the same rate.22 (a) When performing the grande jeté. dancers can raise the position of their centre of mass so that it is higher in the torso. ballet dancers change the position of their centre of mass so that it is higher up in their body. the head of the dancer follows a flatter path and this gives the audience the impression of a graceful floating movement. • The horizontal speed of a projectile remains constant throughout its flight if air resistance is ignored. The effect of air resistance is also shown. Its velocity at this point is given by the horizontal component of its velocity as the vertical component equals zero. the net force acting on a projectile will not be vertically down. as an object falling vertically from the same height. path of head path of centre of mass (parabolic) Figure 1. • When air resistance is significant. the path of the projectile is not parabolic. Air resistance (or drag) is a retarding force and it acts in a direction that is opposite to the motion of the projectile. i. a projectile is moving horizontally. The effect of this is that the dancer’s head follows a lower and flatter line than it would have taken if the limbs had not been raised during the leap. Therefore the resultant force ΣF that acts on the projectile is not vertically down. This results in the projectile having a vertical acceleration of 9. However. nor will its acceleration.8 m s−2 down during its flight. by raising their arms and legs. PHYSICS IN ACTION Why ballet dancers seem to float in the air The grande jeté is a ballet movement in which dancers leap across the stage and appear to float in the air for a period of time.e. They achieve this by raising their limbs whilst in mid-air to give the impression of graceful flight. the only force acting on a projectile is its weight. The dancer’s centre of mass follows a parabolic path. Once the dancer is in mid-air there is nothing that he or she can do to alter this path. and in the same time. that is. as the parcel fell it would stay directly beneath the plane until the parcel hit the ground. (b) As the position of the centre of mass moves higher in the body. They position their arms and legs to give the impression that they are floating gracefully through the air. but free to fall. there are now two forces acting—weight Fg and air resistance Fa. The smoother and flatter line taken by the head gives the audience the impression of a graceful floating movement across the stage. • At the point of maximum height. If air resistance is ignored the parcel falls in a parabolic arc. If air resistance is taken into account. The magnitude of the air resistance force is greater when the speed of the body is greater. Under these conditions. • If air resistance is ignored.5 SUMMARY PROJECTILE MOTION • Projectiles move in parabolic paths that can be analysed by considering the horizontal and vertical components of the motion. Motion 31 .Figure 1.

5 kg travelling at 10 m s−1 rolls off a horizontal table 1.5 QUESTIONS For the following questions you may assume that the acceleration due to gravity is 9.0 m high. C The ball’s horizontal velocity would have been continually decreasing. B The ball would have reached a greater maximum height.0 s after 2. What is the maximum height achieved by the ball from its point of release? b Calculate the initial vertical velocity of the ball. its kinetic energy is 16 J.0° to the horizontal and lands in a pool that is 10. b What is the vertical velocity of the ball as it strikes the floor? c Calculate the velocity of the ball as it reaches the floor. Calculate the ball’s horizontal velocity just as it strikes the floor.9 m 2 0 m –1s 6 a fairway 7 At which point in its flight will the ball experience its minimum speed? b What is the minimum speed of the ball during its flight? c At what time does this minimum speed occur? At what time after being launched will the ball return to the ground? b What is the velocity of the ball as it strikes the ground? c Calculate the horizontal range of the ball.0 s? e What is the displacement of the ball after 1. 1 4 Calculate the vertical component of the velocity of the ball: a b c A golfer practising on a range with an elevated tee 4. 10 28 m s–1 During training. d What time interval has elapsed between the ball leaving the table and striking the floor? e Calculate the horizontal distance travelled by the ball as it falls. c What is the value of θ? d What is the speed of the ball after 1. a How long after the ball leaves the club will it land on the fairway? b What horizontal distance will the ball travel before striking the fairway? c What is the acceleration of the ball 0.0 m below the end of the ramp. If she takes 1.80 m s−2 and the effects of air resistance may be ignored unless otherwise stated.9 m above the fairway is able to strike a ball so that it leaves the club with a horizontal velocity of 20 m s−1. At what time will the ball reach its maximum height? What is the maximum height that is achieved by the ball? What is the acceleration of the ball at its maximum height? 5 a b c tee 4 .1. a The following information applies to questions 3–8.0 s after 2. a 9 A softball of mass 250 g is thrown with an initial velocity of 16 m s−1 at an angle θ to the horizontal. an aerial skier takes off from a ramp that is inclined at 40. When the ball reaches its maximum height.0 s.0 s? f How long after the ball is thrown will it return to the ground? g Calculate the horizontal distance that the ball will travel during its flight. 32 MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS . A A bowling ball of mass 7. initially after 1. which one of the following statements would be correct? The ball would have travelled a greater horizontal distance before striking the ground.50 s to reach the highest point of her trajectory. e With what speed will the ball strike the ground? a 2 8 If the effects of air resistance were taken into account. initially after 1.80 s after it leaves the club.5 s after being hit? d Calculate the speed of the ball 0. The launching device is designed so that the ball can be launched at ground level with an initial velocity of 28 m s−1 at an angle of 30° to the horizontal.0 s. calculate: a b 30˚ ground level 3 Calculate the horizontal component of the velocity of the ball: a b c c the speed at which she leaves the ramp the maximum height above the end of the ramp that she reaches the time for which she is in mid-air. A senior physics class conducting a research project on projectile motion constructs a device that can launch a cricket ball.

0 m s–1 P θ 4. Calculate the time it takes for each ball to strike the ground. 4. The diagram shows the path taken by the centre of mass of a softball player sliding along the ground in a desperate attempt to make first base. She runs to catch the ball while moving at 3.5 m s−1 south. The following information applies to questions 1 and 2. In which direction and with what air speed should the pilot fly the plane to achieve this goal? a 10 The following information applies to questions 11–15. a 12 What is the speed of the shot when it reaches its maximum height? What is the minimum kinetic energy of the shot during its flight? What is the acceleration of the shot at its maximum height? Which of the following angles of launch will result in the shot travelling the greatest horizontal distance before returning to its initial height? 15° 30° C 45° D 60° A B 2 What was the average frictional force acting on this player during the 0.5 m s−1.CHAPTER REVIEW For the following questions the acceleration due to gravity may be taken as g = 9.0 m s–1 first base Two identical tennis balls X and Y are hit horizontally from a point 2. The player is moving at a speed of 8. b Calculate her average acceleration during the 0. Then the wind starts to blow at a speed of 100 km h−1 towards the west. What is the speed of the plane relative to the ground now? b The pilot wishes to travel due north at 500 km h−1. N 5 reaches her. The arrow leaves the bow with an initial vertical velocity of 100 m s−1.8 m s−2 and the effects of air resistance can be ignored unless otherwise stated. with an initial velocity of 8.0 m s−1 at an angle of 60º to the horizontal.00 m higher than its starting height. What is the velocity of the netball relative to Zahra? b What is the velocity of Zahra relative to the netball? a 7 What is the value of the angle θ that the initial velocity vector makes with the horizontal? What is the speed of the Vortex at point Q? What is the acceleration of the Vortex at point Q? How far away is the Vortex when it reaches point R? 8 9 An aeroplane is headed due north at 500 km h−1 in still air. At what time will the arrow reach its maximum height? b What is the maximum vertical distance that this arrow reaches? c What is the acceleration of the arrow when it reaches its maximum height? a 13 3 The following information relates to questions 7–10. b Calculate the speed of ball X just before it strikes the ground. The mass of the player is 80 kg. it is travelling at 8.0 m s−1 just before the slide and her speed 0.0 m s−1. The Vortex reaches its maximum height at point Q.0 m above the ground with different initial speeds: ball X has an initial speed of 5.50 s later is 6. c What is the speed of ball Y just before it strikes the ground? d How much further than ball X does ball Y travel in the horizontal direction before bouncing? a aerial view 1 Calculate the magnitude of her change in velocity during this 0. As the ball Motion 33 . 14 15 Q v = 10.50 s interval.2 m s−1 north.50 s interval.0 kg shot is launched from a height of 1.5 m.0 m s–1 20° 6.00 m R 4 Zahra is playing netball.0 m s−1 while ball Y has an initial speed of 7. The diagram shows the trajectory of a Vortex after it has been thrown with an initial speed of 10. In a shot-put event a 2.50 s interval? An Olympic archery competitor tests a bow by firing an arrow of mass 25 g vertically into the air. 11 W E 6 S 8. a What is the initial horizontal speed of the shot? b What is the initial vertical speed of the shot? c How long does it take the shot-put to reach its maximum height? d What is the maximum height from the ground that is reached by the shot? e How long after being thrown does the shot reach the ground? f Calculate the total horizontal distance that the shot travels during its flight.0 m s−1.

Jim. The formula R = 3. three of the players are running in different directions as shown in the following diagram.78 × 10−5v 2 was suggested. the goalkeeper. some physics students collected data at the shot-put event. some of the students managed to establish that during its flight the 2. 19 Calculate the maximum force due to air resistance that the shot experiences during its flight. 20 18 34 MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS . Calculate the value of the ratio of the forces acting on the shot as it is tossed: Fg Fa(max) What does your answer tell you about these forces? During a social soccer game. 16 What is the velocity of Jim relative to Sally? N W S E Maria Harry 7. 17 What is the velocity of Sally relative to Harry? Calculate the velocity of Harry relative to Maria.5 m s–1 N Sally Jim 5.5 m s –1 NE The following information applies to questions 19 and 20. where R is the force due to air resistance and v is the instantaneous speed of the shot.CHAPTER REVIEW Questions 16–18 refer to the following information and diagram.5 m s−1 at an angle of 36° to the horizontal. The shot-put in one particular toss was launched at 7. After analysing their data. remains stationary. During an athletics meet.0 kg shot experienced a force due to air resistance that was proportional to the square of its velocity.5 m s–1 E 2.

unbalanced forces must act on it. The ‘forward collision warning system’ sounds an alarm if the car is too close to the vehicle in front for the speed at which it is travelling. injuring dozens of people. Collisions and circular motion 35 . The TAC SafeCar project is installing a variety of new devices and technologies into vehicles and testing their effectiveness in reducing accidents. the driver would need to blow into an in-car breathalyser to ensure that he or she is under the legal blood alcohol limit. A team from the Monash University Accident Research Centre is researching ways to make cars safer. Evidently. Nearly 200 cars and trucks have collided. In Victoria. The research team hopes that positive trial results will encourage vehicle fleet owners and large organisations to implement some or all of these features into their cars. T BY THE END OF THIS CHAPTER you will have covered material from the study of motion. including: • momentum and impulse • conservation of momentum • work and energy • conservation of energy • circular motion. One such device is ‘intelligent speed adaptation’ in which the speed limit is encoded into a digital map so that the car knows what the speed limit is and informs the driver when this is exceeded. they exert equal but opposite forces on each other. For a car to speed up or slow down. These forces are often extreme and can lead to drivers and passengers suffering injuries or death. about 400 people die as a result of car accidents each year. If the forces are balanced. the car continues in its original state of motion. When you drive or travel in a car. In most parts of the world. It is a freeway in California.CHAPTER 2 Collisions and circular motion his is not a picture of a junkyard. A ‘reverse collision warning system’ uses sonar to detect if objects behind the car are too close when the car is reversing. If the car collides with another. you can experience what Sir Isaac Newton described in his laws of motion around 300 years ago. If an accident occurs. motorists were driving too fast and too close for such conditions. There was thick fog at the time and so visibility was very poor. the road toll is a serious issue. an emergency response system in the car would automatically alert the ambulance service of the car’s location. Should any alcohol vapour be detected in the car.

Momentum is a property of moving bodies. skiers have momentum as they race down a slope. we call this quantity the momentum of the object. The units of momentum are kilogram metres per second (kg m s−1). the momentum of an object will be constant’. MOMENTUM. He said that when a force acts on an object for some time interval. Newton’s first law could be stated as ‘in the absence of unbalanced forces. its ‘motion’ would change. (a) (b) Figure 2. p = mass × velocity or p = mv where p = momentum (kg m s−1) m = mass (kg) v = velocity (m s−1) (a) W E (b) W E 5 m s–1 5 m s–1 Figure 2. is defined as the product of the mass and velocity of an object.2 The speed of this girl is the same in both diagrams. A tennis ball has momentum as it flies through the air. but her momentum is different. 40 kg 40 kg 36 MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS . even a snail has momentum as it slowly slithers across a footpath. no matter how massive.1 Which of these moving objects has more momentum: (a) the cricket ball when bowled by Brett Lee or (b) the elephant? The cricket ball moves a lot faster. According to Newton. calculations are required.2. p. and its direction is that of the velocity. have no momentum. he did not describe it in the way we use it today. To determine the answer to the question. but has much less mass. Momentum is a vector quantity. the object with less momentum is the one that is easier to stop. Today. Stationary objects. (b) Her momentum is now 200 kg m s−1 west. He talked about a property of a moving object that he called its ‘motion’. (a) The momentum of the girl is 200 kg m s−1 east. In fact.1 Momentum and impulse Momentum When Newton was outlining his second law of motion.

Impulse is a vector quantity and so a direction must be given when describing it. This can be shown by using Newton’s second law. The newton second (N s) is the product of a force and a time interval and so should be used with impulse. ∆p = pf − pi pi = 20 kg m s–1 pf = 16 kg m s–1 Since momentum is a vector quantity. Impulse As Newton worked out over 300 years ago. ∆p. Collisions and circular motion 37 . Change in momentum The momentum of an object will change when it experiences an unbalanced force.e. The mass will accelerate while this unbalanced force is acting. that is acted upon by a net force. ∆t. The kilogram metre per second (kg m s−1) is the product of a mass and a velocity and so should be used with momentum quantities. 1 N s = 1 kg m s−1 Even though the units are equivalent. of the mass while the net force is acting. i. CHANGE IN MOMENTUM. ΣF. momentum changes are caused by unbalanced forces. that it acts for is called the net impulse of the net force. Taking up as being the positive direction. the change in momentum of the basketball is: ∆p = pf − pi = (+16) − (−20) = +36 kg m s−1 i. Consider the example of a basketball of mass 2. ∆p.0 m s−1. i.e. it is advisable that they be used with the appropriate quantities as a reminder of which quantity is being dealt with. It is often necessary to find the change in momentum of the object.0 kg that falls vertically onto a floor with a speed 10 m s−1 and rebounds at 8. For example.e. a girl of mass 40 kg running towards the east at 5 m s−1 has a different momentum from the same girl running towards the west at 5 m s−1. as described by Newton’s second law: ΣF = ma m∆v ∴ ΣF = ∆t ∴ ΣF∆t = m∆v The term m∆v is the momentum change. Even so. it is not uncommon to see newton seconds used as the units of momentum. The product of the net force. i. as the result of a collision or interaction with another object. u = 10 m s–1 v = 8. a vector subtraction must be performed to determine a change in momentum. Change in momentum = final momentum − initial momentum. ∆t. net impulse = change in momentum.e.e. net impulse = ΣF∆t.3 The momentum of this basketball has changed from 20 kg m s−1 down to 16 kg m s−1 up. Consider the example of a mass. Given that 1 N = 1 kg m s−2 (from ΣF = ma) it follows that 1 N s = 1 kg m s−2 × s i. nor is this incorrect.0 m s–1 Figure 2. The units of impulse are newton seconds (N s). and the time interval. the units for momentum (kg m s−1) and impulse (N s) must be equivalent. Net IMPULSE = ΣF∆t = m∆v = ∆p = change in momentum where ΣF = net force (N) ∆t = time interval (s) m = mass (kg) ∆v = change in velocity (m s−1) Physics file Since impulse can be expressed in terms of a momentum change. Thus it can be seen that the net impulse an object experiences is equal to its change in momentum. is defined as the difference between the final momentum and the initial momentum. for a time interval. for example. the change in momentum of the basketball is 36 kg m s−1 up. ΣF.It is important to remember that the momentum of an object depends on the direction in which it is travelling. The change in momentum can be determined by performing a vector subtraction: ∆p = pf − pi. m.

However. of mass 50 kg. she falls to the snow and gradually slides to rest in 4. she crashes into a tree and stops abruptly in just 0. the tree makes Siobhan come to rest in just 0.5. The impulse (and momentum change) that the skier has experienced is the same in both cases. the force will vary in size during the interaction. (b) 6000 Net force (N) area = impulse = 300 N s area = impulse = 300 N s 75 1 2 3 Time (s) 4 0. When this happens.5. Impulse is the product of the force that acts and the time that it acts for and gives a measure of the resulting change in momentum. has an initial momentum of 300 kg m s−1. If they stop gradually by sliding through gravel and sand. First. In most real life situations. making this a rather painful and possibly dangerous activity! 38 MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS .1 1 2 3 Time (s) 4 A small force acting for a longer time F A large force acting for a a short time F Figure 2. Siobhan comes to rest and so loses 300 kg m s−1 of momentum.0 s and so a relatively small average force of 75 N is needed to cause her to lose all of her initial momentum. however. In order to improve her understanding of forces and impulse. Siobhan decides to experiment by stopping in two different ways. Physics file When analysing collisions it is useful to remember that it’s not how fast things are travelling during the collision that matters—it’s how fast they stop! Motorbike racers often fall off when travelling at over 200 km h−1.10 s.0 s. they may be unharmed.area = net impulse = change in momentum Net force (N) Force–time graphs When a constant force is acting on an object. the impulse equation can be used to work out the change in momentum. an important difference is the way in which she has stopped. the impulse of the force is 300 N s in both cases. Impulse is given by the area under a force–time graph. When sliding through the snow. force–time (F−t) graphs can be used to determine the impulse of a force. Time (s) Figure 2. As seen in Figure 2. A small force acting over a long time interval can produce the same momentum change as a large force acting for a short time.4 The area under a force–time graph gives the impulse produced by the force or the momentum change experienced by the object. This is also the result of finding the area under each of the F–t graphs. It is only when they crash into a solid barrier and stop suddenly that serious injuries can result. who is skiing horizontally across snow at 6. therefore.0 m s−1. In both cases.10 s. By way of comparison. Siobhan. Then. in an act of unexplained bravado. (a) Net force (N) Physics file It is important to note that impulse and force are not the same thing. We will now use force–time graphs to investigate an interesting aspect of motion—why stopping suddenly is more painful than stopping gradually! Consider the example of Siobhan.5 These graphs show the force that acts to stop this skier when (a) she slides to rest in the snow and (b) she crashes into a tree. A force is the push or pull that acts on the body. In other words. the peak force must necessarily be relatively large. The stopping forces acting on Siobhan in both cases are shown in Figure 2. Siobhan comes to rest in 4.

(a) (b) (c) Figure 2.0 kg m s−1 north Figure 2.50 kg final The net impulse from the wall causes the slime ball to experience a change in momentum.5) = +9. the momentum change of the slime ball as it bounces off the wall is 9. which extends the time over which the head comes to rest in a collision. Its change in momentum can be found by vector subtraction. (c) Wicketkeepers allow their hands to ‘give’ when keeping to a bowler.5 − (−7. A ball of ‘slime’ of mass 500 g is thrown horizontally at a wall. (b) Helmets contain padding. a Figure 2. If he missed the mat and landed on the ground.5 kg m s−1 of momentum as it reaches the wall and rebounds with 1. Therefore the impulse is 9. The net impulse that the slime experiences is equal to the change in momentum of the slime. The slime has 7.e. It is travelling at 15 m s−1 south as it hits the wall and rebounds at 3.0 N s north.5 kg m s−1 of momentum. but it is possible to determine the size of the average force that acts during this interaction. The force that the wall exerts on the slime will actually vary over the contact time. The contact with the wall lasts for 20 ms.0 kg m s−1 i. reducing the size of the stopping forces. but his momentum change would be the same.7 Change in momentum = final momentum − initial momentum ∆p = pf − pi = +1.6 (a) The landing mat extends the time over which the athlete comes to rest.8 In many sports and activities. The impulse that the slime experiences is equal to its change in momentum. ΣF∆t = ∆p ΣF × 0.50 kg initial N (+) S (–) 0. Taking north as the positive direction.0 kg m s−1 north. thereby reducing the size of the stopping force.0 m s−1 north. b c Collisions and circular motion 39 .1A. care is taken to ensure that the participants or objects stop gradually rather than suddenly. Worked example 2. This extends the stopping time and reduces the stopping force. Solution 15 m s–1 3 m s–1 0.020 = 9. the forces would be larger. calculate: a b c d the change in momentum of the slime the net impulse that acts on the slime as it rebounds the average force that the wall exerts on the slime the average force that the slime exerts on the wall.

Figure 2. which means that the forces acting on them must necessarily be extremely large.e. However. If the driver has a mass of 90 kg. the impulse is −1500 N s. cars are specifically designed to crumple to some extent. front and rear crumple zones and a rigid passenger compartment. i. Automotive engineers strive to achieve this by extending the time over which the driver loses momentum.7 = 1500 kg m s−1 As a result of this collision. These have laser or infrared sensors that advise the driver of hazardous situations. front and side air bags. Modern cars employ a variety of safety features that help to improve the occupants’ survival chances in an accident. the tank would be relatively undamaged. air bags and crumple zones is not to reduce the size of the impulse. Army tanks are designed to be extremely sturdy and rigid vehicles. This makes them safer and actually reduces the seriousness of injuries suffered in car accidents. shatterproof windscreen glass. padded dashboards. In fact. Some prototype cars today are equipped with collisionavoidance systems. the driver will lose all of this momentum as the car comes suddenly to a stop. Many times this number of people are injured. padded dashboards. the impulse experienced by the driver is the same whether the stop is sudden or gradual. If a tank travelling at 50 km h−1 crashed into a solid obstacle. In either case.7 m s−1). Crumple zones A popular misconception among motorists is that cars would be much safer if they were sturdier and more rigid. This crumpling is evident in this photo. its occupants would very likely be killed. PHYSICS IN ACTION Car safety and crumple zones Worldwide. These large forces would cause the occupants of the tank to sustain very serious injuries. the wall exerts an average net force of 450 N north on the slime. inertial reel seatbelts. 40 MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS .ΣF = 450 N to the north. variable-ratio response steering systems. but to reduce the size of the forces that act to bring the driver to a stop. This extends the time over which the cars come to rest and reduces the risk of injury to the occupants. collapsible steering column. d According to Newton’s third law. and even take over the driving of the car in order to avoid accidents! Consider the example of the driver of a car that crashes into a tree at 60 km h−1 (16. Drivers often complain that cars seem to collapse too easily during collisions. head rests. One way of reducing the toll is to design safer vehicles. the slime exerts an average net force of 450 N south on the wall. Some of these safety features are the antilock braking system (ABS). then the momentum of the driver is: p = m × v = 90 × 16. and that it would be better if cars were structurally stronger—more like an army tank. collapsible steering columns. i. The occupants would lose all of their momentum in an instant. They are able to withstand the effect of collisions without suffering serious structural damage. However.e. This is because the tank has no ‘give’ in its structure and so the tank and its occupants would stop in an extremely short time interval. automobile accidents are responsible for over 2 million deaths each decade. So the idea of many of the safety features such as inertial reel seatbelts.9 Cars are designed with weak points in their chassis at the front and rear that enable them to crumple in the event of a collision. even if they were wearing seatbelts. the force that the slime exerts on the wall is equal but opposite to the force that the wall exerts on the slime.

The units of momentum are kilogram metres per second (kg m s−1). that this force acts for is called the net impulse of the net force. • Momentum p = mv. he automatically bends his knees as he reaches the ground. This ‘concertina’ effect allows the front or rear of the car to crumple. Because the occupants’ momentum is lost more gradually. ∆p. is running at 3. • When a net force acts on an object for a given time.3 m s−1. The chassis contains members that have grooves or beads cast into them.5 m s−1. Momentum is a vector quantity. acting on an object and the time interval. • The product of the net force. Which girl has a greater amount of momentum? Use calculations to determine the answer.5 m s−1. whose mass is 45 kg. Figure 2.1 QUESTIONS 1 Which has more momentum—a mosquito buzzing along or a stationary bus? Pavithra and Michelle are having a race. Which one of these statements is correct? A B C The swimmer has more momentum after the turn. the object will experience a change in momentum. • The size of the net force that is acting on an object is directly related to the rate at which the momentum of the object changes. a swimmer turns at the end of a lap and swims back with equal speed. Calculate the momentum of these objects: a 4 2 During training. Figure 2. The swimmer has less momentum after the turn. extending the time interval over which the car and its occupants come to a stop.Motorcars today have strong and rigid passenger compartments. ∆t. these beads act as weak points in the members causing them to crumple in a concertina shape. In a collision. a b c When Vijay lands. This stopping time is typically longer than 0. • Impulse = ΣF∆t = m∆v = ∆p. The swimmer has the same momentum after the turn. 3 an electron of mass 9. 2. The swimmer has different momentum after the turn. 2.9 shows how this is achieved.1 SUMMARY MOMENTUM AND IMPULSE • The momentum p of an object is the product of its mass and velocity.0 × 107 m s−1 the Earth whose mass is 6. Pavithra. ΣF.0 × 1024 kg and orbital speed is 30 km s−1 a mouse of mass 100 g that is running at 2. they are also designed with nonrigid sections such as bonnets and boots that crumple if the cars are struck from the front or rear. Why does he do this? Explain in terms of physics principles that you have learnt. • Impulse can be determined by finding the area under a force–time graph.1 second in a 50 km h−1 crash. Impulse is a vector quantity. Collisions and circular motion 41 . The units of impulse are newton seconds (N s). The crumpling effect can clearly be seen.10 This car has just crashed at 50 km h−1 into a 5-tonne concrete block.1 × 10−31 kg moving at 3. Michelle has a mass of 60 kg and runs at a speed of 2. however. the peak forces that act on them are smaller and so the chances of injury are reduced. D 5 Vijay is standing on a high fence and about to jump down to the ground.

a Calculate the average net force acting on the ball during its contact with the floor. 6 a c d e 9 What is the change in speed of the ball as it bounces? What is the change in velocity of the ball as it bounces? What is the change in momentum of this ball during its bounce? Calculate the impulse acting on the ball during its bounce. b The following information applies to questions 6 and 7. a 10 c d 7 The time of contact between the ball and the floor during the bounce was 0. What would happen if Vijay took this advice? a What is the maximum force that the racquet exerts on the ball? What is the maximum force that the ball exerts on the racquet? Calculate the net impulse delivered to the ball. took 0. What conclusion can you make concerning the benefit of crumple zones? Explain why seatbelts are designed to stretch and allow a passenger to move a short distance during a collision rather than providing unyielding restraint.b A friend tries to talk Vijay into keeping his legs stiff as he lands.0 m s−1. A and B. The crash dummies were firmly attached to the passenger compartments of their respective vehicles by extremely tight-fitting seatbelts. The ball strikes the floor at 10 m s−1 and rebounds at 8. Calculate the average force that the ball exerts on the floor. Car B took only 0. The cars. A rubber ball of mass 80 g bounces vertically on a concrete floor. a tennis ball of mass 100 g is served.40 s to stop after the collision. the passenger compartment of each car will take a different time to stop. In which car did the dummy experience the greater momentum change? In which car did the dummy experience the greater net impulse? In which car did the dummy experience the greater stopping force? Calculate the average force exerted by the seatbelts on each crash dummy during the collision. The racquet exerts a force on the ball as shown in the diagram below. b Explain why protective padding placed on netball posts reduces the likelihood of injuries for players who collide with them. are driven at 20 m s−1 into a solid concrete wall. b c d 500 Force (N) 400 300 f e 200 100 0 0 10 20 30 40 Time (ms) 50 60 42 MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS . containing identical dummies of mass 100 kg. with the larger crumple zone.050 s. The results are as follows. b c 8 During a tennis match. two otherwise identical cars are modified so that.10 s to stop after the collision. What is the change in momentum of the ball? Calculate the speed with which this ball was served. Calculate the average force that the floor exerts on the ball. In an experiment to test the benefits of incorporating a crumple zone into the design of a car. Assume that the initial speed of the ball is zero. The passenger compartment of car A. on collision.

During any collision. so vb − ub v − up mb = −mp p ∆tb ∆tp ( ) ( ) up = 0 ub vb vp Fb Fp Figure 2. the ball has a reduced velocity of vb and the pin is moving with a higher velocity of vp. so the momentum change of each object will also be equal but opposite.e. as in two protons approaching each other and being repelled. Fb = −Fp.2 Conservation of momentum Physics file When Newton analysed collisions. momentum is conserved if no external forces act. These forces cause the ball to lose some momentum and the pin to gain an equal amount of momentum. the ‘motion’ of the object would change. This is known as the law of conservation of momentum. he assumed that when a force acts on an object. That is. In other words. the momentum gained by one object will be equal to the momentum lost by the other’. during a collision. A collision does not necessarily require actual contact between the objects—just an interaction based on force. they exert equal but opposite forces on each other. Now. The ‘motion’ is what we now call momentum. Collisions are an inescapable aspect of everyday life and the workings of the Universe. equal but opposite forces act on the ball and pin during the actual contact between them. the time intervals that the forces act for are equal.11 When a bowling ball collides with a tenpin. According to Newton’s third law. the term ‘collision’ describes interaction situations in which objects come together and exert action/reaction forces on each other. The time interval for which the ball and pin are in contact with each other is equal. After the collision. The ball experiences a force Fb due to its collision with the pin. Similarly. The terms on the right give the total momentum of the objects after the collision.11). Consider a collision between a bowling ball and one of the pins (Figure 2. PRACTICAL ACTIVITY 9 Conservation of momentum in collisions Collisions and circular motion 43 .2. The ball has a mass of mb and an initial velocity of ub. Newton’s third law could be expressed as: ‘if the only forces acting are action/reaction forces. ∆tb = ∆tp. This causes the ball to slow down slightly. i. It collides with pin of mass mp that has an initial velocity up of zero. The expression says that the total momentum before the collision is equal to the total momentum after the collision. from Newton’s second law it follows that mb × ab = −mp × ap. the pin experiences an equal but opposite force Fp due to its collision with the ball. He said ‘The quantity of motion … suffers no change from the actions of bodies among themselves’. The forces that the objects exert on each other are equal in magnitude but opposite in direction. In this section. so mb(vb − ub) = −mp(vp − up) mbvb − mbub = −mpvp + mpup and thus mbub + mpup = mbvb + mpvp The terms on the left give the momentum of the ball and the pin before the collision.

If the tenpin crashed into the barrier and was stopped. the action/reaction forces on the objects involved in the collision).0 m s−1. calculate: a b c the final common velocity of the vehicles the change in momentum experienced by the car the change in momentum that the bus has experienced.0 m s–1 E After collision v=? 1000 kg 5000 kg 44 MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS . perfectly isolated systems cannot exist because of the presence of gravitational and frictional forces.0 × 103 kg heading east at 8. a nucleus emitted a beta particle (an electron emitted from a radioactive nucleus). Figure 2. Thus. In 1930 Wolfgang Pauli determined that another particle must also have been emitted. it is not a force that was considered within the system being analysed (the collision between the ball and pin). As you read this. Can you work out which one? What are the external forces acting in the others? Worked example 2.12 could be considered to have occurred in an almost isolated system.0 × 103 kg travelling east at 20 m s−1 crashes into the back of a bus of mass 5. it was not in the opposite direction to the emitted electron. It is important to understand that conservation of momentum applies to an isolated system. Before collision W 20 m s–1 8.2A.Physics file Conservation of momentum helped scientists discover the neutrino. However. the total momentum of the system will remain constant. a car of mass 1. the total initial momentum will equal the total final momentum: Σpi = Σpf This is a very powerful law and applies to any type of interaction in the Universe involving any number of objects. when the nucleus recoiled. On Earth. This particle. this stopping force would be considered to be an external force. If the car and the bus lock together on impact. in any collision or interaction between two or more objects in an isolated system. that is. An isolated system is one where the collision involves only internal forces (i. the neutrino.e. was not detected experimentally until 1956. and if friction is ignored. In the 1920s it was observed that in a beta decay. See if you can identify it. billions of neutrinos are passing through your body and the Earth! The LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM states that. Only one of the collisions shown in Figure 2. In a rear-end collision on a freeway.12 Only one of these interactions can be considered to be an isolated system. the momentum of these particles did not comply with the law of conservation of momentum.

0 × 104 kg m s−1 west b c The change in momentum of the bus is equal to: ∆pb = pb(f) − pb(i) = (50 000) − (40 000) = +10 000 kg m s−1. Using conservation of momentum. This is not a coincidence. then allow another person to smash the rock with a sledgehammer.0 × 104 kg m s−1 east Note that the car has lost 10 000 kg m s−1 and the bus has gained 10 000 kg m s−1 of momentum during the collision. A 75 kg wrestler running east with a speed of 6. Using conservation of momentum: Σpi = Σpf mcuc + mbub = (mc + mb)v (1000 × +20) + (5000 × +8.e.e. the other object must gain. However. The large mass of the rock has dictated that the final common speed is too low to hurt the strongman. 1. Collisions and circular motion 45 . a b Calculate the final velocity of the wrestlers. Some time later.0 m s−1 crashes into an opponent of mass 100 kg running in the opposite direction at 8. Worked example 2.0 m s−1 west. a Σpi = Σpf pi (75 kg wrestler) + pi (100 kg wrestler) (75 × 6.0 m s−1.e.Solution a Physics file Circus strongmen often perform a feat where they place a large rock on their chest. the 100 kg wrestler is hurled into the turnbuckle at 5.0 m s−1 The final common velocity of the wrestlers is 2. i. a quick analysis using the principle of conservation of momentum will show otherwise. east will be treated as positive. The two wrestlers collide while in mid-air and remain locked together after their collision.0) + (100 × −8.0 m s−1 and comes to a stop. we can show that the rock and sledgehammer will move together at just 1 m s−1 after the impact. Where has the momentum of this wrestler gone? Solution In this problem east will be treated as positive and west will be treated as negative. 10 m s−1 east The change in momentum of the car is given by: ∆pc = pc(f) − pc(i) = (10 000) − (20 000) = −10 000 kg m s−1. This might seem at first to be an act of extreme strength and daring. i. If momentum is to be conserved in a collision or interaction between two objects. i. b This momentum (500 kg m s−1) has been transferred to the ring and the Earth. causing the ring and Earth to move slightly.0) 450 − 800 −350 = = = = pf (wrestlers locked together) (75 + 100)vf 175vf 175vf vf = −350 175 = −2. A more daring feat would be to use the sledgehammer to smash a pebble! In this problem. what one object loses in momentum.2B. 1. Let us assume that the rock has a mass of 15 kg and that the sledgehammer of mass 3 kg strikes it at 6 m s−1.0) = 6000 × v 60 000 = 6000 × v v = +10 m s−1.

8 × 107 N As you can see. PRACTICAL ACTIVITY 10 Conservation of momentum in explosions 2. m F = ∆v ∆t where m/∆t is the rate at which fuel is used and ∆v is the exhaust velocity relative to the rocket. This view was commonly opposed. For example. The space shuttle is basically a glider attached to several enormous fuel tanks! The force. 46 MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS . so (ignoring the vector nature of the quantities). the tanks are discarded.5 × 103 = 3. If the fuel is expelled at a uniform rate. except that hot gas replaces the bullet. However. The total momentum before the collision is equal to the total momentum after the collision. During a shuttle launch. These deploy parachutes to descend and are recovered about 250 km away. People thought that the vacuum in space would give the rocket gases nothing to push against. It seems odd that some hot gas can make a massive rocket move so fast. The ‘blank’ produced hot gases and some wadding from the blast. the law of conservation of momentum says that the total momentum of the system is conserved.PHYSICS IN ACTION Rockets Early in the 20th century an American scientist. suggested that a rocket could be sent to the Moon. friction and gravity) are either non-existent or are ignored. acting on a rocket can be determined if the exhaust velocity and rate at which the fuel is consumed are known. The gun recoiled even though these expelled gases had nothing to push against. Rockets work on the same principle. Therefore (as described by Newton’s second law) the acceleration of the rocket will increase as it uses its fuel. but you need to keep in mind that the gases are expelled at extremely high speed and that about 90% of the initial mass of the rocket is in fact fuel.g. The momentum of the expelled fuel gives the rocket the momentum it needs to accelerate from the ground. F∆t = m∆v. From the impulse. The magnitude of the momentum of the gun after the explosion equals that of the bullet.2 SUMMARY CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM • An isolated system is one in which only action/ reaction forces are considered to be acting.13 A space shuttle is attached to giant fuel tanks at launch. this force acts on a decreasing mass as the fuel is consumed. or thrust. Goddard set up an experiment in which a gun fired a blank cartridge in a vacuum chamber.5 × 104 × 2. the momentum lost by one body must be gained by the other. As the fuel in these tanks is used. a Newton’s third law action/ reaction pair of forces acts to propel the bullet and to make the gun recoil. When a gun fires a bullet. the forces that the rocket vehicle and the exhaust fuel exert on each other are enormous. The large external tank is jettisoned 8 min into the mission and falls into the ocean. That is: Σpi = Σpf • In a two-body collision. the first stage of a Saturn V rocket used 15 000 kg of fuel each second. Rocket propulsion had been demonstrated. Figure 2. and expelled it at 2500 m s−1 relative to the rocket. the thrust acting on the rocket will remain constant. The thrust produced by this rocket was: m F = ∆v ∆t = 1. the two solid rocket booster tanks are jettisoned after 2 min. • In any collision in an isolated system. External forces (e. Robert Goddard. This thrust force is opposed by a much smaller force of gravity.

An arrow of mass 100 g is fired with an initial horizontal velocity of 40 m s−1 to the right at an apple of mass 80 g that is initially at rest on a horizontal surface.0 kg.0 × 103 kg moving west at 72 km h−1. t C D t 4 t b t 5 Which one of these graphs best represents the total horizontal momentum of the trolley and its contents as a function of time? 10 A girl of mass 48 kg runs towards her stationary 2. Disregard the effects of friction. Determine the change in momentum of the station wagon. The effects of friction may be ignored. who were watching. A 1000 kg cannon mounted on wheels fires a 10.0 m s−1. 1 a b c 2 7 8 Determine the subsequent speed of the trolley. Determine the velocity of the girl after she has landed on the skateboard. A sports car of mass 1. Assuming that friction is negligible. calculate the velocity of the 100 g ball after the collision. Which one of the following statements correctly describes what has happened to the vertical momentum of the apples? A Calculate the momentum of the sports car. Does this mean that momentum is not conserved? Explain. The vehicles remain locked together after the collision. still travelling at the same speed as the skateboard. calculate the recoil velocity of the cannon.0 m s−1 to the right. A footballer crashes into the fence at the MCG and stops completely. 12 Collisions and circular motion 47 . Joe said that since the tanker was losing mass. As a high-board diver falls toward a diving pool. Who was correct? Explain. What has happened to his momentum? Has momentum been conserved? Explain. It has been converted into the horizontal momentum of the trolley. Which one of the following graphs best represents the horizontal momentum of the trolley alone as a function of time? B C D 9 a These two vehicles collide head-on on an icy stretch of highway where there is negligible friction from the road. Mary said that the speed of the cart would not change and momentum would be conserved. It has been transferred to the Earth. What is the velocity of the skateboard after she jumps off? b c 11 The following information applies to questions 7–9.0 m s−1 to the right. c A B 3 A 200 g snooker ball travelling with initial velocity 9. carrying 3.0 kg of potatoes and 2. The horizontal velocity of the girl just before she makes contact with the skateboard is 4. A shopping trolley of mass 5.0 kg of oranges.2. disagreed as to what would happen next.0 × 103 kg travelling east at 144 km h−1 approaches a station wagon of mass 2. While it is still moving at this speed. Calculate the momentum of the station wagon. It has been converted into kinetic energy. If the final velocity of the 200 g ball is 3. a b Calculate their common velocity after the collision.0 kg skateboard and jumps on. A worker opens a plug hole so that water gushes out the bottom of the tanker. is given an initial push and moves away with constant horizontal speed of 5. Determine the change in momentum of the sports car. another shopper drops a 10 kg bag of apples vertically into the trolley.0 m s−1 to the right collides with a stationary ball of mass 100 g. the two objects stick together. When the arrow strikes the apple.0 kg shell with a horizontal speed of 500 m s−1. Joe and Mary.0 m s−1. Determine the total momentum of these vehicles. her momentum increases. its speed would increase in order to comply with the law of conservation of momentum. a 6 Calculate the momentum of the girl just before she lands on the skateboard. It has been dissipated as heat and sound. What is the common velocity of the arrow and apple after the impact? A railway water tanker is rolling freely along train tracks at 5.2 QUESTIONS The following information applies to questions 1 and 2. The girl then travels at this speed for a short time before jumping off.

When a force acts on a body.002 kg 20 m s–1 1000 kg 1000 kg 5 kg Gravitational potential energy is energy due to an object’s position in a gravitational field. light energy. (a) (b) 30 km h–1 60 km h–1 2 kg 20 m s–1 0. chemical energy. The Earth has a massive amount of kinetic energy as it moves in its orbit around the Sun. Energy comes in many different forms including heat energy. An electron has a miniscule quantity of kinetic energy as it orbits the nucleus of an atom. 5 kg 2m GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL ENERGY (Ug) is given by: Ug = mgh where Ug = gravitational potential energy in joules (J) m = mass in kilograms (kg) g = gravitational field strength (N kg−1) (g = 9. As it is held higher from the ground. its gravitational potential energy increases. Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. Matter is the stuff of which things are made—atoms.8 N kg−1 near the Earth’s surface) h = height above a reference point in metres (m) 0. the water molecules will begin to vibrate strongly and the water will gain heat energy. (b) The red car is travelling twice as fast as the green car and has four times as much kinetic energy. a number of different forms of energy were studied.3 Work.2 m from the ground. You may remember from year 11 how matter is converted into radiation energy during radioactive decay. Einstein showed that matter and energy were equivalent and that vast amounts of energy could be obtained from small quantities of matter.2 m Figure 2. molecules and subatomic particles. energy and power Energy The Universe is made up of matter and radiation. but the brick has 1000 times more kinetic energy because its mass is 1000 times greater. A cat that is held at rest above the ground has a small amount of gravitational potential energy. Energy is a property of both matter and radiation.14 (a) The brick and the hailstone are travelling at the same speed. electrical energy and nuclear energy. the energy of the body changes. it has 10 times more gravitational potential energy than when it is only 0.2. Some of these are outlined below. The KINETIC ENERGY (Ek) of an object is given by: Ek = 2 mv 2 where Ek = kinetic energy in joules (J) m = mass in kilograms (kg) v = speed in metres per second (m s−1) 1 Figure 2. If a water droplet absorbs radiation in the form of microwaves. In year 11. causing it to move. This is a form of stored energy. 48 MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS . About 100 years ago. Energy is a scalar quantity and is measured in joules (J). sound energy.15 When the cat is held 2 m off the ground.

is a scalar quantity and so does not have a direction associated with it. This unit dates from the time of the Industrial Revolution. and so does no work on the cart (provided it does not lift the cart from the ground). Work. When work is done on a body. and the gravitational potential energy of the barbell has increased. (b) This force does not change the energy of the cart. Displacement (m) When information is presented in the form of a force–displacement (F–x) graph.17 The area under a force– displacement (F–x) graph is the work done by the force. an English physicist. when steam engines began to perform mechanical tasks that had previously been done by horses. An unbalanced force does work on a body when it produces a change in energy. the work done and the change in energy can be found by calculating the area under the graph as shown in Figure 2. who did pioneering work on energy in the 19th century. The component of the force in the direction of the displacement must be determined. as the weightlifter holds the barbell overhead. or J) ∆E = change in energy (J) F = force (N) x = displacement (m) θ = the angle between applied force and direction of motion Physics file The British Imperial unit for power is horsepower (hp). for example. the force is less effective in doing work on the cart. When the force acts at 90° to the direction of motion. the amount of work done decreases. Collisions and circular motion 49 . W = ∆E = Fxcosθ where W = work (N m. A force does work whenever it acts on a body and causes it to undergo a displacement. A weightlifter does work in lifting a barbell. area =N×m = N. like energy. 1 hp = 746 W. no work is being done because the weight is not undergoing a displacement. Ug = mgh Units for Ug = kg m s−2 m =Nm =J You might like to try this for kinetic energy. There is no component of the pulling force in the direction of motion of the cart. However. since the applied force results in a displacement. This will be covered later in this chapter. From the definition it can be seen that as the angle between the applied force and the direction of motion increases.17. which is called a joule (J) in honour of James Joule. Physics file The unit for work is the newton metre (N m). can be shown to be equivalent to joules. Figure 2. the energy of the body changes. All forms of energy are measured in joules. The units for gravitational potential energy. no work is done at all.Another form of potential energy that was studied in year 11 is elastic potential energy. That is. (a) (b) Units for area F F θ F cosθ Force (N) direction of motion direction of motion i.16 (a) If the force acts at an angle to the direction of motion of the cart. WORK is the product of the applied force and the displacement in the direction of the force. Energy changes occur whenever work is done.m =J = work done Figure 2.e. Work and energy The concept of work is central to understanding energy.

that is equal to the drag forces.2 J This indicates that the crate gains 93. yet the crate has gained only 93. and so the engine’s output power is: W F×x x x P= = =F × but = v.3 − 20. As it starts from rest. If a force F acts on a body of mass m causing a horizontal displacement x. The net horizontal force ΣFh = 43. This vertical displacement is the change in height ∆h in the gravitational field.00 = 93. Power = work done time taken v = constant ΣF = 0 Fd F=? Figure 2. POWER is the rate at which work is done. when a body is lifted at a uniform rate. The person pulling has done 173 J of work on the crate. the work done is: W = Fx = max Now v2 = u2 + 2ax can be rearranged as: x= ∴ W = ma = v2 − u2 2a Ft = 50 N m = 10 kg 30° Ft Ff = 20 N Ft(h) = Ft cos30° = 43. F. In other words. then Kylie will have increased her gravitational potential energy at a faster rate than Nick. Kylie has developed more power than Nick. If Kylie sprints up the stairs and Nick walks up at a leisurely pace. Figure 2.e.Power Consider the example of two students. Thus: W = mg∆h = ∆Ug In general: Ug = mgh 1 Solution a The work done on the crate by the person is given by: W = Fxcosθ = 50. If the mass m is lifted through a vertical displacement x. its final kinetic energy is 93. i. each of mass 60 kg.18 The power required to keep an object moving with constant velocity against frictional forces is given by: P = Fv. the lifting force is simply equal to the gravitational force.3 N Work done = ΣFh × x = 23.0 kg crate across a rough floor. determine: a b c the work done on the crate by the person pulling the rope the work done on the crate the energy converted to heat and sound due to the frictional force.3 × 4. (a) (b) Physics file All equations for energy originate from the definition of work. It is a scalar quantity and is measured in watts (W). so P = Fv t t t t Worked example 2.2 J of kinetic energy.00 × cos30° = 173 J To find the work done on the crate. who travel up four flights of stairs.00 = 80. This could also be determined by finding the work done against friction: W = Ff × x = 20.3A.00 m. the work done on the body is: W = Fx = mgx. 1 W = 1 J s−1. it is necessary to find the net horizontal force that is acting on the crate. The engine must be providing a driving force.18 shows a car moving with a constant velocity against drag forces Fd. Kylie and Nick.2 J of energy. This indicates that 80 J of energy is lost to heat and sound energy owing to friction with the rough floor.2 J. The crate is initially at rest and is dragged for a distance of 4.0 N and the frictional force opposing the motion is 20.0 = 23.3 N Ff = 20 N ( v2 − u2 2a − ) If the tension Ft in the rope is 50.0° to the horizontal is used to pull a 10. mg. 1 mv 2 2 1 mu 2 2 = ∆Ek In general: Ek = 2 mv 2 Similarly.0 J b c 50 MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS .0 × 4. A rope that is at 30.0 N.0 × 4.

the stored energy in the stretched bow is converted into kinetic energy as the arrow is released. These energy changes are shown in Figure 2. When Sarah is on the platform. its kinetic energy is converted into heat and sound. a high-board diver of mass 50 kg diving from a height of 30 m into a pool. 30 m Ug = 14700 E=0 k ∴ ΣE = 14700 J Ug = 9800 Ek = 4900 ∴ ΣE = 14700 J 20 m 10 m Ug = 4900 Ek = 9800 ∴ ΣE = 14700 J Ug = 0 Ek = 14700 ∴ ΣE = 14700 J 0m Figure 2. In other words.19.19 The total energy of the diver remains at 14 700 J throughout the dive. so her initial mechanical energy is 14 700 J. Sarah has zero potential energy and 14 700 J of kinetic energy. her mechanical energy will not change throughout the dive. As she dives towards the water. she has gravitational potential energy of: Ug = mgh = 50 × 9. energy cannot be created or destroyed—it can only change from one form to another. but the sum of these energies will remain 14 700 J. At this point. Collisions and circular motion 51 . When the arrow strikes the target. Imagine Sarah. For example. she will lose gravitational potential energy and gain kinetic energy. The law of conservation of energy states that energy is transformed from one form to another. the gravitational force acts and does work on her. She loses gravitational potential energy and gains kinetic energy as she falls. During the fall.8 × 30 = 14 700 J The sum of an object’s kinetic and potential energy is called the mechanical energy. Typically.Conservation of energy A fundamental principle of nature is that energy is conserved. Sarah has zero kinetic energy when she is standing on the platform. only about 20% of the energy available from the fuel is transformed into kinetic energy. she loses 4900 J of gravitational potential energy and gains an equal amount of kinetic energy. During the first 10 m of the dive. when an arrow is fired from a bow. This transfer of gravitational potential to kinetic energy continues until she reaches the water. and that the total amount of energy in its various forms remains constant. Physics file Cars are very inefficient at transforming the energy available to them from fuel into kinetic energy. In other words.

80 × h h = 62 m If air resistance is ignored.110 × 9. at this point the ball will have 67 J of gravitational potential energy. • When an unbalanced force does work on an object.Worked example 2. a b What is the initial kinetic energy of the golf ball? Disregarding drag forces. the ball will reach a height of 62 m. That is: W = Fxcosθ • Energy and work are scalar quantities. Here it will be at rest so will have zero kinetic energy. 2. Solution a Ek = 2 mv2 1 = 0. the energy of the object changes. Therefore. Figure 2. This conservation of energy is a fundamental principle in nature.110 × (35)2 = 67 J b The initial potential energy of the ball is zero. That is: work done W Fx P= = = = Fv t t time taken • Kinetic energy is the energy of motion and is given by: E k = 1 mv 2 2 • Gravitational potential energy is energy due to an object’s position in a gravitational field and is given by: Ug = mgh • Mechanical energy is the sum of an object’s kinetic and potential energies. • Power P (measured in watts. gravitational potential energy is transformed firstly into kinetic energy and then into elastic potential energy in the stretched bungy rope. the total amount of energy remains constant.5 × 0. A golf ball of mass 110 g is hit straight up into the air at 35 m s−1. Therefore. Ug = mgh 67 = 0. calculate the height to which the ball travels.3B. 52 MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS .20 As bungy jumpers fall. • Whenever energy is transformed from one form to another. so it has 67 J of mechanical energy. it has 67 J of mechanical energy when at its maximum height. W) is the rate at which work is done. J) is the product of a force and its displacement in the direction of the force. • Work W (measured in joules. ENERGY AND POWER • Energy is the ability of an object to do work.3 SUMMARY WORK.

and by gripping the pole as he slides down. a The following information applies to questions 7 and 8. d b e c Collisions and circular motion 53 . has an acceleration of 5. 1 A crane on a city building site lifts an 800 kg load from ground level to a vertical height of 90 m at a constant speed of 2. a 9 5 How long does the bucket take to travel the 5. What was the corresponding change in kinetic energy? Explain why the change in the firefighter’s gravitational potential energy was not equal in magnitude to the change in his kinetic energy.8 m s−2.0 2.0 Compression (cm) 7 a For the 5. A child uses a broomstick to push a 2.0 4. c The following information applies to questions 2–5.) c 3 a b c 4 How much work does the vertical component of the 100 N force do on the bucket during its motion? Justify your answer. calculate the work done by: a b c the horizontal component of the 100 N force the frictional force the resultant horizontal force. The ball strikes the wall horizontally with a speed of 10 m s−1.2. 2 1. How much power is expended by the gymnast if she performs 120 identical compressions of 10 mm in a 60-second interval? (Assume that no work is done on release. His velocity at the top of the pole is zero. a After the gymnast finishes her exercises. and that the effects of air resistance are negligible.0 m pole.3 QUESTIONS For the following questions. How much work is done by the crane in lifting the load through this distance? 400 Force (N) 300 200 100 0 b What is the mechanical energy of the load when it has reached a vertical height of 50 m? Calculate the power developed by the crane during this operation. Calculate the maximum compression produced in the ball during this impact.0 m s−2. Throughout its journey the car encounters drag forces that remain constant at 600 N. she throws the ball at a solid brick wall. b Calculate the change in the firefighter’s gravitational potential energy during the slide down the pole. The bucket is initially at rest and encounters a constant frictional force of 10 N while moving a distance of 5.0 3.0 m.0 kg bucket of water across a floor. A gymnast decides to improve the strength of her grip by repeatedly squeezing a small rubber ball of mass 100 g whose force–compression graph is shown. A firefighter of mass 80 kg slides down a 5.0 m distance? Calculate the power that is developed by the horizontal component of the 100 N force during this time. assume that g is 9. a b c What is the kinetic energy of the car during its journey? How much work do the drag forces do on the car during a 1-minute interval? Calculate the power developed by the car’s engine during this time. How much heat energy was produced as the firefighter slid down the pole? 6 A car of mass 800 kg is travelling along a straight level road at a constant speed of 108 km h−1.0 m s−1. Calculate the change in kinetic energy of the bucket during this interval. How much energy has dissipated as heat during this time? Which force is responsible for some energy being transformed into heat energy? 8 b How much work must the gymnast do to compress the ball by 10 mm? Discuss the energy changes that occur in the ball during one cycle of compression and release. Calculate the work done on this firefighter by the gravitational field of the Earth. The broomstick is held at an angle of 60° to the horizontal and exerts a force of 100 N on the bucket.0 m distance.

2. and so exerts zero force on the cart. watches and door-closing mechanisms.2 = 100 N m−1 Figure 2. For this reason it is said to obey Hooke’s law and is known as an ideal spring. Its units are newtons per metre (N m−1). PRACTICAL ACTIVITY 12 Hooke’s law For a light spring there is a direct relationship between the force exerted by the spring and the extension in the spring. i. This does not necessarily mean that the spring can be stretched by 1 m. the spring’s extension or compression. The spring constant can be determined as the gradient of the F–x graph.21). The keys on computer keyboards are mounted on small springs. but it tells us that the force and the change in length are in this proportion. That is.1 m 0. (a) (b) (c) Fs = 0 Fs = 10 N Fs = 20 N 0. wind-up toys.21 The force exerted by the spring increases as it is stretched. HOOKE’S LAW states that the force applied to a spring is directly proportional to.22 The F–x graph for this spring is a straight line passing through the origin. Running shoes. As the spring is stretched more. (b) As the spring is stretched to the left. trampolines. The relationship between the force and the extension is known as Hooke’s law. In other words.22 is therefore: k = gradient 20 = 0. a force of 25 N is required.1 Extension (m) 0. but opposite in direction to. The behaviour of elastic materials is also studied in the ‘Investigating Materials and Structures’ Detailed Study on the Heinemann Physics 12 CD. at its natural length. Fs = −kx where Fs = force (N) k = force constant (N m−1) x = amount of extension or compression (m) 20 gradient = spring constant Force (N) 10 0 The spring constant k (also called a force constant) indicates the stiffness of the material. 0. we need to examine the behaviour of a spring under different forces. This is called a restoring force.2 m Figure 2. it exerts a force to the right on the cart. tennis balls and racquets. This spring obeys Hooke’s law. The force required to double the extension of a spring is itself double.4 Hooke’s law and elastic potential energy Hooke’s law Springs and other elastic materials are very useful in everyday life. 54 MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS . archery bows and bungy ropes employ elastic materials to help them perform their tasks.2 The force constant of the spring in Figure 2. In order to determine the effect of doing work on a spring. Springs are also used in car suspensions. (a) The PRACTICAL ACTIVITY 11 Conservation of energy in springs spring is unstretched. Consider a simple experiment where a cart is attached to a spring that is progressively stretched (Figure 2. it exerts a larger force on the cart.e. there is a direct relationship between F and x for the spring. and the force that it exerts has also doubled. (c) The extension of the spring has doubled. A spring constant of 25 N m−1 indicates that for every metre that the spring is stretched or compressed.

no longer obeys Hooke’s law) is called the elastic limit for the spring. The stiffer spring has the steeper line on the F –x graph.1 Extension (m) 0. but they have different degrees of stiffness.24 When a spring is over-stretched so that it becomes permanently deformed and does not return to its original length.24). i. because the force that acts is not constant.22). Collisions and circular motion 55 .e. However. This means that the spring is able to do work on another object by exerting a force over some distance as the spring resumes its original length. The graph of its behaviour would show a straight line passing through the origin (Figure 2.e. They obey Hooke’s law. The force becomes larger as the extension increases. They have a slightly lower spring constant and stretch significantly (up to several metres) when stopping a falling climber. it is said to have exceeded its elastic limit. 20 15 Force (N) 10 5 0 elastic limit Physics file The ropes used by rock climbers have elastic properties that can save lives during climbing accidents. but this rule cannot be used to find the work done by springs. which is strong but does not stretch a lot. Ropes that were used in the 19th century were made of hemp.4 0. The elastic limit of this spring is 15 N. Rock climbers tend to avoid these ropes— bouncing up and down the rock face is not advisable! 0. if the force applied to the spring is very large.2 0. i.stiff spring 20 Force (N) weak spring 10 0 0. The point at which the graph deviates from the straight line (i. it takes a force of 200 N to stretch it by 1 metre. Modern ropes are made of a continuous-drawn nylon fibre core and a protective textile covering. the area under a force–displacement (F–x) graph is the work done on an object or the energy change that has occurred. When climbers using these ropes fell they stopped very abruptly.3. As discussed in Section 2. we can use this approach to find the work done by a spring.e. The energy stored in a spring is also called strain energy.2 Figure 2.23 Both springs represented in this graph are ideal. In this event. the spring becomes permanently distorted and will no longer obey Hooke’s law (Figure 2.5 Figure 2. Ropes with even lower spring constants are suitable for bungy jumping. The force constant of the weak spring is just 50 N m−1.3 Extension (m) 0. it no longer obeys Hooke’s law. The resulting large forces acting on the climbers caused many serious injuries. This reduces the stopping force acting on the climber. the work done by a constant force F is given by W = Fx. Any material or object in which there is a direct relationship between the amount of extension or compression and the force that it exerts is said to obey Hooke’s law. Elastic potential energy Any spring that has been stretched or compressed has stored elastic potential energy.1 0. The stiff spring has a force constant of 200 N m−1.

40 spring A spring B a Discuss the stiffness of each spring. This leads to improved fuel efficiency because the tyres heat up less and so waste less energy. 1 2 3 Extension (m) 4 5 Figure 2. Spring B does not obey Hooke’s law. The characteristics of two springs A and B are shown in the graph. which is given by the gradient of each line. b Solution a The stiffness of each spring is indicated by the spring constant. its elastic potential energy is given by: Us = 2 kx2 = 1 2 1 b × 100 × 0. A tyre has a resistance to motion. Recently developed tyres greatly reduce this heating. The strain energy in spring A when it is extended by 0. so: Us = 2 kx2 1 1 ELASTIC POTENTIAL ENERGY Us can be determined by finding the area under an F–x graph. according to Hooke’s law F = kx. It is made of elastic materials that have a resistance to motion that is 20% lower than that of conventional tyres. 20 15 Force (N) 10 5 0 0.Physics file The relationship for the elastic potential energy of materials that obey Hooke’s law is derived as follows: Us = area under an F–x graph = 2 F × x However. because it continually flattens out as it comes into contact with the road and then returns to its normal shape after contact has ceased.0 J 56 MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS .202 = 2. 100 80 Force (N) 60 40 20 0 area = elastic potential energy Physics file A car tyre developed by Michelin and Goodyear is claimed to reduce fuel consumption by an average of 5%. This heating effect reduces the fuel efficiency of the car.20 m can be found in two ways. Since spring A obeys Hooke’s law. or rolling resistance. Then it has a spring constant of 25 N m−1 when the force exceeds 5 N.20 0. Spring A has a spring constant of 100 N m−1.26 Tyres deform as they rotate.30 Extension (m) 0.10 0. The continual and rapid deformation that takes place in the tyre material is responsible for the tyre heating up. ELASTIC POTENTIAL ENERGY for an ideal spring is given by: Us = 2 kx2 where Us = elastic potential energy (J) k = force constant (N m−1) x = compression or extension (m) 1 Worked example 2. It is very stiff when the force acting on it is less than 5 N. How much work has been done to stretch spring A by 20 cm? Figure 2.25 The energy stored in a spring is given by the area under the F–x graph. The stiffness of spring B changes.4A.

indicate that this vaulter slows down as she nears the bar. During the jump.Its elastic potential energy can also be found by calculating the area under the graph: Area = 2 × 0.0 J 1 Worked example 2.8 v = 6. and finally transformed into gravitational potential energy and kinetic energy.8 m s−1. drawn at equal time intervals. hopefully. the gravitational potential energy of the athlete is transformed into kinetic energy as she falls towards the mat. Assume that the rubber band obeys Hooke’s law and ignore its mass when answering these questions. the elastic energy stored 1 within it will quadruple.20 × 20 = 2.) Us = 2 kx 2 = 0. This is evident from Us = 2 kx2 which indicates a square relationship between potential energy and extension. the plane will have 3. energy is stored as elastic potential energy. This kinetic energy is used to bend the pole and carry the athlete forwards over the bar. raise her centre of mass over the bar. Collisions and circular motion 57 . PHYSICS IN ACTION Energy changes in pole vaulting The world record for the men’s pole vault is over 6 m— about as high as a single-storey house! The women’s record is almost 5 m.8 J b c Solution 1 a b Assuming conservation of mechanical energy. Since there is now four times as much strain energy. a number of energy transformations take place. The athlete uses this stored energy to increase her gravitational potential energy and. c If the extension of the rubber band is doubled. a How much potential energy is stored in the rubber band at this extension? Calculate the speed with which the model plane is launched. The rubber band is stretched by 25 cm and has a spring constant of 120 N m−1. describe how the kinetic energy of the plane will compare if the rubber band is stretched by twice as much when launching. The athlete has kinetic energy as she runs in. the plane will have four times as much kinetic energy when it is released. A toy plane is launched by using a stretched rubber band to fire the plane into the air.8 J of kinetic energy as it is released. so: 1 mv 2 2 = 3. enabling her to clear the bar.5 × 120 × (0. Once the pole has been released and the bar has been cleared.4B.27 These diagrams. Without using calculations. As the pole bends. The mass of the plane is 160 g.8 m s−1 The launch speed of the plane is 6. Her initial kinetic energy is stored as elastic potential energy in the bent pole. Figure 2.25)2 = 3. (Assume that the rubber band continues to behave ideally.

We will treat the athlete as a point mass located at her centre of mass. and her speed at this point is just 1. the pole is straight again and so has no elastic potential energy. Just before the athlete plants the pole. into gravitational potential energy later in the jump. Then after the pole is planted. 1.28 As the pole is planted. • The energy stored in an elastic material that has been stretched or compressed is elastic potential energy or strain energy. Throughout the jump. Energy has also been put into the system by the muscles of the athlete as they do work after she has left the ground. By bending the bar. the athlete has stored energy which will later be transformed into gravitational potential energy. This work will be converted Figure 2. As she plants the pole in the stop. • The elastic potential energy stored in any material can be determined by finding the area under the F–x graph. The value of the spring constant is given by the gradient of the F –x graph and is an indication of the stiffness of the spring.0 m s−1. measured in joules. she has used her arm muscles to raise her body higher.4 SUMMARY HOOKE’S LAW AND ELASTIC POTENTIAL ENERGY • The relationship between the stretching or compressing force F and the amount of extension or compression x experienced by an elastic material is described by Hooke’s law: F = −k x • The k is the spring constant or force constant. the vaulter uses her arms to bend the bar. The effect of these forces is to do work on the pole and store some extra elastic potential energy in it. 2. but before she leaves the ground. This does not seem consistent with the conservation of energy.e. and is measured in N m−1.28). the athlete uses her arms to bend the pole (Figure 2. from the muscles in her body. At the end of the jump she is actually ahead of the pole and pushing herself up off it.0 m s−1.0 m as she clears the bar. she raises it over her head. Let us say that the athlete has a mass of 60 kg and runs in at 7. Taking the ground as zero height. we find that the vaulter’s total energy is now 2970 J. and using the same relationship as above. Using: ΣE = Ek + Ug = 1/2mv2 + mgh we calculate the vaulter’s total energy at this point to be 2180 J. When the vaulter passes over the bar. Where has the extra 790 J come from? The answer is. • The amount of elastic potential energy Us stored in an ideal elastic material (i. In effect she has been pushing off the ground by using the pole. the pole has not yet been bent and so it has no elastic potential energy. The athlete raises her centre of mass to a height of 5.2 m above the ground.We can analyse the energy changes by making some assumptions about the athlete and the jump. one that obeys Hooke’s law) can also be found by: 1 Us = 2 kx2 58 MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS . She pulls downwards on the pole with one arm while the other arm pushes upwards. The forces are shown by the vectors.

30 m? Explain what happens to this energy as the archer is extending the string.1 0. 300 A B The following information applies to questions 9 and 10. S2: k = 1000 N m−1. 8 b b c Which of the following is the best explanation why spring S2 has a larger force constant than spring S1? A B C Spring S2 is longer than spring S1.0 cm. a b Calculate the spring constant of the spring. Diagram (c) indicates the force exerted on the arrow against XY as the distance XY is increased from 0. Increasing the distance XY increases the force that the string exerts on the arrow. The force–compression graph for the spring from an old pinball machine is shown. Plot a graph of stored energy versus compression for this spring. the archer releases the string. Assuming that the spring obeys Hooke’s law.0 2. Spring S2 is made from a different material to spring S1. 5 a When XY is 0. as shown in (b).0 3.30 m. Force (N) 200 C (a) 100 (b) 50 Force (N) 40 30 20 10 0 (c) 0 X 1. Rank these springs in order of increasing stiffness. Calculate the value of the ratio of the compression of A to that of B. How much work is done on the arrow as the string returns to its original position? What assumption have you made in your calculation? b The following information applies to questions 5 and 6. The following diagram shows the force–compression graph for three different springs: A. Spring S2 is shorter than spring S1.2. 10 How much work does the archer do on the bow in increasing XY from 0.0 Compression (cm) The following information applies to questions 7 and 8. 7 The following information applies to questions 1 and 2.0 cm.10 m to 0. B and C.3 Distance XY (m) 4 Springs A and B are compressed so that they hold equal amounts of elastic potential energy. 6 b How much elastic potential energy is stored in the spring at this extension? Force (N) 200 100 0 The 75 g mass is removed and a new object is hung from the spring.10 m to 0. a Calculate the value of the ratio of the energy stored in spring S1 to that stored in spring S2.30 m. Diagram (a) shows the bow with the string in the unextended position.0 2. An Australian archer purchased a new bow for the Athens Olympics. the distance XY increases. assume that g is 9. Calculate the strain energy stored in each spring at a compression of 1.2 0. Collisions and circular motion 59 . Two different springs have the force constants: S1: k = 250 N m−1. When the bow is loaded.8 m s−2. While supporting this new object. calculate: a the strain energy stored in the spring while it is supporting this mass the mass of the new object. Calculate the energy stored in each spring when a 200 N extension force is applied. 9 a 0.0 cm? Calculate the elastic potential energy stored in the spring when it is compressed by 1.0 cm. Determine the magnitude of the force needed to compress this spring by 2.0 Y X Y 3 a b c Calculate the force constant for each spring. Calculate the spring constant for this spring.0 3. 2 a b The following information applies to questions 3 and 4. A student attaches a 75 g mass to the end of the spring. the spring length increases to 45 cm. causing it to stretch by 5. How much work must be done in order to compress this spring by 2. A light spring with an unextended length of 30 cm is hung vertically from a fixed support.4 QUESTIONS In the following questions. 1 a Both springs are subjected to the same stretching force. b 1.0 cm.0 Compression (cm) 4.

In the next chapter. Each blade is 29 m long and they rotate a constant 19 revolutions per minute. On the smallest scale. and so on. This wind generator is part of a wind farm at Codrington in south-west Victoria. as high as one of the MCG light towers.30).30 (a) The hammer. (b) The velocity of any object moving in a uniform circular path is continually changing. is swung in a circular path distance = 2πr v before being released. At one instant the hammer is travelling at 25 m s−1 north. a 7. The AVERAGE SPEED of an object moving in a circular path is: 2πr v = distance = T time Figure 2. C = 2πr. and on an even grander scale. The velocity of the hammer at any instant is tangential to its path. r Let us say that an object is moving with a constant speed v in a circle of radius r metres and takes T seconds to complete one revolution. the planets orbit the Sun in roughly circular paths.5 Circular motion Physics file Circular motion is common throughout the Universe. The world record distance for a hammer throw is almost 90 metres. on a bigger scale. From this information. electrons travel around atomic nuclei in circular paths. C N W S E Figure 2. then an instant later at 25 m s−1 west. its speed is constant but its velocity is continually changing. then 25 m s−1 south. you should be able to calculate that the tip of each blade is travelling at around 220 km h−1! Uniform circular motion An athlete in a hammer throw event is swinging the hammer in a horizontal circle with a constant speed of 25 m s−1 (Figure 2.2. the distance travelled by the object is equal to the circumference of the circle. it is important to remember that velocity is a vector. This time taken to move once around the circle is called the period of the motion. This can be used to find the average speed of the object. 60 MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS where v = speed (m s−1) r = radius of circle (m) T = period of motion (s) .29 The tips of these windgenerator blades are travelling in circular paths at speeds of over 200 km h−1. stars travel in circular paths around the centres of their galaxies. This section serves as an explanation of the nature of circular motion. we will be examining planetary and satellite motion in detail. The tower is 50 m high.26 kg ball of steel. At this point.31 The average speed of an object moving in a circular path is given by the distance travelled in one revolution (the circumference) divided by the time taken (the period). As the hammer travels in its circular path. Since the direction of the hammer is changing. so too is its velocity—even though its speed is constant. (a) (b) view from above Figure 2. even though its speed remains constant. In completing one circle.

In Figure 2. This is done to ensure that. When it is at point A the hammer is moving north at 25 m s−1. the laser beam can be drawn along the track at a constant rate. However. When at point B.32 (a) The velocity of the hammer at any instant is tangential to its path.25 v= = = 120 cm s−1 or 1.33 s f 3. which should be a reminder of its direction. Solution If the disk is rotating at 8. Collisions and circular motion 61 .0 revolutions per second. Calculate the speed of a point on the inner track of the CD which is moving in a circular path of radius 2. the disk rotates at about 500 revolutions per minute (rpm). An athlete is swinging a hammer of mass 7.5B. its period is: 1 1 T= = = 0.2 m s−1 T 0. Physics file The track on a CD starts at the centre and works its way to the outside of the disk.0 2πr 2 × π × 1. When the inner track is being played.) The hammer is continually deviating inwards from its straight line direction and so has an acceleration towards the centre.3 revolutions per second. the hammer is accelerating even though its speed is not changing.5A. At the outer rim of the disk. as the disk is played. Solution The period of the hammer is: T = The speed is: v = 1 1 = = 0.0 kg in a circular path of radius 1. (Centripetal means ‘centre-seeking’.33 Worked example 2. This is 8. This is known as a centripetal acceleration.Worked example 2. Calculate the speed of the hammer if it completes 3. it is moving west at 25 m s−1.25 cm. and so on. A compact disk is rotating at a rate of 8.3 The speed of a point on the inner track is: 2πr 2 × π × 2. its velocity is changing. Therefore.3 revolutions per second.32b).5 m.3 revolutions each second.5 = = 29 m s−1 T 0.12 Centripetal acceleration When an object moves in a circular path.3 revolutions per second. it never gets any closer to the centre (Figure 2.32a. even though the hammer is accelerating towards the centre of the circle. (b) A body moving in a circular path has an acceleration towards the centre of the circle. Compact disks spin at varying rates. depending on which track is being played. This acceleration is known as centripetal acceleration. it has slowed to around 200 rpm or 3. (a) 25 m s–1 PRACTICAL ACTIVITY 13 Centripetal force B W 25 m s–1 N E S (b) v a a a v C A C 25 m s–1 25 m s–1 v a v Figure 2.12 s f 8. a hammer is shown at various points as it travels in a circular path.

In the hammer throw we have been looking at. In the example of the hammer thrower. so it then moves in a straight line tangential to its circular path (Figure 2. (a) In a hammer throw or for any other object rotated while attached to an arm or wire. (a) (b) (c) (d) Fg Ff FN Figure 2. the hammer is continually accelerating.The centripetal acceleration of an object moving in a circular path can be found from the relationship: v2 a= r A derivation of this relationship is shown on page 64.33 The centripetal force that produces a centripetal acceleration and hence a circular motion is provided by different real forces. consider the consequences if the unbalanced force ceases to act. Now. v2 2πr 2πr 2 1 4π2r v= . 62 MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS . if the tension in the wire became zero because the thrower released the hammer. a real force is necessary to provide the centripetal force (Figure 2. so a = = × = r r T T T2 ( ) CENTRIPETAL ACCELERATION is always directed towards the centre of the circular path and is given by v 2 4π2 r = T2 r a = centripetal acceleration (m s−2) a= v = speed (m s−1) r = radius of circle (m) T = period of motion (s) where Forces that cause circular motion As with all forms of motion. In every case where there is circular motion.34). so it follows from Newton’s second law that there must be an unbalanced force continuously acting on it. it is the tension in the arm or wire that provides the centripetal force. The unbalanced force that gives the hammer ball its acceleration towards the centre of the circle is known as a centripetal force.33). the wall is in fact applying a force to their body. (d) For a person in the Gravitron it is the normal force from the wall. (c) For a car on a roundabout it is the friction between the tyres and the road. Although the person feels that they are being pinned to the wall. A substitution can be made for the speed of the object in this equation. as would be expected from Newton’s first law. there is no force causing the hammer to change direction. an analysis of the forces that act is needed if we are to understand why circular motion occurs. the gravitational attraction to the central body provides the centripetal force. (b) For planets and satellites.

The force needed to make a body travel in a circular path (the centripetal force) will therefore increase if the mass of the body is increased.2 Figure 2.8 × 103 N towards the centre b a= = v2 r 252 = 520 m s−2 towards the centre 1.5C. This outwards force is commonly known as a centrifugal (meaning ‘centre-fleeing’) force. This force does not actually exist in an inertial frame of reference.35 There is a large force from the wall (a normal force) that causes these people to travel in a circular path. The riders think that it does because they are in the rotating frame of reference. and that in the absence of this force they would not ‘fly outwards’ but move at a tangent to their circle (see Figure 2. From outside the Gravitron.C Ft = 0 Figure 2. Worked example 2. Collisions and circular motion 63 . r T2 ΣF = net or resultant force on object (N) m = mass (kg) v = speed (m s−1) r = radius of circle (m) T = period of motion (s) Physics file People moving in circular paths often mistakenly think that there is an outward force acting on them. the speed of the body is increased. riders on the Gravitron will ‘feel’ a force pushing them into the wall. Calculate the tension in the wire if the hammer is: a b moving at 20 m s−1 in a circle of radius 1.6 m moving at 25 m s−1 in a circle of radius 1. or the period of the motion is decreased. The centripetal force that causes centripetal acceleration for an object of mass m can be calculated from Newton’s second law: ΣF = ma = where mv 2 4π2rm = towards the centre of the circle. For example.6 = 250 m s−2 towards the centre The tension is producing circular motion: Ft = ΣF = ma = 7. An athlete in a hammer throw event is swinging the hammer of mass 7. it is evident that there is a force (the normal force) that is holding them in a circular path.0 × 250 = 1.34 When a hammer is released by the thrower it will travel in a straight line at a tangent to its circular path.35). Solution a The centripetal acceleration is: a= = v2 r 202 1.0 kg in a horizontal circular path.2 m.

that: (a) (b) vf vi rf C –vi ri vf ∆v –v v r r x ∆v Figure 2. PHYSICS IN ACTION A derivation of centripetal acceleration The acceleration of any object will lie in the same direction as its change in velocity. This is because the force is always perpendicular to the motion of the body. This is the centripetal acceleration.0 × 520 = 3.36a and b. C. From these similar triangles. (c) The change in velocity. however. Notice that the velocity vectors—vi and vf— are both shown as v because they have the same magnitude. It is evident that the change in velocity. we can say for a small time ∆v x v∆t ∆v v 2 = = . but the force is directed at 90° to the instantaneous displacement. 64 MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS . Therefore. (b) The change in velocity when measured over a small time increment is directed towards the centre of the circle. is the acceleration of the object. x. x. These are shown in Figure 2. and displacement. The change in velocity of an object moving in a circular path with a constant speed is shown in Figure 2. ∆v. ∆v.6 × 103 N towards the centre The kinetic energy of a body that is moving horizontally with uniform circular motion remains constant even though an unbalanced force is continually acting on it. vectors are in similar triangles. The derivation of the relationship involves using similar triangles from Figure 2. change the direction of motion of the body. The force does. r (c) ∆v = vf– vi interval. W = Fx cosθ.36.36 (a) The velocity of an object moving uniformly in a circular path is continually changing.Ft = ΣF = ma = 7.36c. while its speed remains constant. by definition. is directed towards the centre of the motion. ∆t. so = v r r ∆t r ∆v Now. so cosθ = 0.so ∆t ∆v v 2 a= = ∆t r Thus the centripetal acceleration of a body moving in a 2 circular path is a = v and is directed towards the centre. The position vectors—ri and rf—give the displacement. As was discussed earlier in this chapter. ∆t. of the object over this time interval. the centripetal force does not do any work on the body. and so the acceleration of the object is also directed towards the centre of the circle.

The net force that is producing the centripetal acceleration is supplied by the frictional force Ff.37b. The friction supplies the unbalanced force that leads to the circular motion. The track exerts a reaction force.37). This leaning technique is also evident in ice skating. Collisions and circular motion 65 . on the cyclist that acts both inwards and upwards. Therefore the net force is directed towards C. bicycle races. The upwards component is the normal force FN from the track. It enables the competitor to corner at high speed without falling over. (b) The forces acting as the cyclist turns a corner are the weight Fg. between the tyres and the road. and so has a centripetal acceleration directed towards the centre of the circle at C. By analysing the vertical and horizontal components in Figure 2. The forces are the weight force Fg and the force from the track. (b) Fr FN ΣF centre of circle Ff Fg = mg FN = Fg = mg 2 Ff = ΣF = mv r Figure 2. Motorbike riders lean their bikes over as they corner. we see that the weight force Fg must balance the normal force FN. An icy or oily patch on the track would cause the tyres to slide out from under the cyclist.37 (a) Leaning into the corner enables cyclists to change direction at higher speeds than if they had maintained a vertical orientation. Fr. The forces acting on the cyclist and bike (Figure 2. The inwards component is the frictional force Ff between the track and the tyres.37b) are unbalanced. In other words. (a) The cyclist is riding in a horizontal circular path at constant speed. the normal force FN and the friction Ff. skiing and even when you run round a corner.PHYSICS IN ACTION Leaning into corners In many sporting events the participants need to travel around corners at high speeds. the cyclist is depending on a sideways frictional force to turn the corner. Why is this so? Consider a cyclist cornering on a horizontal road surface (Figure 2. and he or she would slide painfully along the road at a tangent to the circular path.

0 revolutions per second. 1 (a) An athlete competing at a junior sports meet swings a 2. b c The following information applies to questions 3–6.80 m s−2 and the effects of air resistance can be ignored.2.00 m 50.5 SUMMARY CIRCULAR MOTION • An object moving with a uniform speed in a circular path of radius r and with a period T has an average speed that is given by: 2πr v= T • The velocity of an object moving with a constant speed in a circular path is continually changing and is at a tangent to the circular path. Describe the motion of the ball if the wire breaks. The real force is commonly friction. The top view of the resulting motion of the ball is shown in (b). 2. This acceleration is directed towards the centre of the circular path and is called centripetal acceleration: 2 2 a = v = 4π2r T r • Centripetal acceleration is a consequence of a centripetal force acting to make an object move in a circular path. During a high school physics experiment.25 revolutions per second.00 m at a constant frequency of 1. 3 a What is the direction of the ball’s acceleration when it is at point: i A? ii B? iii G? What is the direction of the centripetal force that acts on the ball when it is at point: i C? ii D? iii E? If the wire had snapped when the ball was at point E.0 g What is the period of rotation of the ball? What is the orbital speed of the ball? Calculate the acceleration of the ball. the nature of which depends on the situation. a copper ball of mass 50.5 kg hammer in a horizontal circle of radius 0. a b B A v1 What is the acceleration of the skater? What is the horizontal component of the centripetal force acting on the skater? Identify the force that is enabling the skater to move in a circular path. what would be the direction of the ball’s subsequent velocity? c What is the direction of the ball’s velocity when it is at point: i A? ii B? iii G? d 66 MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS .5 m at a constant speed of 2. gravitation or the tension in a string or cable.80 m at 2.0 m s−1.0 g was attached to a very light piece of steel wire and whirled in a horizontal circle of radius 1. Assume that the wire is horizontal at all times. • Centripetal forces are directed towards the centre of the circle and their magnitude can be calculated by using Newton’s second law: 2 2 ΣF = ma = mv = 4π rm T2 r • Centripetal force is always supplied by a real force. (b) v5 v11 E v4 D v10 v9 v8 v7 v3 N W S E e f 2 G v6 v12 C v2 An ice skater of mass 50 kg is skating in a horizontal circle of radius 1. a b c d 30° 1. What is the magnitude of the net force acting on the ball? Name the force that is responsible for the centripetal acceleration of the ball. • An object moving in a circular path with a constant speed has an acceleration due to its circular motion.5 QUESTIONS In the following questions assume that the acceleration due to gravity is 9.

CHAPTER REVIEW For the following questions the acceleration due to gravity may be taken as g = 9.2 m 5 a b c 7 6 a When the car is in the position shown in the diagram. initially at rest.0 2. b 10 If the driver of the car kept speeding up. What is the change in kinetic energy of the mat during this period? How much work is done on the mat by the student? Which section of the surface is rough? Justify your answer.0 Kinetic energy (J) 3. During this time a constant frictional force acts on the mat. what is the speed of the car in metres per second? Determine the magnitude and direction of the acceleration of the car at the position shown in the diagram.0 1. A student supplies a constant force of 200 N at an angle of 60° to the horizontal to pull a 50. b 5. An ice-puck of mass of 200 g moves across a horizontal surface 5. what would eventually happen to the car as it travelled around the roundabout? Explain. One section of the surface is frictionless while the other is rough. The speed of the mat after 10.0 4. a 8 b The following information applies to questions 7–10. 4 Calculate the momentum of the ball before the impact. What is the centripetal acceleration of the ball? What is the magnitude of the centripetal force acting on the ball? Draw a diagram similar to diagram (a) that shows all the forces acting on the ball at this time.4 Which one of the following statements concerning the ball is correct? A B C N W S E Its kinetic energy and momentum are both changing.0 0 b c c How much energy is converted into heat during the 10.0 ms. The car moves with a constant speed of 30 km h−1.0 2.0 s interval? What is the power output of the student during the 10. Its kinetic energy is constant but its momentum is changing.2 m.00 m s−1. What is the magnitude of the tension in the wire? D 9. The time of interaction for this impact is 1.0 m long. 9 Calculate the magnitude and direction of the net force acting on the car at the position shown.0 s.0 4. across a horizontal gymnasium floor for 10. A car of mass 1200 kg is travelling on a roundabout in a circular path of radius 9. What is the momentum of the ball after the impact? What is the value of the impulse that is delivered to the ball? Calculate the average net force that is exerted on the ball.0 c Distance (m) Collisions and circular motion 67 .0 5.0 kg landing mat. Identify the force that is causing the car to move in its circular path. a The following information applies to questions 2 and 3. Its momentum is constant but its kinetic energy is changing.8 m s−2 and the effects of air resistance can be ignored. Its kinetic energy and momentum are both constant. The following graph shows the kinetic energy of the puck as a function of the distance along the surface. What is the power output of the net force during this period? 3 a d b 1. 2 a The following information applies to questions 4–6. 1 A ball of mass 200 g is dropped from a vertical height of 10 m onto a horizontal steel plate. The ball rebounds upward with an initial vertical velocity of 10 m s−1.0 s is 3. Calculate the orbital speed of the ball.0 s interval? Calculate the power consumed by friction during this time.0 3.

A car of mass 1500 kg is driven at constant speed of 10 m s−1 around a level. During the subsequent collision. which one or more of the following modifications would result in the ball having a greater velocity on leaving the tube? A B 20 Which of the following quantities associated with this car remain constant during the motion of the car? A B C D velocity momentum kinetic energy acceleration. Increase the length of the tube. The heavier glider is initially moving toward the east. he turns around and skates after the sled. with masses of 300 g and 100 g.0 m s−1. Increase the spring constant for the spring. The physics student who designed this device used it to launch a tennis ball of mass 50 g. both travelling at 2. 22 b 9 10 C the sled? the boy? D Which one of the following statements is correct? A 11 A 250 g snooker ball travelling at 10 m s−1 collides with a stationary 100 g snooker ball. B C The following information applies to questions 12–14. jumping on with a horizontal velocity of 4. 7 a What is the total momentum of the boy and the sled before he jumps off? What is the momentum of the boy after he jumps? What is the momentum of the sled after he has jumped? b The following information applies to questions 15 and 16. resulting in the ball leaving the tubing with initial horizontal velocity of 8. calculate the energy that was transformed into heat as a result of friction inside the tubing.0 m s−1 east. circular roundabout. what is the velocity of the sled just before he jumps on? What is the speed of the boy once he is on the sled? As the boy jumps on the sled. what change in momentum is experienced by: a b 21 a Reduce the length of the tube. A 50 kg boy stands on a 200 kg sled which is at rest on a frozen pond. approach each other on an air-track.0 m s−1. The spring was compressed by 10 cm and then released. 12 Y Z 20 m X Calculate their common velocity after colliding.4 m s−1 west. For a spring compression of 10 cm. calculate the total kinetic energy of the balls after the collision. N W S E Since the car is moving with constant speed. 68 MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS .5 What is the magnitude of the frictional force that acts on the puck when it is on the rough surface? How much heat energy is produced by the frictional force? 13 What is the energy efficiency of this collision? What has happened to the ‘missing’ energy? 17 What is the velocity of the car at: a b c point X? point Y? point Z? 14 6 The following information applies to questions 7–10. The frictional force between the tyres and the road provides the resultant force that keeps the car in its circular path. are fitted with magnets so that the opposite poles are facing each other. The following information applies to questions 17–22. The centre of mass of the car is always 20 m from the centre of the track. the magnets stick together and the gliders move off with a common velocity. 8 If the spring constant of the plunger is 2000 N m−1. What is the magnitude of the normal force acting on this car? Determine the resultant horizontal force acting on this car at X. 16 Assuming the pond surface is frictionless. Use a tennis ball with a lower mass. A homemade tennis-ball server consists of a springloaded plunger (of negligible mass) inside a length of cylindrical tube. 15 18 What is the period of revolution for this car? a 19 What is the centripetal acceleration of this car at point X? Calculate the centripetal force acting on this car at point Y. Assuming that this collision has an energy efficiency of 95%. there is zero net force acting on it. The only force acting on the car is friction. Calculate the unbalanced frictional force acting on the tyres at point Z. b c c After the boy has jumped off. Two air-track gliders. The gliders. The boy jumps off the sled with a velocity of 4.

including: • Newton’s law of universal gravitation • gravitational fields • circular orbits under gravity • energy transfers from force–distance graphs. especially our Sun.CHAPTER 3 Gravity and satellites hrough the ages. The first module was placed in orbit in 1998 and the first astronauts moved in 2 years later. The reason for this acceleration is currently a topic of major dispute among cosmologists. He constructed an abstract framework of ideas to explain why things behaved the way they did. Isaac Newton adopted a theoretical approach in attempting to explain the behaviour of the heavenly bodies. its planets and their moons and our place in the Universe. over many centuries. led to our present understanding of the motion of the stars. The efforts and insights of people such as Aristotle. we have made remarkable progress in space technology. Collisions and circular motion 69 . The Space Age began in 1957 when the then Soviet Union launched the first artificial satellite. Kepler. Ptolemy. Sputnik I. The International Space Station (ISS) is currently being assembled by astronauts working 400 km above the Earth's surface. T BY THE END OF THIS CHAPTER you will have covered material from the study of gravity. how the appearance of the Moon changed during each 'moonth'. Since then. This was an advance on the empirical approach used earlier by Johannes Kepler who attempted to fit rules to match the data without trying to provide an explanation for these rules. it will be almost 100 metres long. When the ISS is completed. The Universe is expanding—the galaxies are moving further apart from each other and this expansion is in fact accelerating. people have looked to the skies and wondered about the motion of the celestial bodies: how the path of the Sun seemed to change from season to season. Copernicus. Humans have barely begun to explore the Universe. Galileo and Newton have. The Universe consists of perhaps 100 billion galaxies that are vast distances apart in space. The Universe is held together by the force of gravity. how the stars moved nightly across the sky and how the more complicated motion of the planets could be explained.

3.1

Newton’s law of universal gravitation
Isaac Newton did not discover gravity, for its effects have been known throughout human existence. But he was the first to understand the broader significance of gravity. Newton was supposedly sitting under an apple tree on his mother’s farm at Woolsthorpe, in England, when an apple landed on his head. He looked up at the sky, noticed the Moon, and reasoned that the same force that made the apple fall to the ground kept the Moon in its orbit about the Earth. The details of this story may or may not be true, but the way in which Newton developed his ideas about gravity is well documented. Following the laws of motion, Newton knew that a moving object would continue to move in a straight line with a constant speed unless an unbalanced force acted on it. He had also been thinking about the motion of the Moon and trying to work out why it moved in a circular orbit. The fact that it did not move in a straight line suggested to him that there must be a force acting on it. Newton proposed an idea that no-one else had even considered: that gravity from the Earth acted through space and exerted a force on the Moon. He then generalised this idea and suggested that gravitation was a force of attraction that acted between any bodies.
3Fg

(a)

m

Fg R

Fg

M

(b)

m

Fg __ 4
2R

Fg __ 4

M

(c)

3m

3Fg

M

R

(d)

3m

6Fg

6Fg

2M

R
Figure 3.1 The gravitational force of attraction between two bodies depends on their separation and each of their masses.
Fg = 6.67 x 10 –11 N Fg = 6.67 x 10 –11 N

The gravitational force acting between two bodies, m and M: • is one of attraction, and acts from the centre of each mass • acts equally on each mass (Newton’s third law): F1 = −F2 • is weaker if the masses are further apart. Gravitation acts in an inverse 1 square manner, i.e. F ∝ 2 where R is the distance between the centres of R the masses • depends directly on the mass of each body involved, i.e. F ∝ m and F ∝ M. Importantly, Newton showed that the force acts as if the mass of each body is located at its centre of mass. This is why the distance of separation R must be measured from the centre of each object.
The inclusion of a constant, G, gives NEWTON’S LAW OF UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION: GMm F= R2 where F is the gravitational force acting on each body (N) M and m are the masses of the bodies (kg) R is the distance between the centres of the bodies (m). The universal gravitational constant G is equal to 6.67 × 10−11 N m2 kg−2.

Fg

Fg
1 kg

1 kg

The extremely small value of the universal gravitational constant gives an indication of why gravitational forces are not noticeable between everyday objects. Consider the example of two 1.0 kg dolls whose centres are 1 metre apart (see Figure 3.2). The gravitational force of attraction, F, between these bodies is given by: GMm F= R2 −11 = 6.67 × 10 × 1.0 × 1.0 1.02 = 6.67 × 10−11 N

1m

Figure 3.2 The gravitational force of
attraction between these two dolls is so weak that it does not cause them to be thrown together!

70

MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS

This force is so small as to be insignificant. However, if one (or both) of the objects involved is extremely massive, then the gravitational force can have some effect. Consider the gravitational force of attraction between a 1 kg mass and the Earth. If the mass is at the Earth’s surface, then the distance between it and the centre of the Earth is 6400 km or 6.4 × 106 m. Given that the mass of the Earth, ME, is 6.0 × 1024 kg, the gravitational force of attraction that the 1 kg mass and the Earth exert on each other is: GMEm F= R2 6.67 × 10−11 × 6.0 × 1024 × 1.0 = (6.4 × 106)2 = 9.8 N This value is the weight of the 1 kg mass. This weight force of 9.8 N acts on both the 1 kg mass and the Earth (Newton’s third law). However, the effect of the force is vastly different. If the 1 kg mass is free to fall, it will accelerate at 9.8 m s−2 towards the Earth, whereas the Earth with its enormous mass, will not be moved to any measurable degree by this 9.8 N force.

(a) Fg

(b)

(c) Fg Fg Fg Fg Fg Fg Fg

Fg

Fg

Figure 3.3 The effect of the gravitational force is significant when one of the masses involved is large. Gravitation is the force that (a) pulls you towards the Earth, (b) causes a projectile to fall towards the Earth, and (c) causes the Moon to ‘fall’ around the Earth.

Gravitation, although it is the weakest of the four fundamental forces that exist in nature (see Physics in Action at the end of this section), is the most farreaching of these forces; its influence stretches across the Universe.

Physics file
Newton explained the motion of the planets in terms of gravitational forces. He said that the planets were continually deviating from straight-line motion as a result of the gravitational force from the Sun that was continually acting on them. Einstein had a different explanation. His theory of general relativity proposed that the planets moved through space-time that had been warped by the Sun's gravitational field. As physicist John Wheeler noted, ‘Matter tells space how to curve, and curved space tells matter how to move.’

Worked example 3.1A.
A 10.0 kg watermelon falls a short distance to the ground. If the Earth has a radius of 6.4 × 106 m (6400 km) and a mass of 6.0 × 1024 kg, calculate:
a b c d

the gravitational force that the Earth exerts on the watermelon the gravitational force that the watermelon exerts on the Earth the acceleration of the watermelon towards the Earth the acceleration of the Earth towards the watermelon.

Solution
a

The gravitational force of attraction that the Earth exerts on the watermelon is: GMm F= R2 6.67 × 10−11 × 6.0 × 1024 × 10.0 = (6.4 × 106)2 = 98 N

Gravity and satellites

71

b

The watermelon also exerts a force of attraction of 98 N on the Earth. These forces are an action/reaction pair. Even though the forces acting on the Earth and the watermelon are equal in size, the effect of these forces on each body is very different. The acceleration of the watermelon is: ΣF a= mmelon = 98 10

c

= 9.8 m s−2 towards the centre of the Earth This answer is, of course, the acceleration of all free-falling objects near the Earth’s surface.
d

The acceleration of the Earth is: ΣF a= mE = 98 6.0 × 1024

= 1.6 × 10−23 m s−2 towards the centre of the watermelon The motion of the Earth is hardly affected by the gravitational force of the watermelon.

Worked example 3.1B.
The gravitational force that acts on a 1200 kg space probe on the surface of Mars is 4.43 × 103 N. The radius of Mars is 3400 km. Without using the mass of Mars, determine the gravitational force that acts on the space probe when it is:
a b

3400 km above the surface of Mars 6800 km above the surface of Mars.

Solution
a

Physics file
Newton’s law of universal gravitation led to the discovery of Neptune in 1846. At that time, only the seven innermost planets out to Uranus were known. A French astronomer, Urbain Leverrier, noticed a perturbation (a slight wobble) in the orbit of Uranus, and deduced that there must be another body beyond Uranus that was causing this to happen. Using just Newton’s law of universal gravitation, he calculated the location of this body in the sky. Leverrier informed the Berlin Observatory of his finding and, within half an hour of receiving his message, they had discovered Neptune.

There is an inverse square relationship between gravitational force and the distance between the centres of the objects: 1 i.e. F ∝ 2 R When it is sitting on the surface of Mars, the probe is 3400 km from the centre of the planet and the gravitational force acting on it is 4.43 × 103 N. When the probe is at an altitude of 3400 km, it is 6800 km from the centre of Mars. This is double the distance from the centre compared to when it was on the surface. If the distance between the masses has doubled, then the size of the forces acting must be onequarter of the original value: i.e. F = = 4.43 × 103 (2)2 4.43 × 103 4

= 1.11 × 103 N The inverse square nature of the relationship between force and distance can also be used to determine the force: F2 (R )2 = 12 (R2) F1 F2 (3400)2 3 = 4.43 × 10 (6800)2 3 ∴ F2 = 1.11 ×10 N ∴ If this ratio approach is used it is not necessary to use standard SI units, but the units used for each of the quantities must be the same.

72

MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS

b

At 6800 km above the surface of Mars, the probe is 10 200 km from the centre. This is three times its separation from the centre when it was on the surface, and so the gravitational force will be one-ninth of its original strength: i.e. F = = 4.43 × 103 (3)2 4.43 × 103 9

= 492 N The ratio of the forces and distances can again be used to find the size of this force: F2 (R1)2 = (R2)2 F1 ∴ F2 (3400)2 3 = 4.43 × 10 (10 200)2

∴ F2 = 492 N

PHYSICS IN ACTION

How the mass of the Earth was first determined
The value of the universal gravitational constant, G, was first determined around 1844. The groundwork for this determination was done by Englishman Henry Cavendish in 1798. Cavendish, a rather eccentric man, was enormously wealthy and he devoted his life to scientific pursuits. He used the apparatus shown in Figure 3.4 to obtain the first direct measurement of the gravitational force of attraction between small objects. A large case, Z, enclosed two pairs of lead spheres: a large pair, W, and a smaller pair, X, suspended from a metal rod that was itself suspended by a fine wire. The large spheres, initially close to the floor, were raised so that they were adjacent to but on opposite sides of the smaller spheres. The smaller spheres experienced a gravitational force of attraction towards the larger spheres. As they swung closer the wire twisted. The amount of twist gave Cavendish a measure of the size of the gravitational forces. He needed a small telescope, T, illuminated by a lamp, L, to detect the tiny movement. These measurements enabled Cavendish to obtain the first calculation of the density of the Earth. The mass of the Earth, ME, could then be determined. The radius of the Earth, long known as 6.4 × 106 m, and the gravitational force on a 1 kg mass were used to calculate the Earth’s mass. GMEM R2 6.67 × 10−11 × ME × 1.0 ∴ 9.8 = (6.4 × 106)2 F= ∴ ME = 9.8 × (6.4 × 106)2 6.67 × 10−11 × 1.0

= 6.0 × 1024 kg The value for G that was calculated later was only 1% different from the value that we use today.
Z Z

L

L

T

W

W

T

x x Z Z Figure 3.4 A diagram of the apparatus that was used by English
physicist Henry Cavendish in 1798 to experimentally determine the value of the Earth’s density.

Gravity and satellites

73

PHYSICS IN ACTION

Gravitation: The weakest force
Just four fundamental forces are responsible for the behaviour of matter, ranging from the smallest subatomic particles through to the most massive galaxies. These are the strong nuclear force, weak nuclear force, electromagnetic force and gravitational force. The strongest of these forces, the strong force, is the force that binds the nucleus. It is a force of attraction that acts between nucleons (protons and neutrons), and is strong enough to overcome the repulsion between the protons in the nucleus. It only acts over a very short distance, of the order of 10−15 m, which is approximately the distance between adjacent nucleons. The weak force is an extremely short-range force that acts inside atomic nuclei. It is responsible for radioactive processes such as beta decay. The weak force is much weaker than the strong nuclear and electromagnetic forces. Electromagnetic forces act between charged particles: like charges repel and unlike charges attract. Compared with the strong force, the electromagnetic force is a long-range force. It acts to hold electrons in their orbits around atomic nuclei, but its strength varies as the inverse square of the distance between the charges. The electromagnetic force can act over an infinite distance. The gravitational force is also a long-range force that acts between all bodies. Gravitational forces not only make things fall to the ground when they are dropped, they also extend across space and hold the planets in their orbits around the Sun—they hold galaxies together. The gravitational force affects the rate at which the Universe is expanding. Physicists are currently scanning the Universe in an effort to find gravity waves. Some predict that collapsing stars will create ripples in space-time that we will be able to detect. While gravitation, along with electromagnetism, has the longest range of the four fundamental forces, it is by far the weakest of these forces. Its strength is just 10−25 times that of even the weak force. Over extremely small distances, the strong, electromagnetic and weak forces are dominant and the gravitational attraction between the particles is of no significance. But on the much larger scale of outer space, the opposite situation arises: gravitation rules! The electromagnetic force has no influence over these distances because, at a distance, matter appears uncharged.

3.1 SUMMARY

NEWTON’S LAW OF UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION

• Gravitation is a force of attraction that acts between all bodies. • The gravitational force acts equally on each of the bodies. • The gravitational force is directly related to the masses. That is: F ∝ M, m • The gravitational force is weaker when the bodies are further apart. There is an inverse square relationship between the force and the distance of separation of the bodies. That is: 1 F∝ 2 R

• The separation distance of the bodies is measured from the centre of mass of each object. • Newton’s law of universal gravitation is: GMm F= R2 • The constant of universal gravitation is: G = 6.67 × 10−11 N m2 kg−2

74

MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS

3.1 QUESTIONS
For these questions, assume that G = 6.67 × 10−11 N m2 kg−2, and that distances are measured between the centres of the bodies.
1 5

Calculate the gravitational force of attraction that exists between the following objects. (Assume that mass of Earth = 6.0 × 1024 kg, radius of Earth = 6.4 × 106 m, mass of the Moon = 7.3 × 1022 kg, mean radius of Moon’s orbit = 3.8 × 108 m.)
a

A comet of mass 1000 kg is plummeting towards Jupiter. Jupiter has a mass of 1.90 × 1027 kg and a planetary radius of 7.15 × 107 m. When the comet is about to crash into Jupiter calculate the following:
a

the magnitude of the gravitational force that Jupiter exerts on the comet the magnitude of the gravitational force that the comet exerts on Jupiter the acceleration of the comet towards Jupiter the acceleration of Jupiter towards the comet.

b

a 100 g apple and a 200 g orange that are 50 cm apart a pair of 1000 kg boulders that are 10.0 m apart a satellite of mass 20 000 kg in orbit at an altitude of 600 km above the Earth the Moon and the Earth the Earth and a 60 kg student standing on its surface a proton of mass 1.67 × 10−27 kg and an electron of mass 9.11 × 10−31 kg separated by 5.30 × 10−11 m in a hydrogen atom.
6

c d

b c

d e

An astronaut travels away from Earth to a region in space where the gravitational force due to Earth is only 1.0% of that at Earth’s surface. What distance, in Earth radii, is the astronaut from the centre of the Earth?

f

The following information applies to questions 7 and 8. The planet Alpha, whose mass is M, has one moon Beta of mass 0.01M. The mean distance between the centres of Alpha and Beta is R.

2

Newton’s law of universal gravitation defines the symbol G as a ‘universal constant’.
a b

Beta Y X

Explain the meaning of this term and its significance. Identify another universal constant.

3

An astronaut standing on the surface of the Moon experiences a gravitational force of attraction of 200 N. He then moves away from the surface of the Moon to an altitude where the gravitational force is 50 N.
a

Alpha

What is the height of the new location in terms of the radius of the Moon? The astronaut now travels to another location at a height of three Moon radii above the surface. Calculate the gravitational force at this altitude.
7 a

b

If an asteroid is at point X, exactly halfway between the centres of Alpha and Beta, calculate the value of the ratio:

4

Mars has two natural satellites. Phobos has a mean orbital radius of 9.4 × 106 m, while the other moon, Deimos, is located at a mean distance of 2.35 × 107 m from the centre of Mars. Data: mass of Mars = 6.42 × 1023 kg; mass of Phobos = 1.08 × 1016 kg; mass of Deimos = 1.8 × 1015 kg. Calculate the value of the ratio:

force exerted on asteroid by Alpha force exerted on asteroid by Beta b At what distance, expressed in terms of R, from the planet Alpha, along a straight line joining the centres of Alpha and Beta, will the ratio expressed in part a be equal to 8100?
8

gravitational force exerted by Mars on Phobos gravitational force exerted by Mars on Deimos

Point Y represents the distance from planet Alpha where the magnitude of the net gravitational force is zero. What is this distance in terms of R?

Gravity and satellites

75

2 (a) Gravitational fields B S In physics. the weight of the 1 kg mass decreases as you move further from the centre of the Earth.5 A field is a region where a body will experience force. In other words. For example. If you could take the 1 kg mass and force-meter and repeat this exercise at higher and higher altitudes. 1 kg 1 kg This experiment shows that the strength of the gravitational field in the room is uniform.5b. It becomes weaker at higher altitudes.8 N 9.g. At the Earth’s surface. a force of 9. The region around electrically charged objects is an electric field E. A gravitational field g can be represented diagramatically by lines with arrows that show the direction of the force on the object.1 N. you would find that the gravitational force on the mass becomes less and less. If a charged particle is placed in this region. the force-meter would read 7. On a larger scale. around a magnet there is a magnetic field B. this may be either a force of attraction or repulsion. a field is a region in which an object experiences a force.3 N. A mass that is close to the Earth experiences a force of attraction towards it. depending on the sign of the charges.8 N vertically downwards at every point in the room. g 9. you will find that the gravitational force is 9. If you take a 1 kg mass to various parts of the room and use a force-meter to measure the gravitational force that acts on it. (b) The uniform gravitational field g is represented by evenly spaced parallel lines in the direction of the force. As illustrated in Figure 3. the results would be the same. If this exercise were to be repeated at different places around the world.6 (a) The gravitational force on a 1 kg mass is constant at 9. At an altitude of 1000 km. Now imagine that you have a giant ladder that stretches up into space. e. They will experience a force of attraction towards the magnet if they are placed in this region.8 N 9. The gravitational field in your classroom is uniform. so the field is represented by evenly spaced parallel lines.8 N acts on the mass. and 5000 km up it would show just 3. Gravitational forces are always forces of attraction. the gravitational field around the Earth is directed towards the centre of the Earth and is not uniform. The gravitational field in your classroom can be analysed by examining the gravitational force that acts on a sample mass at different points in the room. These fields are invisible. it will experience an electric force.8 N 9. 76 MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS . A gravitational field g is a region around a mass in which other masses will experience a gravitational force. (a) The paper clip experiences a force because it is in the magnetic field B of the bar magnet.8 N everywhere in your classroom. (a) 1 kg 1 kg (b) F Figure 3.8 N Figure 3. (b) The small charged particles experience forces because they are in the electric field E of the central charge. N F Using diagrams to represent gravitational fields (b) F E The Earth has a gravitational field around it. in the direction of the force.3. iron and cobalt. This field affects objects with magnetic properties.

4 × 106 m) Figure 3. g (N kg–1) The magnitude of a gravitational field is known as the gravitational field strength. Since gravitational field strength g is defined as gravitational force per unit mass. g. G = universal gravitation constant = 6.67 × 10−11 N m2 kg−2 M = central mass (kg) R = distance from the centre of the central mass (in m) g = gravitational field strength at that location (in N kg−1) Gravity and satellites 77 .e. the gravitational field is relatively strong but at higher altitudes where the field lines are spread out.3 N 9. g. we can say that: F GMm 1 GM g = = × = m m R2 R2 The GRAVITATIONAL FIELD STRENGTH is given by: GM g= 2 R 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 g= Gm E R2 If the gravitational field strength g is known. The field lines in Figure 3. is represented by radial lines directed towards the centre of the Earth. Close to the Earth where the field lines are close together. the gravitational field is weaker.8 N 1 kg 5000 km 1000 km 1 kg 1 kg (b) g Physics file Black holes are created when large stars collapse in on themselves at the end of their life cycle. There is an inverse square relationship between the field strength g and the distance R from the centre of the Earth. the weight of a mass in the field (i. (not t o scale) Figure 3.1 N 7. The field is strongest where the lines are closest. the gravitational force acting on the mass) can be found by using: The WEIGHT of a body is given by: Fg = mg = where GMm R2 RE 2R E 3R E 4R E 5R E 6R E Distance (R ) from centre of Earth (R E = radius of Earth = 6. tending to zero at a large distance from the Earth. A massive black hole. has been detected at the centre of our Milky Way galaxy.7 (a) The gravitational force acting on a 1 kg mass becomes smaller at greater distances from the Earth. Calculating the gravitational field strength Gravitational field strength. (b) This non-uniform gravitational field. Astronomers are only able to detect black holes by studying the behaviour of matter and other stars in the vicinity.8 The gravitational field strength around the Earth.(a) 3. This creates a region where gravity is so strong that light and other forms of radiation cannot escape from the star. This is defined as the gravitational force that acts on each kilogram of a body in the field.7b are not equally spaced and this indicates that the gravitational field strength is not uniform. weighing 4 million times as much as the Sun.

the changing gravitational field strength will need to be taken into account (see Section 3. The reason for this is that the Earth is not perfectly spherical.8 N kg–1 a = 9. Counteracting this effect is the fact that the radius is 80 about one-quarter that of the Earth. The poles are slightly closer to the centre of the Earth. Australia’s Optus communications satellites are in orbit at an altitude of about 36 000 km where Earth’s gravitational field has a strength of only 0. for problems involving the motion of falling bodies and projectiles close to the Earth’s surface.8 N kg–1 A freely falling object is one that is influenced only by a gravitational force. Objects whose motion is significantly affected by air resistance are not considered to be freely falling.22 N kg−1.22 N kg–1 The gravitational field strength of the Earth is 9.6 m s–2 Figure 3.36 000 km g = 0. the gravitational field strength is 8. has a mass that is just one-fifth that of the Moon. Thus. it is slightly flattened at the poles.83 N kg−1 than at the equator where g is 9. or is launched to. The largest asteroid. Similarly.8 N kg−1. • The gravitational fields around asteroids are extremely weak. this is due to their small mass. (a) (b) g = 9. the acceleration of a freely falling body is equal to the gravitational field strength.10 The Moon has a weaker gravitational field than the Earth and so freely falling bodies accelerate less than they do on Earth. it would reach a height of over 600 m! 6400 km g = 2. If you were standing on Ceres and you tossed a rock upwards at 20 m s−1. Earth Moon Figure 3.3 N kg–1 g = 8. At each location. This is much weaker than the Earth’s field because the mass of the Moon is about 1 that of the Earth. Its field strength is only 0. The International Space Station has been in orbit at this altitude since 1998.7 N kg−1.8 N kg−1 only at the surface of the Earth.4). objects that have an external force such as that provided by a rocket are not in free-fall.9 At 400 km above the Earth’s surface. 78 MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS . Some implications of this relationship are as follows. • The gravitational field of the Earth is actually slightly stronger at the poles where g is 9. Again. However.78 N kg−1.7 N kg–1 g = 9. the gravitational field strength at the surface of a central body depends directly on the mass of the body. • The Moon has a gravitational field. if an object falls from.5 N kg–1 Gravitational fields and freely falling objects 1000 km 400 km surface g = 7.6 N kg–1 a = 1.6 N kg−1 at its surface. Nevertheless.3 N kg−1 at its surface. and is related in an inverse square manner to the distance from the centre of the body. Ceres.8 m s–2 g = 1. a high altitude. it is reasonable to assume that the gravitational field strength is constant at 9. but it is only 1.

1 Gravitational fields around the Solar System. The ACCELERATION OF A FREELY FALLING OBJECT is given by the gravitational field strength g at that location.The net force acting on an object of mass m in free-fall is therefore ΣF = mg.8 3.67 × 10−11 × 7. freely falling objects accelerate at 1. The gravitational field above a large deposit of oil is weaker than above surrounding areas because the oil has a lower density and is therefore less massive than the surrounding rock.74 × 106 m).67 × 10−11 × 6. radius of Earth is 6. Ore bodies can be found in the same way.0 × 1024 (6. a Calculate the gravitational field strength g at the surface of the Earth (mass of Earth is 6. m m In other words.2A.3 8.2 0.8 = 980 N On the Moon. the acceleration of a freely falling object is equal to the gravitational field strength. Near Earth where the gravitational field strength is 9. lead or zinc can be almost twice as dense as the surrounding rock. the astronaut would weigh only: Fg = mg = 100 × 1.8 N kg−1. ΣF mg The acceleration of the object is then a = = = g. radius of Moon is 1. In this case the gravimeter would register a stronger gravitational field than the surrounding area. From Newton’s second law.4 8.74 × 106)2 = 1.6 m s−2.6 24. On the Moon where the strength of gravity is only 1.34 × 1022 kg. BHP Billiton in Melbourne has developed a more sensitive device— an airborne gravity gradiometer—to help detect deposits containing diamonds! At the Moon’s surface: GM g= 2 R = 6.6 10.4 × 106)2 = 9.8 N kg−1 b Physics file Resource companies use sensitive gravitymeters (gravimeters) in their search for mineral deposits. b Physics file It is a simple matter to show that N kg−1 and m s−2 are equivalent units. Determine the weight of an astronaut. An ore body of minerals such as silver.34 × 1022 (1.2 11. The Pilbara iron ore deposit in Western Australia was identified from a gravity survey.7 = 170 N PRACTICAL ACTIVITY 14 Acceleration due to gravity Gravity and satellites 79 . you will remember that: 1 N = 1 kg m s−2 ∴ 1 N kg−1 = 1 kg m s−2 × kg−1 = 1 m s−2 c Solution a At the Earth’s surface: GM g= 2 R = 6.4 × 106 m). Object Sun* Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter* Saturn* Uranus* Neptune* Pluto Gravitational field strength at surface (N kg−1) 270 3.62 N kg−1 c On Earth. whose total mass is 100 kg.8 m s−2. freely falling objects accelerate at 9.0 × 1024 kg. Table 3. *These objects are gaseous and do not have solid surfaces. at each of these locations. Calculate the gravitational field strength g at the surface of the Moon (mass of Moon is 7. F = ma.6 N kg−1. the astronaut would weigh: Fg = mg = 100 × 9.67 Worked example 3.1 9. Geologists detect this as they fly over the area in a survey plane.

radius of Earth is 6. the gravitational field strength is 9.2B. 3. and becomes weaker at greater distances from the central body.4 × 106 + 1. Fg. 80 MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS .67 × 10−11 × 6. • Gravitational field strength g is given by: GM g= 2 R • At the surface of the Earth.9 × 106)2 c = 1.4 × 106) (6. of the object and is given by: GMm Fg = mg = R2 • Any object that is falling freely through a gravitational field will fall with an acceleration equal to the gravitational field strength at that location.2 The field strength at 500 km altitude is 1.9 × 106 m At 1000 km.0 × 1024 kg.Worked example 3. so it will fall with an acceleration of 7. R = 7.4 × 106 m GM Therefore: g = R2 = 6. A 50 kg piece of space junk is falling towards Earth from a height of 1000 km above the Earth’s surface (mass of Earth is 6.3 m s−2 towards Earth. • The gravitational force acting on an object in a gravitational field is also called the weight. the distance of the junk from the Earth’s centre is: R = 6. R = 6.4 × 106)2 Solution a = 7.2 SUMMARY GRAVITATIONAL FIELDS • A gravitational field is a region in which any body will experience a gravitational force. You would expect the gravitational field to be stronger at the lower altitude. Ignoring air resistance.4 × 106 m).0 × 106 = 7.8 N kg−1.0 × 1024 (7.3 N kg−1 b The acceleration of the space junk will equal the gravitational field strength. • The gravitational field strength g is greater around more massive central objects.2 times greater than the field strength at 1000 km.4 × 106 m g(500 km) GM GM = 2 / g(1000 km) R 500 km R 21000 km = = R 21000 km R 2500 km (7. This can be confirmed by using a ratio approach: At 500 km. determine: a b c the gravitational field strength at this height the acceleration of the space junk at this height as it falls the value of the ratio: field strength at 500 km altitude field strength at 1000 km altitude At a height of 1000 km.

Gravity and satellites 81 .3 × 1022 kg.67 × 10−11 N m2 kg−2 and that the gravitational field strength on the surface of the Earth. A typical neutron star may have a mass of 3. The mass of the Moon is 7.8 N kg−1. calculate the weight of an 80 kg astronaut on the surface of each of the following planets: a b c Mercury Saturn Jupiter. is 9.0 × 1030 kg and a radius of 10 km. the mass of the Moon is 7.15 × 107 m The following information applies to questions 7–9. 11 3 The result of your calculation for question 1 should indicate that the gravitational field strength for Saturn is very close in value to that on Earth. However. 7 Calculate the gravitational field strength at the surface of such a star. at the surface of each of the following planets.2 QUESTIONS Assume that G = 6. How do you account for the fact that both planets have similar gravitational field strengths? 12 the gravitational force acting on X the acceleration of X the gravitational force acting on Y the acceleration of Y the gravitational field strength at this location. Briefly explain how such a meter could be used to locate mineral deposits. 4 5 6 Calculate the gravitational field strength at this height. g. 1 Calculate the gravitational field strength.0RE acceleration at 2.0 × 106 m from the centre of the Moon. which produce very large gravitational fields. i.03 × 107 m 7.69 × 1026 kg 1.e. the Earth’s radius and mass are very different from that of Saturn. Calculate: a b c d e 8 9 10 2 Using your answers to question 1. Meteor X has a mass of 500 kg and meteor Y has a mass of 50 kg.3. A 100 kg meteor is falling towards the Earth from a distance of 4. approximately 10 N kg−1. calculate the distance of this point from the centre of the Earth. Given that the mass of Earth is 6. Calculate the gravitational field strength at a distance of 5000 km from this star. X and Y.0RE There is a point between the Earth and the Moon where the total gravitational field is zero.8 × 108 m. Both are 3. Two meteors. The significance of this is that returning lunar missions are able to return to Earth under the influence of the Earth’s field once they pass this point.3 × 1022 kg and the radius of the Moon’s orbit is 3.90 × 1027 kg Radius 2.0 × 1024 kg.44 × 106 m 6. whose respective masses and radii are given in the following table: Planet Mercury Saturn Jupiter Mass 3. What would be the magnitude of the acceleration of a 10 000-tonne asteroid located at this distance and falling towards this star? A gravimeter is a device that can measure the Earth’s gravitational field strength very accurately.30 × 1023 kg 5. such as neutron stars. There are bodies outside our Solar System.0 Earth radii from the centre of the Earth (4.0R E). g. are falling towards the Moon. What is the acceleration of the meteor at this height? For this meteor determine the ratio: acceleration at 4. The following information applies to questions 4–6.

(a) The outer. If you travelled from the Sun to Pluto.3 Satellites in orbit A satellite is an object in a stable orbit around another object. He reasoned that if this force of gravity was not acting on the Moon.11 Newton realised that the gravitational attraction of the Earth was determining the motion of both the Moon and the apple.3. if air resistance was ignored and if the cannonball was fired fast enough. (b) The inner. The asteroid belt lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. because of air resistance. If it was fired with a greater velocity it would follow a less curved path and land a greater distance from the mountain. Newton reasoned that. or Jovian. planets are spread apart. He was comparing the motion of the Moon with the motion of a falling apple and realised that it was the gravitational force of attraction towards the Earth that determined the motion of both objects. At this speed it would continue to circle the Earth indefinitely. Fg Fg Figure 3. or terrestrial. Figure 3. Figure 3. In reality satellites could not orbit the Earth at low altitudes. it could travel around the Earth and reach the place from where it had been launched. was also falling. it would move with constant velocity in a straight line at a tangent to its orbit. Newton proposed that the Moon. It was continuously falling to the Earth without actually getting any closer to the Earth. Isaac Newton developed the notion of satellite motion while working on his theory of gravitation.12 Newton’s original sketch shows how a projectile that was fired fast (a) Mars enough would fall all the way around the Earth and become an Earth satellite. Nevertheless Newton had proposed the notion of an artificial satellite almost 300 years before one was actually launched. planets are relatively small and close together. He devised a thought experiment in which he compared the motion of the Moon with the motion of a cannonball fired horizontally from the top of a high mountain. Mercury 82 Venus MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS . by the time you reached Uranus you would be just halfway. if the cannonball was fired at a low speed it would not travel a great distance before gravitation pulled it to the ground.13 The outer planets of the solar system have such large orbits that they cannot be shown on the same scale diagram as the inner planets. like the apple. Pluto Neptune Jupiter Saturn Uranus (b) Earth Mars Sun In this thought experiment.

Sputnik 1 orbited at an altitude of 900 km and had an orbital period of 96 minutes. Our deep space weather pictures come from the Japanese GMS satellite. several hundred kilometres above the Earth’s surface in 1985 and 1987. however. Radio signals from Pioneer 10 finally cut out in 2003. It was launched in 1972 and passed the orbit of Pluto in 1984. The Hubble Space Telescope is used by astronomers to view objects right at the edge of the Universe. Most satellites. These are used for a multitude of different purposes.Natural satellites There are many different natural satellites.2 Planet Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto The moons of the planets in the Solar System. Moons 0 0 1 2 >30 >30 21 8 1 Artificial satellites Since the Space Age began in the 1950s. The planets and the asteroids are natural satellites of the Sun. to monitor the composition of the atmosphere and to determine the extent of rainforest destruction. It carried two radio transmitters that emitted a continuous series of beeps that were picked up by amateur radio operators around the world. They orbit in free-fall and the only force acting is the gravitational attraction between themselves and the body about which they orbit.14 Australia’s Optus satellites were released from the cargo bays of space shuttles. Australia uses the Optus (formerly known as AUSSAT) satellites for communications. Gravity and satellites 83 . It is estimated that Pioneer 10 will travel through interstellar space for another 80 000 years before encountering another star. have many natural satellites in orbit around them with more being discovered every year. while close-range images are received from the American NOAA satellites. Physics file The first space probe to leave the Solar System was Pioneer 10. It was a metal sphere just 58 cm in diameter and 84 kg in mass. are used for military and espionage purposes.2. Figure 3. Physics file The first artificial satellite. Other satellites are helping to geologically map the surface of the Earth. was launched by the Soviet Union on 4 October 1957. A moon is a natural satellite. Artificial satellites are often equipped with tanks of propellant that are squirted in the appropriate direction when the orbit of the satellite needs to be adjusted. Table 3. The number of planetary moons is shown in Table 3. Jupiter. The Earth has one natural satellite: the Moon. The largest planets. The propulsion system on the satellites then moved them to their geostationary orbits at an altitude of 36 000 km. Saturn and Uranus. thousands of artificial satellites have been launched into orbit around the Earth. Sputnik 1. Artificial and natural satellites are not propelled by rockets or engines.

any object that is falling freely in a gravitational field will have an acceleration that is determined by the gravitational field strength.3 that the acceleration of each satellite is determined by the gravitational field strength in its particular orbit. it only acts to change its direction of motion.80 0.15 (a) The only force acting on an artificial satellite is the gravitational attraction of the central body. Higher altitude orbits have weaker gravitational fields. They also control the navigation systems found in some new cars in which the car tells you how to get to your destination. so the centre of the orbit must be the centre of the central mass.(a) (b) Fg v Fg artificial satellite v Moon Figure 3. As you will recall from Section 3. Therefore the gravitational forces acting on satellites are also weaker.3 Data for three artificial Earth satellites.7 3.2. The satellite will continually fall towards the Earth. (b) The only force acting on a natural satellite is the gravitational attraction of the central body. Satellite Altitude (km) 380 26 500 35 900 Orbital radius (km) 6 760 20 200 42 300 Gravitational field strength (N kg−1) 8. the gravitational field strength is 8.16 The gravitational force that acts on a satellite in a circular orbit is always at right angles to the velocity of the satellite. The circular motion of the HST means that it has a centripetal acceleration of 8. These satellites form the global positioning system (GPS) network. Figure 3. The size of the centripetal acceleration is determined by the gravitational field strength at the location. For example. the orbit is circular as discussed in Chapter 2.2 m s−2 as it orbits. The force is directed towards the centre of the central mass and gives the satellite a centripetal acceleration.9 3. If the gravitational force that acts on the satellite is always perpendicular to the velocity of the satellite.57 0. GPS receiving units have a wide range of commercial and military applications. and causes the satellite to move in a circular path with constant speed. 84 MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS . The gravitational force does not cause the satellite to speed up or slow down. Table 3. At this location. satellite Fg Fg Fg Fg Fg Fg Satellites in circular orbits The gravitational force that acts on a satellite is always directed towards the centre of the central mass. and it will fall at the same rate at which the curved surface of the Earth is falling away from it. and so the satellite never actually gets any closer to the Earth as it orbits. This provides the necessary centripetal force.22 ISS NAVSTAR Optus B 92 min 12 h 24 h It can be seen from Table 3.80 0. and so their rates of acceleration towards the central body are smaller than those of low-orbit satellites. GPS units help save bushwalkers who are lost and allow weekend sailors to know where they are. They allow people to know their location on Earth to within a few metres.1 Acceleration (m s−2) 8. Physics file There are 24 NAVSTAR satellites in orbit with another 21 launches planned. A satellite is in free-fall. The only force acting on it is the gravitational attraction of the central body.22 Period Speed (km s−1) 7.2 N kg−1. the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is in orbit at an altitude of 600 km.57 0.

Geostationary satellites are required. the dishes are inclined to the north at 90° − 38° = 52°. Worked example 3. approximately 36 000 km above the surface of the Earth. which has a latitude of 38° south. Its period of orbit is 24 hours so that it revolves at the same rate at which the Earth turns. equations that were used to analyse circular motion in Chapter 2 can be used again. or by determining the gravitational field strength at its location. They then turn with the Earth and so remain fixed above one point on the Equator. The position of these satellites is indicated by the angle and direction of satellite dishes. Low-orbit satellites are of limited use in this regard because they may complete up to 15 orbits each day and so will be over their home country for only a small portion of the day. As with the motion of freely falling objects at the Earth’s surface. calculate: a b c d its orbital radius the gravitational field strength at this radius Optus B’s orbital speed its acceleration.0 × 1024 kg and the mass of Optus B is 1500 kg. satellite dishes point straight up! Satellite acceleration a = The gravitational force. Gravity and satellites 85 . In Australia. acting on the satellite can then be found by using Newton’s second law: Fg = where v = speed (m s−1) mv 2 4π2Rm GMm = = = mg R2 R T2 R = radius of orbit (m) T = period of orbit (s) M = central mass (kg) m = mass of the satellite (kg) g = gravitational field strength at R (N kg−1) These relationships can be manipulated to determine any feature of a satellite’s motion—its speed. radius of orbit or period of orbit. distance 2πR = time T Speed v = The centripetal acceleration a of the satellite can also be calculated by considering its circular motion.3A. They can also be used to find the mass of the central body. Optus B is a geostationary satellite. The speed relationship for circular motion can be substituted into the centripetal acceleration formula to give: v 2 4π2R Centripetal acceleration a = = R T2 Given that the centripetal acceleration of the satellite is equal to the gravitational field strength at the location of its orbit. The speed v of the satellite can be calculated from its motion for one revolution. it follows that: v 2 4π2R GMm = = =g R2 R T2 Physics file Communications satellites are most useful if they are accessible 24 hours a day. The angle of elevation at which the dishes are inclined is given by (90 − latitude)°. In countries on the Equator.Calculating the orbital properties of a satellite For a satellite in a stable circular orbit of radius R and period T. It will travel a distance equal to the circumference of the circular orbit (2πR) in a time T. they point in a northerly direction to a position in the sky above the Equator. they have a period of 24 hours. the mass of the satellite itself has no bearing on any of these quantities. Given that the mass of the Earth is 6. Fg. For example in Melbourne. These are satellites that orbit at the same rate at which the Earth spins. This is achieved by placing the satellites in an orbit above the Equator at a radius 42 300 km.

08 × 103 m s−1 i.07 × 109 m and an orbital period of 6. use: GM 4π2R = R2 T2 4π2R3 ⇒M= GT2 = 4 × π2 × (1.66 × 1023 kg.23 × 107 m So the orbital radius of Optus B is 42 300 km.0 × 1024 = (4.Solution a Period T = 24 hours = 24 × 60 × 60 = 86 400 s To calculate R.07 × 109)3 6. Ganymede has a mass of 1.67 × 10−11 × (6.5 Earth radii from the surface of the Earth.22 m s−2. a = g = 0.18 × 105)2 = 1. This is about 5. Ganymede is the largest of Jupiter’s moons. Calculate the gravitational force that Ganymede exerts on Jupiter.90 × 1027 kg 86 MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS . c The speed of Optus B is given by: 2πR v= T 2π × 4.3B.23 × 107 = 86 400 = 3.67 × 10−11 × 6.e. about 3 km s−1 d The acceleration of the satellite as it orbits is equal to the gravitational field strength at this radius as calculated in part b.e. an orbital radius of 1. a b c d Use this information to determine the mass of Jupiter. use: GM 4π2R = R2 T2 ⇒ R3 = ⇒R= GMT 2 4 π2 3 GMT 2 4π2 = 4. Worked example 3.18 × 105 s. Calculate the orbital speed of Ganymede. b Gravitational field strength: g= GM R2 6. i.22 N kg−1. It is about the same size as the planet Mercury.22 N kg−1 This satellite is in orbit at a great distance from the Earth and the gravitational field strength at its location is just 0. What is the size of the gravitational force that Jupiter exerts on Ganymede? Solution a To calculate the mass of Jupiter.23 × 107)2 = 0.

Kepler. These laws are: 1 The planets move in elliptical orbits with the Sun at one focus. i.g.b The orbital speed of Ganymede is: 2πR v= T = 2 × π × 1. Copernicus had proposed a Sun-centred (heliocentric) solar system. Johannes Kepler and Galileo Galilei.09 × 104 m s−1. and so area A is the same as area B. i. and that the closer they were to the Sun. the ratio of the cube of the average orbital radius to the square of the period of revolution is 3 the same.e. and Kepler had devised rules concerned with the motion of the planets. e. 4π planet R perihelion M aphelion A Sun B L S Figure 3. In fact. about 11 km s−1 c The gravitational force that Ganymede exerts on Jupiter is: GMm F= R2 6. he was building on work previously done by Nicolaus Copernicus.18 × 105 = 1. Their speed varies continually. for a given central body of mass M. the ratio R T2 GM is constant and equal to 2 for all of its satellites. A line joining a planet to the Sun will sweep out equal areas in equal times. published his three laws on the motion of planets in 1609. Gravity and satellites 87 .84 × 1022 N d The gravitational force that Jupiter exerts on Ganymede will also equal 1. 2 The line connecting a planet to the Sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times. the time it takes to move from R to S is equal to the time it takes to move from L to M. from Newton’s law of universal gravitation: GMm 4π2Rm F = = T2 R2 ⇒ GM R 3 = 4π 2 T 2 3 That is. the faster they moved.17 Planets orbit in elliptical paths with the Sun at one focus. PHYSICS IN ACTION Kepler’s laws When Isaac Newton developed his law of universal gravitation.67 × 10−11 × 1.07 × 109 6. for circular orbits.07 × 109)2 = 1. Kepler’s third law can be deduced.90 × 1027 × 1. It took Kepler many months of laborious calculations to arrive at his third law. 3 For every planet. Newton used Kepler’s laws to justify the inverse square relationship. R = constant. Galileo had developed laws relating to motion near the Earth’s surface. and they are fastest when closest to the Sun. about 80 years before Newton’s law of universal gravitation was published. a German astronomer.e. His first two laws proposed that planets moved in elliptical paths.84 × 1022 N. 2 T The most significant consequence of Kepler’s laws was that planets were no longer considered to move in perfect circles at constant speeds.66 × 1023 = (1.

3 years 164.95 2.67 8.3 days Mean orbital radius (m) na 5.8 h 15. GMS-5 is powered by solar cells.PHYSICS IN ACTION The Solar System: How many planets? In 2002. Its furthest point from the Earth is known as the apogee at 35 809 km.9 years 29. Many astronomers support the idea of only eight planets orbiting the Sun.1 9.8 years 247.49 × 2. This has led to a debate about whether all these distant ice-dwarfs. orbital speed (km s−1) na 47.43 × 2.18 6. It is planned that GMS-5 will be replaced by a new satellite MTSAT-1R in 2003.4 Body Sun Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Moon Data for the Sun.0 PHYSICS IN ACTION Case studies: Three satellites Geostationary Meteorological Satellite (GMS-5) The Japanese GMS-5 orbits at about 36 000 km directly over the Equator. Its closest point to the Earth. spectrographs and a faint object camera.03 2.03 1. Mass (kg) 1.28 × 7. has a mass of 303 kg. with the ice-dwarfs and asteroids in completely different categories. a region way beyond the orbit of Neptune. GMS-5 orbits at a longitude of 140°E.4 days 243 days 23 h 56 min 24.78 × 1. Quaoar (Kwah-o-ar) is further out than Pluto.87 × 4.4 days 27. should be called planets.48 2.8 h 10 h 10.6 h 9.50 × 5.74 × × × × × × × × × × × 10 106 106 106 106 107 107 107 107 106 106 8 Period of rotation 24.4 m diameter reflecting telescope. AstronoTable 3. It is cylindrical.8 24.0 29. 88 MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS .3 1.8 h 6. another world in orbit around the Sun was discovered.83 5.3 days Av. The HST is in a lowEarth orbit inclined at 28° to the Equator.25 days 688 days 11.8 6. It orbits above the Earth’s atmosphere and so produces images of distant stars and galaxies far clearer than ground-based observatories.8 days 58.9 × 3.31 6.28 4.5 4.08 × 1. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) This cooperative venture between NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA) was launched by the crew of the space shuttle Discovery on 25 April 1990.5 years 84.7 1. Signals from the GMS-5 are transmitted 2-hourly and are received by a satellite dish on the roof of the Bureau of Meteorology head office in Melbourne. or perigee. Its expected life span is about 15 years.80 1.98 6.37 1. Infrared images show the temperature variations in the atmosphere and are invaluable in weather forecasting. Both Pluto and Quaoar are ice-dwarfs that inhabit the Kuiperbelt.8 × 1010 1011 1011 1011 1011 1012 1012 1012 1012 108 Period of orbit na 88 days 224.7 6.5 days 365.79 × 1.8 years 27. including Pluto. is 35 808 km.38 3.3 7.90 5.2 13.57 6. its planets and Earth’s Moon. and is about 4 m high.43 7. takes 288 years to orbit and is about 1250 km in diameter.34 × × × × × × × × × × × 10 1023 1024 1024 1023 1027 1026 1025 1026 1022 1022 30 Radius (m) 6. so it is just to the north of Cape York and ideally located for use by Australia’s weather forecasters. Hubble is a permanent unstaffed space-based observatory with a 2. This makes it about one-third the size of our Moon.67 2.98 3.8 35. mers expect to find other ice-dwarfs as large as Pluto in this region.

in the constellation Serpens.6 × 1012 km long. This means that they pass over the poles of the Earth as they orbit. The orbit of NOAA-17 is at an inclination of 99° to the Equator. • The speed of a satellite is given by: 2πR v= T • The acceleration of a satellite in a circular orbit is given by: 2 2 GM a = v = 4π 2R = 2 = g R T R • The gravitational force acting on a satellite in a circular orbit is given by: 2 2 GMm = mg Fg = mv = 4π Rm = R2 T2 R Gravity and satellites 89 . • Many artificial satellites have been placed in orbit around the Earth. • Satellites are in continual free-fall.5 Satellite Data for three satellites that orbit the Earth. These are top-secret projects and not much is known about the orbital properties of these satellites. The data are used in local weather forecasting. They use high-powered telescopes and cameras to observe the Earth and transmit pictures to their home country.3 SUMMARY SATELLITES IN ORBIT • A satellite is an object that is in a stable orbit around a more massive object.18 This picture was received from the Hubble Space Telescope in 1995. The planets are natural satellites of the Sun and the moons are natural satellites of the planets. • The Solar System contains many natural satellites. Some artificial satellites have been placed in orbit around other planets. Orbit Inclination 0° 28° 99° Perigee (km) Apogee (km) Period GMS-5 Equatorial Hubble Inclined NOAA-17 Polar 35 808 35 809 1 day 591 599 96.National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Satellite (NOAA-17) The American-owned and operated NOAA satellites are located in low-altitude polar orbits. just 7000 light-years away. It captures pictures of small bands of the Earth. 3. They move with a centripetal acceleration that is equal to the gravitational field strength at the location of their orbit. • The only force acting on a satellite is the gravitational attraction between it and the central body. 9. and provide information on temperature and moisture content at different altitudes. Figure 3. Table 3. It shows vast columns of cold gas and dust.6 min 847 861 102 min Most of the satellites that are in orbit are used for military surveillance. of high resolution due to its low altitude.

The planet Neptune has a mass of 1.77 × 108 m orbital period 2. The mass of this satellite is 1. 6 Calculate the: a b orbital speed of Titan orbital acceleration of Titan.602 days.14 × 1022 kg and an orbital radius equal to 3. The radius of the Earth is 6. was found by Giuseppe Piazzi in 1801.10 × 107 s.8 m s−2 with a constant velocity with zero acceleration wth an acceleration of less than 9. Such a satellite is called a geostationary satellite. the first asteroid to be discovered. calculate: a b c Melbourne TV stations can use pictures from the Japanese GMS weather satellite. B orbital acceleration orbital speed orbital period (in days).55 × 108 m. has a mass of 2. The ratio of the gravitational field strength at A to that at B is equal to 1.3 QUESTIONS 1 Which of the following statements is correct? A satellite in a stable circular orbit 100 km above the Earth will move: A B C D 9 with an acceleration of 9. calculate its: a b c 4 5 The space shuttle is launched into orbit from a point A on the Equator.75 days. 10 The data for two of Saturn’s moons.22 × 109 m.35 × 1023 kg and an orbital radius of 1. b 90 MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS . a 12 What is the gravitational field strength at the surface of Ceres? Determine the speed required by a satellite in order to remain in orbit 10 km above the surface of Ceres.38 × 106 s. 24 hours. Calculate the distance Ro. calculate the net force acting on this satellite as it orbits. Helene has an orbit that is about twice as far from the centre of Neptune compared with Atlas. Venus has a mass of 4. The shuttle then enters a stable circular orbit of radius Ro at point B. A satellite is said to be in a geosynchronous orbit around the Earth if its period of rotation is the same as that of the Earth. 11 7 8 Using this data. The gravitational field strength at the location where the Optus satellite is in stable orbit around the Earth is equal to 0.0 × 1020 kg and radius 385 km.8 m s−2. One of its moons.5 × 103 kg.87 × 1024 kg and a radius of 6.22 N kg−1. the orbital radius of the satellite its orbital speed its orbital acceleration. Triton. Atlas and Helene. Calculate the value of these ratios: a b orbital speed of Atlas/orbital speed of Helene acceleration of Atlas/acceleration of Helene. are as follows: Atlas: orbital radius 1. which is in a geostationary orbit over the Equator to the north of Australia. has a mass of 1.05 × 106 m. The orbital period of Titan is 1. A Earth RE RO stable orbit path The following information applies to questions 6 and 7. i.37 × 108 m orbital period 0. For Triton. calculate the mass of Saturn. Titan. Helene: orbital radius 3. The following information applies to questions 3 and 4.2. 2 Explain why the gravitational field of the Earth does no work on a satellite in a stable circular orbit.e. as shown. Why is it not possible to place a satellite in orbit so that it is always directly over Melbourne? Ceres. 3 Using only the information given. For a satellite to be in a synchronous orbit around Venus. Ceres has mass 7. The length of a day on Venus is 2.3. Identify the source of this net force. One of Saturn’s moons.02 × 1026 kg.4 × 106 m.

and so its kinetic energy and gravitational potential energy remain constant. In accordance with the principle of conservation of energy. moving freely through the gravitational field of the Earth. The gravitational field of the Earth does work on the projectile as it moves through the field. and increase its speed as it approaches. The total energy of the satellite remains constant at all times throughout the orbit. So the satellite will have uniform acceleration equal to the gravitational field strength. remains constant at all times. They travel at different distances from the central body and so the gravitational field that they pass through changes in strength. as well as a component perpendicular to the direction of the motion. as well as the energy changes of objects such as meteors that travel vast distances through changing gravitational fields. Physics file Most natural and artificial satellites move in elliptical orbits. The kinetic energy of the satellite also remains constant because the gravitational force acting on it is always perpendicular to its motion. the total energy of any projectile in free-fall remains constant. The total energy of the satellite. The gravitational force that is acting also varies in strength and is not perpendicular to the motion. so the force acting on the rock is also constant. Figure 3. however.20). For motion near the Earth’s surface. kinetic energy and gravitational potential energy of the satellite to change throughout the orbit as shown in Figure 3. The force has a component in the direction of the motion of the satellite. The projectile will therefore fall with uniform acceleration equal to the gravitational field strength g. Energy of satellites in circular orbits A satellite in a circular orbit moves at a constant distance from the centre of a massive body.3.21 The gravitational force is not perpendicular to the velocity of a satellite in an elliptical orbit.3) and so does not cause any change in its total energy. and so does work. the gravitational field strength is taken to be constant. satellite gaining speed greatest speed lowest speed Fg Fg Figure 3. The gravitational force that acts on the satellite is directed towards the central body and is constant.8 N kg –1 Fg Consider the motion of an unpowered projectile such as a rock. In this section we will analyse the energy changes experienced by satellites moving in circular orbits. Its speed and altitude are unaltered. Gravity and satellites Fg Fg satellite slowing down 91 .21. The potential energy of the satellite remains constant. It acts to slow the satellite as it moves away from the central body. changing its kinetic energy (∆Ek) with an equal but opposite change in gravitational potential energy (∆Ug).20 No work is done as a satellite completes its orbit since the force Fg acts only to change the direction of the satellite.19 The gravitational field does work on the rock and causes it to gain kinetic energy.4 Energy changes in gravitational fields g = 9. This causes the speed. This means that the gravitational force does no work on the satellite (see Section 3. The increase in kinetic energy is equal to the loss in gravitational potential energy that the rock experiences. Figure 3. directed towards the central body (see Figure 3.

the area under a force–distance graph is equal to work done. Energy of objects moving through a changing gravitational field Consider the example of a 10 kg meteor falling towards the Earth from deep space. Pluto is 4. equivalent to joules (J). it moves through an increasingly stronger gravitational field and so is acted upon by a greater gravitational force. The AREA under a gravitational force–distance graph gives the change in energy that an object will experience as it moves freely through the gravitational field. The shaded region represents the work done by the gravitational field as the body moves between 2.0 2.4 × 1012 km from the Sun.0 3. 92 MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS . The work done by this force can be determined from a force–distance graph.0 × 107 m and 1.0 7 4.23 enables us to analyse the motion of the meteor. The area under the graph has units of newton metres (N m). the Earth. Closer to the Earth. the meteor moves through regions of increasing gravitational field strength. i. (b) A 10 kg body falling obliquely towards Earth will gain Ek and lose Ug. (c) A 10 kg body moving away from Earth will lose Ek and gain Ug. (a) A 10 kg body falling directly towards Earth will gain Ek and lose Ug.Physics file The orbit of Pluto is highly elliptical. 10 kg 100 98 N (b) 1× 2× 107 m 107 m 80 Gravitational force (N) Earth RE = 6.23 The gravitational force acting on a 10 kg body at different distances from Figure 3. it is closer to the Sun than Neptune. When Pluto is at its closest approach. Fg Fg Fg (a) 10 kg Figure 3. the energy change of a body. This was the case from 1979 to 1999. while its most distant point is 7. At its closest approach. the energy changes of the body can be analysed by using gravitational force–distance graphs.0 × 107 m from the centre of the Earth. Now.0 Distance from centre of Earth (× 10 m) Figure 3.22 As a meteor approaches Earth. 1 × 107 m 2 × 107 m Earth When a free-falling body like the meteor is acted upon by a varying gravitational force.24 The shaded region on the gravitational force–distance graph in Figure 3. The graph in Figure 3.23 could represent the changes in kinetic and gravitational potential energy in these situations.4 × 10 6 m 60 (c) 40 Area = energy change (J) 1 × 107 m 2 × 107 m Earth 10 kg 20 0 1.4 × 1012 km—almost twice as far.e. since then Pluto has been the most distant planet again.

The change in energy in joules for the body is found by multiplying the area under the graph by the mass of the body. (a) (b) m = 500 kg v = 250 m s–1 Gravitational force on space junk (N) 900 2.0 × 107 m to 1. Solution a Initial kinetic energy of junk: Ek = 2 mv 2 = 0. ∆Ug.24c). Worked example 3.The gravitational force–distance graph can be used to find both the change in kinetic energy.7 × 10 6 m 600 1.25 Graphs of gravitational field strength versus distance (g vs R) can also be used to analyse the energy changes of a body moving through a gravitational field.5 1. The shaded area in Figure 3.5 2.7 3. Gravitational force–distance graphs are curved and so the usual method of determining the area under them is by using a counting squares technique. say. A 500 kg lump of space junk is plummeting towards the Moon as shown below. ∆Ek .0 Distance from centre of Moon (× 10 6 m) Using the gravitational force–distance graph above.24b). a 10 kg meteor as it moves from one point to another. An alternative situation might be that the 10 kg mass is an unpowered satellite travelling away from Earth. In this case.6 × 107 J Gravity and satellites 1 93 .4A.0 × 107 m from the centre of the Earth. The area under this graph is the change in energy per kilogram (J kg−1) of the body. determine: a b c d the initial kinetic energy of the junk the increase in kinetic energy of the junk as it falls to the Moon’s surface the speed of the junk as it crashes into the Moon the gravitational field strength at an altitude of 500 km. Consider. This area also represents the amount of gravitational potential energy that the meteor loses as it approaches Earth.0 × 107 m from the Earth’s centre (Figure 3.7 × 10 6 m 300 1.0 2. The Moon has a radius of 1.0 × 107 m to 2. the shaded area would give the loss in kinetic energy and the increase in gravitational potential energy of the satellite as it moves from 1.7 × 106 m from the centre of the Moon is 250 m s−1. Its speed when it is 2.23 represents the increase in kinetic energy of the meteor as it falls from a distance of 2.7 2. This is the same even if the meteor falls obliquely (Figure 3. Work done by gravitational field = area under force–distance graph = ∆Ek = −∆Ug g (N kg–1) area = energy change per kg (J kg–1) Distance (m) Figure 3. and the change in gravitational potential energy.7 × 106 m.5 × 500 × (250)2 = 1.

Therefore its kinetic energy as it strikes the Moon is: Ek = 1.2 × 106 m.0 8.0 7. It then uses its booster rockets to move to a higher orbit of altitude 3000 km.Physics file Students of mathematics will appreciate that the area under the force–distance graph can also be determined by using calculus: ∆E as a body moves between altitudes A and B B b To find the increase in kinetic energy of the junk as it falls from a distance of 2. The gravitational force on a 1500 kg mass in the Earth’s gravitational field is shown in the graph below.6 × 107 + 5.5 × 103 m s−1 or 1.0 N kg−1 Worked example 3.46 × 10 8 0. and gains 5.7 × 106 m and 1.dR = ∫ B A A GMm dR R2 c = [ A −GMm R ] d 500 km is equal to 5.9 6 m) Distance from centre of Earth (× 10 9. There are approximately 53 squares under this part of the graph.6 × 107 J of kinetic energy initially.0 × 105 = 2.46 × 108 J To find the speed of the junk as it reaches the Moon’s surface: Ek = 2mv 2 = 5.4B. A satellite of mass 1500 kg is in orbit around the Earth at an altitude of 500 km. The speed of the space junk on impact with the Moon is 1.0 94 MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS RE 9.5 km s−1. The Earth has a mass of 6.1 × 106 m = 1. At this distance.7 × 106 m from the Moon’s centre. 1 = area = B ∫ F.4 10.3 × 108 J The space junk has 1.5 × 500 = 1480 m s−1.4 × 106 m.0 × 107 J. the gravitational force on the 500 kg body is (reading from the graph) equal to 500 N.3 × 108 = 5. Each square represents 100 N × 0.7 × 106 + 5.7 × 106 m to the surface.0 .4 × 106 m 5 3000 km 0 6.0 × 107 = 5.0 × 105 m.46 × 108 ⇒v= 5. Thus the gravitational field strength at this altitude is: F g= m = 500 500 = 1.0 × 1024 kg and a radius of 6. This is a distance from the centre of the Moon of 1. (a) (b) 15 Gravitational force on satellite (× 103 N) 10 500 km 6. Thus the increase in kinetic energy of the junk as it falls is: 53 × 1.0 6.3 × 108 J as it falls. it is necessary to estimate the area under the force–distance graph between 2.

0 × 105 m = 6.2 × 1010 J The satellite travels at a lower speed in the higher orbit and so it will move with less kinetic energy.0 × 10 24 9.4 × 106 m + 5.67 × 10 −11 × 6.1 × 1010 J. the kinetic energies can be found since the speeds in the different orbits are known.5 km s−1 in the higher orbit. the kinetic energy of the satellite has decreased by 1.2 × 106) J = 2.4 × 106 m + 500 km = 6. Kinetic energy in lower orbit is: 1 Ek = 2mv 2 = 0. How much energy does it take to boost the satellite into this higher orbit? d e Solution Lower radius = 6.0 × 106 m = 9.6 km s−1 in the lower altitude orbit and at 6.4 × 106 m + 3000 km = 6.4 × 10 6 3 = 6. From the graph. d Gravity and satellites 95 . By changing to a higher orbit.4 × 106 m a To determine the orbital speed of the satellite in the lower orbit: v2 a= R GM = 2 R ⇒v= = GM R 6. it will gain potential energy. c As the satellite moves to a higher altitude. This change in potential energy can be found by estimating the area under the graph between the orbital radii.5 × 1500 × (6. It is not appropriate to use the graph to determine the change in kinetic energy of the satellite since it is not moving freely through the field. it requires a greater speed to maintain a stable orbit when it travels through a region of stronger gravitational field.a b c Calculate the speed of the satellite in its lower orbit. As with all orbiting objects.5 × 1500 × (7.6 × 103 m s−1 b The speed of the satellite in the higher orbit is: v= = GM R 6.4 × 106 m + 3.4 × 1010 J. However.9 × 106 m Higher radius = 6.5 × 10 m s−1 The satellite travels at 7.6 × 103)2 = 4.3 × 1010 J Kinetic energy in higher orbit is: 1 Ek = 2mv 2 = 0. the increase in potential energy is: 120 squares × (1 × 103) × (0.5 × 103)2 = 3.0 × 10 24 6. How fast does the satellite travel when in its higher orbit? How much gravitational potential energy does the satellite gain as it moves to the higher orbit? Calculate the change in kinetic energy experienced by the satellite as it changes orbit.9 × 10 6 = 7. It is being powered by rockets to reach the higher altitude orbit.67 × 10 −11 × 6.

She is in freefall: the only force acting on her is gravity. i. Even in deep space.e. you would be in free-fall. If you held a coin (a) in front of your nose and released it.8 m s−2—the rate determined by the gravitational field—you were in a state of apparent weightlessness. it too would accelerate down at 9.7 m s−2—the rate determined by the gravitational field strength at their altitude—towards the Earth. They too are in a state of apparent weightlessness as they orbit the Earth.4 × 1010 J less kinetic energy. almost as strong as the field strength at the Earth's surface.7 N kg−1.8 m s−2 and remain in front of your nose! In the frame of reference of the elevator. You and the elevator would accelerate downwards at 9.4 × 1010 J more potential energy. the gravitational field strength is 8. When there are insignificant gravitational forces acting.7 N kg−1. The astronauts are in a state of apparent weightlessness. At an altitude of 400 km (a typical shuttle orbit).e In its higher orbit . yet they are in orbit only a few hundred kilometres above the Earth’s surface where the gravitational forces are still strong. So overall.7 N kg−1. This occurs when things move with an acceleration. as determined by the gravitational field.7 m s−2. a very small gravitational field still exists. If you were in an elevator and the cable snapped. when objects are in free-fall. The astronauts and their spacecraft all have an acceleration of 8.8 m s−2. The normal force between you and the floor would be zero.8 N kg−1. but 1. where the gravitational field strength is 8. The gravitational field strength here is 8. There is no normal force between the astronauts and the floor (or ceiling!) of their spacecraft. This is the amount of energy that the rockets provided to boost it from the lower orbit into the higher orbit. At an altitude of 395 km.7 m s−2 towards Earth and is in a continual state of apparent weightlessness. 96 MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS . She moves with an acceleration of 8. (b) Figure 3. When both you and the elevator were falling at 9. at vast distances from stars and planets. True weightlessness never actually occurs. objects move as Newton’s first law predicts they should. The gravitational field strength here is 9. it would seem as though gravity had been ‘switched off’. They move with an acceleration of 9. (b) These trainee astronauts are in the ‘vomit comet'. PHYSICS IN ACTION Weightlessness Astronauts in orbit seem to ‘float’ around as if there were no gravity.8 m s−2 towards Earth and are (for about 20 seconds) in a state of apparent weightlessness. it has 1. This aeroplane is made to plummet from an altitude of around 12 km. They either remain at rest or travel in straight lines with constant speed. the only force acting on them is gravity. Astronauts in orbit do not experience true weightlessness. the satellite has 2.0 × 1010 J more energy. The only difference is that the astronauts have a velocity that is directed at 90° to their acceleration. the astronauts and their spacecraft orbit at a speed that gives them a centripetal acceleration of 8. This situation is no different from the earlier situation of falling freely in the elevator.26 (a) This astronaut is in orbit at an altitude of 400 km. The trainee astronauts are in free-fall.

0 kg is speeding towards the Earth. • The energy changes of a body moving freely through a gravitational field can be determined from the gravitational force–distance graph for that body.5 × 106 m from the centre of the Earth.5 × 106 m from the centre of the Earth? How fast is the meteorite travelling when it is 6.0 kg as a function of its distance from the centre of the Earth. 10 Force (N) 8 6 4 2 0 6. d B C D Gravity and satellites 97 . Which one or more of the following statements is correct? A Determine the kinetic energy of the meteorite when it is 9. Ignoring air resistance.0 8. 2 How does the gravitational field strength change as the meteor travels from point A to point D? Discuss any changes in the acceleration of the meteor as it travels along the path shown.0 9. • The area under a gravitational force–distance graph gives the change in kinetic energy ∆Ek or change in gravitational potential energy ∆Ug of a body. a Ignore air resistance when answering these questions.5 × 106 m from the centre of the Earth to a point that is 6. 3.4 SUMMARY ENERGY CHANGES IN GRAVITATIONAL FIELDS • The total energy of a body moving freely through a gravitational field is constant. • A satellite in a stable circular orbit has a constant amount of both kinetic energy and gravitational potential energy. 1 Which one of the following statements is correct? A satellite in a stable circular orbit around the Earth will have: A B C The following information applies to questions 5 and 6.0 Distance from the centre of the Earth (× 10 6 m) varying potential energy as it orbits varying kinetic energy as it orbits constant kinetic energy and constant potential energy. and indicates the work done by the gravitational field. The gravitational potential energy of the meteor decreases as it travels from A to D.4 × 106 m.4 QUESTIONS In these questions.0 km s−1. what is the kinetic energy of the meteorite when it is 6.0 10. Calculate the increase in kinetic energy of the meteorite as it moves from a distance of 9. A B 5 a C b Use the graph to determine the gravitational force between the Earth and a 1.0 × 1024 kg. The path of a meteor plunging towards the Earth is as follows. When this meteorite is at a distance of 9.3. mass of Earth = 6.0 kg mass 100 km above the Earth’s surface. the following data may be used: radius of Earth = 6.5 × 106 m from the centre. The following information applies to questions 2–4. although the relative amounts of kinetic energy and gravitational potential energy may change. The graph shows the force on a mass of 1. 6 D A meteorite of mass 1.0 7.5 × 106 m from the centre of the planet. its speed is 4. Use the graph to determine the height above the Earth’s surface at which a 1. The total energy of the meteor remains constant.5 × 106 m from the centre of Earth? b 3 4 c The kinetic energy of the meteor increases as it travels from A to D.0 N. The total energy of the meteor increases.0 kg mass would experience a gravitational force of 5.

0 9. a 8 a 3 Calculate the gravitational field strength on the surface of Neptune. What gravitational force will this person experience at a height of 2 Earth radii above the Earth’s surface? 5 Neptune has a radius of 2. is equal to 2. The gravitational force of attraction between Saturn and Dione.0 8 Ground control decides that this orbit is unsuitable and gives the signal for the satellite’s booster rockets to fire. A spacecraft located at point X experiences zero net gravitational force. Data: mass of Dione = 1. Use the graph in question 5 to estimate the kinetic energy of this satellite as it was launched. calculate: a b c the orbital speed of the satellite the kinetic energy of the satellite the orbital period of the satellite (in seconds). Explain what is meant by a satellite being in a geosynchronous orbit.0 8. mass of Saturn = 5. What is the purpose of such an orbit? Assuming that the length of a day on Earth is exactly 24 hours.67 × 10−11 N m2 kg−2. As shown in the followng diagram. you may assume the following: universal constant of gravitation.80 N kg−1. A person standing on the surface of the Earth experiences a gravitational force of 900 N. The satellite now moves to a new circular orbit with an altitude of 2600 km. gravitational field strength on surface of the Earth: g = 9. Calculate: a b c the orbital speed of the satellite Force (x 104 N) the kinetic energy of the satellite the orbital period of the satellite (in seconds).79 × 1020 N.69 × 1026 kg. 6 Given that the mass of the Earth is 5. 11 Distance from centre of the Earth (x 106 m) 9 Your calculations for questions 7b and 8b should indicate to you that the kinetic energy of the satellite has decreased as it has moved from the lower orbit to the higher orbit. c CHAPTER REVIEW In the following questions. 1 The gravitational force of attraction between two alpha particles is equal to 2.8R 0. Calculate the value of the ratio M/m.98 × 1024 kg and the mean distance from the Earth to the Moon is 3.94 × 10−59 N when they are separated by 1. what is the amount of energy that the booster rockets delivered to the satellite as it moved to its higher orbit? A communications satellite of mass 240 kg is launched from a space shuttle that is in orbit 600 km above the Earth’s surface. Calculate the orbital radius of Dione. 12 What is the value of this decrease in kinetic energy? How do you account for this decrease in kinetic energy? Is the total energy of the satellite in its higher orbit the same as that in its lower orbit? Explain your answer.90 × 1027 kg. 2 4 Two stars of mass M and m are in orbit around each other. Leda.05 × 1021 kg. a satellite of Saturn.84 × 108 m.The following information applies to questions 7–11. One of Jupiter’s moons.0 10. a b In light of your answer to question 10. The mass of Jupiter is equal to 1. A 250 kg lump of ice is falling directly towards Neptune. What is its acceleration as it nears the surface of Neptune? b b c 98 MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS . they are a distance R apart. calculate the orbital period of the Moon.48 × 107 m and a mass of 1. Express your answer in days. Calculate the mass of an alpha particle. 20 16 12 8 4 0 6. has an orbital radius of 1.10 × 1010 m. Calculate: a b c 7 R M X 0. G = 6. For this new orbit.0 cm. calculate the radius of orbit of a geostationary satellite (mass of Earth = 6. 7 10 Use the following graph to estimate the increase in gravitational potential energy of the satellite as it moved from its lower orbit to its higher orbit.0 × 1024 kg). The satellite travels directly away from the Earth and reaches a maximum distance of 8000 km from the centre of the Earth before stopping due to the influence of the Earth’s gravitational field. A 20tonne remote sensing satellite is in a circular orbit around the Earth at an altitude of 600 km.02 × 1026 kg.2R m the orbital speed of Leda the orbital acceleration of Leda the orbital period of Leda (in days).0 7.

0 6. Their respective orbital radii are R and 2R. Its period of rotation about its axis is equal to 5. The kinetic energy of the satellite at an altitude of 600 km. Use this information to calculate the mass of the Sun. The radius of Mercury is 2.30 × 1023 kg.) A 60 orbital period of S1/orbital period of S2 orbital speed of S1/orbital speed of S2 acceleration of S1/ acceleration of S2. The Earth has an orbital radius of 1.5 × 1011 m and an orbital period of 1 year. The loss in gravitational potential energy of the satellite as it falls to the Earth's surface.0 15 A 20 kg rock is speeding towards Mercury. 18 D Gravitational force (× 103 N) the increase in kinetic energy of the rock as it moves to a point that is just 2. 12 b c 10 13 The following graph shows the force on a 20 kg rock as a function of its distance from the centre of the planet Mercury. Determine the value of the ratio: acceleration of ISS/acceleration of GMS-5. 10 8 6 4 2 How much kinetic energy does the satellite gain as it travels from an altitude of 600 km to 200 km altitude? b c The following information relates to questions 11–13.0 Distance (× 106 m) 7. It shows the gravitational force on a wayward satellite as a function of distance from the surface of the Earth. Data: radius of Earth = 6. For a satellite to be in a synchronous orbit around Mercury. 17 14 Which one of the following quantities is represented by the shaded area on the graph? (Ignore air resistance.4 × 106 m.0 4. mass of Earth = 6.07 × 106 s. Using the graph. estimate: a Earth is in orbit around the Sun. The increase in gravitational potential energy of the satellite as it falls to the Earth's surface. 11 16 Which of the following units is associated with the area under this graph? A B C D J m s−2 Js J kg−1 Determine the value of the ratio: speed of ISS/speed of GMS-5. When the rock is 3. Calculate the value of the following ratios: a the orbital radius of the satellite its orbital speed its orbital acceleration.5 × 106 m from the centre of Mercury the kinetic energy of the rock at this closer point the speed of the rock at this point. Determine the value of the ratio: period of ISS/period of GMS-5.0 km s−1. The mass of S1 is twice that of S2.CHAPTER REVIEW 9 The planet Mercury has a mass of 3.0 3. The satellite is no longer in a stable circular orbit and is travelling closer to the Earth. Two satellites S1 and S2 are in circular orbits around the Earth.0 5.4 × 106 m.0 × 1024 kg. its speed is estimated at 1. B Force (N) 40 b 20 c C 0 2. calculate: a much higher orbit at an altitude of 36 000 km. The gravitational potential energy of the satellite at an altitude of 600 km.0 × 106 m from the centre of the planet. The GMS-5 satellite has a 0 2 4 6 8 10 Height above Earth's surface (× 105 m) Gravity and satellites 99 . The International Space Station orbits Earth at an altitude of 380 km. The following diagram applies to questions 16–18.

Questions 10–13 refer to the following information. What is the speed of Charon as it orbits Pluto? Calculate the gravitational force that acts between Pluto and Charon.0 Velocity (m s–1) 6. then cruises with the engine turned off for a further 3.0 5.0 3. The following information applies to questions 1–3.5 × 108 m s−1 south not able to be determined without using relativistic equations.STYLE QUESTIONS MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS In the following questions the acceleration due to gravity may be taken as g = 9. 2. A petrol go-kart accelerates from rest for 2. The mass of the go-kart plus driver is 250 kg. 1 7 For what time intervals will the net force on this car be zero? What was the maximum deceleration of the car during the 100 s interval? Which one or more of the following could be treated as inertial frames of reference? A 14 8 9 An electron and an alpha particle are approaching each other in a cloud chamber.0 7. was discovered in 1978. At the same time.0 Time (s) 100 MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS .0 s.0 6. It is orbiting at a distance of 19 600 km from the centre of Pluto.0 s on a level road. The mass of Pluto is 1.0 × 107 m s−1. What is the velocity of the fish relative to Rex? What is the velocity of Rex relative to the fish? The following information applies to questions 15–17. The alpha particle is travelling south at 5. the only satellite of Pluto.5 m s−1 south relative to the moving water.0 4. A jumbo jet cruising with a constant speed of 800 km h−1.29 × 1022 kg and the mass of Charon is 1. Rex is paddling his boat in still water at 2. A jumbo jet slowing to a stop after landing. 10 What is the velocity of Rex and his boat relative to the ground? Determine the velocity of the fish relative to the ground.0 4. The velocity of the electron relative to the alpha particle is: A B C D E An elevator accelerating upwards from the ground floor of a skysraper. The boat then travels into a region where a current is flowing at 4.0 s? What was the maximum force provided by the go-kart engine for the first 2. 1.5 × 108 m s−1 north 1. The electron is travelling north at 2. After 5.8 m s−2 and the effects of air resistance can be ignored.0 s the go-kart is still cruising and it encounters a slight decline in the road.5 × 108 m s−1 south 1.77 × 1021 kg.0 0 4 What was the maximum acceleration of the car during the 100 s interval? Calculate the total distance the car travelled during the 100 s interval.5 × 108 m s−1 north 2. Charon.0 m s−1 towards the north. A car at rest in a traffic jam.0 2.0 s? What is the angle of inclination between the sloping road surface and the horizontal? 12 16 30 20 10 0 20 40 60 80 100 Time (s) 13 17 10 8.0 s and 5.0 2. The frictional force provided by the road surface is constant over the entire journey and the velocity–time graph is shown below. A prototype of a new model sports car of mass 1000 kg was tested on a straight length of road. An idealised version of the resulting velocity–time graph is shown in the following diagram.EXAM . C 2 D 3 The following information applies to questions 4–8. B Determine the orbital period of Charon. 15 50 Velocity (m s–1) 40 11 What was the total frictional force exerted on the go-kart between 2. Calculate the net force on the car for the time intervals: a b 5 6 0–10 s 50–60 s. a fish is swimming with a speed of 5.0 × 108 m s−1.5 m s−1 in a westerly direction.

the student stands on a skateboard and allows the stretched rope to drag her across the smooth floor of the school gymnasium.50 s? 25 30 When the load reaches the end of the track it is momentarily brought to rest by a powerful spring-bumper system.5 24 20 Speed (m s–1) Extension (m) 0. the student stretched the rope horizontally by 15 m. Mass (kg) 0.0 s period? What power is the engine developing at 2.95 1. causing them to be pinned to the walls. 37 23 The following information applies to questions 24–28. the end of a section of the rope. 26 31 Assuming that the rope behaves ideally. travelling with initial speed of 10 m s−1.0 2.48 1. She moves with increasing velocity and increasing acceleration. A particular Gravitron ride has a radius of 5.0 kg is on the ride. which is assumed to have negligible mass.52 0. Exam-style questions 101 . A small-time gold prospector sets up a cable-pulley system that allows him to move a container load full of ore-bearing rock from rest a distance of 20 m along a level section of rail track as shown in the following diagram. are having a game of catch.0 2. The following graph shows how the speed of the car varies with time over a 2. What is the magnitude of her centripetal acceleration? Calculate the magnitude of the normal force that acts on the girl from the wall of the Gravitron.73 0. The following information applies to questions 38–43.0 s period? How much work does the car’s engine do during this period? What percentage of the engine’s energy output is converted into heat energy by friction during this 2.5 2. The mass of the baseball is 250 g. How much energy is converted into heat as the load moves over the track? What is the power output of the prospector as he moves one 200 kg load over the track during a 10 s interval? What percentage of the prospector’s power output is used to overcome friction? 28 She moves with a constant velocity. Kurt catches the ball at the same height 2.50 s.5 1.70 10 200 kg bumper 20 m 100 N 0 1. A girl of mass 60.00 s. A constant frictional force of 30 N acts on the wheels of the container-car along the track. The results of the experiment are shown in the following table.20 1.00 m and rotates with a period of 2. You may assume that there is negligible friction between the pulley and the cable.2 tonnes. Calculate the maximum speed that they attain as they are pulled by the rope.0 3.5 × 103 N. 34 C Calculate the speed of the girl as she revolves on the ride.0 s after it is thrown. Two friends.5 3. 20 35 D 36 21 22 The combined mass of the student and her board is 60 kg.0 m away.0 s in such a way that the engine provides a constant driving force of 6. determine the potential energy stored in the bungy rope at this point.0 Time (s) Draw the force versus extension graph for this bungy rope. She moves with increasing velocity and decreasing acceleration. She moves with a constant acceleration. 29 How much kinetic energy does the car gain during this 2.24 0. 32 Finally. 18 During an investigation. Elvis and Kurt. In the Gravitron ride.0 s? At what rate is energy being converted into heat energy due to friction at 0. the patrons enter a cylindrical chamber which rotates rapidly.0 1. 27 33 Which statement best describes the motion of the student? A How much work is done by the prospector in moving the 200 kg load along the track? What is the speed of the load when it reaches the end of the track? Calculate the change in kinetic energy of the load as it moves over the track. The rate of rotation of the ride is increased so that the girl circles every 2. Estimate the value of the force constant for this rope. A physics student decides to study the properties of a bungy rope by recording the extension produced by various masses attached to The following information applies to questions 29–33. accelerates for a period of 2. Calculate the normal force that acts on the girl now.CHAPTER REVIEW The following information applies to questions 18–23.0 s period. You can assume that friction is constant over this period. The prospector exerts a constant force of 100 N on the total load of 200 kg as it moves 20 m along the track. A car of mass 1. B 19 The following information applies to questions 34–37. Elvis throws a baseball to Kurt who is standing 8.

0 9. What is the final speed of the cart in experiment 1? What is the final speed of the cart in experiment 2? 55 7. Assume that air resistance can be ignored. A 10 000 kg spacecraft is drifting directly towards the Earth. When it is at an altitude of 600 km its speed is 1. At football training. 51 57 How much kinetic energy would the spacecraft gain as it falls to an altitude of 350 km? Determine the speed of the spacecraft at 350 km altitude. The interaction between bat and ball lasted just 10 ms. During one exercise. Calculate the average force that the ball exerted on the bat during the interaction. a 42 48 10 43 49 Determine the average force that the bat exerted on the ball during the interaction.0 m s−1 crashes into the stationary bag and carries it forward.0 10. Calculate the speed of the ball when Kurt catches it.50 kg. Experiment 1 F (N) 41 Determine the change in momentum of the ball during this time. The radius of the Earth is 6400 km. In two experiments. Assume that the cart starts from rest and that friction is negligible. Determine the value of the maximum height gained by the ball. Determine the minimum kinetic energy of the ball during its flight. a ruckman of mass 120 kg running at 6. Calculate the net impulse that the bat delivered to this ball. How does the acceleration of the spacecraft change as it moves from an altitude of 600 km to an altitude of 350 km? What is the combined speed of the bag and ruckman? How much momentum does the ruckman lose? How much momentum does the tackle bag gain? 52 45 53 46 102 MOTION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS . which one or more of the following units would apply to the area under the graph? A 10 J m s−2 kg m s−1 kg m s−2 Ns 56 54 2 t (s) 10 8 Force (× 10 4 N) 6 4 2 0 6. some of the players are throwing themselves at a large tackle bag of mass 45 kg. Describe the motion of the cart in experiment 2.0 B C D E Describe the motion of the cart in experiment 1.0 8. A cricket ball of mass 200 g moves towards a batsman at a velocity of 20 m s−1 north.0 Distance from centre of the Earth (× 10 6 m) 44 The following information applies to questions 51–53. they apply different pulling forces to the cart as shown below. Nam and Candice are conducting an experiment with a dynamics cart of mass 1.CHAPTER REVIEW 38 Determine the horizontal speed of the ball just as it leaves Elvis’s hand.5 km s−1. What is the acceleration of the ball at its maximum height? Calculate the angle to the horizontal at which the ball was thrown. 47 The following information applies to questions 54–57. After being struck by the batsman. F (N) 2 The following information applies to questions 44–46. 39 40 The following information applies to questions 47–50. the velocity of this ball is 30 m s−1 south. t (s) b Experiment 2 50 If the net force versus time graph were plotted for the interaction between the bat and the ball. The following graph shows the force on the spacecraft against distance from the Earth.

research. too. Electronics and photonics were developed mainly in the 20th century. and both are vital to many aspects of modern society such as telecommunications. manufacturing. information technology and entertainment. Photonics manipulates information and energy. Electronics can be thought of as the science of harnessing the T electron (the fundamental unit of electricity) to manipulate information and energy (two very important commodities in modern times). Electronics and photonics are often used together to develop new and exciting devices. by harnessing the photon (the fundamental unit of light).ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS he following two chapters are special within the study of physics at year 12— they relate to topics that have had (and will continue to have) a major influence on the development of modern high-technology industries. are driven by rapid advancements in the relatively new fields of electronics and photonics. . These enabling technologies. medicine. which have an enormous impact on our everyday lives.

We shall revise some key concepts in electronics you will probably be familiar with. Continual miniaturisation of electronic components (especially complex transistor circuits) has meant that the cost of many electronic devices has decreased while their functionality has dramatically increased. many of the technological advances of the 20th century were made possible because of rapid advancements in electronics. 104 ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS . washing machines and air conditioners. voltage and power to understand the operation of simple DC electronic circuits • circuit simplification using series/parallel resistance combinations and voltage dividers • capacitors. BY THE END OF THIS CHAPTER you will have covered material from the study of electronics and photonics. including: • using concepts of current. Computers are a perfect example—they are very complex electronic devices. In a very real sense. diodes and transistors and their uses • transistor amplifier circuits. like fridges.CHAPTER 4 Electronics E lectronics is one of the main drivers of modern technology. We shall then use these concepts and devices to analyse and interpret the operation of some simple electronic circuits. Continual miniaturisation of electronic components has made this possible. are controlled by microcontrollers —small but powerful single-chip computers. and introduce some new concepts and devices. Many of our common household appliances. while staying the same price (in relative terms) or becoming cheaper. New computers get more and more powerful and include more and more features.

In electronic circuits we often combine all these limitations (of a real battery) and model them as one internal resistance in series with an ideal battery. This reference point is often called the circuit ground or earth point.1 Analysing electronic circuits PRACTICAL ACTIVITY 15 Internal resistance of a battery Electronics review In year 11 you studied how the chemical reactions inside a battery separate positive and negative electric charge. the EMF is the energy supplied per unit charge by the chemical reactions responsible for the charge separation. I'm heading off home Physics file An ideal battery maintains a constant EMF regardless of how much current is drawn from it. It is important to realise that the electrical potential energy is the only thing that decreases as the charge carriers move around the circuit—the number of carriers and the charge on each carrier always remain constant (i. the movement of electrons is in the opposite direction. My energy is exhausted. the potential difference across the terminals of a real battery decreases as the current drawn from the battery increases. Electrons have lots of potential energy as they leave the negative battery terminal but little as they return to the positive terminal. converting energy released by chemical reactions to electrical potential energy between the battery terminals.2 A battery with internal resistance. In practice. This potential energy can be converted to other useful forms of energy (heat. – light globe +– I'm full of energy and ready to share it with the world – – – – – – – – – – – – – negative terminal – – – – – – – – flow of electrons Figure 4. light.4. The phenomenon is attributed to the contact resistance. ionic resistance of the chemical cell and the limitation of the rate at which charge can be supplied by the chemical reaction inside the battery. It is convenient to choose a zero electric potential reference point when analysing electronic circuits. The arrow shows the direction of ‘conventional’ current. sound etc. The current leaving the battery equals the current returning to the battery. Energy is converted to light and heat in the light globe. Remember that instead of referring to the total electrical potential energy between two points in a circuit. internal resistance of real battery + positive terminal of real battery current (I ) drawn from the real battery positive terminal – – – – – – – electrical potential energy converted to light and heat here Rint E – V I R resistance of circuit + + + + + + + + + + + + +– +– chemical reaction separates charge battery V = IR voltage drop across resistance of globe I direction of conventional current – – potential difference (V) ideal battery between the terminals producing an of the real battery EMF of E negative terminal of real battery E EMF of battery +– +– +– Figure 4. The electronic circuit provides a conducting path between the oppositely charged battery terminals. and mobile charge can therefore move from one terminal to the other under the influence of the electric force (giving up its electrical potential energy in the process).e. The decrease in terminal voltage becomes significant when relatively large currents are drawn from the battery. For a battery.2. Any voltage that appears to refer to only one specific point in a circuit (rather than the difference between two points) can be assumed to be measured with respect to circuit ground. in electronics it is more convenient to talk about the electric potential (potential energy per unit charge). Electronics 105 . charge carriers are not used up). This is often simply called voltage. as shown in Figure 4. The SI unit for both electric potential and EMF is the volt (V).1 A battery connected to a light globe.) when an electronic circuit is connected across the terminals.

In simple electronic circuits. when physically explaining how electronic devices work. then the direction of electron flow is opposite to that of conventional current. the direction of conventional current goes from the positive to negative battery terminals. it is often convenient to talk about the flow of the actual positive or negative charge around a conducting path.The charge carriers that transport the electrical energy throughout the circuit are usually electrons. which is defined in terms of the transfer of positive charge with respect to time. although the actual flow of electrons is in the opposite direction (see Figure 4. Wires crossed not joined Time-varying or AC supply or or v (t) Wires crossed at a junction Variable resistor Ammeter A or Voltmeter V Ω Ohmmeter Fixed resistor Unspecified circuit element or Transistor (npn) or Diode or Thermistor or temperaturedependent resistor (TDR) T Earth or ground Switch (open) (closed) Battery or DC supply or Lamp/bulb Capacitor or + Figure 4. The circuit symbols for the electronic devices introduced in this chapter are summarised in Figure 4. Hence: ∆(+Q) I= ∆t The direction of conventional current around a conducting path is therefore defined to be the same as the direction that positive charge would flow around the circuit.3. If the charge carriers are negative (i.e. 106 ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS . although in certain circumstances they can be positive ions or a combination of both.1). electrons). then the direction of mobile charge flow and conventional current are the same. For this reason. If the charge carriers happen to be positive. In electronic circuits we talk about conventional electric current (I ).3 Summary of circuit symbols used in Chapter 4.

The energy stored or dissipated in any electronic device is equal to the potential difference across it multiplied by the charge flowing through it (U = VQ).. R1 I E R2 Worked example 4.... The resistance of a circuit element determines the amount of current able to flow when a potential difference is applied.. R2 = 10 kΩ and R3 = 4 kΩ.. Most resistors and metal conductors at a constant temperature are ohmic devices...4 Current versus potential difference for an ohmic resistor.5 (a) Resistors in series. Using Ohm’s law together with the expression of power.e. If E = 10 V.. Rn Figure 4. + Rn and that the equivalent resistance of any number of resistors in parallel (see Figure 4.4.5a) is given by: Req = R1 + R2 + R3 + ..1A. regardless of the applied voltage.. i. R1 = 10 kΩ. (b) resistors in parallel. a V1 V2 If E = 12 V.. The graph of current versus voltage for any ohmic device is shown in Figure 4.5b) is given by: 1 Req (a) = 1 R1 + 1 R2 + 1 R3 +…+ 1 Rn (b) I same current through all resistors connected in series R1 R2 R3 ... An ohmic device has a constant resistance. Consider the circuit shown in the diagram. I ∝ V... we can show that: P = VI = I 2R 2 =V R In year 11 you also learned that the equivalent resistance of any number of resistors in series (see Figure 4. R2 = 5 kΩ and R3 = 8 kΩ.. Current (I) ( ) Potential difference (V ) OHM'S LAW states that the current flowing in a conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference across it. The constant of proportionality is called the resistance: V = IR Figure 4. V1 = 3 V.. that is. calculate the voltage across R2. they behaved according to Ohm’s law..... b R3 V3 Electronics 107 .. Hence it follows that the power dissipated in any device (power is the rate of change of energy with respect to time) is equal to the potential difference multiplied by the current: ∆U ∆Q P= =V = VI ∆t ∆t The conductors and resistors you studied in year 11 were mainly ohmic resistors. calculate the resistance of R1. Rn same voltage V across all resistors connected in parallel R1 R2 R3 ..

Consider the circuit shown in the diagram. I I1 E R1 I2 R2 I3 R3 b V1 V2 V3 I 108 ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS .5 × 10−3 = 6 kΩ Worked example 4. R1 = 10 kΩ.52 × 10−3)(5 × 103) = 2.0 × 10−4 = 0. calculate the resistance of R1.Solution a Physics file The total current flowing from the battery terminals and into the circuit is called the line current. The total resistance of the series circuit is: Rt = R1 + R2 + R3 = 10 kΩ + 5 kΩ + 8 kΩ = 23 kΩ and so the current flowing around the conduction path is: E I= Rt = 12 23 × 103 = 5.6 V b The total resistance of R2 in series with R3 is: Rt = R2 + R3 = 10 kΩ + 4 kΩ = 14 kΩ The total voltage across the two resistors is: Vt = E − V1 = 10 − 3 =7V Hence the current flowing around the conduction path is: Vt I= Rt = 7 14 × 103 = 5. I = 10 mA. If E = 10 V.2 × 10−4 = 0. R2 = 5 kΩ and R3 = 8 kΩ. R2 = 10 kΩ and R3 = 4 kΩ.1B.5 mA and the resistance of R1 is: V1 R1 = I = 3 0. a If E = 15 V. The current flowing in any particular branch of the circuit is called a branch current. calculate the total current flowing through the circuit.52 mA and hence the voltage across R2 is: V2 = IR2 = (0.

i.3 × 10−4 = 0.5 × 10−3 = 3.e.5 = 6. the resistance between the points X and Y is effectively infinite.5 × 10−3) = 1.) 10 Ω 20 Ω A 20 Ω B X o/c Y A Req B 10 Ω Electronics 109 .1C. (Hint: Remember that there is no conduction path (and hence no current flow) between the points X and Y.5 mA Hence the resistance of R1 is: E R1 = I1 = 10 (6. by using the idea of series and parallel circuit simplification. Simplify the following resistor network (between points A and B) to one single equivalent resistor (Req).5 kΩ Worked example 4. As the current is zero.Solution a The total resistance of the parallel circuit is: 1 1 1 1 = + + Rt R1 R2 R3 = 1 1 1 + + 10 × 103 5 × 103 8 × 103 and therefore Rt = 2.5 × 10−3 = 3. RXY = ∞ Ω.4 × 103 = 6.5 mA Thus the current flowing through R1 is: I1 = I − (I2 + I3) = 10 − 3.63 mA b The total current through R2 and R3 is: E E + I2 + I3 = R2 R3 = 10 10 + 10 × 103 4 × 103 = 1 × 10−3 + 2.4 kΩ Hence the total current flowing around the conduction path is: E I= Rt = 15 2. This is often called an open circuit (o/c).

For example. we see that the voltage drop across each resistor is directly proportional to its resistance. Clearly the potential difference (Vin) between points A and B is the voltage that exists across the two resistors R1 and R2. using Ohm’s law. look at the two-resistor series circuit shown in Figure 4. The voltage division can be used for series circuits with more than two resistors. In mathematical terms. and in general we have: VX RX = Vin R1 + R2 + … + Rn where VX is the voltage across resistor RX. Hence. using Ohm’s law. and it is often used in electronic circuit simplification. If one of the resistors has a larger resistance than the other. When we have a potential difference across a number of resistors in series. Eliminating I gives: 110 ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS . and that the voltage drop across both resistors is proportional to the total resistance. In this circuit. there will be a greater fraction of Vin across the larger resistor.6 Simple two-resistor voltage divider. we can work out the voltage across a particular individual resistor by using the voltage division principle. we have: Vin = I(R1 + R2) and Vout = IR2 Vout R2 = Vin R1 + R2 This last equation is known as the voltage division principle.Solution series A 20 Ω B 10 Ω 10 Ω 20 Ω A 10 Ω 10 Ω ∞Ω 20 Ω B 10 Ω ∞Ω parallel A 20 Ω B 10 Ω series A 20 Ω 20 Ω B parallel 10 Ω = B A eq Circuit simplification R1 I R2 Vout Figure 4. the same current (I ) flows through both resistors.6.

R1 Vin R2 Vout R3 Solution Vout = = R2 R1 + R2 + R3 Vin 3 × 103 × 10 (2 + 3 + 5) × 103 =3V PRACTICAL ACTIVITY 16 Resistance in a combination circuit Worked example 4. This can help visualise what is going on. by using the concepts mentioned so far in this chapter.1E. a Redraw the circuit in a linear form.Worked example 4. Vb and Ib for the following circuit. one resistor that draws exactly the same current from the battery as the original network. R2 = 3 kΩ.e. Now use the series and parallel resistor rules to simplify the network. Find the voltage across R2 in the following three-resistor circuit. i. Eventually you are left with one single resistor that is equivalent to the whole circuit. Assume R1 = 2 kΩ. R3 = 5 kΩ and Vin = 10 V. Electronics 111 . so that the voltage across it drops from top to bottom. X 30 Ω 18 Ω 12 V Ia 12 Ω Ib Y Va 3Ω Z 12 Ω Vb Solution First determine the total current (I) flowing into the circuit by working out the equivalent resistance of the total circuit. Ia. Determine the value of Va. Any simple resistor network can be replaced with one single resistor that has the same overall characteristics as the original circuit.1D.

30 Ω 30 Ω 30 Ω 18 Ω 3Ω 18 Ω 3Ω series 12 V 12 Ω 12 Ω 6Ω 18 Ω 9Ω para llel parallel series 30 Ω 36 Ω 6Ω So the entire network is equivalent to one 36 Ω resistor (i.333 A. Using Ohm’s law. 30 Ω X 18 Ω 3Ω Z 12 Ω Y b 12 V I = 0. we see that the current flowing from the battery and into the network (or its equivalent resistance) is I = 0.e.333 A 36 Ω 12 V I = 0. At each step there is always two ways to determine the unknown values. this single equivalent resistor behaves exactly like the original network as far as the power supply is concerned). 112 ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS .333 A 12 Ω Now retrace your steps to determine the voltages and current associated with each subsection. so we can always do a ‘reality check’ to make sure we have not made an error.

Electronics 113 .

4 The multimeter leads must be connected in parallel across the two points whose voltage difference we wish to measure. The meter will display the voltage between its +V and COM terminals (which is the same as the voltage between the two points in the circuit). Although multimeters have been replaced by computer-based systems in some applications. Both analogue (top) and digital (bottom) forms are available.11 V A +V Ω A V V V Circuit elements 2 V2 V COM COM 3 V3 Figure 4. Note that some multimeters are auto-ranging. so that it draws very little current from the circuit and hence has very little effect on the voltage being measured. This current is used to sense the quantity being measured and is then converted to some form of visual indicator. (b) Using a voltmeter to measure voltage between two points in a circuit. 114 ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS .8 shows how to use a multimeter to measure the voltage between two points in a circuit: 1 The multimeter must be switched to voltmeter mode. current or resistance in a DC circuit. 3 The multimeter should be switched to the appropriate range for the measurement. since some electrical energy must be diverted from the circuit into the measuring instrument. Measuring voltage Figure 4.Using a multimeter for accurate measurements As well as calculating the various voltages and currents in a circuit. If this is unknown you should always start on the least sensitive (largest) range. These various functions can be combined into one instrument called a multimeter. ammeter and ohmmeter. The numeric readout can also represent RMS values of sinusoidal voltages and currents in AC circuits. Figure 4. Multimeters are very cleverly designed so as to minimise this energy diversion.7 A multimeter combines the function of a voltmeter and an ammeter. their ease of use and portability still make them useful for making quick measurements of instantaneous circuit conditions. but we still need to understand how multimeters work so that we can use them correctly. The act of measuring a voltage or current in an electronic circuit will inevitably cause some change in that circuit.8 (a) Circuit symbol for a voltmeter. the multimeter has a very large resistance between its two terminals.7. An ideal voltmeter has an infinite resistance between its terminals. (b) (a) V1 1 (c) 2. usually either a moving pointer (analogue display) or a digital screen (digital display) as shown in Figure 4. (c) A multimeter in voltmeter mode. In electronics we do this with measuring instruments such as the voltmeter. Physics file An ideal voltmeter does not affect the circuit under measurement. Most multimeters draw a very small current from the circuit. These devices give a numeric readout of a particular voltage. In voltmeter mode. we also need to be able to measure these values accurately. 2 The leads of the multimeter must be connected to the instrument’s voltage (+V) and common (COM) terminals.

9 (a) Circuit symbol for an ammeter. 4 The multimeter leads must be connected in series with the electronic component through which we wish to measure the current. Using a lower range will enable the value to be measured with a greater accuracy. a multimeter might have ranges of 0–3. If this is unknown you should always start on the least sensitive (largest) range. (c) A multimeter in ammeter mode. Electronics 115 . Since multimeters are usually used to read unknown voltage. current or resistance. The meter has a battery that passes a very small current through the unknown resistive component. For example.Measuring current Figure 4. The multimeter leads are then connected in parallel across this component. If this is unknown you should always start on the least sensitive (largest) range. Read the value and then check if it could be measured on a lower range.10 shows how to use a multimeter to measure the resistance of a particular component in a circuit: 1 The multimeter must be switched to ohmmeter mode. 2 The leads of the multimeter must be connected to the instrument’s resistance (+Ω) and common (COM) terminals. current or resistance. it is a useful precaution to always set meters on the highest available range first. An ideal ammeter has zero resistance between its terminals. (a) (b) 1 A +A Physics file An ideal ammeter does not affect the circuit under measurement. 2 The leads of the multimeter must be connected to the instrument’s current (+A) and common (COM) terminals. Measuring resistance Figure 4. The meter will display the current flowing from its +A to its COM terminals (which is the same as the current flowing through the chosen point in the circuit). 3 If the multimeter is not auto-ranging it should be switched to the appropriate range for the measurement. 3 If the multimeter is not auto-ranging it should be switched to the appropriate range for the measurement. (c) 1. In ammeter mode. The meter senses the magnitude of this current and displays the corresponding resistance. Physics file Many multimeters provide a choice of scales so they can be used to measure a large range of voltage.9 shows how to use a multimeter to measure the current flowing past a particular point in a circuit: 1 The multimeter must be switched to ammeter mode. (b) Using an ammeter to measure the current flowing through a point in a circuit. the multimeter has a very small resistance between its two terminals so that it has very little effect on the current being measured.30 mA A COM A Ω A V COM V A V I 2 B 3 Figure 4. since the battery has a constant voltage. 4 One end of the electronic component must be disconnected (and therefore isolated) from the rest of the circuit. the current flowing through the resistive element will be inversely proportional to the unknown resistance. in voltmeter mode. Ohm’s law tells us that. 0–10 and 0–30 V etc.

(a)

(b)

1 A

(c)

4.13 Ω
A 2

Ω V

Ω A

V

B 3

V

COM

Figure 4.10 (a) Circuit symbol for an ohmmeter. (b) Using an ohmmeter to
measure the resistance between two points that are disconnected from the circuit. (c) A multimeter in ohmmeter mode.

4.1 SUMMARY

ANALYSING ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS

• Electrons are not ‘used up’ as they travel around an electrical circuit, but their electrical potential energy is converted to other forms of energy (heat, light, sound etc.). • The direction of conventional current is defined as the same direction that positive charge would flow in an electrical circuit. ∆Q • I= ∆t • V = IR V2 • P = VI = I 2R = R

• For resistors in series: Req = R1 + R2 + R3 + ... + Rn • For resistors in parallel: 1 1 1 1 1 Req = R1 + R2 + R3 + ... + Rn • The voltage division principle states: VX RX = Vin R1 + R2 + ... + Rn • A voltmeter has a very large internal resistance and is connected in parallel across the unknown voltage to be measured. • An ammeter has a very small internal resistance and is connected in series with the unknown current to be measured.

4.1 QUESTIONS
1

A circuit consists of three identical lamps connected to a battery with a switch as shown in the diagram. When the switch is closed what happens:
a b c d e f

2

In the following three circuits the batteries and resistors are all identical. Assume the batteries are ideal (i.e. no internal resistance).
E E E

to the intensity of lamp A? to the intensity of lamp C? to the current in the circuit? to the potential difference across lamp B? to the potential difference across lamp C? to the total power dissipated in the circuit?
R4 R1 R2 R3 R5

a

Which resistor(s) has the highest current flowing through it? Which resistor(s) has the lowest current flowing through it? Which resistor(s) has the highest power dissipated through it?

b

E

I

A

B
switch

C
c

116

ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS

3

a

For the following circuits, which of the following statements is correct? Assume the ammeters are identical.
A X 10 kΩ 10 V 10 kΩ A Y 6 A B C

R1 (Ω) 1000 400 900 2.0

R2 (Ω) 1000 100 3.0

Vout (V) 10 5.0 2.0

10 V

Ammeter X displays the highest current. Ammeter Y displays the highest current. Both ammeters display the same current.

Three variable resistors, R1, R2 and R3, are connected to a switch S. Determine the values of Vout in the table.
R1 20 V S R3 R2

b

For the following circuits, which of the following statements is correct? Assume that the voltmeters and batteries are ideal and identical.

Vout

10 V

10 kΩ

V X

10 V

20 kΩ

V Y

R1 (Ω) 200 300 50 100 200
7

R2 (Ω) 200 100 50 100 100

R3 (Ω) 100 25 75 1000 100

S open open open open closed

Vout (V)

A B C 4

Voltmeter X displays the higher voltage drop. Voltmeter Y displays the higher voltage drop. Both voltmeters display the same voltage.

A voltmeter is used to measure the voltage (relative to ground) at various points around a circuit. The voltages at points X and Y are as shown in the diagrams. For circuits (a) and (b) determine the magnitude and direction (P or Q) for the current flowing through the 5 kΩ resistor and the 2 kΩ resistor.
E

The graph (below right) represents a plot of potential difference (V) as a function of position (clockwise from X) around the electronic circuit (below left). Assume all wires and the switch have zero resistance.
10 kΩ 10 V Potential difference (V)

+10

(a) X or Y V

+5 V

X 5 kΩ

(b)

+5 V

X 5 kΩ X (closed) switch

+5

Position X 10 V 10 kΩ X

P Q -3 V

2 kΩ Y

P Q -3 V

2 kΩ Y

5

The following circuit is a simple voltage divider consisting of two variable resistors of resistance R1 and R2. Copy and complete the table.
R1 20 V R2

Vout

Electronics

117

Sketch the potential difference versus position graphs for the following circuits.
a
R

11

150 V
Potential difference (V)

+10

E

10 V (open) X switch

+5

a
0 Position X 10 V X

Which of the following combinations of resistors in the circuit shown are wired in series with each other?
A B C

30 Ω, 5 Ω 20 Ω, 5 Ω 20 Ω, 25 Ω 5 Ω, 10 Ω, 25 Ω 10 Ω, 15 Ω 5 Ω, 10 Ω, 25 Ω, 20 Ω

b
R

D Potential difference (V)
+10

R E 10 V (closed) X switch

E F

+5 0 Position X 10 V X

b

Which of the following combinations of resistors in the circuit are wired in parallel with each other?
A B C D E

30 Ω with 5 Ω 20 Ω with 15 Ω 30 Ω with 10 Ω 15 Ω with 10 Ω (5 Ω, 10 Ω) with (15 Ω, 25 Ω) (5 Ω, 10 Ω, 25 Ω) with 15 Ω

R

Potential difference (V)

c

F
+10 +5 0 −5 −10
Position

c

10 V R

Which of the four resistors in the circuit shown has the least power dissipated through it?
A B

20 Ω 15 Ω 25 Ω 5Ω

X

X
10 V

X

C D d

The following information applies to questions 8–10. A manufacturer makes two different globes for a 12.0 V torch: one is rated at 0.50 W and the other at 1.00 W.
8

Which of the four resistors in the circuit shown has the most power dissipated through it?
A B C D

20 Ω 30 Ω 25 Ω 5Ω

What is the resistance of each globe when it is operating correctly? If the two globes are connected in parallel across a 12.0 V supply:
a b c 12

9

which has the greater potential difference across it? which has the greater current through it? which glows more brightly?

10 V

10

If the two globes are connected in series across the 12.0 V supply:
a b c

which has the greater potential difference across it? which has the greater current through it? which glows more brightly?

Consider the circuit shown.
a

Determine the total resistance connected across the battery terminals. Determine the voltage across the 40 kΩ resistor. Determine the current through the 5 kΩ resistor. Determine the voltage across the 10 kΩ resistor.

b c d

118

ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS

4.2
Capacitors

Capacitors and diodes
(a)

A capacitor is a device used in electronic circuits to store charge. To understand what a capacitor is, let’s do a ‘thought experiment’. Assume we start with two fixed clumps of uncharged conducting material (for example, two metallic objects) separated by a non-conducting medium (for example, air) as is shown in Figure 4.11. If we could somehow gradually strip electrons from one conductor and deposit them on the other, our first conductor would become positively charged, while the second would become negatively charged. Because we would be doing work in moving electrons from the positive to the negative conductor, the electrons would gain electrical potential energy and hence a voltage would exist between the equal but oppositely charged lumps. The voltage V that exists for a given amount of charge transferred Q, depends upon the shape and separation of the conductors and the properties of the insulating medium between the plates. The ratio of this charge to voltage for the two conductors is known as its capacitance C, and is defined as: Q C = or Q = CV V The capacitance is therefore a measure of the capacity of the two conductors to store separated charge. The SI unit of capacitance is coulombs per volt, or the farad (F). Thus 1 farad = 1 coulomb/1 volt. In everyday electronic circuits a farad is an unusually large capacitance and more convenient units are the microfarad, where 1 µF = 10−6 F, the nanofarad, where 1 nF = 10−9 F, and the picofarad, where 1 pF = 10−12 F. An electronic device designed to have a specific capacitance is called a capacitor. It is made of two conducting plates (often aluminium foil) separated by a non-conducting medium (such as paper, plastic or air) and is often rolled into a cylinder to make the capacitor more compact. Some capacitors work equally well regardless of which way round the leads are connected. They are called non-polarised capacitors. Other capacitors are polarised and work properly only when their leads are connected in a specific way (i.e. the positive lead to the more positive side of the circuit and the negative lead to the more negative side of the circuit). Polarised capacitors always have one lead labelled positive or negative to indicate how they should be connected in a circuit. Figure 4.12 shows the circuit symbols for non-polarised and polarised capacitors.
(a) +
q=0 Vc = 0 Vbat q=0

(b) + + + + – – – – –

– – – – – –Q

+ + + + + + +Q

V

Figure 4.11 Doing work in moving charge
from one conductor to another. (a) Two lumps of conducting material separated by a nonconducting medium. (b) As electrons are moved from one conductor to the other, a voltage develops between the conductors.

(a)

(b)

absence of electrons

plate A Vbat plate B

plate A plate B

q = +Q q = −Q excess of electrons

Vc = Vbat

(b) +


electrons move around circuit

Figure 4.13 Capacitor charging. (a) Initial state (before battery connected to
capacitor). (b) Final state (after battery connected to capacitor).

Figure 4.12 Symbols for (a) a non-polarised
and (b) a polarised capacitor.

Electronics

119

When the leads of an uncharged capacitor are connected across the terminals of a battery, as shown in Figure 4.13, electrons (under the influence of the electric force) will move away from the negative battery terminal and flow to the (initially) uncharged capacitor plate B (giving it a net negative charge). At the same time, electrons (again under the influence of the electric force) will flow away from the initially uncharged capacitor plate A, as they are attracted to the positive battery terminal (giving the plate a net positive charge). Thus current flows for a short time while the capacitor plates are charging to −Q and +Q, respectively. The wire of the conducting path will have a small but finite resistance (R) which, together with the capacitance (C ) of the plates, determines the time it takes for the capacitor to charge. Once the capacitor has fully charged, plate A will be at the same electric potential as the positive battery terminal and plate B will be at the same potential as the negative battery terminal, and the current stops. Hence the voltage across the fully charged capacitor is equal to the voltage across the battery. Physics file
A dielectric material is one where all the electrons are relatively tightly bound (to atoms, molecules or a lattice) and hence there are few free electrons. Dielectric materials are therefore good insulators with very low electrical conductivity.

If the charged capacitor is disconnected from the battery, it will remain charged. But the electrons will gradually drift, or leak, across the dielectric insulator between the capacitor plates, and the capacitor slowly discharges. If the two leads of the capacitor are connected (shorted) or joined through a circuit, the capacitor will also be discharged, but far more quickly. If a variable resistor is connected in series with the charged (or discharged) capacitor, varying the resistance can change the time it takes for the capacitor to discharge (or charge). This variable ‘RC’ circuit could, for example, be used to vary the time between sweeps of a car windscreen wiper or the time that a courtesy light stays on after a car door is shut. A capacitor is a very important and significant electronic device. Capacitors can be used to sense physical changes. For example, in some microphones, sound waves change the separation between capacitor plates, and can then be converted into a voltage signal. Radios and televisions also use variable capacitors in tuner circuits to selectively amplify signals from one particular station. Capacitors are also used in a wide range of RC charging/discharging circuits and in electronic rectification circuits that convert AC power to DC. As we have seen previously, there is a linear relationship between the charge on each plate of a capacitor and the potential difference between the capacitor plates, i.e. Q = CV. Hence, there is also a linear relationship between the rate of change in charge and the rate of change in potential difference (both with respect to time), i.e. ∆Q ∆V =C ∆t ∆t
∆Q , the current in the capacitor conducting path is proportional to the ∆t ∆V . rate of change of the voltage across the capacitor, i.e. I = C ∆t Since I =

These topics are covered in the ‘Further Electronics’ Detailed Study on the Heinemann Physics 12 CD.

When there is a constant voltage across a capacitor (i.e. ∆V/∆t = 0), the current in the capacitor’s conducting path is zero. In a sense, the ‘effective resistance’ of the capacitor to current flow is infinite (open circuit) for a constant voltage. If there is a time-varying voltage across the capacitor (i.e. ∆V/∆t ≠ 0), then there is a non-zero current in the capacitor conducting path. In a sense, the ‘effective resistance’ of the capacitor to current flow is finite for
120
ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS

a time-varying voltage. If the frequency of the time-varying voltage is high, then the current (which is proportional to the rate of change of this voltage) will be large. Hence the ‘effective resistance’ of the capacitor is small. Thus a capacitor can also be used to remove the constant voltage component of any time-varying signal. This is often required if we wish to amplify a small fluctuating signal that is superimposed on a large constant voltage offset. A capacitor used in this way is called a coupling capacitor because it couples (or passes) the time-varying voltage component of a signal from one point to another in a circuit but blocks any constant voltage component in the same signal. The blocked constant voltage component of the signal appears across the charged capacitor plates. A coupling capacitor is often also referred to as a decoupling capacitor. In other words, the capacitor decouples or separates the constant voltage component (DC) from the timevarying component (AC) of the signal. Figure 4.14 shows an example of a coupling capacitor.
amplitude of 5V

Physics file
Throughout this chapter DC voltages and currents are usually represented by UPPERCASE characters (V and I ) and AC voltages and currents are usually represented by lowercase characters (v and i).

AC voltage

vin
15 V DC voltage

vout

amplifier

20 15

20 15

vin (V)

10 5 0 −5

vout (V) t (s)

10 5 0 −5

t (s)

Figure 4.14 Diagram of a DC battery (constant voltage source), an AC time-varying
voltage source and a coupling capacitor. The time-varying voltage is measured before and after the capacitor.

Diodes
We have seen that resistors and capacitors can be used to control the various voltages and currents that appear in an electronic circuit. Another electronic component, the diode, can also be used to control voltage and current. A diode acts a little like a voltage-controlled switch. It has two different terminals—a p-terminal (anode) and an n-terminal (cathode). Figure 4.15 shows a typical diode and its circuit symbol. When the diode switch is ‘open’, virtually no current flows through the diode. When the diode switch is ‘closed’, current can flow through the diode (but only in the direction of p-terminal to n-terminal). Figure 4.16 shows the ‘I versus V ’ relationship for a typical diode. Note that the relationship is highly non-linear (i.e. the diode is a non-ohmic device). The resistance of the diode (Rd = V/I) varies over a large range (from very small to almost infinitely large) and depends upon the magnitude and sign of the voltage across the diode’s terminals. When the voltage drop from the p-terminal to the n-terminal of the diode is zero or negative, Rd is very large and the current flowing through the diode is very small. An effective ‘openElectronics

anode +

cathode –

+

Figure 4.15 A typical diode and its circuit
symbol.

121

the thermal leakage current is called the dark current Id. I Vs V PRACTICAL ACTIVITY 17 Characteristics of diodes – + R + I≈0 – R I V<0 V>0 Figure 4. at a particular voltage (Vs).17a). phosphorus) then those dopant atoms will have one more electron per atom than is required for covalent bonding (see Figure 4. Usually these electrons are held more tightly than in a conductor but not as tightly as in an insulator. We shall refer to this current as the thermal leakage current It.3 V.g.7 V and a germanium diode has a Vs of about 0. if we replace a few of the atoms in a silicon lattice with atoms that have one additional proton in the nucleus (e. circuit’ exists between the leads of the diode—that is. thermal atomic vibrations break a few of these strong bonds. creating mobile charges. Current I passing through a diode as a function of the voltage. the resistance of the diode approaches zero and an effective ‘short-circuit’ exists between the leads of the diode—that is. In most diode circuits.16 that. Each atom in the lattice shares its four electrons with its four nearest neighbours (covalent bonding) so that all atoms in the lattice appear to have a full shell of eight shared electrons. which are discussed in the next chapter. This type of doping produces n-type (or negative-type) semiconductors. With lightsensitive diodes (photodetectors). To understand how a diode can act as a voltage-controlled switch we must look at its microscopic structure. and only a very small amount of energy is needed to free them. a silicon diode has a Vs of about 0. which is a stable configuration (see Figure 4. The value of Vs depends on the material that the diode is made of. For example. hence these lattices are called semiconductors. it does not conduct. These electrons are very loosely bound. For example. At room temperature. which involves replacing some of the lattice atoms with atoms of other elements. the exceedingly small current (typically 10−9 A) resulting from these mobile charges can usually be ignored.17b). When the voltage drop from the p-terminal to the n-terminal of the diode is positive. This is explained in the following Physics in Action. we can see from Figure 4. silicon or germanium) used in these lattices have four outer-shell electrons that are available for bonding (see Figure 4. generating a small number of mobile charges. The conductivity of a semiconductor can be increased by a process called doping.17c). it conducts. in 122 ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS .Physics file The switch-on voltage of a diode is also often called the threshold voltage.g.16 I –V characteristics of a diode. Vs is called the switch-on voltage of the diode. PHYSICS IN ACTION The atomic structure of semiconductors Diodes are made up of highly ordered arrays (lattices) of atoms. The atoms (e. the current flowing through the diode increases very rapidly. Correspondingly.

(e) An aluminium atom. This produces a hole (absence of an electron) in the lattice (see Figure 4. aluminium) then those dopant atoms will have one less electron per atom than is required for covalent bonding (see Figure 4. (b) p-type semiconductor material.17 (a) A silicon atom only has four electrons in its outer shell. (a) (b) Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si (c) + Si Si Si Si (d) Si Si Si Si (e) Si Si + Si – Figure 4.g. so this type of doping results in p-type (or positive-type) semiconductors. There is one extra loosely bound electron if the phosphorus atom covalently bonds with the silicon atoms in the lattice. Si Si Si Si electron hole Si silicon nucleus (f) Si Si Si Si + phosphorus nucleus – aluminium nucleus Si Si – Si Si Si Si Si (a) – – – – – – – – – n-type Si + Si + Si + Si + Si + Si + (b) + + + + + + + + + – – – – – – – – – p-type Si – Si – Si – Si – Si – Si + + + + + + + + + electron hole I (conventional current) I (conventional current) Si silicon nucleus + phosphorus nucleus – aluminium nucleus Figure 4. which has one less proton in its nucleus and one less electron in its outer shell (total of 3) compared with silicon.18 Doped semiconductors with voltage applied: (a) n-type semiconductor material. if we replace a few of the atoms in a silicon lattice with atoms that have one less proton in the nucleus (e. On the other hand.17f) into which an electron from an adjacent atom may easily move. which has one more proton in its nucleus and one more electron in its outer shell (total of five) compared with silicon. This effect is similar to that of a loosely bound positive charge moving through the material. The newly created hole in the adjacent atom can then be filled by an electron from another atom and so on. (d) A two-dimensional representation of a phosphorusdoped silicon crystal (an example of an n-type semiconductor). (c) A phosphorus atom.17d).which the spare electrons from the doping atoms can move relatively freely through the semiconductor (see Figure 4. Electronics 123 . The silicon atom needs another four electrons to form a stable full shell.17e). (f) A two-dimensional representation of an aluminiumdoped silicon crystal (an example of a p-type semiconductor). (b) A two-dimensional representation of a silicon crystal (an example of a semiconductor material) in which each Si atom ‘sees’ eight shared outer-shell electrons. There is one loosely bound ‘hole’ (absence of an electron) if the aluminium atom covalently bonds with the silicon atoms in the lattice.

All other terms are independent of material and geometry. broadening this non-conducting region.7 V. for gallium arsenide (used for light-sensitive diodes) it is approximately 1. When a battery is connected across an n-type material (see previous Physics in Action).3 V.19 I –V curves for silicon and germanium diodes at the same temperature.) When an external battery is applied so that the positive terminal of the battery is connected to the p side of the diode and the negative terminal is connected to the n side. electrons flow into the wire. Hence the reverse bias ensures that no current will flow through the diode (see Figure 4. when the exponential term dominates. The same thing happens when holes diffuse from the p-type material into the n-type material. We somewhat arbitrarily choose the transition between these two extremes as the switch-on voltage Vs that results in a typical operating current for the particular diode. We can model the diode’s complex I–V curve by a simple straight-line approximation. For diodes at the same temperature.7 V (typical) Figure 4. a germanium pn junction has a Vb of approximately 0. The I–V curve of a diode is closely related to its pn junction I–V relationship. The term I t depends upon the semiconductor material and its geometry. (In practice there is a small leakage because thermal vibrations in the material generate some holes and free electrons—this current is the thermal leakage current It. This produces a net positive charge in the n-type material near the junction and a net negative charge in the p-type material.e. for a germanium diode Vs ∼ 0. This produces a region around the junction that has very few mobile electrons and holes.18a). For a silicon diode Vs ∼ 0.6 V. Applying an diode's operating current ( tens of mA) silicon diode It nA (typical) Idiode (mA) Vdiode (V) germanium diode It µA (typical) germanium diode Vs 0.19 are for typical silicon and germanium diodes at the same temperature. When the exponential term is negligible. Even though the material is electrically neutral. 124 ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS . This region is called the depletion region. Vs depends upon the value of I t and hence on the diode’s semiconductor material and geometry. Meanwhile at the positive end.25 V. The barrier potential of the pn junction is closely related to the switch-on voltage ( Vs) of the diode. A diode is made by creating a junction between a piece of n-type and a piece of p-type semiconductor material. a small amount of energy is released (in this case in the form of heat) each time an electron fills a hole.Physics file The current (I) and voltage (V) relationship for a pn junction is described by the following equation: I = It e kT − 1 ( eV ) where e and k are physical constants (the charge on the electron and Boltzmann’s constant). These holes will drift through the p-type material. connecting a battery causes (in effect) a flow of holes towards the negative end of the semiconductor (and therefore a conventional current in the same direction). It also widens the depletion layer by attracting both holes and electrons away from the pn junction.e. 15 protons and 14 electrons). This process is called recombination. creating holes in the p-type semiconductor material.20a). In the n-type part of the depletion layer each phosphorus atom now has a net positive charge (i. At the negative end of the semiconductor free electrons from the battery ‘fill’ the holes.3 V (typical) silicon diode Vs 0. This charge separation results in an electric field and an electrical potential barrier (Vb) across the junction that opposes the diffusion of any more mobile charge (see Figure 4.18b). Other semiconductors will have different barrier potentials. The two I–V curves shown in Figure 4. establishing a conventional current in the opposite direction (see Figure 4. Because recombination results in a more tightly bound silicon lattice. The depletion of mobile charges around the junction exposes the underlying net charge of the dopant atoms that are fixed into the lattice structure. For a silicon pn junction Vb is approximately 0. Some of these electrons will diffuse across the junction into the p-type material and fill some of the vacant holes. In p-type material. establishing a continuous current for as long as the battery remains connected (see Figure 4. there is a much higher concentration of loosely bound electrons in the n-type material. the diode current is very small and constant (−I t). Here we shall look at a silicon diode (although the discussion is equally true for diodes made of other semiconductor materials). whereas in the p-type part each aluminium atom has a net negative charge (i. For example. T is the temperature of the junction in kelvin and I t is its thermal leakage current. this is called forward biasing the diode. the diode current is large and increasing rapidly with small changes in V. Applying an external battery so that the positive terminal of the battery is connected to the n side of the diode and the negative terminal is connected to the p side is called reverse biasing the diode. since it is depleted of free charge. The external reverse-biased potential difference across the diode increases the pn junction’s effective potential barrier.65 V. 13 protons and 14 electrons).20b). free electrons (in the semiconductor) flow towards the positive end of the semiconductor.

Holes are continuously produced at the positive end of the p-type material and electrons enter the material at the negative end of the n-type material. The arrow in the standard diode symbol indicates the direction of conventional current when the diode is forward biased. Figure 4. it must be connected the right way round and the potential difference across it must not exceed a certain critical value. The continuous flow of charge is seen as a flow of current. Electronics 125 .20c).20 (a) An unbiased pn semiconductor junction. Beyond this value the current flowing becomes too large and permanent damage will result. The size of the current flowing through the diode strongly depends on the forward bias voltage applied across the diode. holes are attracted towards the negative terminal and electrons are attracted to the positive terminal (Figure 4. Holes migrate in the opposite direction and recombine with electrons. (b) A reverse-biased pn semiconductor junction. (c) A forwardbiased pn semiconductor junction.external forward bias decreases the effective potential barrier and narrows the pn depletion layer. For a diode to conduct. This means that electrons migrate from the n-type region through the depletion region into the p-type region where they can fill holes (recombination). Thus.

D2 5V Y 20 k Z 126 ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS . Thus effective resistance between X and Y is 1.7 V) drop across diode ‘B’ and current from the battery can now flow to the appliance. (a) forward biased current flow 12 V A 240 V AC "A" 9V 11.7 V) drop across the forward-biased diode.3 kΩ 20 kΩ D2 I 3k X 1. determine the voltage across D1 and the current flowing through D2.21 to provide a battery back-up feature to the alarm clock radio. RD2 << 20 kΩ).e. If the mains power is operating. Assume D1 and D2 are both silicon diodes.3 kΩ. diode ‘A’ is forward biased and current can flow from the positive terminal of the 12 V DC supply to the device.e. There is a small (approximately 0. especially if you are relying on the alarm to wake you up. forward biased Worked example 4. (a) Mains power operating normally and (b) mains power not operating.3 V "B" AC to DC converter 0V to current flow N alarm clock radio Figure 4. Y D1 3 kΩ 5V X Z 1. which is in parallel with D2. There is a small (0. We can assume that the clock radio circuit will function normally if supplied with any voltage source between 8 and 12 V.2A. The appliance is normally powered from a mains-powered voltage of 12 V DC (perhaps supplied by a 240 V AC to 12 V DC ‘plug-pak’ converter). RD1 >> 1. For the following circuit. Diode ‘B’ on the other hand is reverse biased and effectively isolates the 9 V battery from the rest of the circuit.3 V "B" AC to DC converter 12 V DC to current flow N ground 9 V battery back-up alarm clock radio reverse biased (b) A 0V reverse biased current flow 0V "A" 9V 8.21 Battery back-up for mainsoperated appliance. Note that D2 is forward biased so its resistance is small (i.It can be annoying when your alarm clock radio is disrupted by a power failure in the middle of the night.3 k D1 Solution Redraw the circuit.3 kΩ). and a 9 V battery is used as the back-up power supply. If the mains power fails. then diode ‘A’ is now reverse biased and diode ‘B’ is forward biased. Note that D1 is reverse biased so its resistance is large (i. Thus we can ignore the effect of the 20 kΩ resistor. Manufacturers can use a simple diode circuit like the one shown in Figure 4.

the electrons are boiled off the filament.3 V. Many of the electrons pass straight through the cylinder. accelerate them to high speeds.D2 switch-on voltage is 0. The emitted electrons are then attracted to a cylinder at a high positive voltage. In these cases. If the top plate is at a positive electric potential VY relative to the bottom plate then there is a constant electric force on any charged particle between Electronics 127 . Current flowing from battery is: V I= Rt 4. A CRO (which is often also simply called an oscilloscope) effectively takes a ‘snapshot’ of any timevarying voltage signal.22 The cathode ray oscilloscope. This enables the electron beam to generate a small focused spot on the screen rather than a diffuse one. These plates allow the beam to be deflected in both the vertical and horizontal directions before hitting the phosphor screen.3 × 103 2 I 5V D2 0.22). arranged like the barrel of a gun.7 V. The electron beam from the gun is then collimated and focused by a series of small apertures and electrostatic lenses. The electron beam excites a phosphor screen to produce a visible light pattern that can be sensed by our eyes. The electrons are generated by ‘evaporation’ from a hot filament and then accelerated to high speed by a highvoltage electron gun. voltage drop across rest of circuit is 4. the verticaldeflection Y plates.3 = 4. The oscilloscope converts the electrical signal (voltage) into a deflection of a beam of electrons.24).01 Pa) thickened lead glass screen fluorescent screen coating cathode heater Figure 4. for example.7 V = 1.3 V Current through D2 = 1 mA PHYSICS IN ACTION The cathode ray oscilloscope For time-varying voltage signals it can be useful to be able to ‘graph’ the exact shape of the signal or its timing relative to other signals. producing a beam whose path can be controlled by the deflecting plates.23 The components within an electron gun are designed to draw electrons from the hot metal filament. Therefore. The electrons in the beam need a high kinetic energy in order to excite the phosphor atoms on the screen so that they emit visible light from the point where they are struck by the beam.3 kΩ resistor VD = 1 × 10−3 × 1. and focus them into a fine beam. a cathode ray oscilloscope (CRO) is used. In many ways. layer of conducting graphite – connected to final anode Y X electron gun deflection assembly path of electrons (invisible) vacuum (<0. an electron source.3 × 103 = 1 × 10−3 A = 1 mA Voltage across D1 = voltage across 1. Consider. Physics file An electron gun is made up of a hot metal filament that emits electrons by thermionic emission. It includes an evacuated tube with a flat phosphor screen. The beam then passes with a constant speed through two sets of deflection plates (as shown in Figure 4. In fact. a high-voltage power supply and an electron deflection system (see Figure 4. an oscilloscope is similar to an old black-and-white television. grid anodes Figure 4.

consider a simple analogy. An oscilloscope often has two inputs (or channels) so that more than one voltage can be displayed on the screen at the same time. then move the pencil tip smoothly to and fro along a straight-line path on the paper (Figure 4. someone moves the paper at a roughly constant speed as we continue to move the pencil in the to-and-fro straight-line movement. the resulting sketch would tell us little about the oscillating movement of the pencil tip. the electrons in the beam experience a constant and uniform electric force while traversing the plates. This is achieved by applying a sawtooth (ramp) voltage waveform to the X plates. By synchronising the vertical and horizontal motion.) In a typical oscilloscope. The sawtooth voltage increases at a constant rate and gives rise to a horizontal beam deflection that also increases at a constant rate.25 Two plates showing voltage. (This motion is analagous to the parabolic trajectory of a projectile under the influence of the constant gravitational force near the Earth’s surface.e. apart from its amplitude.25 ). Accurate measurements (both time and voltage) can then be made from this stationary pattern. the voltage applied to the Y (or X) set of plates is proportional to the vertical (or horizontal) displacement of the beam spot on the phosphor screen.26 shows a typical twochannel oscilloscope. To help understand how the display of an oscilloscope works.27a). varying signal voltage. The electrical signal to be measured (signal voltage) is applied to the Y plates. In this particular case. electric force on electron. vertical deflection (Y) plates unknown voltage horizontal deflection (X) plates beam of electrons + — — + V sawtooth waveform t Figure 4. The strength of the electric force depends upon the voltage difference between the plates. is linearly proportional to the voltage applied across the plates.26 A typical two-channel oscilloscope. resulting in a horizontal beam spot moving with constant velocity as required. Hence. and shallow parabolic electron path. for these small angles. If. To observe the time-varying nature in the signal being measured. then the resulting sketch would look like the one shown in 128 ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS . on the other hand. Figure 4. and time is along the horizontal axis. the oscilloscope can display a stationary pattern (made up of a large number of superimposed snapshots) of the timephosphor screen beam spot + constant electric force on electron no force means straight line motion no force means straight line motion constant force means parabolic path – Figure 4. the electric force is upwards (i. The screen of the oscilloscope can be likened to a sheet of graph paper. Hence. each set of deflection plates gives the electron beam a small angular deflection that. The constant acceleration (small) in the Y direction coupled with the constant velocity (large) in the Z direction means that the electron beam follows a shallow parabolic path while traversing the plates (see Figure 4. The voltage being measured is displayed along the vertical axis. the electrons are accelerated vertically towards the positive plate).the plates.24 Deflection of an electron beam in the oscilloscope. Both input signals are time-shared on the one set of Y plates. the beam spot must also be swept repeatedly in a horizontal (X) direction with a constant speed. Figure 4. If we take a sheet of graph paper and a pencil.

only how that signal is displayed. At the same time. then our sketch would look like the one shown in Figure 4. In other words. Varying this Electronics 129 . (a) (b) (b) (b) Figure 4. After repeating this task a number of times. This. The reason why the two sketches look different is because each is drawn with a different horizontal time scale. If you moved the pencil to and fro in the same way in both cases.27b.29b. usually labelled time/div or sec/div.28a. Figure 4. to show the time-varying nature of the voltage being measured. since we have. that changes the speed at which the beam spot is swept horizontally across the screen. we should have a sketch that looks like Figure 4. Note that the oscilloscope cannot change the actual signal itself. If each new paper sweep started only when our pencil movement had reached a particular point in the to-and-fro cycle. The sketch does not show the shape of the waveform clearly. frequency. adjusting the volts/div knob varies the vertical (voltage) scale of the displayed waveform. if the paper were moved slowly (at. we can vary the number of cycles of the oscillating waveform that appear across the oscilloscope screen. We can ‘freeze’ these waveforms by sweeping the beam spot horizontally not just once but continuously. The instantaneous voltage at the input (the signal we are trying to measure) is converted into a vertical displacement of the beam spot on the screen. if the paper were moved quickly (20 cm s−1) then the sketch would look like Figure 4.). Returning to our analogy. In this way each new sweep traces exactly over the last sweep and the display of the waveform appears to be frozen in time. varies the time scale of the display. On the oscilloscope is a knob. Now we can see the exact nature of the oscillating movement (amplitude. in effect.29a. On the other hand.28 Sketch of a pencil tip moving to and fro along a straight-line path when (a) the paper is moving very slowly and (b) the paper is moving very quickly. the beam spot is swept horizontally at a constant velocity across the screen. Thus by adjusting the time/div knob. Before each time that the sheet is pulled. in effect. amplification factor determines how far the beam spot moves vertically up the screen when a certain voltage is connected to the oscilloscope input. We often use an oscilloscope to display periodic voltage signals that oscillate too rapidly to be seen by the human eye. let us assume that someone pulls the sheet of paper (always at the same constant speed) from under our pencil tip a number of times. graphed the changing position of the pencil tip as a function of time. Now. because our to-and-fro pencil movement and the other person’s paper movement are not synchronised.Figure 4. we start our to-and-fro movement along the same straight-line path. the time (time/div) and voltage (volts/div) scale knobs can be used to change the scale of the displayed signal in both the horizontal and vertical direction. Another knob (usually labelled volts/div) allows us to change the voltage scale of the vertical axis of the display. say 2 cm s−1) then the resulting sketch would look like Figure 4. This knob actually varies the amplification of the signal voltage that is applied to the Y plates. each sketch should represent the same pencil movement. period etc. Thus.28b. making sure that each new sweep always starts off at the same point in the cycle of the waveform. This is essentially what happens inside an oscilloscope.27 Sketch of a pencil tip moving to and fro along a straight-line path when (a) the paper is stationary and (b) the paper is moving.

• A diode is effectively an open circuit (Id is small) if Vd < Vs. once the beam spot has completed one horizontal sweep. 4.3 V for germanium diodes. (a) (b) Figure 4.2 QUESTIONS 1 A time-varying voltage source has the following v versus t characteristics: a +5 Voltage (V) Sketch the i versus t graph when the voltage source is connected across a resistor as shown.2 SUMMARY CAPACITORS AND DIODES • C= Q V ∆V ∆t • A coupling (decoupling) capacitor in series with a voltage source passes the AC component but blocks the DC component.29 Sketch of a pencil tip moving to and fro along a straight-line path when (a) paper and pencil movements are not synchronised and (b) paper and pencil movements are synchronised. and the display appears to be frozen in time. and small for a forward-biased diode. In this way. ready for the next sweep. • I=C • The switch-on voltage (Vs) is ∼0.7 V for silicon diodes and ∼0.In the oscilloscope. • A diode is effectively a short circuit (Id is large) if Vd > Vs. • Rd is large for a reverse-biased diode. i(t) v (t) R 1 –5 2 3 4 5 6 7 Time (ms) 130 ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS . There is a special circuit inside the oscilloscope (called the trigger) that does not allow the next sweep to start until the oscillating input voltage reaches a given point in its cycle. 4. it is quickly returned to its starting point. the beam-spot (which represents the voltage waveform) traces continuously over the same path on the screen.

A B C D E 6 Draw the display that would be observed for the voltage between S and T (VST). 3. what is the new current I2 flowing through the diode? Choose from A–E below.7 V. When a silicon diode is forward biased with a voltage of 0.0 Z X V Y Y Circuit 1 4.) i(t) 4 Which of the following circuits would you use to measure the V–I characteristics of a: a forward-biased diode.0 X Voltage (V) S +5 2. and the current through. a current I1 flows through it. a very small thermal leakage current I1 flows through it.6 0. i.9 1. Choose from A–E below.0 Y 5 Circuit 2 The graph shows the voltage (vXY) across the load resistor plotted as a function of time.b Sketch the current versus time graph when the voltage source is connected v (t) across a capacitor as shown. If the forwardbiased voltage is halved.3 –5 –10 0. i. The following I–V graph applies to all diodes depicted in this question.0 T –5 A B C Time (ms) Y Time intervals 0 a 20 40 60 80 V (V) a i During which time interval(s) (A. B or C) is the diode reverse biased? Which of these devices: i is non-ohmic? ii has a constant resistance? b ii b c Determine the resistance(s) of the ohmic device(s).2 3 a Y b Vd (V) I2 < I1/2 I2 ≈ I1 I2 = 2I1 I2 = I1/2 I2 > 2I1 Electronics 131 .9 –0.0 mA. When a silicon diode is reverse biased with a voltage of magnitude 5 V. VX < VY? C b Give reasons for your answers. B or C) is the diode forward biased? During which time interval(s) (A.2 –0.6 –0. If the reverse-biased voltage is doubled. assuming it is symmetric about zero and silicon diode used. I (mA) 5. (Assume the connecting wires have zero resistance. Determine the current flowing in devices X and Y. VX > VY? reverse-biased diode. what is the new current I2 flowing through the diode. X A V X A 2 The current–voltage characteristics for three different circuit devices X. Remember that to measure the I–V characteristics we need to measure the voltage across.e. All of the three devices are now connected in parallel across a battery.e.0 RL 100 200 300 400 500 1. Y and Z are shown in the following diagram. the diode as accurately as possible. The current in device Z is 2.3 0. X Id (mA) 20 15 10 5 –1.

7 V and that vin is a sinusoidal voltage with an amplitude of 10 V. 1 kΩ R v in RL 1 kΩ v out 132 ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS . v in R v out b R v in a +10 V C v out 100 Ω R 9 RL 1 MΩ vout vin –10 V In this question assume the diode has a switch-on voltage VS = 0.7 V.5 V a R 60 Ω D 0V E 0V F 0V Circuit 1 7 Circuit 2 C Sketch the output waveforms (vout) for each of the following circuits. is VX > VY or vice versa? If the diode is forward biased.7 V and that vin is a sinusoidal voltage with an amplitude of 10 V. Assume Rdiode → O Ω for VS ≥ 0.a i ii iii Explain the meaning of ‘switch-on voltage’. Assume the silicon diode has a switch-on voltage VS = 0. R 1. does conventional current flow from X to Y or vice versa? 8 iv For the following circuits.7 V. Remember that the ‘effective resistance’ of a capacitor is infinite for a constant voltage and relatively small for a high-frequency time-varying voltage. Sketch the output waveform (vout) for the following circuit.7 V and Rdiode → ∞ Ω for VS < 0. which voltage graph (A–F) best represents vout? Assume vin has a constant voltage component and a high-frequency timevarying voltage component. 1 kΩ R Circuit 1 b +10 V 1 kΩ R v in RL 1 kΩ RL 1 kΩ v out vin –10 V vout 10 Circuit 2 In this question assume both diodes have a switch-on voltage Vs = 0. Sketch the output waveform (vout) for the following circuit. A 0V v B 0V C 0V b Determine the power dissipated in each of the two 60 Ω resistors (shown in circuits 1 and 2).5 V 60 Ω 1. if A represents vin. What is the switch-on voltage for this diode? From what material is this diode most likely made? If the diode is reverse biased.

the signal does not have sufficient energy to activate many other electrical devices—it often needs to be amplified to make the information within it more accessible. we require the output voltage to be directly proportional to the input. rapidly varying signal voltage. at least to a small extent. but to carry information such as radio transmission signals. Although an oscilloscope or data logger can detect this sort of signal voltage. transistor sales were already in the billion-dollar range. By the mid 1950s.30a) converts sound waves into an equivalent electrical signal: a small. Voltage gain When the output voltage for a typical inverting transistor amplifier is plotted as a function of the input voltage. The very high-density integrated circuit ‘chips’ used in modern computers can contain the equivalent of millions of tiny transistors. the information revolution powered by cable modems. In the case of a microphone. an amplifier produces an output signal with an identical wave-shape to the input signal but with larger amplitude. high-speed digital networks and worldwide communication networks depends upon this relatively simple device. and today. as shown in Figure 4. they fail to meet these requirements precisely. a graph. (c) To recreate the sound. The variation of the signal carries information about the frequency and tonal characteristics of the sound. power amplifier small signal larger output signal symbol The operation of a voltage amplifier depends largely on transistors. consequently a graph of Vout as a function of the Vin would be a straight line and the amplifier is then said to be linear. and in an extreme case the output may become badly distorted. varying voltages are not intended to provide energy to a circuit.30b.31.30 (a) A microphone converts sound waves to a small. requiring its own power source before it can amplify the signal. a voltage amplifier is required to increase it to a usable amplitude.3 Amplification Voltage amplifiers Some voltages in electronic circuits are time-varying in nature and have a small amplitude. an amplifier magnifies the voltages to levels (typically tens of volts) that can be fed into an 8 Ω loudspeaker to produce an audible sound. They are referred to specifically as signal voltages. A practical problem with voltage amplifiers is that. is obtained. They have become an important part of electronics as we get better at miniaturising components and detecting small currents. The shape of the amplified signal may change if the input signal has a large amplitude. Normally. resulting in non-linear amplification.4. These small. Ideally. The transistor is an active part of the amplifying system. Physics file Transistors were developed during the late 1940s to replace the bulky glass valves then being used to amplify signal voltages. like that shown in Figure 4. (a) (b) (c) Figure 4. A microphone (Figure 4. A microphone is an example of an electronic device that produces small signal voltages. In the case of a sound amplifier this may change the quality of the sound. (b) An oscilloscope can be used to view this signal. A transistor essentially uses a small voltage variation at its input (Vin) to control a large voltage variation at its output (Vout). The following points can be seen from studying the graph: Electronics 133 . varying voltage whose amplitude may be only a fraction of a volt. Amplifiers require a power source to provide the electrical energy to magnify the signal voltage.

The amplification factor of the amplifier is referred to as the gain. This allows the greatest peak-to-peak signal voltage to be amplified without distortion (see Figure 4. The graph indicates that a range of values for Vin will give this value for the output voltage.32). and it tells us by how much the input signal is scaled up at the output. the minimum output voltage is −6 V. a two-stage (two-transistor) amplifier must be used.1 and +0. The graph indicates that a range of values for Vin will give this value for the output voltage. change its sign from positive to negative or vice versa).e. • Distortion-free amplification will occur in the region where the graph is linear. the output of the amplifier will remain at +6 V.Vout high output voltages are produced by low input voltages a small change in Vin creates a large change in Vout ∆Vin Vin Figure 4. Vout (V) Vmax • The value of Vout is determined by Vin. Again.This is a non-linear region of the graph. As the input voltage decreases below −0. Similarly. the amplifier needs to be operated so that the input voltage is normally in the middle of a linear region. The maximum output voltage of the amplifier has a peak of +6 V. so if it is important that a signal not be inverted. For these values. The output changes from a high value to a low value for a very small change in the input voltage. ∆vout = (Av × Av )∆vin 1 2 Vin (mV) bias voltage set to middle of the linear range of Vin Figure 4. this is a non-linear region of the graph. This minimum value is close to zero.1 V. a high value for Vin causes a low value of Vout. multiplication) of the gain for each individual transistor. A small variation in voltage at the input will produce a large variation in voltage at the output. 1 2 Amplifier clipping Figure 4. an increase in Vin causes a decrease in Vout. and this is first achieved when the input voltage rises to +0. This means that a constant offset voltage needs to be added to the time-varying input signal so that Vin is in the middle of the linear amplification region. The overall gain for a two-stage amplifier will be the product (i. This offset voltage is known as the bias voltage of the amplifier.1 V. A large timevarying input signal can be amplified without distortion. For input voltages between −0.1 V we have linear amplification resulting in output voltages between +6 and −6 V without distortion. The voltage gain for a time-varying input signal Av is the ratio of ∆vout to ∆vin: ∆v Av = out ∆vin A single-stage (one-transistor) amplifier will normally invert an AC signal (i. t=0 Time Since the individual gains (Av and Av ) are both negative numbers. The amplifier cannot produce a higher voltage and the output signal will be distorted as a result. This form of amplifier distortion is known as clipping.1 V. As the input voltage rises above +0.e. the transistor is said to be in cut-off mode. Vmax 2 t=0 Time In practice. Similarly. the input of a second transistor amplifier is connected to the output of the first amplifier.33a represents the voltage gain of a complex inverting voltage amplifier that can amplify both positive and negative input signals. the amplifier circuit is constructed so that the input timevarying signal voltage (Vin) is added to the bias voltage (which is usually in the middle of the Vin range). The maximum value for Vout is the supply voltage for the amplifier. the output remains at −6 V and distortion will result.e. For this inverting transistor amplifier. For these values. 134 ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS .1 V. their 1 2 product (Av × Av ) is positive and hence the amplifier is non-inverting. well away from the ‘cut-off’ and ‘saturation’ non-linear regions.32 Graph of Vout versus Vin for a correctly biased voltage amplifier. This is first achieved when the input voltage falls to −0. the transistor is said to be in saturation mode. Here. AV = Vout/Vin). Voltage gain is a ratio with no units. The voltage gain (AV) is the ratio of Vout to Vin (i.31 The graph of Vout versus Vin for a voltage amplifier. To correctly amplify a small time-varying signal.

the gain of the amplifier is negative.0 Vin d Solution a output voltage Choosing points A and B from the graph to give as large a range as possible: ∆vout = −10 V.33b shows an example of amplification distortion.0 V –0. since this is a ratio. ∆vout Voltage gain Av = ∆vin +5 V ∆Vout = –10 V ∆Vin = 1.5 V corresponds to an output voltage of −5 V.2 –0.1 V.5 V the signal will be clipped.1 and +0. as in the trace shown on the left. The voltage characteristics are shown in the diagram.0 V c d Above an input voltage of ±0. We could also find this by using the gain calculated in part a: Vout = gain × Vin = −10 × 0.5 = −5.1 V limit. b 0 –5 V This voltage amplifier is described as an inverting amplifier because vout is directly proportional to vin but of opposite sign. the sound output would be badly distorted.1 V +6 V +8 +6 +4 +2 0 –2 –4 –6 –8 –0. a b c Vout +6 +4 +2 0 –2 –4 –6 –1. sketch the likely output signal and describe the effect on the output. an input voltage of 0.0 There are no units. ∆vin = 1. When the input voltage goes beyond the −0. From the graph.0 V −10 and voltage gain Av = = −10 1.0 V.5 +1.3A.1 V 0 –0. In this example (a) the peak output voltage of ±6 V is achieved at an – input voltage of + 0.33 The operational characteristics of a voltage amplifier will limit the output voltage range. If this were an audio amplifier. The output will peak at ±5 V.0 A What is the voltage gain (for a time-varying signal) of this amplifier? The amplifier can be described as an inverting amplifier.5 V.1 +0. Why? The microphone produces a varying input voltage peaking at 0. Worked example 4. Note that because the slope of the linear portion of the graph is negative. after which (b) the signal is clipped and distorted. the output voltage remains fixed at ±6 V.1 0 saturation 0 –6 V +0. What is the comparable output voltage? The input signal voltage is increased to a peak of 1. Electronics 135 .2 Vin Figure 4.5 –0 B +0. An audio amplifier includes a voltage amplifier to amplify the AC signal input voltage from a small microphone.Figure 4. (a) V out input signal (b) output signal peak voltages are clipped +0. Assuming the input signal is sinusoidal. and the output will be clipped as shown.

‘transistor action’ occurs and any small changes in the current flowing into the base Ib (due to changes in Vbe) will have a big effect on the conductance properties of 136 ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS . the BJT transistor can be considered similar to two pn junctions connected back to back as shown in Figure 4.34c.34 Diagram showing (a) npn junctions.34a).e. Just as we found with the diode. This type of BJT is called an npn transistor. a small change in the forward-bias voltage Vbe has a large effect on the current flowing across the junction. The circuit symbol for an npn transistor is shown in Figure 4.and n-type semiconductors that are used in diodes).35a. (c) (a) c collector n (b) b c base b p n e emitter e Figure 4. Although the geometry and dopant levels in the three regions are very different. Under these conditions. (b) npn transistor circuit symbol and (c) various different transistor packages.Transistor amplifiers PRACTICAL ACTIVITY 18 Transistors as amplifiers One type of transistor commonly used in electronic amplifying circuits is called a bipolar junction transistor (BJT).35 Diagram of (a) back-to-back diodes and (b) npn BJT biasing showing ‘transistor action’. BJTs are formed from three layers of doped semiconductor material (the same p. Most BJTs are manufactured using siliconbased pn semiconductor material. Ic Rc + large change here (a) c (b) c b Rb Ib + b n p n Vce Figure 4. the voltage between the base and emitter) is approximately 0. e small change here Vbe – e – When Vbe (i. Electrical connections are made to the three doped regions: the connection to the p-type region is called the base and the connections to the two n-type regions are called the collector and emitter (see Figure 4. the base–emitter junction is forward biased and the base–collector junction is reverse biased.7 V and Vbc is greater than several volts. One configuration of BJT has a very thin layer of p-type material sandwiched between two layers of n-type material.34b and a photo of various different transistors is shown in Figure 4.

These electrons are quickly swept across the narrow base into the collector region by the very strong electric field. The operation of a transistor is analogous to that of a garden water tap. When the tap valve is closed (analogous to Vbe < 0.the entire transistor.35b). In a transistor. which is at a maximum (Ic = Isaturation). hence the pn ‘diode’ between base and emitter is forward biased (since the effective barrier potential is reduced). As we saw with the diode. depletion layers. the collector current is an amplified version of the base current. Only a small effort is required to turn the valve open but this will result in a large water flow (Vbe ≈ 0.36). Note that since Ie = Ic + Ib and Ic >> Ib. Ic + + Si + + Si + + Si + + Si + + Si + Si + Si n type + Si + Si + Si Si + Ib + – Si + – Si Depletion region – Si p type – + Si – + + Si + Si Depletion region + Si + Si + Si + n type + Si + Si + Si + + Si + Si + Si + + + + + Figure 4. A small change in Ib (or Vbe) will cause a large change in Ic (or Vce). The current amplification factor is called the current gain AI = Ic/Ib. the base is at a slightly higher potential than the emitter (~0. So where do all the electrons in the base go? The collector is at a much more positive potential than the base (since the pn ‘diode’ between the base and the collector is strongly reverse biased). a small change in Vbe has a large effect on the number of electrons diffusing from the n-type emitter region into the p-type base region.6 V) no water flows through the tap (Ic = 0).7 V resulting in a large Ic).7 V). In a normal pn diode this would result in a large number of electrons flowing into the emitter and out of the base. Because of transistor action. Current gains of 100 or more are typical for a BJT. PHYSICS IN ACTION Transistor action in an npn BJT: How it works! For normal operation with an npn transistor. very few of the electrons from the emitter ‘fill’ the small number of holes in the base and the base current is only a very small fraction of the emitter current. showing npn semiconductor regions. This means that most of the mobile electrons that have diffused into the n-type base region are strongly attracted to the large positive potential of the p-type collector region. and hence on the current flowing into the collector Ic and out of the emitter Ie. A small change in how much we open the valve (a small change in Vbe) will have a large change on the water flow (a large change in Ic). – – – – Ie – – Electronics 137 . biasing. Reverse biasing the basecollector junction means that most of the electrons ‘emitted’ by the emitter into the base are ‘collected’ by the collector (see Figure 4. and the transistor will act as an amplifier (see Figure 4. Once the valve is open (Vbe > 0. it follows that Ie ≈ Ic. flow of electrons and conventional current.36 An npn transistor.7 V for a silicon npn BJT). further turns on the valve will have little change on the water flow. because the base is very thin and lightly doped.

Because of ‘transistor action’ the current and voltage changes at the base will generate a large change in Ic and Vce (and hence an amplified output AC signal vout).7 V Vc = 5. We know that for a transistor operating in the linear range. By adding two coupling capacitors.3 µA Rb 1. The current gain is normally quoted in the technical specifications of the particular transistor.Transistor amplifier biasing In a simple BJT amplifier.37b. approximately halfway between the supply voltage and ground).8 × 103 = 6.2 V Vin Cc Voltage gain = ∆Vout ∆Vin Vout voltage gain for time-varying signal ≈ –100 to –200 Figure 4.8 kΩ A = I c = 100 I I b Ic 1 mA c e Rb Rc Cc Vcc b Vbe 0.e.3B. 0−12 V). the base current is: V − Vbe 11. the transistor should be biased at the mid-point of the output voltage range (i.37 Simple npn common emitter amplifier. which is approximately in the middle c of the full output range (i. 138 ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS . Hence the voltage across Rb is: VR = Vcc − Vbe = 11. as shown in Figure 4.37a. Vbe is approximately 0. The voltage gain calculation for our small AC input is complex and beyond the scope of this book. the stability of this particular circuit is affected by temperature—its stability decreases as large currents start to flow through the transistor and it heats up.3 V b Therefore.1 × 106 This means that the collector current is: Ic = 100Ib = 1 mA The voltage drop across Rc is: VR = Ic × Rc c = 1 × 10−3 × 6. (a) (b) Vcc= +12 V Rb 1.e. Unfortunately.7 V.2 V (since Vc = Vcc − VR ). Any small input AC signal ∆vin (with an amplitude of just a few millivolts) will cause a small variation in Vbe and Ib. This will allow even large AC signals to be amplified with minimum distortion because the amplification will be in the middle of the linear region.3 Ib = cc = = 10.37b is the starting point for many transistor amplifier circuits. Figure 4. Look at the transistor circuit shown in Figure 4.1 MΩ Ib 10 µA Rc 6. slightly more complex transistor amplifier circuits are normally used. from Ohm’s law.8 V and hence Vc is 5. One such circuit is shown in the Worked example 4. but for a typical transistor used in this circuit. the simple transistor circuit can be converted to an inverting amplifier. the voltage gain (∆vout/∆vin) might be between 100 and 200. In practice. Assume that we are using a particular transistor where its current gain is approximately 100.

2 = 1. choose R2 = 12 kΩ Using the voltage divider equation: R2 V = Vb R1 + R2 cc Electronics 139 . Rc and Re. Although the calculation is beyond the scope of this book.2 kΩ ≤ 12 kΩ In this case. If we choose Ic ~ 1 mA (a normal value for a typical transistor signal amplifier). The third rule keeps the base current (Ib) small compared with the current flowing through the R1 : R2 voltage divider. we see that Vc should be ~6 V. Assuming the collector current Ic of the amplifier is around 1 mA. Design an audio amplifier using the circuit shown. determine the values of R1. R2. Applying rule 1. These rules are: Vcc 1 Vc ~ 2 Vcc 10 3 R2 ≤ 10Re 2 Ve Vin Re Vout Ve ~ The first two rules ensure that the transistor is biased near the middle of its output range (so we can allow for large ∆vout signals with minimum distortion) and that the circuit is stable with a reasonable voltage gain. and several engineering ‘rules of thumb’ are used.9 V Appling rule 3: R2 ≤ 10Re ≤ 10 × 1.2 = 1. then from Vc = Vcc − IcRc: Vcc − Vc Rc = Ic = 12 − 6 1 × 10−3 = 6 kΩ Applying rule 2: Vcc Ve ~ 10 = IeRc ≈ IcRe (remember that Ie ≈ Ic because Ib << Ie or Ic) 1. if Rc and Re are relatively large (>1 kΩ) and Ic is relatively large (≥1 mA) then the voltage gain for a time-varying signal can be approximated by: ∆vout −Rc Av = ~ ∆vin Re Designing such a transistor amplifier circuit is not a very precise art.3B.7 + 1.2 kΩ Hence Re = 1 × 10−3 To calculate Vb: Vb = Vbe + Ve = 0. which ensures that the amplifier does not distort the signal that is to be amplified. R1 C Rc Vcc= +12 V Vc C Vb R2 b c e Solution The single-stage transistor amplifier shown in the diagram is a circuit that is often used to provide an inverting amplifier with moderate voltage gain.Worked example 4.

• For a silicon npn BJT operating in the linear region: Vbe ≈ 0. • Clipping (signal distortion) occurs with amplification that is outside the linear range.8 kΩ Although the calculation is beyond the scope of this book. b–c junction reverse biased What is meant by the term ‘transistor amplifier biasing’? b 4 a c Explain why the amplifier produces a constant output voltage over a range of input voltages.3 QUESTIONS 1 Briefly explain the following terms.9) 1.0 1. b–c junction forward biased b–e junction forward biased. The graph shows the characteristics of a voltage amplifier. 10 5 Vout (volts) inverting amplifier 0 –5 –10 –1.2 kΩ = −5 The negative sign indicates that the circuit is an inverting amplifier.5 1.5 0 0. What is the maximum peak signal voltage that can be amplified without distortion? Calculate the voltage gain of the amplifier. voltage gain (for small timevarying signals) Av = ∆vout/∆vin. • Single-stage transistor amplifiers are usually inverting (i. negative gain). b–c junction forward biased b–e junction reverse biased. 4. b d c 3 a 140 ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS .3 SUMMARY AMPLIFICATION • For linear amplification voltage gain AV = Vout/Vin.9 = 63.5 Vin (volts) 2 Which of the following conditions are required for normal transistor action in an npn transistor? a b–e junction forward biased. b–c junction reverse biased b–e junction reverse biased. The voltage gain for this amplifier is approximately: ∆vout Av = ∆vin ~ = −Rc Re −6 kΩ 1.e. a b c d e b What is meant by the term ‘coupling capacitor’? linear amplification voltage gain clipping current gain The following information applies to questions 4–6.0 –0.7 V Ic ≈ Ie Ic >> Ib • For a correctly biased BJT amplifier (using a voltage divider bias): Vc ~ Vcc/2 Ve ~ Vcc/10 R2 ≤ 10 Re 4. typical values for the two coupling capacitors used in an audio amplifier like the one shown are around 1 µF. current gain AI = Iout/Iin.Rearranging gives: R2(Vcc − Vb) R1 = Vb = 12 × 103(12 − 1.

Vb = 3 V and Vout = +11 V. Vb = 2 V.3 –0.1 –0. The silicon npn BJT in the circuit shown has a current gain of 200.80 to −0. Ib = 25 µA. calculate the values of Ic.6 0. 6 a If Vcc = +10 V. what happens to Vout? (Choose from A–E below.5 –0. R1 = 17 kΩ. B A –5 –6 c b a Which of the four amplifiers (A–D) has the highest linear amplification? Which of the four amplifiers (A–D) has the largest linear output range? e b Electronics 141 .0 Time (ms) B C D E 9 a b Draw the output signal.3 0.) 0. If Vcc = +10 V.25 to 0. Vout increases a little.6 c If Rc is decreased a little. Is the output signal a faithful amplified version of the input signal? Describe the output waveform in relation to the input signal. The input voltage to these amplifiers is limited to between ±600 mV.80 V 6 The transistor in this circuit is a silicon npn BJT with a current gain of 150. Re = 200 Ω and Vout = 5 V. 1. Range of output voltage 8 c Which of the four amplifiers (A–D) has linear amplification over the full range of input voltages? Which of the four amplifiers (A–D) has the smallest linear input range? Ic d Range of input voltage 100 to 200 mV 0.5 0. Explain the function of the diode in the following transistor circuit. Rc = 9 kΩ. If Rb is increased a little.5 Complete the following table by calculating the range of output voltages for the amplifier for the corresponding sinusoidal input voltages with ranges as shown. b In the circuit shown. determine the value of Vb and R1. determine the value of Rc and Vce. If Vcc = +20 V.50 V 20 to −20 mV 0. describe the quality of the sound that it would produce.1 0 –0. A B b Vout (V) 5 4 3 2 1 c C D d –600 –500–400 –300 –200 –100 Vin (mV) 100 200 300 400 500 600 –1 10 D C –2 –3 –4 A BJT transistor can often be damaged if the b–e junction has a large reverse bias connected across it.0 to 1. what happens to Vout? (Choose from A–E below.) A Volts Vout remains unchanged.0 2. Re = 100 Ω and R2 = 2 kΩ. Ic = 10 mA.2 –0. a Vcc = +12 V Rb Ib Rc 350 Ω Vout = +5 V The following signal is fed into the input of the amplifier.2 0. Vout goes to zero. Vcc R1 Rc c Vc Vb Ib R2 Re Vce Ve Vout d 7 The graph shows the characteristics of four different voltage amplifiers (A–D). determine the value of R2 and Re. Vout goes to +12 V.0 3. Vout decreases a little. Ib and Rb that result in a bias output voltage (Vout) of +5 V.50 V 1.4 0. Vcc = 8 V and Vout = 5 V. determine the value of Rc and the voltage gain. If the amplifier is used as part of an audio system. If Re = 500 Ω.4 –0.

How would you arrange the four resistors to give a total effective resistance of: a b c d The graph represents a plot of potential difference (V) as a function of position (clockwise from X) around the electronic circuit.CHAPTER REVIEW R1(Ω) 1 R2(Ω) 2000 4000 2000 5000 Switch open open open closed Vout(V) In the following two circuits the batteries and resistors are identical. If V = 12 V and I = 200 mA. 3 I A X +10 +5 0 What is the maximum potential difference that can be applied between points A and B? What is the maximum power that can be dissipated in this circuit? X 10 V 10 kΩ X Position 4 Show mathematically that 4 of the battery’s voltage is dropped across RA. determine: a 1 b Complete the potential difference versus position graphs for each of the following circuits. Assume all connecting wires and switches have zero resistance. 5 E1 R2 R1 R3 R5 E2 R4 R6 6V A thermistor is a semiconductor device whose resistance depends on the temperature. The resistance of RB is three times that of RA. Complete the table by determining the output voltage for each row. R 10 kΩ 16 kΩ? 10 kΩ? 1 kΩ? 5. The maximum power that can safely be dissipated in any one resistor is 25 W. no internal resistance).33 kΩ? 6 Three 100 Ω resistors are connected as shown. 7 the resistance values of RA and RB the power dissipated in RB. Determine the temperature of the thermistor in the circuit if Vout is 1 V. 100 Ω Potential difference (V) 100 Ω Y 100 Ω Z a B E X 10 V (closed) switch The following information applies to questions 3 and 4. 142 ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS . The circuit shows RA = R V1 two resistors V connected in series V2 RB= 3R across a battery with a terminal voltage of V. Assume the batteries are ideal (i.e. b The following circuit combines variable resistors R1 and R2 with fixed resistors to make a complex voltage divider. The graph shows the resistance versus temperature characteristic for a particular thermistor. T thermistor 1000 2000 4000 8000 90 V 1000 Ω R1 a Which resistor(s) has the highest current flowing through it? Which resistor(s) has the lowest current flowing through it? R 1 kΩ Vout = 1 V 2000 Ω R2 Vout b 20 Resistance (kΩ) 15 8 c Which resistor(s) has the highest power dissipated through it? Which battery is supplying the largest current? d 10 5 0 10 20 30 40 Temperature (°C) 50 2 You have four 4 kΩ resistors.

so that the voltage across it drops from top to bottom. where the polarity of the battery has been reversed. Calculate the total power consumption in the circuit. Determine the current flowing through the: i ii iii 9 For the circuit shown find: a 100 Ω resistor 500 Ω resistor diode. V A the current in the 20 Ω resistor the potential difference between points X and Y. 3V 500 Ω b 100 Ω 5Ω 20 Ω d e Electronics 143 . The reading on the voltmeter is 60 V. X Y 12 280 Ω 6V Id Circuit 2 Vd I (mA) 50 40 30 20 15 10 5 0 20 10 0 X 20 V 10 V X Position X Y X 25 50 75 100 V (V) For the circuits shown in parts a and b assume the diode has a switch-on voltage Vs = 0. 25 V 11 E X 9V R2 5 kΩ 25 V A silicon diode has a switch-on voltage of ~0. as shown below.7 V and a thermal leakage current It = 1 nA. are operating in the circuit shown. The voltage–current characteristics of each device are shown in the accompanying graph.CHAPTER REVIEW a R1 10 kΩ It may be useful to draw the circuit in a linear form. Potential difference (V) 9 6 3 0 0V circuit drawn in linear form 10 280 Ω 6V Id Circuit 1 Vd X 9V 10 kΩ 5 kΩ X Position b R1 E X Potential difference (V) 20 V R2 10 V Two electronic components.7 V and a thermal leakage current of ~100 nA. Determine the voltage across the diode (Vd) and the current (Id) through the diode for: a b circuit 1 circuit 2. X and Y. 10 Ω X 10 Ω 5Ω 25 V Y a 100 Ω b E 3V 500 Ω a b c Which device is non-ohmic? What is the resistance of X? What is the reading on the ammeter? Determine the EMF of the battery.

Vin (mV) 400 300 200 100 0 Vout (V) 20 A t (ms) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 Vin (V) –2. All the diodes in these circuits are identical and have the voltage–current characteristics shown in the graph. sketch the output voltage for amplifiers B and D. The DC bias conditions are set as follows: Ic = 1 mA. Carefully label the vertical (voltage) and horizontal (time) axes. Sketch vin and vout as a function of time. a c What is the reading on the voltmeter? What is the EMF of the battery? Calculate the current flowing through the circuit.2 0. Assume a Si diode with Vs = 0.7 V. determine the most likely semiconductor materials that the diodes (D1 and D2) are made of. The input voltage to these amplifiers is limited to between ±600 mV. +0.5 V 0 –0.4 V a What type of amplifier has these characteristics? Calculate the voltage gain for the amplifier.0 19 E B A –20 I 2.3 V 80 Current (mA) 60 40 20 17 (Vin) 1 kΩ R (Vout) –100 –200 RL 1 kΩ Vout 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 t (ms) 8 square wave signal generator D1 D2 b 0 A 0.0 2. 100 16 For the circuit shown. If the input voltage is as shown in the diagram.7 V a If the input voltage is as shown in the diagram.4 0.8 1. The voltage gain vout/vin = −5. What is the reading on the ammeter? How much electrical energy is the battery delivering to the diodes every second? The transistor amplifier shown has a 1 kHz sinusoidal input voltage (vin) with an amplitude of 0.0 –1.5 V c Vin T = 1 ms Vin (mV) 500 15 Sketch the output waveform for the following circuit. 6 5 4 3 2 1 –500 –300 –100 100 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 300 C D Vb b c e 1µF Vout (V) A B Vin R2 Vout Re b +0.0 –10 0 1. 5V Vin (mV) 200 100 –5 V –0. sketch the output voltage for amplifiers A and C.2 The input–output characteristics of an amplifier are shown in the graph. Vout E 2V 144 ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS .0 Potential difference (V) V 1. What is the maximum peak-topeak voltage that this amplifier can amplify without distortion? For the circuit shown Rb determine the current gain of the silicon npn BJT. R D C B +10 V 0 –10 V RL A The silicon npn transistor has a current gain Ic /Ib = 100. a The graph shows the characteristics of four different voltage amplifiers (A–D).6 0. Vcc= 12 V R1 C1 1µF Rc C2 18 b 14 Consider circuit B. 10 V Rc 3.5 V Vout 20 b 13 In circuit A the ammeter reading is 52 mA.The following information applies to questions 13 and 14.5 V. Vc = 6 V.

I BY THE END OF THIS CHAPTER you will have covered material from the study of electronics and photonics including: • conversion of electrical signals into light signals • comparing the informationcarrying capacity of copper wires and optical fibres • using electrical energy to generate light by using semiconductor materials • detecting light through changes in the electrical properties of semiconductor materials • using technical specifications for photonic devices to design and build simple photonic circuits • transmitting information (voice or music) via a light beam. and transmitting information by a light beam. Introducing photonics 145 . We shall investigate (in a practical sense) the important ideas of converting a light signal to an electronic signal and vice versa. We shall also study how the integration of electronics and photonics ideas has allowed the rapid development of a modern telecommunications system—the Internet.CHAPTER 5 Introducing photonics n this chapter we shall introduce the new study area of photonics: what it is and the devices (light detectors and sources) that are at its foundation.

Photonics spans a vast array of optical phenomena where light is sometimes modelled as a stream of particles (called photons). its production. When light is modelled as a stream of photons. (Note that the electronvolt is a non-SI unit of energy commonly used in photonics: 1 eV = 1. Hence the photon description of light is important when light interacts with matter—as it does in photonic devices. It turns out that the energy of visible light photons is about the same as the energy needed to shift electrons about in crystal lattices or between the outer shells of many atoms. and sometimes modelled as a continuous wave. ultraviolet and infrared radiation (i. very low intensity. In all other cases. The discrete or ‘grainy’ photon nature of light only becomes apparent when we are looking at how light interacts with matter on an atomic scale or when the light has a very. but also includes the non-visible nearinfrared radiation (which extends above 750 nm) and near-ultraviolet radiation (which extends below 350 nm).1. manipulation etc. the energy of each discrete photon is very small (of the order of 10–19 J) and inversely related to its wavelength (or colour). each with a discrete amount (or quantum) of energy. The optical spectrum radio microwaves infrared Frequency (Hz) X-rays gamma rays visible light ultraviolet 106 107 108 109 1010 1011 1012 1013 1014 1015 1016 1017 1018 1019 1020 1021 1022 Photon energy 10–8 10–7 10–6 10–5 10–4 10–3 10–2 10–1 (eV) 1 10 100 103 104 105 106 107 Wavelength (m) 100 10 1 10–1 10–2 10–3 10–4 10–5 10–6 10–7 10–8 10–9 10–10 10–11 10–12 10–13 Figure 5.5.602 × 10–19 J. which is only a very small part of the electromagnetic spectrum.e. photonics is the enabling technology for the current Internet and e-commerce revolution. The optical spectrum covers visible light. In a very real sense.1 The electromagnetic spectrum. electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength between 350 (violet) and 750 nm (deep red).1 Photonics in telecommunications Photonics is the science of using light to manipulate information and energy. we generally ‘average out’ the photon nature of light and model it as a continuous wave of a particular frequency and wavelength.) 146 ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS The science of photonics has undergone a phenomenal development over recent years. as shown in Figure 5.e. Light radiation is a small subset of a much more general phenomenon called electromagnetic radiation. transport. which are two very important commodities in our modern world. Figure 5.). Photonics is involved with all aspects of visible.1 shows the extent of the electromagnetic spectrum. . detection. Photonics is the discipline responsible for the enormous growth in communications information capacity (or bandwidth) that has made the rapid expansion of the Internet possible. i. Photonics deals with the optical spectrum. and photonics-trained scientists and engineers are highly sought after by a diverse range of industries throughout the world.

we will restrict our discussions to the electronics–photonics interface and the importance of photonics in telecommunications. The use of the Internet by companies and individuals has greatly increased the speed and efficiency with which we can access information for work. 120 100 Growth (terabits/second) 80 Internet 60 40 Other electronic data Voice 2000 2001 2002 2003 20 0 1999 Figure 5. once all homes have a broadband Internet service. then download the data file for our film to our Internet-enabled home entertainment system. in areas such as manufacturing and medicine. In the not-too-distant future. select the video. which depend on lasers and fibre optics. study or recreation. You will see that most of this growth has been in the form of Internet usage—approximately doubling each year. Physics file Frequency 1 kHz = 103 Hz 1 MHz = 106 Hz 1 GHz = 109 Hz Wavelength 1 mm = 10−3 m 1 µm = 10−6 m 1 nm = 10−9 m The telecommunications revolution Figure 5. ‘video-on-demand’ will allow us to transfer only the electronic data file that contains the coded information that is our film. when we want to look at a newly released film on video. pay for it at the counter and take the tape or DVD home to view it. we will simply access our favourite ‘virtual’ video store via our Internet connection.2 Growth of global telecommunications traffic: 1 terabit = 1012 bits. The next day we need to return the film. This will be a much more cost-effective and efficient way of viewing our chosen film. These technologies are discussed in detail in the ‘Photonics’ Detailed Study on the Heinemann Physics 12 CD. we currently have to visit the local video rental store. Introducing photonics 147 . particularly as we start to access large amounts of video material that requires considerably larger data files than do voice or simple images. photonics has expanded rapidly into a wide range of new technologies. Rather than having to transfer the physical medium containing the film (video tape or DVD). We will electronically select and pay for our film on-line. Internet traffic will also grow as more companies and individuals make use of the Internet for electronic commerce transactions (e-commerce). The growth in Internet traffic is predicted to continue to expand in a similar fashion for the foreseeable future.In addition. The information will be transferred by tiny pulses of light travelling along optical fibres at incredibly fast speeds. For example.2 shows the growth of global telecommunications traffic over the past few years. In this chapter.

3). With copper wire. Thus high-frequency signals only penetrate into the outer layer or ‘skin’ of the copper wire. When low-frequency electrical signals propagate through a conductor (e. This means that the electrical signals need to be boosted more often (about every 5 km) than light signals (currently about every 50 km). Information-carrying capacity and the skin effect So how can the Internet infrastructure keep up with the ever-increasing rate of Internet traffic? If automobile traffic was increasing at the same rate. the signal penetrates through the entire cross-section of the wire.Physics file Attenuation is defined as a reduction in power level between two points as a signal travels through a medium. In the case of the Internet. High-frequency signals. Around 40 years ago most telecommunications were transmitted as electrical signals. or the loss of optical power as a light signal travels down an optical fibre. The depth of penetration of the electrical signal (skin depth) decreases as the frequency of the signal increases. Figure 5. Since the electrical resistance of the copper wire is inversely proportional to its cross-sectional area.4 Graph of loss per kilometre versus frequency for copper wire and optical fibre. Loss per kilometre (log scale arbitrary units) Copper wire (loss increases with frequency) Low frequency Cross-section through copper wire conductor High frequency Skin depth small Optical fibre (loss does not depend on frequency) 100 kHz 1 MHz 10 MHz 100 MHz 1 GHz 10 GHz Signal frequency (log scale) • Low-frequency signal penetrates all of the conductor • Large effective cross-sectional area • Small resistance • Low attenuation • High-frequency signal penetrates only the outer layer (or skin) of the conductor • Small effective cross-sectional area • Large resistance • High attenuation Figure 5.g. Low-frequency signals propagate through the copper cable very efficiently with relatively low attenuation. 148 ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS . the maximum possible transmission frequency is limited by a physical phenomenon called the skin effect. copper wire). travelling along copper cables. The loss of power is due to the interaction of the signal with the medium. in the form of electromagnetic waves. and hence the effective cross-sectional area for high-frequency signals is very small (see Figure 5. we could never build enough roads. infrastructure has been able to keep pace with the rapidly increasing traffic because of the huge information-carrying capacity of a photonics-based optical fibre network. encounter a large electrical resistance as they propagate through the wire. our cities would soon be choked with concrete and asphalt.3 Skin depth for low and high-frequency electrical signals propagating in a copper wire conductor. and even if we could build all the infrastructure needed to meet the demand. freeways or traffic lights to keep up. High-frequency signals therefore propagate inefficiently with relatively high attenuation. Electrical signals travelling down copper wires experience much more attenuation than light signals travelling down optical fibres. low-frequency signals encounter only a small electrical resistance as they propagate through the wire. We can think about the attenuation in terms of the loss of electrical power as an electrical signal travels down a copper wire. The information-carrying capacity of any telecommunications system is determined by the highest frequency that can be practically sent through the transmission medium. The copper wire has a relatively low resistance. therefore. so its transmission energy losses are small for lowfrequency electrical signals. and the transmission energy losses are large.

Networks of optical fibres are the only telecommunication infrastructure system that could possibly support the current and future rapid expansion of the Internet. Frequency (f) (Hz) 60 1 × 103 1 × 106 36 × 106 Skin depth (δ) (mm) 8.e. optical fibre cables are lighter. one-thousandth of a millimetre) into the copper wire. Each one of the glass fibres has a capacity of 1000 voice conversations. optical fibre has a far superior information-carrying capacity than copper wire. Interestingly enough. A. At frequencies even as low as a few megahertz. Techniques currently being developed will increase the capacity of a single optical fibre to the equivalent of around 1 000 000 voice conversations! Compared with twisted-pair copper telecommunication cables.Light signals channelled through optical fibres (by total internal reflection. It is bulky.5 also shows a typical fibre optic cable. Figure 5. more flexible and easier to handle. as has been discussed in Heinemann Physics 11.1 0. use less raw materials. Table 5.e. Figure 5.5 600 twisted-pair copper cable and optical fibre cable. considering the large quantities of raw materials used in its manufacture. The skin effect means that the maximum frequency that can be practically transmitted by a copper wire is a few tens of megahertz. As well. Introducing photonics 149 . Figure 5. C. Optical fibres are very cost effective. 1010 Hz) can be transmitted through an optical fibre. Chapter 2).g.066 0. heavy. As the graph shows. This cable houses 30 single optical glass fibres. i.1 shows the skin depth as a function of frequency for a copper conductor. copper telecommunication cable.0012 C Source: American Institute of Physics Handbook (McGraw-Hill) New York 1963. A B Figure 5. do not suffer from the skin effect.4 compares the loss per kilometre as a function of frequency for a copper wire and an optical fibre. a central solid copper wire surrounded by a cylindrical copper conductor) or waveguides (e.5 shows a typical copper telecommunications cable. each one with a diameter of about 0. the number of individual optical fibres that can be housed in a cable can easily be increased to many hundreds or perhaps even thousands if ever required.e.1 Skin depth versus frequency for a copper conductor.g. Most of the bulk of the cable is used to mechanically support and protect the 30 ‘hair-like’ glass fibres. a hollow cylindrical copper conductor) in which the signal is transmitted by the electromagnetic field in the free space inside the cylindrical conductor. are cheaper to produce and have a much higher informationcarrying capacity. The simplest example of a high-frequency transmission line is the coaxial cable connecting your TV aerial to your television set.1 mm. and they have an enormous information-carrying capacity. Table 5. difficult to handle and inefficient. The cable consists of 600 pairs of twisted copper wire and has a total capacity of 600 voice conversations. This means that much higher frequencies (theoretically well beyond 10 GHz. Physics file The skin depth δ for electrical signals penetrating into a conductor is inversely proportional to the square root of the frequency (i. fibre optic cable.5 2. B. δ ∝ 1/√f ). single optical glass fibre. the electrical signal penetrates only around a micron (i. high-frequency electrical signals can be carried over relatively short distances (up to hundreds of metres) by transmission lines (e.

Signal flags and lamps often used by the navy for communications between ships Claude Chappe (a French engineer) invented the ‘optical telegraph’. Bell also invented the ‘photophone’.Table 5.2 Period Early history 1600s 1790s Historical development of optical telecommunications and the Internet. Development Smoke signals. reflecting sunlight from shiny surfaces. A more detailed description of the photophone can be found in the following Physics in Action. the photophone used light travelling in air as the transmission medium. Table 5. a device which used light travelling along an air path to transmit a voice signal Baird and Hansell patented the idea of using arrays of hollow tubes or transparent rods to transmit images for television Theodore Maiman produced the first laser (ruby) Idea of packet switching invented Idea of hypertext invented Kao and Hockham theoretically determined that very low-loss optical fibres could be produced and that they could be used for telecommunications US Defence Department commissioned the development of ARPANet Maurer. used semaphores (either flags or lanterns) to transmit information from one place to another Alexander Graham Bell invented the ‘photophone’. It is unquestionably one of the great inventions of the post-industrial revolution era. Keck and Schultz at Corning produced the first low-loss optical fibre Bell Labs (USA) and IOFFE Physical Institute (USSR) independently produced semiconductor laser diodes ARPANet went live in the US with five university hosts First e-mail message sent Commercial low-loss optical fibre and laser diodes available ARPANet had 100 hosts Super low-loss silica optical fibres manufactured which approach theoretical limit Internet named: used standard protocol with 1000 hosts Internet has 10 000 hosts World wide web created Internet had 100 000 hosts Internet had 1 million international hosts Internet had 100 million hosts Internet had over 200 million hosts and 850 million users 1880 1920s 1960 1964 1965 1966 1968 1970 1970 1970 1971 1975 1977 1979 1984 1987 1989 1989 1992 2000 2002 From the photophone to the Internet In 1876 Alexander Graham Bell invented the electric telephone. was a telecommunication device that could transmit a voice signal from one point to another. In 1880. Ahead of its time.2 outlines the history of optical telecommunications from the early developments to the current status of the internet. this invention was essentially ignored and the idea of using light in modern telecommunication systems lay dormant for almost 100 years. just 4 years after the invention of the telephone. 150 ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS . The electric telephone had an immediate and long-ranging influence on society. like the telephone. etc. The photophone. but instead of using electricity moving in a copper wire.

Figure 5.6 (a) The photophone transmitter. which focuses the light onto a thin.PHYSICS IN ACTION The photophone Alexander Graham Bell invented the photophone in 1880. (b) the photophone receiver and (c) an early sketch of the photophone. Figure 5. The photophone was a telecommunications device that could send a voice signal with relatively good fidelity over a distance of about 200 m by using a light beam as the information carrier. The diaphragm reflects the incident light beam through a second lens then onto a parabolic collector (on the receiver). flexible mica sheet (diaphragm). (a) (b) (c) Figure 5. Sound pressure (from the mouthpiece) vibrates the diaphragm. Thus the intensity of light illuminating the parabolic collector varies depending on the amplitude of the voice signal.7 details the main components of the photophone. Sunlight (or lamplight) is reflected by a mirror (on the transmitter) through a lens. This is known as intensity (or amplitude) modulation: the intensity of the light beam (which carries the information) is proportional to the amplitude of the voice signal (the information). just 4 years after he invented the electric telephone. Introducing photonics 151 . which in turn slightly deflects the beam of reflected light from its original path. Figure 5. The diaphragm is connected to a mouthpiece via a tube that concentrates the sound energy.6a and b shows early sketches of the photophone transmitter and the receiver.6c shows Bell’s original hand-drawn diagrams of the photophone.

The loss of 99% was due to scattering and absorption of light by impurities and imperfections in the glass. Normal glass is not very transparent. and generates a copy of the original sound at the receiver. Lasers provided a bright and easily controlled light source whose optical energy could be directed into a narrow well-defined path from the transmitter to the receiver. Because of its high level of light scattering and absorption. Some years earlier it had been discovered that selenium had a very interesting property: its resistance depended on the intensity of the light illuminating it. During the 1970s many advances were made in the production of high-purity silica glass optical fibres. Figure 5. if seawater was as transparent as these modern optical fibres. In other words. To put this in perspective. Given the low transmission loss of optical fibres and their high information-carrying capacity. 152 ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS .5% over 1 km (which is close to the theoretical limit). only 1% of the channelled light intensity entering one end of the fibre was still being channelled 20 m further on. It was only in the 1970s. Take a sheet of window glass and look at it side on: very little light gets through even over distances as small as 10 cm. The original photophone only had a range of about 200 m even with the most intense light source available (the Sun). It was not until the 1960s. optical fibres were the obvious choice for the backbone infrastructure of the newly developing Internet. even if the light is channelled in an optical fibre by total internal reflection! By the 1960s improved glass fibre technology meant that light absorption and scattering was substantially reduced. approximately 11 km below the surface of the Pacific Ocean. The selenium cell is connected in series with a battery and earpiece. that a stable. normal glass is totally unsuitable for transmitting light over long distances. First. by the end of the decade optical fibres were being manufactured which could transmit 95.Sun or other bright light source mirror diaphragm can vibrate selenium cell at focal point of reflector parabolic collector battery reflective diaphragm sound waves Transmitter light beam travels 200 m Receiver earpiece speaker The parabolic collecting mirror focuses the modulated light beam onto a selenium cell that is mounted at the mirror’s focal point. that a truly stable and bright light source was available for photonics-based telecommunications. rain or even stray animals could easily interrupt the light beam that carried the telecommunication signal. the ‘line-of-sight’ air path used in the photophone was inherently unstable. we could easily see to the bottom of the Marianas Trench—the deepest point on Earth.7 The main components of the photophone. The photophone was not an early commercial success for two reasons. At the start of that decade glass fibres were available that could transmit 1% over 1 km. the best transmission that could be achieved with optical fibres of that era was only 1% over a distance of 20 m. Fog. when ultra-transparent glass optical fibres became available. Even so. The modulated light intensity on the selenium cell varies the current through the earpiece circuit. the light sources available for the photophone (Sun or lanterns) were not reliable or bright enough. Second. when the first lasers were built. low-loss medium could be used for channelling the light in photonics-based telecommunication systems.

cost-effective alternative to the Internet. The Internet is a distributed system of interconnected nodes usually linked by optical fibres. each with a discrete amount (quantum) of energy. laser-based ‘line-of-sight’ telecommunication systems are currently being developed. Figure 5. the Internet has evolved as a cheap. its source and its destination) and an information segment (which holds a given amount of the information stream). Each packet can travel through the Internet by using one of various combinations of nodes to get to its final destination (where all the packets are reassembled into the original information stream).1 SUMMARY PHOTONICS IN TELECOMMUNICATIONS • Light can be modelled as a continuous wave or as a stream of particles (photons). institutions and companies to communicate with each other. • Optical radiation covers the near-ultraviolet. • The Internet is a distributed communications system. • Light signals in optical fibres are unaffected by the skin effect. dedicated. An example of a modern laser ‘line-of-sight’ telecommunication system is shown in Figure 5. This sort of transmission mode is called asynchronous transfer. Although the Internet (based on the optical fibre network) is highly successful and will continue to grow at a rapid rate. Each packet has a header (which identifies the type of data. usually linked by optical fibres. The information stream that is to be transmitted is divided into a large number of information packets. a system with many interconnecting paths which provided a high level of network redundancy that could not be totally disabled in times of war. visible and near-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.8. • With solid copper wires.The Internet was conceived as a way of providing a secure. distributed. In the central business district (CBD) of many large cities. which are being manufactured in Australia and overseas. laser beams transfer large amounts of information from the top of one building to the next.8 Laser ‘line-of-sight’ telecommunication system. fast and efficient way for individuals. These systems. high-frequency electrical signals are highly attenuated because of the skin effect. However. These systems provide a shortrange. communications system to the military. other small. are a modern extension of Bell’s original photophone. front view 5. and allow companies to share and swap information without having to go through the Internet system. as each information packet can traverse the Internet by whichever path happens to be the most efficient at that particular instant. Introducing photonics 153 . These systems use powerful infrared laser beams that can penetrate fog and rain at least over the short distances (up to 1 km) between buildings. • The rapid growth of the Internet is possible because of the very high information-carrying capacity of optical fibres.

5. X-rays. increases with increasing frequency in copper wire increases with increasing frequency in optical fibre decreases with increasing frequency in optical fibre decreases with increasing frequency in copper wire. near ultraviolet near ultraviolet.1 QUESTIONS For each of the following questions.5% of the initial signal over 1 km transmit 95. uninterrupted bit stream to transmit from transmitter to receiver uses two types of information packets—one for the address and one for the information is a distributed communications system uses optical fibres. microwaves. near ultraviolet near infrared. optical fibres have a very high information-carrying capacity optical fibres are much smaller than copper cables optical fibres do not use copper. choose the answer that is most appropriate. the science of using light in telecommunications the science of using light to manipulate information and energy the science of understanding photography the science of studying small particles of matter. visible. 8 3 The rapid growth of the Internet has been possible because: A Modern silica optical fibres used in telecommunications can: A B C D E transmit 1% of the initial signal over 1 km transmit 1% of the initial signal over 20 m transmit 80% of the initial signal over 1 km transmit 95. TV. which is a very expensive raw material optical fibres have a much longer lifetime than copper cables. uses a continuous. near infrared. which can be easily moved from one node to the next. 6 The skin depth of an electrical signal: A B C D C D 2 The ‘optical spectrum’ includes the following components of the electromagnetic spectrum: A B C D 7 The photophone was invented: A B C D visible. just a few years after the electric telephone just a few years before the electric telephone approximately 50 years after the electric telephone approximately 100 years after the electric telephone. 1 D Photonics can be considered to be: A B low frequencies in copper cables and high frequencies in optical cables have low transmission losses. B C D C 154 ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS . visible visible.5% of the initial signal over 200 km. 1000% each year 100% each year 10% each year 2% each year 10 9 B C D The Internet: A 4 What is the approximate growth rate of Internet traffic? A B C D B C D 5 The skin effect means that: A low frequencies in copper cables and low frequencies in optical cables have high transmission losses high frequencies in copper cables and high frequencies in optical cables have low transmission losses high frequencies in copper cables and low frequencies in optical cables have low transmission losses The photophone had the following problems limiting its development: A B unreliable bright light source and unstable transmission medium insufficient funding to develop the prototype modulation system unsuitable for audio transmission light detection system unsuitable for audio transmission.

5. This conversion of one form of energy to another is important because although information can be transferred from one point to another faster if it is encoded into light. it can be shown that the light intensity. which is normally used to change light energy into electrical energy) to convert some of the light emitted by the globe into an electrical signal.2 Optical transducers In modern telecommunication systems.9 What do we see when we ‘look’ at a light globe? In reality. Although the calculation is beyond the scope of this book. as shown in Figure 5. (b) Output light intensity and average light intensity. is a sinusoidal oscillation.9)! mains-powered incandescent light globe Physics file A sinusoidal oscillation y (t) has the following mathematical form: y (t) = Yosin(2πft) where Yo is the amplitude of the oscillation f is its frequency t is time Intensity p on pti ce er constant? Time human senses Figure 5. however.10a) and has a frequency of 50 Hz. This is why the light intensity (I ) has a frequency of 100 Hz (Figure 5. time-varying signal.10 (a) Sinusoidal current through a light globe. like the current. Our senses (in this case our human eyes) are unable to detect this 100 Hz oscillation in light intensity and simply average the true signal. Note that the solar cell converts the light intensity into an electrical signal in a non-linear manner.10b). Let’s look at an example to show how an optical transducer can help us correctly interpret information stored in a light signal. This means that we can interpret the information stored in a light beam much more easily and accurately once it has been converted to an electrical signal. the sinusoidal alternating current (i ) flowing through the filament has one forward and one backward peak in each complete cycle (see Figure 5. With a mains-operated AC light globe.10b. it can be manipulated much more easily in electronic form. as shown by the dashed line of Figure 5. the important interface between electronics and photonics largely relies on the development of optical transducers: devices that convert light energy (which often can contain information) into electrical energy and vice versa. The snapshot is then displayed on the oscilloscope’s screen in a way that allows us to easily observe the true periodic nature of the light intensity from the light globe. Each peak in current (both forward and backward) generates enough heat in the filament to make it glow ‘white’ hot. Switch on an incandescent light globe (connected to the AC mains power supply) and what do we see? Our senses would have us believe that we are observing a constant light intensity (as shown in Figure 5. the intensity of the light globe is not constant but varies periodically with a frequency of 100 Hz.11. (a) i Alternating current flowing through filament 5 10 15 20 25 30 Time (ms) f = 50 Hz (b) Intensity of light emitted I true signal 'constant' average signal 'observed' by the eye 5 10 15 20 25 30 Time (ms) f = 100 Hz Figure 5. The oscilloscope behaves a little like a camera that takes a ‘snapshot’ of the periodic. We can use a photonics sensor (in this case a simple solar cell. Introducing photonics 155 . We can then manipulate the electrical signal into a more easily interpreted signal by using an electronic measuring instrument—in this case an oscilloscope. and hence the voltage displayed on the oscilloscope is a slightly distorted 100 Hz sinusoidal signal. We therefore have two peaks in the light intensity of the light globe for each alternating current (AC) cycle.

The curve in Figure 5.12 (a) Two different LDRs. Remember that LDRs are only suitable for measuring relatively slow changes in light intensity. By connecting the LDR in series with another fixed resistor we can make a voltage divider circuit. whose resistance changes when it is illuminated by light of different intensities. The circuit symbol for an LDR is shown in Figure 5. and can be longer in certain detector circuit configurations.12b. a channel of cadmium sulfide (CdS) is formed into the shape of a long zig-zag line (see Figure 5.12a). In an LDR. since their response time is relatively slow. Generally. and as high as several million ohms in total darkness. (b) Figure 5. The LDR is very sensitive since it exhibits a relatively large change in resistance for a small change in illumination (especially at low light intensities). A typical LDR might have a resistance as low as tens or hundreds of ohms in direct sunlight. The curve is plotted on a log–log scale and so the graph indicates that the resistance of the sensor does not vary linearly with illumination. the semiconductor’s resistance decreases. optical to electrical transducers) is the photoresistor or light-dependent resistor (LDR). 156 ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS . As the light intensity increases.e. (b) circuit symbol for an LDR. where the output voltage is a measure of the light intensity illuminating the LDR. The LDR is made of a semiconductor material (often cadmium sulfide).11 Measuring light intensity with a solar cell and an oscilloscope. Physics file Response times given in this book are for the optical sensors themselves. LDRs are suitable for detecting light signals that vary down to a time scale of milliseconds. A thin layer of transparent plastic material covers the semiconductor material so that light can be absorbed into the semiconductor.light 100 Hz signal slightly distorted due to non-linear response of solar cell oscilloscope photovoltaic cell – input transducer + + – output transducer Figure 5. (a) Optical detectors Photoconductive detectors: light-dependent resistors One of the simplest optical sensors (i.13 shows how resistance varies with illumination for a typical LDR.

From the curve of LDR characteristics.2A. given that the transistor has a current gain Ic/Ib = 100. RLDR increases and Vbe decreases. Hence Vo will increase to be ≥ 5 V and the street lamp will turn on. R2 i.7 V.1000 800 600 400 300 200 1000 800 600 400 300 200 Resitance of LDR (kΩ) (log scale) 100 80 60 40 30 20 100 80 60 40 30 20 10 8 6 4 3 2 10 8 6 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 20 40 60 80 100 200 400 600 1000 2000 4000 10000 Φ Intensity of light radiation (mW m–2) (power per unit area ) (log scale) moonlight (approx. Hint: It may be useful to revise the transistor amplification and biasing sections of Chapter 4. R2 + RLDR ( ) If Vbe decreases (i. light intensity falls).13 Resistance versus illumination for a typical LDR. The circuit shown is used to switch on (off) a street lamp when the light intensity falls below (rises above) a certain trigger level.) minimum acceptable ambient light level (approx.e. then the base–emitter voltage Vbe is essentially determined by the LDR/R2 voltage divider.) Figure 5. Introducing photonics 157 .) diffuse winter sunlight (approx.7 V. Vbe = Vcc . The street lamp should be switched on when the light intensity falls below 100 mW m–2. The LDR has the same characteristics as shown in Figure 5. Determine the values of R2 and Rc. Vcc is the voltage of the DC power supply for the circuit. Recall that Vbe is determined by the LDR/R2 voltage divider. Vcc LDR Rc c e +6 V b Vout Vce R2 Vbe street lamp circuitry 0V Solution If the base current Ib is small compared with the current flowing through 1 the LDR/R2 voltage divider (by a factor of 10 or less).e. Assume the transistor is saturated (very strongly switched on) when Vbe > 0. and off when Vbe < 0. the transistor will tend to turn off and the current (Ic) through Rc will fall.13. Worked example 5. Assume a Vo (Vout ) > 5 V (< 1 V) switches the lamp on (off). If the light intensity falls below this level. we see that when the light intensity is 100 mW m–2 the resistance of the LDR is 25 kΩ.

electrons that are strongly attracted to the p-side of the junction and holes that are strongly attracted to the n-side) that form a small reverse-biased current (called the thermal leakage current It). thermal vibrations of the silicon atoms will occasionally break a bond in the depletion layer. Since the transistor has a current gain of 100. 158 ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS .65R2 + 0. thermal vibrations in the semiconductor lattice become more intense and more lattice bonds are broken. An electrical potential barrier (Vb) and an electric field exist across the depletion region. Recall that when this type of diode is reverse biased. Such devices are called temperature-dependent resistors (TDRs) or thermistors.e.02 mA. Junction detectors: photodiodes As we discovered in Chapter 4. finite Ib) RLDR flowing through the LDR is: VLDR ILDR = RLDR > > 6 − 0. this means Ic < 2 mA. Assuming Ib to be small compared with the current flowing through the RLDR /R2 voltage divider we have: R2 Vbe = Vcc R2 + RLDR ( ) Given that Vbe = 0. a region that is depleted of mobile charge carriers (the depletion region) is created at the junction. This results in an increasing number of mobile charge carriers.25 × 103 = 5. We need to ensure that when RLDR = 25 kΩ the transistor is just turning off (i. This is a similar process to the spreading of a strong odour from a region of high concentration to surrounding regions of low concentration. As the temperature increases.7 V transistor on (saturated) Ic is maximum VR ≈ 6 V c Vce ≈ 0 V Vo ≈ 0 V Street lamp off (as required) < 25 kΩ. RLDR < 25 kΩ light level > trigger level Vbe > 0. creating an additional mobile electron and hole. As we discovered earlier. hence the current > 0. These mobile charge carriers are electrons and holes created when thermal vibration occasionally breaks one of the lattice bonds.35R2 R2 = 3.7 V). the atoms in a semiconductor are strongly bonded into a lattice. if RLDR > 25 kΩ but if light level < trigger level Vbe < 0. If the energy of a photon is greater than the energy required to break a lattice bond in the semiconductor material. Thus the conductivity of the semiconductor increases as the temperature rises.65 = 6 × R2 + (25 × 103) 0. This creates mobile charge carriers (i. The electronic signal diode discussed in Chapter 4 was made from a pn junction of doped silicon semiconductor material. Because of diffusion and recombination. a pn junction is formed when we have a semiconductor with adjacent p-doped and n-doped regions. Holes diffuse in the opposite direction.Physics file Semiconductors can also be used to make temperature sensors.65 V when RLDR = 25 kΩ.65 × 25 × 103 = 6R2 16. Vbe is a little less than 0.3 25 × 103 Physics file An LDR is made of an undoped semiconductor material (a compound of cadmium and sulfur. then the photon can be absorbed. is often used).e.65 V.7 V transistor off Ic ≈ 0 mA VR ≈ 0 V c Vce > 5 V Vo > 5 V Street lamp on (as required) When the transistor is on (i. This process will increase the number of number of mobile charge carriers and therefore decrease the resistance of the semiconductor material.7 25 × 103 5. Nevertheless.e.20). the externally applied voltage increases the effective potential barrier and virtually no charge carriers can diffuse across the junction (see Figure 4. To be safe we need to choose a value of R2 so that when RLDR is 25 kΩ the voltage at the base of the transistor Vbe = 0. we can calculate R2: R2 0.04 kΩ So. Recombination is when holes and electrons recombine and release energy.2 mA As we require ILDR ≥ 10Ib choose Ib > 0. So our value of Rc is given by: Vcc − Vce Rc = Ic = 6−0 2 × 10-3 = 3 kΩ Physics file Diffusion is when mobile electrons move from the n-doped region (high electron concentration) into the p-doped region (low electron concentration) at a semiconductor junction. cadmium sulfide. The resistance of semiconductors at room temperature is usually very high as there are very few mobile charge carriers in the lattice.

e.15b shows a photograph of photodiode. and hence create a free electron/hole pair (in much the same way that thermal energy creates the occasional free electron/hole pair). the energy of each discrete photon is related to the frequency or wavelength of the light: hc Ep = hf = λ where f is the frequency of the light λ is the wavelength of the light c is the speed of light in a vacuum (2.15c shows the circuit symbol for the photodiode. Figure 5. the pn junction is constructed in such a way that its pregion is very thin and very close to the surface of the photodiode (see Figure 5. Note that the ‘dark current’ curve is very similar to what we would get for a normal diode. We will see in Chapter 6 that when light is modelled as a stream of photons. that is directly proportional to the illuminating light intensity. which is the ‘active area’ of the photodiode. A thin wire from the front surface of the semiconductor is electrically connected to one terminal.15a). A reverse-biased photodiode operates in what is called photoconductive mode. and that there is a high probability that any light illuminating the surface can penetrate down and be absorbed in the depletion region. The absorption of the photon thus brings about a movement of charge across the depletion region as shown in Figure 5. greater number of photons) the greater the number of charge carriers swept across the junction. Figure 5. The greater the intensity of the absorbed light (i.14.626 × 10–34 J s) If a photon (visible or near-infrared) is absorbed in the depletion region of a reverse-biased silicon photodiode. we get the additional contribution from the light-generated photocurrent. The square piece of semiconductor material.e. As the light intensity increases. since the conduction of the semiconductor junction varies with the illuminating light intensity.14 Semiconductor junction with photon absorbed and hole–electron pair being swept across depletion region. the hole is swept across into the n-doped region). This means that the semiconductor junction is located near the surface. while the back surface is similarly connected to the metal case which itself is connected to the other terminal.In a photodiode. Under the influence of the large reverse-biased voltage the mobile electron will be attracted towards the more positive p-doped region (i. The movement of holes and electrons through the diode generates a significant reverse-biased current. The current–voltage characteristics for a photodiode are shown in Figure 5.998 × 108 m s–1) h is Planck’s constant (6. Figure 5. Introducing photonics Reverse-biased pn-junction photodetector 159 .16 for a number of light intensities. The hole can also be considered to be a mobile charge carrier and is attracted to the more negative n-doped region (i. it may have the right amount of energy (Ep) to break one of the silicon lattice bonds in the semiconductor material. the electron will be swept across into the p-doped region). can be clearly seen.e. called the photocurrent.

17 Simple photodiode detector circuit. Photocurrent Iph (µA) No light (dark current nA) +5 Diode voltage Vd (V) –7 –6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 –5 –10 –9 –8 Φ = 1 W m–2 Φ = 2 W m–2 –10 Φ = 3 W m–2 –15 Iph Vd Φ = 4 W m–2 Increasing light intensity –20 V RL Φ = 5 W m–2 –25 Vout Φ = intensity = power area –30 Photoconductive mode (reverse-biased region) Photovoltaic mode Figure 5. B.(a) photon p-region front surface depletion region rear surface (b) B (c) n-region C A Figure 5.16 I –V characteristics of a typical photodiode. Figure 5.15 (a) A diagram of a cross-section through a photodiode. case). C. (b) a photograph of a photodiode (A. Vc +10 V RL Vout If the reverse-biased voltage is relatively large (i. photodiode terminal. This means that the reverse-biased photodiode will have a very fast response time (much faster than an LDR) and is suitable for detecting light signals that vary down to a time scale of a fraction of a microsecond. semiconductor material.17 can be used to measure light intensity by using a photodiode. 160 ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS . and (c) a circuit symbol for a photodiode.e. The simple circuit shown in Figure 5. several volts) the potential difference across the depletion region will be large and the electrons and holes created by the absorption of photons will be swept across the junction very quickly.

even with very high-intensity illuminating light. although several cells can be connected in series to produce a higher terminal voltage (see Figure 5. An unbiased photodiode is said to operate in photovoltaic mode.5 × 10−7 A = 0. the Sun) it can be used as a source of EMF (i.4 –0. The new light source has an intensity that fluctuates sinusoidally with an amplitude of 30 mW m–2. A measurable voltage (or EMF) will be generated across the unbiased terminals of an illuminated photodiode.19. The ambient light intensity illuminating the detector is 3 W m–2.3 –0. where area = 2 mm × 2 mm = 4 × 10–6 m2 = 3 W m−2 × 4 × 10–6 m2 = 12 × 10–6 W = 12 µW Since light intensity is linearly related to photocurrent: Φ = kI where k is the proportionately factor. The photodiode shown in the circuit has the same I–V characteristics as that shown in Figure 5.15 × 10−6 = 0.65 V. the maximum potential difference that can be generated across the open-circuit terminals (i. Hence: 6 RL = 15 × 10−6 = 400 kΩ Intensity (Φ) = power/area ∴ Power = intensity × area.7 = 2 × 105 W m−2 A−1 For the fluctuating light source (Φx) Φx ix = k where ix is the resultant fluctuating photocurrent amplitude. Hence: Φ1 k= I1 = 3 15 × 10−6 b c Solution a b c open-circuit voltage (no load connected to device) Φ1 0.6 0.1 Vd 0. there is essentially no connection between the terminals so that no current is being drawn) is approximately 0. like a battery).Worked example 5.e. ix = 30 × 10−3 2 × 105 –0.15 µA vout = RLix = 400 × 103 × 0. 6 V must appear across RL. as a voltage across the semiconductor junction is generated because of the illuminating light intensity. For a silicon-based photodiode.2B.e.4 0.e. The maximum terminal voltage of a single silicon solar cell is about 0.) Introducing photonics 161 .18 I –V characteristics of a solar cell. PRACTICAL ACTIVITY 19 Solar cells’ response to light A solar cell is essentially an unbiased photodiode with a very large and efficient light-absorbing semiconductor junction. A voltmeter or oscilloscope connected across the photodiode will give an indication of the light intensity illuminating the depletion layer. Determine the radiation power absorbed by the active area of the detector under this ambient illumination. an intensity of 3 W m–2 gives a photocurrent of ≈15 µA (for the reverse-biased photodiode). any light absorbed in the depletion layer still gives rise to a separation of mobile charge carriers.65 V maximum open-circuit solar cell region voltage possible of I–V curve Φ1 = darkness (i.1 0 –10 –20 –30 Φ2 Φ3 0. Iph (mA) 40 30 20 10 Determine the value of RL that ensures the detector is reverse biased by 4 V under this ambient illumination.2 0.5 0. although this voltage is not linearly proportional to the light intensity (see ‘open-circuit’ region of the I–V characteristics in Figure 5. zero intensity) Φ2 = 1 Φ3 2 Φ3 = sunny day (600 W m-2) = 1.16.65 V.e. a Physics file The solar cell: simply a very efficient photodiode Even if a photodiode is not reverse biased.18). and the detector’s active area is 2 mm × 2 mm. An additional light source now also illuminates the detector.3 0.2 –0. Determine the amplitude of the sinusoidally varying component of vout due to this additional light source.06 V (appropriate amplitude of vout fluctuation due to additional modulation light source) Figure 5. From the curve of photodiode characteristics. When the solar cell is illuminated by an intense light (i. To achieve a reverse bias of 4 V across the detector.

a phototransistor only needs two terminals—the collector and the emitter. The station requires less than 10 W of A electrical power and can be easily powered by a solar cell (C) and rechargeable battery system in order to continuously monitor traffic day or night. efficient and cost-effective way of monitoring Figure 5.20) are appearing on many new motorways throughout Victoria.(a) (b) Figure 5. Melbourne’s Eastern Freeway? Phototransistors Unlike a normal transistor. and the collector current is proportional to the intensity of light illuminating the 162 ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS . but in all other respects it essentially operates like a normal transistor. These solar-powered stations are a versatile.20) at the base of the station. The UHF antenna is similar to the aerials used for UHF television reception. (b) A bank of solar cells used to power an entire house. length and volume. The selfcontained stations are ideal for regional motorways like the Geelong Road. A phototransistor does not require a base terminal. including vehicle speed.20 What is this strange looking device on traffic flow on our motorways. Buried beneath each lane B of the motorway. These unusual structures are part C of a new roadway traffic-monitoring system that has been developed by VicRoads. The base photocurrent is amplified by transistor action. The station continuously monitors traffic flow. Wires from the coils are connected to a microprocessor in the control box (labelled A in Figure 5.19 (a) A single solar cell. PHYSICS IN ACTION Solar-powered traffic monitors Strange solar-powered stations (like the one shown in Figure 5. Information about traffic flow is then transmitted to a centralised traffic control room via a UHF (ultra-high frequency) transmitter (B). as the base current is generated by light absorbed at the base–emitter depletion region. inductance coils detect passing cars.

Typically. Two phototransistors are shown in Figure 5.21a. The time response is inversely related to the gain (i. Vcc R (a) (b) b c Vcc e Figure 5.2C. a Vcc = +12 V Determine the optical power absorbed by the phototransistor.204 × 10 −19 J Introducing photonics 163 . although its response is usually slower. determine the base photocurrent (Ipb). a phototransistor might have a photocurrent gain of between 10 and 100. The two simple phototransistor circuits shown in Figure 5. assuming Vout is 7 V. while the one on the right has three terminals. where P is optical power and A is area.21 (a) Left: a two-terminal (collector and emitter) phototransistor. ∆Np ∆Np P = Ep where Ep is the energy of an individual photon and is the ∆t ∆t number of photons absorbed per unit time.998 × 108 620 × 10−9 = 3.626 × 10−34 × 2. It is illuminated with red light of wavelength 620 nm and intensity 5 W m–2. Figure 5. R b Vout = 7 V c d Solution a Intensity (Φ) = P/A. the lower the photocurrent gain. (b) A phototransistor circuit symbol (note that some devices have a base terminal whereas others do not). Assuming that each absorbed photon generates one photoelectron into the base of the phototransistor. R Circuit A Vout Circuit B Vout Figure 5. Right: a threeterminal phototransistor.21b shows the circuit symbol for a phototransistor. Thus P = Φ × A = 5 × 1 × 10 –6 = 5 µW ∆E ∆E b Optical power: P = where is the optical energy absorbed ∆t ∆t per unit time. although the third (base) terminal is usually left unconnected. (Assume that all the light incident on the active area is absorbed. Phototransistors are suitable for detecting light signals that vary down to timescales approaching 1 µs. ∆Np P Hence = Ep ∆t Now Ep = = hc λ 6. The one on the left has two terminals (collector and emitter). the faster the response time). The phototransistor shown has an active area of 1 mm × 1 mm.e. Determine the photocurrent gain (Ic/Ipb) for the phototransistor. Worked example 5.device.22 can be used to measure light intensity.) Determine the number of photons per second that are absorbed by the phototransistor. Because the phototransistor (like a normal transistor) has a high gain (amplification factor) it is generally much more sensitive than a photodiode. although the third (base) terminal is usually left unconnected in any circuit.22 Two simple phototransistor detector circuits.

) When an electron ‘fills’ a hole. In Australia. A GaAs diode produces near-infrared radiation with a peak wavelength (λpeak) of around 900 nm and a wavelength range (∆λ) of around 30 nm. The structure and electrical properties of crystalline silicon are such that in a silicon semiconductor diode the energy given off when an electron ‘fills’ a hole is usually converted to heat. 164 ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS . LED torches use considerably less power than a conventional DC light bulb torch. however. They also require smaller batteries and are much lighter. you can actually feel the recombination heat generated in the diode. The semiconductor surface is usually embedded in a transparent.204 × 10−19 = 1.24a). the externally applied voltage reduces the effective barrier potential across the depletion region. This type of diode is called a light-emitting diode (LED). Photonics engineers estimate that there would be a huge saving in the world’s energy resources by replacing many of the existing street lights with LED equivalents. This mechanism is shown schematically in Figure 5. These LEDs are brighter and more reliable than conventional traffic lights. Traditional ‘globe’ traffic lights are being replaced by LED versions with banks of red. In Singapore.5 µA d VR = Vcc – Vout = 12 – 7 =5V VR Ic = R = 5 20 × 103 = 2. If there is a large forwardbiased current flowing. plastic. This means that electrons and holes can diffuse across the junction very easily. some conventional traffic lights are being replaced with LED versions. hemispherical dome to increase the amount of light escaping Physics file LEDs are becoming very important light sources because they are efficient and reliable. holes diffusing in the opposite direction will be quickly ‘filled’ by one of the electrons in the n region close to the depletion layer.5 × 10−4 A = 250 µA Thus photocurrent gain is: Ic 250 = 2. LEDs will replace many normal light sources.5 Ipb = 100 Optical sources Light-emitting diodes We discovered in Chapter 4 that when a semiconductor pn junction is forward biased. When an electron diffuses from the n region into the p region there is a high probability that it will quickly ‘fill’ one of the many holes in the p region. resulting in a significant forward-biased current.and therefore ∆Np 5 × 10−6 = ∆t 3. (Similarly.23. then when an electron ‘fills’ a hole there is a high probability that the energy released will be converted to a photon of light (in this particular case near-infrared light). An LED is designed to have its junction close to the surface so that some of the light generated when the diode is forward biased can escape from the device (see Figure 5.602 × 10−19 × 1. a forward-biased pn junction is made of gallium arsenide (GaAs) rather than silicon.561 × 1013 photons per second c Ne = Np (number of photo-electrons equals number of absorbed photons) ∆Q ∆Ne ∆Np Hence Ipb = =e =e ∆t ∆t ∆t = 1. all traffic lights are now the LED type.561 × 1013 = 2. This is called recombination. The LED torch gives off a very bright and evenly diffused bluish white light. green and amber LEDs. For example. If. As their production costs decrease. energy is released (because now the atoms near the filled hole have a stable configuration of electrons in their outer shells).500 × 10−6 = 2.

24 (a) Schematic diagram of LED. (b) sketch of LED.24b. (c) various LEDs and (d) LED circuit symbol. electron flow current electron flow Physics file With some LED designs.24b). as is the case in Figure 5. electrons enter LED at this terminal photon forward bias electrons leave reduces the LED at this effective barrier terminal potential difference across the depletion region (a) light escaping semiconductor surface Al electrical contact SiO2 insulator material (b) light light plastic dome V forward biased extend power supply p-type semiconductor depletion region p-type wire contact n-type semiconductor n-type reflector cup Al electrical contact flat edge (c) short lead cathode (negative terminal) anode (positive terminal) (d) Figure 5.from the device (see Figure 5. Different LEDs emit light of different wavelengths.3. the lead connected to the reflector cup is the anode (positive terminal) not the cathode. Some different LED semiconductors and the peak wavelengths of the optical radiation that they emit are shown in Table 5. and the adjacent side of the plastic dome usually has a flat edge. External power supply forward biases pn junction electron fills hole and energy released as a photon n-type – – – – – – – – depletion region p-type + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + – – – – – – – Figure 5.23 A forward-biased LED. depending upon the particular semiconductor used in their construction. Introducing photonics 165 . In either design the cathode (negative terminal) usually has the shorter lead.

Vd = 1.8 20 × 10−3 = 210 Ω (a) (b) (c) Figure 5. λmax (nm) variable from 1000 to 1550 Colour IR (wavelengths used in modern fibre-optic telecommunication systems) IR red green.Vcc current-limiting resistor Table 5. LEDs can also be switched on and off very rapidly (by varying the forwardbiased voltage around Vs). 6V Id = 20 mA R Worked example 5. Figure 5. Note that the limiting resistor is used to keep the LED’s forward-biased current within the maximum allowed rating. peak wavelengths and colours. yellow blue LED GaAs GaAsP GaPN* GaN 900 665 550. Figure 5. If the current exceeds this limit. Many of the common LEDs have a switch-on voltage of around 1.8 V Determine the value of the current-limiting resistor (R) if the current through the diode is to be limited to 20 mA when powered by a 6 V battery.8–3. An LED has the following optimum operating characteristics: Id = 20 mA when Vd = 1. Figure 4. we can see that the forward-biased current (and therefore the LED’s light intensity) will increase rapidly once the forward bias reaches the switch-on voltage (Vs) for the particular LED.2D.25 shows a typical circuit used to activate an LED.25 LED driver circuit.5 V.3 Material InGaAsP* LED materials. the LED will be permanently damaged.8 V Solution R= = VR I 6 − 1. often as fast as a fraction of a microsecond.26 (a) An LED torch. (b) LED traffic light and (c) LED street lamp. From the I–V characteristics of a diode (see Chapter 4. 166 ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS . 590 430 * Different peak wavelengths are possible by varying the percentage of the elements making up the LED.16). The intensity of light emitted by an LED is directly proportional to the forward-biased current flowing through the pn junction.

5 times more efficiently than an incandescent light globe. His latest model uses the 1 W Luxeon WLED manufactured by Lumileds of the USA (see Figure 5. safe. battery and solar cell. miniature (pico) wind or hydro generators etc. Introducing photonics 167 . healthy. This is a one-time cost that gives the household effectively free light until the battery requires replacing. but Dr Irvine-Halliday now has another interest that he is very passionate about.28 The new 1 W Luxeon WLED manufactured by Lumileds of the USA. the WLED lamps are powered by rechargeable batteries that use renewable energy sources (solar cells. including lamps. which makes the 1 W WLEDs. which can light up an entire village on less energy than that used by a single. which is expected to be at least 5 years. In 1997. He established LUTW to develop a low-cost. which has been successfully used in many developing countries. Dr Dave Irvine-Halliday visited a Nepalese village where he saw how the lack of lighting was reducing the children’s ability to read and learn at night. supplies them in bulk to LUTW for only a few dollars each. Currently.27). He developed a lighting system based on white-light-emitting diodes (WLEDs). Dr Irvine-Halliday is a photonics engineer. and a professor in the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department of the University of Calgary in Canada. Over the next few years he searched for innovative and practical solutions to lighting problems in developing countries. Dr Irvine-Halliday has found that ‘a single 1 W WLED lamp produces ample lighting for four children to read and study by at a moderate-sized desk’.). Typically. conventional 100 W incandescent light bulb. Over the next few Figure 5.28) and produces enough light for an entire household’s living area. the inventors of the original WLED.27 A Sri Lankan mother and child holding an LUTW WLED lamp.PHYSICS IN ACTION Lighting up the world ‘Every night 2 billion people in our world are in the dark as soon as the Sun goes down’. His research interests include the study of photonics devices for telecommunication and sensing. He is the President of the ‘Light Up The World’ (LUTW) Foundation—a non-profit organisation that is helping many poor and isolated villages in developing countries. Dr Irvine-Halliday’s most recent solid state lighting systems are designed around a 1 W state-of-the-art WLED that generates light 2. pedal generators. The US company Lumileds. This lamp.1 W WLEDs manufactured by Nichia of Japan. the WLED home lighting systems. costs around $US40. The WLED lamp has a further advantage over an incandescent light globe since it directs all its light in the direction where it is most useful. Figure 5. has nine 0. and biophotonics. reliable and very efficient WLED lighting system and to facilitate its introduction throughout developing countries (see Figure 5.

years one of LUTW’s top priorities is to lower the one-time cost to $US20; that is ‘20-20 Vision’, or $US20 for 20 years of home lighting. Before LUTW, isolated villages in developing countries relied on candles and kerosene wick lamps for their lighting, which together with wood cooking and heating resulted in high indoor smoke pollution and serious respiratory problems. The WLED lighting system, on the other hand, provides a safe, healthy, affordable and very reliable light source.

So far, LUTW and its affiliates have permanently lit the homes of many thousands of villagers in Nepal, India, Sri Lanka, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Guatemala, Bolivia and Irian Jaya, and its Luxeon lamps are being tested in villages in Tibet, Nicaragua, Brazil, Chile, Peru, Angola and Uganda. Dr Irvine-Halliday’s goal is ‘to provide affordable lighting to 1 million people by a combination of humanitarian and social entrepreneurial approaches by 2005’. If you want to find out more about LUTW Foundation, visit their web site: www.lutw.org

Physics file
Laser stands for: Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation

Laser diodes
A laser diode (LD) works on exactly the same principle as the LED (i.e. the same mechanism where forward biasing a pn junction results in recombination of holes and electrons which, for certain semiconductor materials, leads to the emission of light rather than heat). The main differences are that in a laser diode, the semiconductor material has a special current-confining geometry and very high dopant concentrations. This means that the light emitted from a laser diode has a much narrower wavelength range (typically 1–5 nm) than an LED (typically 30–80 nm) and is emitted in a narrower beam than most LEDs. The LD light can also be switched on and off in a fraction of a nanosecond, which is much faster than the switching rates possible with an LED. Laser diodes, like LEDs, can convert a change in the diode current directly into a change in light intensity. The change in light intensity is directly proportional to the change in current and this can be used as a method of imprinting information onto the light beam in laser telecommunications applications. This process is known as intensity (or amplitude) modulation, as the information signal modulates (or directly changes) the intensity of the laser diode’s light output. Laser diodes are much more temperature sensitive than LEDs and often require more complicated electronic drive circuits than LEDs. They sometimes use optical feedback from an inbuilt photodiode to maintain a constant light intensity output (see Figure 5.29 for some examples of LDs). Figure 5.30 shows the circuit symbol for a laser diode.

Lasers have other fascinating properties that are covered in the ‘Photonics’ Detailed Study on the Heinemann Physics 12 CD.

168

ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS

(a)

(b)

(c)

LD chip

A

detector chip

(d)

laser chip

(e)
to monitor control circuit to drive circuit substrate for thick film drive/control circuit

Figure 5.29 (a)
Schematic diagram of LD package. (b) An LD package. (c) An LD package with the cover removed, so that the active area (A) of the device can be clearly seen. (d) Schematic diagram of LD connected directly to an optical fibre (this device is called a pigtailed LD). (e) An LD pigtail.

fibre lens communication fibre fibre clamp

laser output via optical fibre

silicon chip with etched V-grooves

We are all aware of the role of LDs in laser pointers, bar code readers, CD and DVD players. But LDs also play a very important (but essentially unseen) role in fibre-optic telecommunication systems, medical lasers, ‘smart structure’ systems for civil and aerospace applications etc. The development of new blue laser diodes is expected to open up other areas of application for LDs (e.g. biotechnology, fabrication of nano-scaled devices etc.).

LD

Figure 5.30 Circuit symbol for a laser diode.

Worked example 5.2E.
The simplified circuit shown is used to modulate the output of the laser diode with a small time-varying input voltage signal (∆vin). The laser diode should be operated at its optimal DC operating conditions (i.e. Id = 10 mA when Vd = 2.2 V). Determine the values of R1, R2 and Rc, which bias the transistor in the middle of its operating range and allow the laser diode to operate at its optimal conditions.

Vcc= 20 V R1

Ic

Rc
Vc

C 1 µF ∆Vin R2

Ib

b

c e

Vb

I

Ve = Vd
LD

Vd

Introducing photonics

169

Assume the transistor has a current gain of 100. Hint: It may be useful to revise the transistor amplification and biasing sections of Chapter 4.

Solution

Since Id = Ie ≈ Ic, we require Ic = 10 mA. To operate the transistor in the middle of its range, we require 1 Vc ≈ 2 Vcc =
1 2

× 20
1 10

= 10 V and Ve ≈ to
1 10

Vcc. Fortunately Ve = Vd = 2.2 V, which is approximately equal Vcc − Vc Ic 20 − 10 10 × 10−3 10 10 × 10−3 Ic = 0.1 mA (since current gain is 100).

Vcc.

Hence Rc = = =
1 100

= 1 kΩ and Ib = For correct operation of the transistor and R1/R2 voltage divider, we want the current through R2 (I) to be at least a factor of 10 greater than Ib; hence: I = 10 Ib = 10 × 0.1 × 10–3 = 1 mA But: Vb = Vbe + Vd = 0.7 + 2.2 = 2.9 V Hence: Vb R2 = I = 2.9 1 × 10−3

= 2.9 kΩ We can now calculate the value of R1 from the R1/R2 voltage divider: R2 Vb = Vcc R1 + R2 2.9 = 20

( (

)

2.9 × 103 R1 + 2.9 × 103

)
= = = = = 20 × 2.9 × 103 (20 − 2.9) × 2.9 × 103 17.1 × 2.9 × 103 17.1 × 103 17.1 kΩ

2.9R1 + (2.9 × 2.9 × 10 ) 2.9R1 2.9R1 R1 R1
3

170

ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS

5.2 SUMMARY

OPTICAL TRANSDUCERS

• Light-dependent resistors (LDRs) are semiconductors whose resistance depends upon illumination. Their response is non-linear and slow. • Photodiodes are pn-junction semiconductor devices which, in photoconductive mode (i.e. reverse biased), generate a photocurrent that depends upon illumination. The response is linear and fast. • Phototransistors are BJT devices that, when biased correctly, can generate a collector current that depends upon illumination. They have a high optical gain. The response is linear, and the response time moderate. hc • Ep = hf = λ

• The light-emitting diode (LED) is a pn-junction device and the intensity of its emitted light is directly proportional to its forward-biased current. Its light output can be modulated rapidly, and it has a narrow range of emission wavelengths. • The laser diode (LD) is a pn-junction device and the intensity of its emitted light is directly proportional to its forward-biased current. The device has special currentconfining geometry and very high dopant levels and emits laser light (when the current is above a given threshold). Its output can be modulated rapidly, and it has a very narrow range of emission wavelengths.

5.2 QUESTIONS
1

The light emission from an LED can be varied by:
A B C D

a

varying the current passing through the diode varying the illumination of the diode varying the reverse-biased voltage across the diode all of the above.
c b

Calculate the total resistance of the series circuit when the LDR is in darkness. Calculate the voltage drop across R2 (Vout) when the LDR is in darkness. The LDR is now illuminated with a light source and its resistance decreases. Determine the resistance of the LDR if Vout now is 6 V.

2

Which one of the following statements is true about the difference between LDs and LEDs?
A

5

LDs always emit more light than LEDs at the same drive current. LDs can be directly modulated whereas LEDs cannot. LDs emit light over a narrower range of wavelengths than LEDs. The output of LDs spreads out over a broader range of angles than LEDs.

B C

An LDR is used to determine whether the light intensity is adequate for a person working at a desk in an office. The LDR has the characteristics shown in Figure 5.13, and the voltage divider circuit shown below is used.
a

D

Determine whether the light level at the desk is above the minimum acceptable level (approximately 100 mW m–2) if the output voltage of the circuit is 4 V. What is the intensity of the light radiation at the desk?
Vcc
R 12 V 20 kΩ

3

Write down one advantage and one disadvantage of using a phototransistor instead of a photodiode in an optical detection circuit. When the LDR shown in the diagram is in darkness, it has a resistance (RLDR) of 2 MΩ.

b

4

LDR

LDR

Vout Vcc
9V R2 6.8 kΩ

Vout

6

If the supply voltage (Vcc) is 6 V and the photocurrent (Iph) is 50 nA, determine:
a b

the voltage across the photodiode whether the photodiode is operating in photoconduction or photovoltaic mode.

Introducing photonics

171

Iph = 50 nA

Vd Vc
9V

RL

RL

Vc

9V

Vcc

6V RL (50 MΩ)

7

The photodiode shown in the circuit above has the same I–V characteristics as that shown in Figure 5.16. Assume that the photodiode is to be operated in photoconductive.
a

(i)
10

(ii)

Determine the maximum current that can flow through RL. Determine the maximum light intensity that can be
Vcc
(+10 V)

b

The following graph shows the resistance–temperature characteristics of a thermistor. A circuit uses this thermistor as part of a temperature sensor which can activate an LED whenever the temperature rises above a certain level.
a b

What is the resistance of the thermistor at 20°C? The potential difference across the LED at 20°C is 2.5 V and the current through it is 11 mA. What is the value of R? The LED is activated by a minimum potential difference of 2.0 V across it which gives a current through it of 4.8 mA. What is the minimum temperature that will activate the LED?

Vout
RL 500 kΩ
c

reliably measured by the circuit.
8

The LED in the circuit has a switch-on voltage (Vs) of 2.0 V and an operating current of 20 mA. Determine the

2.0 1.5 1.0

RL

0.5 0 10 20 30 40 Temperature (C) 50

Vc

9V

value of RL for the LED to be operating correctly.
9

T 10 V

All LEDs in circuits (i) and (ii) are identical. Each LED has a switch-on voltage (Vs) of 2 V and draws a current of 20 mA for optimal light production. (If the current is much smaller, the LED light output is too dim. If the current is much larger, the LED overheats and burns out.)
a

R

LED

For each circuit determine the RL that gives optimum operation for all LEDs. Which combination LEDs ((i) or (ii)) emits the most light with these particular values of RL? Assuming circuits ((i) and (ii)) have exactly the same ideal battery power supply, determine which circuit will emit light (i.e. LEDs operating at optimum level) for the longest time. Explain your answer.

b

c

172

ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS

5.3

Audio transmission via a light beam

Designing a simple telecommunications system
In this section, we shall design a simple, inexpensive laser-based ‘line-of-sight’ telecommunications system capable of transmitting an audio signal with remarkable fidelity. In a sense, we will rediscover Alexander Graham Bell’s photophone but with a few modern enhancements. Our system will use a laser diode as an extra-bright light source and a semiconductor optical transducer as an extra-sensitive detector. We can use an inexpensive laser pointer as a suitable laser light source. The laser diode unit found in a typical laser pointer (see Figure 5.31) is a lowpowered (~1 mW) device that emits a red (~670 nm) laser beam. Laser pointers are readily available for under $A10 from many gift shops, electronic stores or Sunday market stands. However, take care, as even low-power laser pointers can cause serious eye injury if used incorrectly. Please read the Physics in Action on laser safety before proceeding. PHYSICS IN ACTION
Figure 5.31 Laser diode pointer.

Laser safety
Look at the diagram of the eye in Figure 5.32. The cornea is the clear film that covers the surface of the eye. The iris controls the amount of light entering the eye. The lens is one of the elements that focus the incoming light onto the retina, where light-sensitive cells detect the light. Ultraviolet light tends to be absorbed by the cornea. Although corneal cells can regenerate to an extent, UV radiation in sunlight can permanently damage the cornea if the eye is exposed to excessive bright sunlight over many years. This is one reason for wearing UV-protecting sunglasses during summer. Visible and near-infrared optical radiation is focused onto, and absorbed by, the retina. Exposure to high-intensity light from a source of this optical radiation will cause instantaneous and permanent damage to the retina because the light source will be focused onto a small number of cells and because retinal cells do not regenerate. With a normal light source (like an incandescent light bulb), the optical energy spreads evenly in all directions. If you double the distance between your eye and the bulb, then the optical energy entering your eye falls by a factor of four—hence distance from the light source offers a level of protection. With a laser, the optical energy is contained in a very small beam that does not spread out much. Even at relatively large distances, the laser beam spot can still be very small and hence the optical energy entering the eye can still be very high. In addition, the almost parallel laser light irradiating the eye forms a very sharp point focus on the retina. This means that most of the energy emitted by the laser will be concentrated onto only a few cells on the retina, causing maximum damage to those cells. Looking directly into the beam of a low-power 1 mW visible laser can cause considerably more retinal damage than looking directly at the Sun! How can we minimise exposure risk when working with a laser (in this case a laser pointer)? Always observe the following safety procedures:

retina cornea

lens

iris

Figure 5.32 Schematic diagram of the eye.

Introducing photonics

173

We can achieve this by gluing a small piece of opaque plastic or cardboard sheet onto a speaker. the small mass of the opaque strip (that we use 174 ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS . The intensity-modulated laser light beam can then travel a large distance to the receiver (carrying the audio information coded as light intensity variations in the beam).34. Use partially crossed linear polarisers to temporarily reduce the beam intensity. and then always try to keep your head well above the level of the laser beam. The small output voltage from the LDR voltage divider circuit will need to be amplified before being sent to the ‘receiver’ speaker. as these will reflect the laser beam around the room in an uncontrolled manner. There are two limitations that affect the fidelity of our simple laser telecommunication system.33 and display then prominently. You should print enlarged copies of laser radiation warning signs like those shown in Figure 5. Construct your laser beam path as low as practical to the table or bench (a) top. with a photodetector and/or a non-reflective beam stop behind the detector). (b) (c) Figure 5. • Never look directly into the laser beam. A schematic diagram of our simple intensity-modulated laser telecommunication system is shown in Figure 5. so that it can partially interrupt the light beam as the ‘transmitter’ speaker vibrates (in response to the original audio signal). • Avoid specular reflection from polished or shiny surfaces. • Avoid darkened rooms. close to any laser experiment.33 (a) Specific laser diode radiation warning sign.• Terminate the beam at the end of its useful path (i. move your eye slowly when near the beam path. When aligning. The resistance of the LDR will depend on the changing light intensity illuminating it. • Align the laser beam with the lowest intensity practicable. The optical detector at the receiver can be a simple voltage divider circuit using an LDR and a suitable fixed resistor. and the output voltage of the LDR voltage divider circuit will provide an electrical signal that will be roughly proportional to the original audio signal. The bright halo associated with the beam gives an early warning of impending disaster. Do not set up your laser beam in a darkened room. as your eye approaches a direct line of vision with the beam. we need to produce an intensity-modulated signal (i.(b) General laser radiation warning sign. including watches and jewellery. Like the original photophone. First. • Always use laser warning signs to alert others to the potential laser radiation hazard.e. (c) Contact information sign. A large piece of dark-coloured cardboard mounted vertically in a slotted wooden base makes a good beam stop.e. as your pupils will enlarge and potentially let more laser beam energy onto the retina. The two polarised plastic lenses of cheap Polaroid sunglasses can be used. the intensity of the laser beam should vary in accordance with the fluctuations in the amplitude of the audio signal).

the time response of the LDR is slow and hence the optical detection circuit also attenuates any high frequency components of the transmitted signal. we need to use a better modulation system. If the barrel casing of the laser pointer could be removed (usually a difficult task) the LD unit would look similar to the one shown in Figure 5. Take care to smooth any sharp edges on the cut casing. uninterrupted laser beam laser pointer opaque plastic strip glue 'transmitter' speaker audio signal amplifier LDR interrupted laser beam Vcc R1 Vout amplifier microphone 'receiver' speaker Figure 5. The laser pointer comprises a laser diode package.to change the intensity of the transmitted laser light beam) affects the vibration of the ‘transmitter’ speaker and greatly attenuates any highfrequency vibrations.) directly into a change in the light intensity output of the laser diode.35. Introducing photonics C A B Figure 5. Designing a high-fidelity photonics telecommunications system To overcome the first limitation of our original telecommunications prototype. CD player etc. Although the sound from the receiver is a reasonable copy of the original audio signal. The size of the laser spot can usually be fine tuned by adjusting the focusing lens assembly. The LD unit is usually powered by a 4.34 Simple intensity-modulated laser telecommunication system. we would like to convert the electrical signal from the audio source (microphone. there will be some loss of high frequencies and the sound signal will be a little distorted. focusing lens assembly and drive circuitry all interconnected as one LD unit. B. The photo clearly shows the LD device. In other words.5 V source. A green plastic-coated copper wire can then be connected to the central spring of the drive circuit. which in the case of the laser pointer is three small 1. radio. A red plasticcoated copper wire can also be connected to the barrel case.35 Laser diode unit inside a laser pointer: A. 175 . focusing lens assembly. the focusing lens assembly and the drive circuit. cassette tape player. The aluminium barrel casing of the laser pointer can be partially cut away with a pair of small tin snips as shown in Figure 5. C. Ideally. which is the positive connection of the drive circuit. Second.5 V button batteries connected in series. drive circuitry.36. To modulate the output of the laser pointer directly. which is the negative connection. laser diode package. The wire can be connected either with solder (as shown in the photo) or with alligator clips (that have an insulated cover). we would like to intensity-modulate our laser beam directly via the electronic signal from our audio source. Figure 5.36 Laser pointer with barrel casing partially cut away. we first need to remove the batteries and replace them with an external power supply.

9 3.3 4.8 0. This effect can be minimised by operating the LD below its normal output power. It is often a good idea to operate the laser diode below its normal output power.) negative terminal of laser diode unit (black lead) Figure 5. the line out of a cassette recorder was connected across the 1 Ω resistor. Make sure that your circuit has only one earth (ground) point. Physics file If the laser diode module is not well heatsinked. CD player.5 V. This reduces the temperature of the laser diode’s pn junction and greatly increases its life time.37 Optical power versus supply voltage for the laser pointer. above the threshold of 2.5 V) positive terminal of laser diode unit (red lead) V LD R modulation voltage from audio source (tape recorder.4 1.5 2.1.1 4.9 V. CD player.5 Supply voltage (V) Figure 5.3 2.38 is a schematic diagram of our laser transmitter with direct intensity modulation.7 3.7 2. Under this condition the LD’s performance will degrade and its lifetime decrease. which is usually the negative lead of the line out.2 0 2.0 0. A small 1 Ω resistor has been inserted in series with the power supply and the terminals of the LD unit. The electrical signal from the line out or headphone output from a tape recorder.3 3. We need to be aware that our supply voltage for the drive circuit should not go above its normal operating voltage.38 Schematic diagram of a laser transmitter with direct intensity modulation. 176 ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS . etc.6 0.39 shows an example of the prototype laser transmitter with directintensity modulation. This means that your external power supply (or external battery if you wish) should not be separately earthed. by using a slightly lower supply voltage. The resistor was connected in series external battery power supply ( 3. Figure 5.2 Optical power (mW) 1. So if we can superimpose a voltage representing the audio signal onto the power supply voltage we will be able to modulate the light intensity directly from the audio signal. In this particular case. As can be seen.4 0. The pointer can then be turned on or off via the external power supply without disturbing the alignment of the laser beam. Figure 5.37 shows a plot of optical power output of the laser pointer measured as a function of voltage supplied to the drive circuitry.5 3.1 3.9 4. thereby allowing the laser output to be modulated. the operating temperature of the LD’s pn junction will be higher than normal. the light output of the laser diode (which is directly proportional to the current through the diode) is essentially linearly proportional to the supply voltage. microphone. The laser pointer’s push button switch can be permanently connected in the ‘on’ position by wrapping a rubber band or some adhesive tape around the barrel of the pointer. radio or other audio source can be connected across the 1 Ω resistor as shown in Figure 5. Figure 5. The addition of the 1 Ω resistor has very little effect on the operating characteristics of the LD unit.1 2. as this may produce an optical power that exceeds the laser diode’s specifications and may result in permanent damage to the unit. but does allow a small voltage signal (from an audio source) to be superimposed on the supply voltage. in this case 4. radio.38.

Vcc 12 V C E c b C e 1 µF R 1 kΩ vout A B D Figure 5. An infrared phototransistor was used in this prototype. The breadboard is held in a retort stand which is aligned so that the laser beam illuminates the phototransistor. 1 Ω resistor.40 Schematic diagram of the phototransistor receiver. The output of the power supply was adjusted to give approximately 3. The phototransistor has a much better high-frequency response than the LDR and gives a much larger output voltage because of its internal optical amplification. When illuminated by the laser beam the phototransistor circuit (in this particular prototype) gave an output voltage for the audio modulation of approximately 1 V (peak to peak). laser pointer.39 Prototype laser transmitter with direct intensity modulation: A. No. The audio component of the signal (modulation) must then be amplified before being connected to the ‘receiver’ speaker. resistor and capacitor are all connected on an electronic breadboard. B. Figure 5. The variable power supply provides the 12 V to power the phototransistor detector circuit. The insulating screws are needed because the barrel of the laser pointer is at a positive potential and we need to prevent the barrel accidentally shorting to earth. external variable power supply. The laser pointer was mounted in an optical support frame with plastic insulating holding screws. optical support frame. In the prototype. D. Phototransistors Introducing photonics 177 . Neither of the power supply terminals (positive or negative) was grounded (connected directly to earth). C. The output of the detector circuit goes to an inexpensive amplified computer speaker. The varying voltage (audio signal) across the 1 Ω resistor (which is superimposed on the DC voltage) was approximately 100–200 mV (peak to peak). The laser pointer must be adjusted so that the laser beam is roughly horizontal to the bench surface. but it had sufficient sensitivity to detect red light. The phototransistor looked very similar to a 5 mm clear LED. Physics file The outer case of many (but not all) laser diode modules is at a positive potential. The longer lead is the emitter and the shorter lead is the collector (it has no base terminal). Figure 5. If you are unsure about the polarity of any particular LD. The DC voltage component of the signal is blocked by the 1 µF coupling capacitor.2–4 V DC. ZD1950) for $1. and was purchased from Jaycar Electronics (Cat.40 is a schematic diagram of the phototransistor detector circuit. Figure 5.with the terminals of the laser pointer and the outputs of an external variable power supply. E.41 shows the prototype laser receiver. line out of a cassette recorder. please check the manufacturer’s specifications. The phototransistor. A retort stand with insulated clamps makes a suitable substitute for the optical support frame. a phototransistor rather than an LDR is used as the optical detector.

Essentially it shows the main features (light transmitters. ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS . 5.42) can be made to fit over the head of the phototransistor. phototransistor. retort stand. Photonics telecommunication systems are growing very rapidly. amplified computer speaker. B. modulation. the science of photonics covers a broader range of topics. optical receivers) found in modern fibre-optic telecommunication systems. electronic breadboard.D A B E C Figure 5. as they are the enabling technology of the Internet. The audio reproduction from this prototype laser telecommunication system is remarkably good. These topics are discussed in the ‘Photonics’ Detailed Study on the Heinemann Physics 12 CD.41 Prototype laser receiver: A.42 Phototransistor with black collimation tube. are readily available from many electronics stores. E. variable power supply. Although the fibre-optics telecommunications is a very important application of photonics. and the ease with which the system can be constructed. This will reduce the amount of stray light incident on the detector. PRACTICAL ACTIVITY 20 Audio transmission with a light beam Figure 5. A black cardboard or plastic collimator tube (as shown in Figure 5.3 SUMMARY AUDIO TRANSMISSION VIA A LIGHT BEAM • Intensity (or amplitude) modulation is when the intensity of a light beam varies in accordance with the 178 fluctuations in the amplitude of the information signal. C. given the low cost of the components. D.

2 With the laser telecommunications system used to transmit an audio signal.9 V. The output varies linearly between 4. The phototransistor uses ‘transistor action’ to amplify the signal illuminating its base. Unlike an LED. The laser diode would draw too much current from the power supply and the supply would be permanently damaged. 8 B C The laser diode pointer should be mounted into an insulated supporting frame so that: A the laser diode’s outer case is not accidentally shorted to earth the experimenter only handles the frame and not the laser diode.5 and 12 V. C B D 3 With the laser telecommunication system used to transmit an audio signal. The laser diode would emit too much light and the receiver speaker would be permanently damaged. All of the above. should be connected only to the central spring of the drive circuit can be connected to either the central spring or outer barrel casing should be connected only to the outer barrel casing B C Introducing photonics 179 . Unlike an LED. 1 D should be connected to neither the central spring nor the outer barrel casing.5 V.1 µF capacitor in the optical phototransistor detector circuit: A B C D 5 With the laser pointer used in the laser telecommunication system. The output varies linearly between 0 and 4.3. The output varies linearly between 2. thus avoiding electrocution the supporting frame does not overheat all of the above.9 and 4. which one of the following would occur first? A LEDs emit a wider range of wavelengths than LDs. All of the above. Which one of the following is true? A B C D intensity modulation frequency modulation wavelength modulation sound modulation 7 The output varies linearly between 0 and 2. Which modulation method was used for the laser telecommunication system that transmitted the audio signal? A B C D 6 The output of the laser pointer used in the laser telecommunication system varies as a function of the power supply voltage. Movement of speaker membrane insufficient to interrupt all the laser beam Opaque object heats up when irradiated by the laser beam.3 QUESTIONS The following questions refer to the laser telecommunication system developed in Section 5. The laser diode would have too much current flowing through it and the diode would be permanently damaged. Loss of high-frequency response of speaker when object is attached. D 4 B What is the most significant limitation associated with using an opaque object to interrupt the laser beam to create modulation of the audio signal? A C D 9 Difficulty with permanently gluing object to speaker membrane. The power supply for a laser diode should never exceed its normal operating value by more than: A B C D B 500% 0% 50% 100% C D 10 The 0. an LD’s beam spot does not spread out much even over long distances. why is it preferable to use a phototransistor rather than an LDR? A C D The phototransistor generates a larger output voltage for the modulation. The LDR has a poorer high-frequency response. the positive terminal of the external battery or power supply: A reduces the ‘transistor action’ of the detector increases the ‘transistor action’ of the detector filters out any DC contribution of the laser beam none of the above.5. The laser diode would emit too much light and the optical detector would overheat.5 V. why is an LD used in preference to an LED? A B If the power supply to the laser diode pointer was increased to 12 V. an LD’s light output can be easily modulated.

CHAPTER REVIEW
1

Photodiodes, as used in fibre optic telecommunication systems, are normally:
A

b

What is the LED’s conversion efficiency from electrical to optical power?

forward biased to generate a voltage that is directly proportional to the light intensity reverse biased to generate a current that is directly proportional to the light intensity forward biased to generate a current that is directly proportional to the light intensity unbiased to generate a voltage that is directly proportional to the light intensity.

5

B

A photodiode has a circular active area with a radius of 2 mm. Determine the light intensity (W m–2) at the detector, if the optical power detected is 0.1 mW. The output of the circuit shown is Vout = 3 V. If the LDR has the same characteristics as that shown in Figure 5.13, determine the intensity of light illuminating the detector.

The circuit shown has an LDR detector (V1) and a photodiode detector (V2). The LDR and the photodiode are both illuminated with light of the same intensity (Φ). The LDR and the photodiode have the same characteristics as those shown in Figure 5.13 and Figure 5.16, respectively.
a

6

C

If the intensity of the light increases (Φfinal > Φinitial), determine what happens to V1 and V2 (increase, decrease, no change). Give reasons for your answer. If the light intensity (Φ) is 3 W m–2, calculate V1. The dual detection system is to be calibrated so that both outputs are the same for a light intensity of 3 W m–2. Determine the value of R2 that ensures that V1 = V2 for Φ = 3 W m–2. Is there any other particular light intensity where V1 = V2? Give reasons for your answer.

D

b

R1

50 kΩ

c

2

Which one of the following is generally true for the response times of photodetectors?
A

Vcc = 10 V
R2 LDR

LDRs are faster than phototransistors which are faster than photodiodes. Phototransistors are faster than LDRs which are faster than photodiodes. Photodiodes are faster than LDRs which are faster than phototransistors. Photodiodes are faster than phototransistors which are faster than LDRs.
Vcc = 10 V RL
7

Vout

d

B

9

C

Vcc = 10 V
Rx (10 kΩ) Rc LDR
b c e

D

Vout

3

Which one of the following is suitable for a high-speed fibreoptics telecommunication system?
A B

(6 kΩ)

R2

Vout

A receiver which uses an LDR. A receiver which uses a reverse-biased photodiode. A transmitter which uses a reverse-biased LD. A transmitter which uses a forward-biased phototransistor.
8

C

If Vout = 6 V, determine the light intensity illuminating the photodiode, assuming it has the same I–V characteristics as those of Figure 5.16.

a

D

Vcc = 9 V
R1 50 kΩ

4

An LED draws 100 mA when 2 V is applied across its terminals. Under these conditions, the LED produces an optical power of 2 mW.
a

Determine the resistance (Rx) of the LDR at which the transistor just turns off. Assume the transistor just turns off when Vbe ≈ 0.65 V, and that the transistor’s base current (Ib) is much smaller than the current flowing in the Rx/R2 voltage divider. If RLDR increases to 10Rx, what happens to Vout? If RLDR decreases to,Rx/10 what happens to Vout?

V1

LDR

R2

V2

b

How much electrical power is dissipated in the LED?

c

180

ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS

EXAM - STYLE QUESTIONS

ELECTRONIC AND PHOTONICS
For all questions, assume voltmeters and ammeters are ideal unless otherwise stated. The circuit shown applies to questions 1 and 2.
R 108 V S
4

d

the terminal voltage Vt of the battery the power output P of the battery.

R 1 (Ω) 1000 400 900 2.0

R 2 (Ω) 1000 100 3.0 100

V out (V) 10 5.0 2.0 4.0

e

Consider the circuit shown where three resistors R1, R2 and R3 are connected in parallel. Assume that R1 = 100 Ω, R2 = 200 Ω and R3 = 600 Ω.
R1
I1

6

E
1

I

R2 R3

I2

I

Assume that the battery has EMF E = 220 V and internal resistance R = 2.0 Ω and that switch S is closed. Calculate:
a b c d

I3

Three uniform sections of different types of resistance wire, X, Y and Z, each of length 10 cm are connected in series to an ideal battery as shown. The graph shows the electric potential V at any point along the composite wire as a function of the distance x from the positive terminal.

the current I in the circuit the reading on voltmeter V the potential difference across R the power output of the battery the total power dissipated in the external resistor.
I I

E

e

The battery has an EMF E = 120 V and zero internal resistance.
a

2

Calculate the terminal voltage of the battery if switch S is open. Consider the series circuit shown in the diagram.
R1 R2 R3

Calculate the total resistance Rt in the external circuit. Calculate the line current I in the circuit. Determine the branch currents I1, I2 and I3. What is the power output P of the battery? Calculate the total power consumed by all the resistors in the external circuit.

a

3

b

Determine the value of the ratio: RX/RY. Determine the value of the ratio: RY/RZ . What is the electrical energy gained by an electron as it travels through section X of the composite wire? (e = 1.60 × 10–19 C) What is the electrical energy gained by an electron as it travels through section Y of the composite wire? Determine the EMF of the battery.

b

c

c

d

e I

d

E
5

Assume that R1 = 80 Ω, R2 = 10 Ω and R3 = 8.0 Ω. The battery has an EMF E = 100 V and internal resistance R = 2.0 Ω. Calculate:
a

The circuit shown is a simple voltage divider. Complete the table that follows.
7

e

the total resistance Rt in the external circuit the current I in the circuit the potential difference across: i R1 ii R2 iii R3

b c

Three uniform sections of resistance wire, X, Y and Z, each of length 50 cm and composed of different materials, are connected in series to an ideal battery of EMF E = 550 V as shown in the diagram.

Exam-style questions

181

The respective resistances of each wire are: RX = 100 Ω, RY = 200 Ω, RZ = 250 Ω. Draw the graph of electric potential (V ) as a function of the distance x from the negative terminal of the battery.
8 a b

the reading on the ammeter A is 100 mA.
a

13

a

How much current is flowing through ammeter A3? Calculate I 2. Calculate I 1. Determine the value of R. Calculate the power consumption of R. Determine the power output of the battery.

What is the reading on voltmeter V? Calculate the power consumption of diode 1. How much current is flowing through diode 2? Calculate the voltage across diode 2. Calculate the power consumption of diode 2. Determine the value of R. Calculate the power consumption of R. Determine the power output of the battery.
1
14

b c a b

b

c

What is a semiconductor? Explain the difference between n-type silicon and p-type silicon semiconductor material. What is a pn junction?
f g d

c

e

c 9

Explain the terms reverse bias and forward bias in reference to a pn junction. A diode has an I–V graph as shown, and a switch-on voltage of 0.8 V. When the diode is connected in the circuit as shown, the voltmeter reading is 1.0 V.
120 100

The following information applies to question 15. The reading on A1 is 100 mA. Assume that all diodes have the I–V graph shown in question 10.
100 Ω
I2 I1

10

h

A2 10 Ω 50 Ω A1 A3 R

V

Current (mA)

80 60 40 20 0 0 0.5 1 Voltage (V) 1.5 2

E = 5.0 V

1 R 2
15

E = 100 V

A

a

Determine the current flowing through the diode. How much power is being consumed by the diode? What is the value of R? What is the total power consumption in the circuit? What is the reading on ammeter A?

b

The following information applies to questions 12–14.The reading on A1 is 20 mA. Assume that all diodes have the I–V graph shown in question 10.
I1 I2

c d

100 Ω 100 Ω 1 500 Ω A1 A3 E = 10 V

e

A2 50 Ω

Consider the circuit shown. The reading on voltmeter V is 1.0 V. The total power consumed by all diodes in the circuit ΣP = 40 mW. Calculate the value of R. Assume all diodes have the I–V graph shown in question 10.
16

R

Explain the terms forward bias and reverse bias with respect to diodes. What is meant by the term switch-on voltage of a diode? Consider a capacitor, C =1.0 µF, connected in series with a resistor, R = 1.0 kΩ, and a battery, V = 1.0 kV, as shown in the diagram. The switch is closed, resulting in the charging of the capacitor.

17 12 a

What is the potential difference across diode 1? Calculate the power consumption of diode 1. How much current is flowing through ammeter A2?

18

b 11

Two diodes have the same I–V graph as shown in question 10 . When the diodes (1 and 2) are connected in the circuit as shown,

c

182

ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS

Determine the final charge on the capacitor.

a

What type of amplifier is it? Explain. What is the gain of the amplifier? Determine the peak-to-peak output voltage when the peakto-peak input voltage is 0.10 V

b

c

19

A capacitor, C =100 nF, is connected in series with a resistor R and a battery. The final charge on the capacitor is 50 µC. What is the EMF of the battery?

27

The following graph describes the characteristics (Vout vs Vin) of a voltage amplifier and applies to questions 31 and 32. All voltages are in volts.

24

A student measures the resistance R of a thermistor for various temperatures T, and records the results in the table below: 20.0 2.5 2.5 30
a b

The circuit shown is to be used as a simple transistor voltage amplifier. It is to be biased such that Vbe is normally 0.70 V. In this condition a current of Ic = 5.0 mA flows through the collector and VC is to be half of the supply voltage VS of 12 V. The transistor has a current gain of 100 and RE is

R (kΩ) T (°C) R (kΩ) T (°C)
20

15.0 5.0 2.0 40

10.0 10 1.8 45

5.0 20 1.0 50

Explain why this amplifier is referred to as an inverting amplifier.
a

What is a thermistor? Plot a graph of R versus T and describe whether the relationship between resistance and temperature is linear.

21

What is the maximum peak signal voltage that can be amplified without distortion? Calculate the voltage gain of the amplifier.
25

200Ω.
a

What value should be used for the load resistance RL? What will be the value of Vb the base voltage? Describe the purpose of the two resistors R1 and R2. It is decided to use a value of 20 kΩ for R2. Making the usual assumptions find the appropriate value for R1. When the circuit is connected it is found that VC is much higher than expected. Explain why this would be the case. To overcome this problem R1 is then changed to 10 kΩ. What value of R 2 should now be used? Describe the functions of the two capacitors C 1 and C 2.

b

22

Complete the following table by calculating the range of output voltages produced by an amplifier with gain = –20, for the following sinusoidal input voltages: Output voltage range

In order to increase the overall gain, two or more transistor amplifiers may be connected together in a suitable way. Explain the role of capacitor coupling in such a situation. Consider the common emitter silicon npn transistor circuit shown. The reading on voltmeter V is 10.0 V and Ie = 1.02 mA.
a b c

b

c

d

26

Peak input voltage 100 mV 0.25 V 1.0 V 20 mV 0.80 V

e

Determine the value of Ic. What is the value of Vce? What is the potential difference between collector and base (Vcb)? Determine the base current. Calculate the current gain for the circuit.
g f

23

A particular amplifier has the following characteristics (Vout vs Vin).

d e

Exam-style questions

183

For questions 28 – 31. The circuit below is to be used as a voltage amplifier for a small AC signal. In the no-signal situation Vc is to be 5 V. For a silicon transistor the base-emitter voltage is to be close to 0.7 V for correct bias.

c

It is found that a decrease in base voltage of 2 mV leads to a change in the collector current Ic of 2µ A. Will this be an increase or a decrease of 2µ A? How will the output voltage be affected? What is the voltage gain of the amplifier? Is this an inverting or non-inverting amplifier? One of the ‘rules of thumb’ of amplifier design says that the voltage gain is approximately equal to the ratio of Rc to Re. Is that rule ‘obeyed’ in this example?

32

d

In the simple LDR light detector circuit shown, Vout is to be used to activate an alarm when the ambient light reaches a certain level. At this particular light level the resistance of the LDR is 200Ω. The alarm activates whenever Vout is above the trigger level.

e

30 28

For the no-signal situation
a

What is the value of Ic the collector current? Assuming the transistor has a high current gain (so that Ib is very small compared to Ic) what will be the value of Ve the emitter voltage? What is the required value of Vb so that the transistor is correctly biased? Determine the required value of R2. What is the current flowing through the R1 – R2 voltage divider? If the current gain of this transistor is 200, what is the value of the base current Ib? Will this affect the value of Vb as calculated above?

If the input signal to an amplifier of this type is too large the output signal becomes distorted.
a

b

For an amplifier with a voltage gain of -20, what would be the approximate value of the largest peak–peak signal voltage that could be amplified without distortion? Describe the distortion that would result from a signal amplitude that was too large.

a

What is the value of Vout at which the alarm should activate? Will the alarm activate when the light is above or below the particular level of concern? Explain your answer. When it is very dark, what would you expect Vout to become?

b

b

c

c

31

(Challenge question!) In amplifier circuits such as this, the emitter resistor (100Ω in this case) is not always used.
a 33

d

e

f

29

An AC signal of 4 mV peak-peak (that is from +2 mV to -2mV amplitude) is now fed into the input Vin.
a

In the circuit above, an increase of 2 mV in the base voltage led to an increase of 2 µ A in the collector (and emitter) current and hence a decrease in Vout. What change in the emitter voltage Ve will this lead to? Qualitatively, what effect will this small change have on the base-emitter voltage of the transistor? And so what will be the consequent effect on the collector current IC and hence the output voltage Vout? (In qualitative terms only.) So what is the effect of using an emitter resistor and what difference would you find in a similar amplifier circuit without an emitter resistor?

The graph shows the characteristics of a LED which is to be used in the circuit shown. For optimum life and light efficiency the current through the LED should be 40 mA. At higher currents the LED will be brighter, but its life is shortened and it will burn out rapidly if the current exceeds 90 mA.

b

If this signal was not fed through the capacitor C1 but directly to the base of the transistor, what problems could occur with the biasing of the transistor? What is the function of capacitor C1? Describe the voltage at the base of the transistor when the signal is fed through C1.

c

b

d

184

ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS

I = 10 µA under illumination of Φ = 2.0 W m–2. The device is operating under a constant illumination of Φ = 2.0 W m–2.
a

e

Determine the photocurrent gain for the phototransistor when Vout = 10 V.

38

Determine the value of RL that will produce Vout = 5.0 V. What is the radiation power absorbed by the active area of the detector? Calculate the power dissipation in the diode. How much power is being dissipated in RL? Determine the power output of the battery. A light-emitting diode (LED) constructed from gallium phosphide (GaP) is connected into the circuit shown in the diagram. A student records the variation in current I as a function of the applied forward voltage V. The results are shown in the table below. V (V) 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 I (mA) 0 0 0 0.01 3.0 5.0 10

b

a

With a power supply (Vs ) of 10 V, what is the optimum value for R? What is the minimum possible value for R if the LED is not to burn out rapidly? If a resistor of 100Ω is used for R approximately how much current will flow in the LED? How would you describe the condition of the LED in this case? If the voltage across the LED (VD) is less than 1.7 V it will be too dim to see. What is the minimum value of the supply voltage that could be used with the 100Ω resistor if the LED is to be just visible? What is a photodiode and how does it work? Explain the meaning of the term dark current in relation to a photodiode. Under what circumstances will the current through a photodiode circuit be zero.
36

c

d

b

e

c

What is a phototransistor? Explain its operation.

37

Vcc = +14 V
R 20 kΩ

d

Vout

34

a

b

c

35

A phototransistor has an active detection area A = 2.25 mm2. It is illuminated with green light of λ = 536 nm and intensity Φ = 4.0 W m–2. The phototransistor is connected into the circuit as shown in the diagram. Assume: h = 6.63 × 10–34 J s, c = 3.00 × 108 m s–1, e = 1.60 × 10–19 C.
a

a

What is a light-emitting diode and how does it produce light? Estimate the threshold or switch-on voltage for this LED and explain the meaning of the term. Determine the value of R when the current through the LED is 5.0 mA What is the power consumption of the diode when V = 2.20 V? What is the power output of the battery when V = 2.20 V?

b

20 V RL Vout = 5.0 V b

Assuming that all incident light is absorbed, calculate the optical power absorbed by the phototransistor. Determine the energy of each photon in the incident light beam. Calculate the number of photons that are absorbed each second by the phototransistor. Assuming that each absorbed photon generates one photoelectron into the base of the phototransistor, determine the base photocurrent Ipb.
39

c

d

e

c

A senior physics student designs a circuit containing a photodiode detector with active area 16 mm2 as shown in the diagram. The specifications of the photodiode used in the circuit indicate that in photoconductive mode the device generates a photocurrent of

Which of the following devices is not a photonic transducer?
A B C D E

LED LDR photodiode solar cell capacitor

d

Exam-style questions

185

41 The number of outer-shell electrons in the impurity atoms in n-type material is: A B C D 5 4 3 2 42 In p-type material the movement of charge through the crystal lattice is due to the movement of: A B C D electrons protons holes positrons. conductor. semiconductor. semiconductor 44 B C When a pn junction is connected in reverse-bias mode the barrier potential at the junction: A B C D D increases decreases remains constant alternates. semiconductor. conductor insulator. insulator semiconductor. conductor insulator.40 Which one of the following gives the correct order for increasing conductivity? A 43 Which of the following is not a semiconductor material? A B C D silicon germanium gallium arsenide gold conductor. insulator. 186 ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS .

Recently. chance has been built in. the physicist could find out how nature works. Blake’s was a static model of the Universe. In it. the properties of light and matter itself can interchange. and the English theoretical physicist Stephen Hawking quipped that ‘God not only plays dice. With the benefit of 200 years of hindsight. Slowly.INTERACTIONS OF LIGHT AND MATTER illiam Blake’s famous watercolour of God constructing the Universe was painted in 1794. saying that ‘God does not play dice!’. with the advent of quantum mechanics. Einstein understood more. by observing and taking measurements. . but 70 years ago. we know that the Universe is not really so rational or even predictable. Probability and chance play a part. in the microscopic world of light and subatomic particles (such as electrons). we have come to realise that. but sometimes He throws them where they cannot be seen’. W Blake’s painting also reminds us that all understanding relies on the building of mental pictures or models. Blake reveals to us that the Universe in his day was seen as a logical and predictable place—one which had been built from a rational plan. he believed the Universe to be predictable. It was therefore reasoned that.

Einstein and more. The most likely outcome is that the hour would be spent in heated argument. 188 INTERACTIONS OF LIGHT AND MATTER . or physicists as we now call them. As our understanding of light develops in the future. They were willing to think outside the established approaches of their time. As our ability to produce more sophisticated measuring equipment grows. We have even become knowledgeable enough to realise that by our acts of observation themselves we ineradicably influence the things we see.CHAPTER 6 The nature of light H ow incredible it would be if it were possible to put the giants of physics from throughout history together in one room for an hour. The concept of light as an area of inquiry is a great example of the way in which scientific knowledge develops. new areas of investigation are opened up to us. Each came across observational data that either defied established theory or for which there was no existing explanation. largely aimed to provide explanations for phenomena observed in nature. Each would have understandings linked to their era. break new ground and develop their own new theories. we will continue to need pioneering radical physicists to create new models that will help us to understand the fascinating phenomenon of light. Newton. We live in a technological age. the development of scientific knowledge has run parallel with technological development. Long ago natural philosophers. Curie. Joule. BY THE END OF THIS CHAPTER you will have covered material from the study of interactions of light and matter including: • diffraction and interpreting diffraction patterns • Young’s double-slit experiment as evidence for the wave nature of light • path difference and the constructive and destructive interference of waves • using interference patterns to deduce wavelength • the photo-electric effect as evidence for the particle-like nature of light. However. But what would a great mind like Newton have been able to discover had he available the technology of today? All of our great physicists had something of the pioneer and the radical in them. Early humans began with simple models based on easily accessible phenomena. Copernicus. Let's imagine that just one question is posed to them: What is light? None would give the same answer as another. Galileo. Heisenberg.

This is seen when you notice a floating cork or yacht bobbing up and down (vertically) as waves pass by horizontally (Figure 6. the student could have continually oscillated their hand from left to right. As some of the latter category is covered by our forthcoming study of light.2). we will begin with an examination of mechanical waves in springs.1). laid on a smooth surface and held at each end by a student.6. While the existence of ocean waves and the ripples in a pond are accessible visible examples. Figure 6. Hence. Tiny speakers.2 While waves moving along a spring or string are one dimensional. surface waves or ripples on water caused by dropping a pebble into a pond are two dimensional. effectively setting up a sequence of pulses or wave train. Figure 6. Consider a slinky spring that has been gently stretched. When the source of a disturbance undergoes continual oscillation then it will set up a periodic wave in a medium. in this case the spring. we shall first summarise the properties common to all kinds of wave phenomena. Using the easily visualised waves in water and springs. The amplitude of the wave is defined as the maximum displacement that a particle has from its original rest position. radio waves or microwaves. It is worthwhile taking the time to review some of the key ideas that form the background to the area of study on which you are about to embark. Later you will rely on this knowledge to further develop your understanding of the nature of light. The particles of the medium each undergo a vibration as the wave energy passes through. can send out sound waves in three dimensions. Rather than the particles of the medium experiencing a single disturbance as a pulse passes by. without any net transfer of matter. waves in stringed instruments. and those which do not require a medium. as the particles vibrate at right angles to the direction of travel of the wave. Periodic waves are characterised by several features whose definitions follow. through your earlier studies you may have some background knowledge of sound waves. instead of sending a single pulse along the spring. Water waves on the surface of water are approximate examples of transverse waves. All waves involve energy being transferred from one location to another. the wave is called a transverse wave. If one student were to give a quick sideways movement to one end of the spring a single wave pulse would be seen travelling the entire length of the spring (Figure 6.1 Review of light and waves In your earlier studies you may have spent some time looking at the characteristics of waves and the nature of light. When the displacement of the particles is at a right angle to the direction of travel of the wave. Waves Most of us will have some familiarity with wave motion of one type or another. Many periodic waves in nature are sinusoidal waves. The nature of light 189 . the particles will undergo continual vibration about a mean position.1 A single wave pulse carries energy along the length of the spring with no net transfer of matter. The item carrying the disturbance. energy would travel away from the source of the disturbance. Returning to our stretched spring. is called the medium. for example. Waves can be grouped into two major categories: those which rely upon an elastic medium to carry them—mechanical waves. represented by the familiar sine and cosine graphs.

the wave would have a frequency of 10 Hz and a period of 0. wavelength can be thought of as the distance that a wave travels during one period. The property of wavelength (λ) is defined as the minimum distance between points in a wave which are in phase. the properties of the medium such as its density and temperature largely determine this speed. the relationship between the frequency and period of a wave must be: 1 f= T where f is the frequency in hertz (Hz) T is the period in seconds (s) (a) Displacement (m) amplitude these points are in phase wave energy X Y Distance from source (m) one wavelength (b) Displacement (m) X Y wave energy Consider a medium in which a periodic wave has been present for some time. Together. the amplitude and wavelength can be read directly from this type of graph. THE WAVE EQUATION: v=fλ where v is the velocity (m s−1) f is the frequency (Hz) λ is the wavelength (m) This is known as the wave equation and applies to all types of wave motion. Alternatively. As each wave is created it is carried away from the source at a particular velocity determined by the medium. a longitudinal wave would have been produced. At a particular moment in time. Note that the amount of energy that the wave carries with it is a function of the amplitude. If a vibrating source is completing 10 cycles per second and producing a progressive wave across the surface of water.3 is moving to the right. the velocity of a wave can be determined by examining a single pulse and measuring the time taken for it to travel a specific distance. there will be points in the medium which will be experiencing displacements and velocities identical to one another.e. A medium can have a set velocity for each frequency of light. Picture the stretched slinky that was discussed. further from the source. then by definition the time taken must be one period T. Distance from source (m) The wave equation Mechanical waves in different media will propagate at different speeds. Hence the velocity of any wave is given by the expression v = λ/T and since T = 1/f we can write: original wave position Figure 6. f. Therefore this wave will have travelled a certain distance before the next wave is created. as the resulting vibration would be parallel to the direction of travel of the wave. λ. If scales are placed on the axes.1 s. Waves can be represented graphically.3 As this transverse wave moves away from its source each point in the medium experiences a displacement perpendicular to the direction of travel of the wave.Physics file Sound waves travelling in air are actually longitudinal mechanical waves where the air molecules make up the medium. The points X and Y have moved upwards during the period shown. It is measured in cycles per second (s−1) or hertz (Hz).3). As their definitions imply. i. Since it is the physical transfer of vibrations that occur as the wave travels. The wave in Figure 6. If the distance used was equal to one wavelength. The period. is the time taken for one cycle to be completed—it is measured in seconds (s). These points are described as being in phase with each other (Figure 6. Since velocity = displacement/time. this velocity along with the 190 INTERACTIONS OF LIGHT AND MATTER . Had the pulse involved an initial disturbance of the spring along its axis. Describing waves The frequency. T. of a wave is defined as the number of waves or cycles that pass a given point per second. such as the surface of water.

Waves are created on the surface of water in a tank by a device that dips up and down 20 times per second. Therefore when deciding upon a model for light we must first examine what we know about it already. f = 20 Hz. The beginning of a model for light Now that some of the details of wave motion are once again familiar. we can rearrange to give: v λ= f 0. v = 30 cm s−1.30 m s−1 Since v = f λ.frequency of the wave source. What happens to the value of the velocity and wavelength if the frequency of the source is doubled? Solution a Since frequency is defined as the number of waves or cycles that pass a given point per second. A model needs to be able to explain the observations of light that have already been made and ideally it would predict new behaviours for light. then: T T= 1 f 1 20 = = 0. or whether we can use ray optics and particle ideas to model everything that light does! A model is a system of some type that is well understood and that is used to build a mental picture or analogy for an observed phenomenon. Worked example 6. At a set velocity. a b State the frequency. i. period and wavelength of the observed wave.015 m = = 1. High frequency sources would create short wavelengths and vice versa.30 20 = 0. The velocity of the resultant wave across the surface of the water is 30 cm s−1. a fast medium would result in a longer wavelength. In a given uniform medium the velocity of a wave will be constant.1A. A good model will appear to behave in the same manner as the entity being investigated. The nature of light 191 . in our case the behaviour of light. will determine the resulting wavelength. doubling the frequency will result in wavelengths of half the original value.e. 1 Given that f = . a slow medium would result in a shorter wavelength.05 s The velocity must be converted to metres per second: v = 30 cm s−1 = 0. For a source of a given frequency.5 cm b The velocity is determined by the properties of the medium and so it is unchanged. 0. In this case the wavelength and frequency would be inversely proportional to one another. we can begin to discuss whether light might be considered to be a wave.75 cm.

4a). (b) A billiard ball rolling without spin or sliding will bounce back from the cushion. philosophy. when Newton was studying the nature of light. politics and literature over 2000 years ago.4b). Arabian and Chinese philosophers. In addition. the angle of incidence always equals the angle of reflection.(a) Pondering the behaviour of light is not a new undertaking. If light is to be considered to be made up of particles then these particles can be modelled as behaving just as a billiard ball does when it bounces against the cushion of a billiard table (Figure 6. This is discussed later. (b) 8 i r i=r Reflection and refraction of particles Recall from your previous studies of light that whenever reflection occurs. if light is thought of as a series of wavefronts.4 (a) The reflection of light can be accurately modelled by either a particle or a wave approach. (Note that an important theory about the propagation of waves in a medium was developed by Christian Huygens in 1678. These early thinkers provided us with the foundations for many of our ideas about mathematics. science. The beginning of human interest in the nature of light dates back to the ancient Greek. The laws of reflection are obeyed and the reflection of light is modelled just as effectively as with the particle approach. (See the Physics in Action on Newton’s corpuscles). in his influential work Optiks extensively developed a corpuscular model for light. and today this remains an important assumption. Newton. They knew that light travels in straight lines and they used this principle widely in surveying and astronomy. The Greeks understood that these laws applied both on the Earth and in the cosmos generally. Furthermore. 280 BC). Alternatively. who included it in his book Optica. This behaviour of light can be accurately modelled using either a wave or particle approach. reflecting light behaves just like water waves striking a barrier (Figure 6. obeying the law of reflection. it was known that: • light travels in straight lines in a uniform medium (linear propagation) • light obeys the laws of reflection • light obeys Snell’s law of refraction. Therefore during the 17th century. (c) Light reflects in the same way as water waves striking a barrier.4c). the normal and the reflected rays all lie in the same plane (Figure 6. the law of reflection and an approximation to the law of refraction were both taught by Ptolemy around AD 150. 192 INTERACTIONS OF LIGHT AND MATTER . Light rays were considered to be made up of tiny particles moving at a high speed. architecture.) (c) Figure 6. the light reflects in such a way that the incident ray. The idea was certainly promoted by the mathematician Euclid (c.

e. since most scientists of the day thought that colours were mixtures and that white light was pure. drew heavily on the very significant work he had completed in mechanics. the light beam). Newton showed that white light is a mixture of colours. and the wavelets radiate from their point source in the general direction of the wave propagation (i. Figure 6. what property of the corpuscles gave the corpuscles their colour? Why could two beams of light cross without the corpuscles colliding and scattering in all directions? Huygens’s wavelets At about the same time that Newton developed his corpuscular theory. The new wavefront is the envelope of the wavelets. Huygens said that the envelope or common tangent of the wavelets becomes the new wavefront. which move in the direction of the wave at the speed of the wave. secondary wavelets. this was a significant breakthrough. Each wavelet is spherical. the Dutch mathematician Christian Huygens published his ideas on the nature and propagation of light (1678). he argued that a ‘corpuscle’ of light could change direction as it passed through a small slit or around an obstacle as a result of the forces acting between the corpuscles and the material surrounding the hole. Newton devised a theory for the nature of light that also attempted to explain its colour. first published in 1671. obeying the experimental laws that describe each phenomenon. By passing a beam of white light through a prism. To explain diffraction. then the model could explain why light would travel in straight lines and cast shadows. The nature of light 193 .PHYSICS IN ACTION Newton’s corpuscles While considering the problem of chromatic aberration (a colour distortion of images formed by single lenses) in the telescopes of the day. PRACTICAL ACTIVITY 21 Newton’s particle model of light HUYGENS’S PRINCIPLE states that every point along a wavefront is a source of small secondary spherical wavelets. Newton was also able to use this particle idea to show how light might reflect and refract. Newton interpreted the coloured rays of light as streams of tiny particles or ‘corpuscles’ travelling at high speed that were being sorted by the prism. For example. In his model he suggested that each point along a wavefront of light can be considered to be a point source for small. Newton further developed his model of light so that it could explain other phenomena.5 One of Isaac Newton’s many significant contributions to science was the work he did on the phenomenon of dispersion. His idea was that light acted like a wave. If light were a stream of tiny particles. Newton’s corpuscular idea. such as diffraction (discussed in the next section). At the time. Although Newton’s model could explain many phenomena. there were some it could not. As the white light passed through the prism. like bullets from a machine gun. basing it on his corpuscular model for light.

If considering light as a particle. As points along the wavefront meet the mirror they become sources of wavelets emerging upward. The envelope of the new wavelets form the reflecting wavefront.9). the bending of light by layers of air of different density produces the mirages seen in the desert. The envelope of the wavelets causes the formation of the new wavefront which is also plane. the direction in which the ball travels will change. As a result of this. (a) incident wave λ λ (b) (c) (d) λ λ reflected wave θ θ λ θ θ p θ θ Figure 6. but if the medium is not uniform the path of light can be bent. Figure 6.(a) rays giving direction of propagation Huygens’s model for light easily accounts for the propagation of both plane and circular wavefronts (Figure 6. initial wavefront new wavefront (b) ray source ray initial wavefront ray new wavefront Figure 6. (b) The same treatment illustrates how a circular wave is reproduced. and then rolls down a steep slope to another flat plane with a higher speed v2. As with reflection. these wavelets now travel in a slower medium and so cover less distance in a given time. (Dutch mathematician Willebrod Snell van Royen had devised the law in 1621. and on the upper region the ball will move along a straight-line path further away from the normal.7 show how Huygens’s principle can be used to explain why the angle of reflection of a light wave is the same as the incident angle. 194 INTERACTIONS OF LIGHT AND MATTER . As the points along the wavefront that are meeting the boundary become sources of Huygens's secondary wavelets. The bending of the path of light due to a change in speed as it enters a medium of different optical density is called refraction.8 shows a wavefront incident on a boundary to a medium in which the wave travels more slowly. In both cases Snell’s law of refraction would be obeyed by moving particles. if the incline between the flat regions is uphill.7 Huygens’s construction of the reflection of light as a plane wave. the joining of the envelope of new wavelets shows that the overall wavefront is heading in a slightly altered direction (Figure 6. Keep in mind that at this time the speed of light in different media had not been determined. like Newton did. then v2 will be lower than v1. Huygens’s ideas could also explain the refraction of light by tracking the new wavefront’s position by relying on the idea of secondary wavelets. Refraction From your earlier studies of light you should recall that light travels in a straight line when it is travelling in a uniform medium. Newton’s particle approach to modelling refraction was only partially successful. The path of the ball will move closer to the normal to the boundary.) However. it can be argued that if a ball rolls along a flat plane with a constant speed v1. later work on measuring the actual speed of light in different media showed that Newton’s direction of bending was incorrect. (a) Each point along the plane wavefront is a source of secondary spherical wavelets.6 Huygens’s principle models the propagation of waves.6). Light was found to bend towards the normal when it slowed down. The path would be bent through an angle of the correct size. The sequence of diagrams in Figure 6. For example. Conversely.

the bending is in the opposite direction to Newton's prediction. In fact. If the light was faster in air. and Newton's corpuscles were all but forgotten.1 A summary of light behaviour. Huygens's wave model would be vindicated. and most of the progress in the 18th century was made with his theory.1. Some of them are listed in Table 6. the wave nature of light was well established. and produce refraction towards the normal.Figure 6.9 Huygens’s principle can be used to accurately model the refraction of light and it also explains the subsequent change in wavelength of the light. The first measurements of the speed of light in air and water from 1849 onwards showed that as light speeds up. This showed a major flaw in the particle model for the refraction of light. and Newton’s prestige added weight to his arguments. such as glass. After all. Newton's corpuscular theory was the more popular. just as the rolling ball speeds up as it reaches a downward slope. By then. (a) incident wave V1 λ1 λ1 θ1 air glass (b) θ1 θ1 λ2 θ2 θ2 air glass (c) air glass Behaviour of light satisfactory modelled by using particles Linear propagation Intensity reduces with the square of the distance from the source Reflection Modelling of light paths around mirrors and lenses with geometric optics Behaviour of light satisfactorily modelled by using waves Linear propagation Intensity reduces with the square of the distance from the source Reflection Refraction Modelling of light paths around mirrors and lenses with wave optics Light beams crossing paths undisturbed Partial reflection and transmission of light at a boundary Diffraction (d) θ2 air glass λ2 λ2 V2 refracted wave Figure 6. If light was slower in air.8 If Newton’s model was correct light should speed up as it enters glass from air. There is not room to fully discuss all of the behaviours of light that have been modelled at some stage in history. then the particle theory would be considered correct. region 1 region 2 Competing ideas For about a century. The nature of light 195 . However. it was not until 1850 that these measurements could be made. Newton’s corpuscles were thought to be the more logical construction. however. he had been proved right so many times before—why should he be wrong now? It seemed that the only way to separate these competing theories was to actually determine the speed of light in both air and another transparent medium. Should we allow ourselves to be constrained in our understanding of this entity by our ability to construct adequate models? Table 6. the ideas expounded by Newton and Huygens vied with each other for acceptance in scientific circles. keep in mind that the properties of light exist independently of the model that we choose to represent light.

• The frequency f of a wave is defined as the number of waves or cycles that pass a given point per second. Determine the speed of the wave in the spring.80 m. Why was this phenomenon more easily explained by a wave model rather than a particle model for light? 196 INTERACTIONS OF LIGHT AND MATTER . • Periodic waves are characterised by several features— frequency. • The period T of a wave is the time taken for one cycle to be completed. • In the 17th century. • Wavelength is defined as the minimum distance between points in a wave that are in phase. wavelength can be defined as the distance that a wave travels during one period.25 seconds. • Huygens's principle and a wave model can be used to explain the reflection and refraction of light. it is measured in seconds. It is measured in metres (m).1 SUMMARY REVIEW OF LIGHT AND WAVES • All waves involve energy being transferred from one location to another. A guitar string is plucked and it undergoes 40 vibrations in 0. period.6. wavelength and amplitude. 5 D E 9 6 Sometimes when you look into a shop window you can simultaneously see both the items on display and an image of yourself in the glass. while Christian Huygens promoted a wave model based on wavelets. What is the wavelength of a sound wave with a velocity of 345 m s−1 and a frequency of 1200 Hz? A wave generator in a ripple tank produces eight vibrations per second. • While a particle approach. • The wave equation states: v = f λ where v is the velocity in m s−1. It is measured in cycles per second (s−1) or hertz (Hz). as adopted by Newton. predicts that: A B C 2 light should travel faster in air than in a vacuum light should travel faster in a vacuum than in air light should travel at the same speed in both media. Alternatively.1 QUESTIONS 1 What do mechanical and electromagnetic waves have in common? Explain why mechanical waves generally travel faster in solids than in gases. 6. The wave train produced has a total length of 1. without any net transfer of matter. 3 8 Which one or more of the following is explained successfully only by a wave model for light? A B C 4 straight-line propagation of light Snell’s law the simultaneous reflection and refraction of light at an interface diffraction and interference the existence of light pressure. If you wanted to produce waves with a greater wavelength. can accurately model the reflection of light. would you increase or decrease the frequency of the generator? Explain. What is the frequency and period of the sound wave produced? A student sending transverse waves along a slinky spring completes three full cycles in 1 s. two models for the nature of light competed with each other for acceptance. Newton’s ‘corpuscular’ model considered light to be composed of small particles. f is the frequency in Hz and λ is the wavelength in m. it failed to predict the direction of the refraction of light as it changed speed. as suggested by Newton. 7 Which one of the following is correct? The corpuscular model of light.

An example of this is shown in Figure 6. Sound waves diffract as well. allowing us to hear around corners. we will see later that it contributed to the acceptance of the wave nature of light.11b) the waves have not bent around as far behind the edge of each barrier.10 Water waves will bend around an obstacle. This also applies when waves pass through an aperture. As it is an observed property of both water and sound waves. In the diffraction of waves it is observed that if the wavelength is much smaller than the size of the aperture. but rather the waves can bend around and enter the area behind the barrier. as shown in the ripple tank of Figure 6. PRACTICAL ACTIVITY 22 Diffraction of light Figure 6. whereas when the wider slit is used (Figure 6.10. diffraction becomes less obvious.11a shows that a large region that is behind the barrier has been filled with waves. the degree of (a) (b) Figure 6. (b) As the gap increases. which can be thought of as a pair of barriers. Figure 6.6. This phenomenon is known as diffraction. The nature of light 197 .2 Diffraction The wave model established If you have ever watched carefully as water waves lap gently against a partial barrier you may have noticed their ability to bend around and enter the region behind the barrier.11.11 The diffraction of water waves in a ripple tank. It is an observed property of waves that obstacles placed in their path will not produce sharply defined ‘shadow’ regions. (a) Significant diffraction occurs when the wavelength approximates the slit width.

resulting in two sets of circular waves that overlap and spread into the region beyond the slits. The light from the holes was viewed on a screen some distance away. (b) However. Thomas Young. Young suggested that at each bright band the light coming from each source was added. Plane waves enter each slit at the same time. Newton’s hypothesis—that light was particulate in nature—would be supported. in which constructive and destructive interference of waves produce nodes and antinodes (see below). was a series of alternating bright and dark fringes (see Figure 6. conducted an experiment which showed that light did indeed have a wave nature. Monochromatic light (i. so he could only conclude that light too must have a wave nature. consider this modern version of Young’s experiment. and two sets of circular wavefronts emerge and spread into the region beyond the slits. To see how this is possible.12). or larger than. the aperture width will produce significant bending. the light emerging from each slit will be in phase. there will also be a crest emerging from S2. (b) nodal line (dark) (a) S1 antinodal line (bright) nodal line (dark) antinodal line (bright) S2 plane waves from a distant light source nodal line (dark) antinodal line (bright) nodal line (dark) double-slit screen Figure 6. The resulting intensity at each point is determined by the principle of superposition. Young projected a narrow beam of light through a pair of closely spaced holes in a darkened room. Wavelengths comparable to. and that at each dark band it was being cancelled. The circular waves then interfere to produce a series of nodal (dark) lines and antinodal (bright) lines. consisting of only one wavelength) is directed at two narrow. Physics file Polychromatic light is light consisting of more than one wavelength.bending is less. S1 and S2. What Young saw in the region where the two beams of light fell. a wave train from one slit will meet a wave train from the other slit. it diffracts. A screen is placed at some distance behind the slits. 198 INTERACTIONS OF LIGHT AND MATTER . the observed fringe pattern supports a wave model for light. If the light from the two holes produced a very bright region on the screen where these beams overlapped. Interference of light (a) light source double slit (b) screen In 1801 an English physician and physicist. which are placed very close together.13 (a) Light from a monochromatic and distant source is incident on a pair of slits. As the light passes through each slit. In his experiment. This means that if there is a crest emerging from S1. light source double slit screen Young’s double-slit experiment Figure 6. Because the incident light consists of plane waves which come from the same source. At every point on the screen. however.e. Monochromatic literally means ‘one colour’. The word is from the Greek—’poly’ means ‘many’ and ‘chromos’ means ‘colour’. (b) This interference pattern of alternating nodal and antinodal lines can also be seen in water waves when a pair of dippers oscillate in phase. parallel slits. Young knew about the interference of water and sound waves.12 (a) In a reproduction of Young's experimental set-up a particle model for light would incorrectly predict that two bright bands would appear on the screen.

if one wave is a crest the other will be a trough. M. 1. . The two wave trains that meet at this point are completely out of phase and cancel each other to produce a nodal point. Destructive interference also occurs when the path difference between the waves is 3λ/2..14. . etc..e. A fringe of bright light is seen. constructive interference has occurred). and so a crest will always meet a crest. Destructive interference is the result. but it is far more useful if it is measured in wavelengths in order to determine the light intensity on the screen. each wave train will have travelled through the same distance and so there is no path difference (i. Alongside this ‘central maximum’ is the first dark fringe. In looking along the screen away from the central bright fringe. N in Figure 6..15b. as shown in Figure 6. In other words. This interference pattern can also be represented graphically as shown in Figure 6. Path difference can be measured in metres. Reinforcement will also occur whenever the path difference between the two wave trains differs by an integral. These light waves reinforce to produce an antinode. where the path difference is λ. S1M = S2M).At a particular point on the screen. n = 0. they reinforce to produce a bright fringe (i. 3λ. if the viewing screen is moved further from the two slits the fringes will appear further apart from each other. 3.15a. a bright fringe will be seen as the wave trains arrive at this point in phase again. 2. 5λ/2. n = 0. Destructive interference is occurring. resulting in the two waves being out of phase at all times. The wave train from S2 will have travelled an extra λ/2 compared with the wave coming from S1. i. pd = nλ. and pd = |S1P − S2P|. i. there will be a point at which the path difference is λ/2. . R N S1 M S2 pd = λ + + + = = = INTERFERENCE constructive destructive constructive screen The wavelength of light. This phenomenon is called constructive interference or reinforcement. N. . since they are in phase. The sequence of constructive and destructive interference effects produces an interference pattern of regularly spaced vertical bands or fringes on the screen. i. the fringe spacing. i. and a trough will always meet a trough. the path difference is λ/2. each wave train to a point P on the screen is called the path difference for the waves (pd). the path difference at R is λ.e. In Figure 6.14 Waves meeting from each slit at the centre of the screen (M) have travelled through the same distance and. different distance.14. PRACTICAL ACTIVITY 23 Interference of light See Heinemann ePhysics CD for Interactive Tutorial 2 Young’s modulus Figure 6. and no light is seen. The nature of light 199 . 3.. P each wave train will have travelled a . 1. i. and vice versa. Further out at R.e.e. number of wavelengths. At the point on the screen equidistant from each slit. Alternatively. surprisingly the fringe spacing can be increased by reducing the separation of the slits.e. The result is that the interference pattern consists of a pattern of alternating bright and dark fringes. destructive interference occurs when the path difference equals an odd number of half wavelengths or pd = (2n + 1)λ/2. In general terms. 2λ.. 7λ/2 etc. using light of a longer wavelength will result in increased fringe spacing. Obviously. pd = λ. 2. However. constructive interference occurs when the path difference. the separation between the two slits and the distance to the screen can all affect the distance between adjacent bright bands on the screen..e. S1P and S2P The difference in the distance travelled by . if the screen position and wavelength of light are held constant.e.e. i. The light waves arrive in phase. or whole.

To determine exactly where the fringes of an interference pattern will appear on the screen. This means that tan θ = W/L. This means that the angle between the wave train S2X and the perpendicular S1A will be so close to 90° that it can be treated as a right angle. This is the line S1A on Figure 6.16. The overall width of the pattern is a diffraction effect. The horizontal axis represents a line drawn across the screen. Young was the first to determine approximate values for the various wavelengths of visible light. (b) The double-slit interference pattern can be considered in terms of an intensity distribution graph. The path difference can be found by constructing a perpendicular line to the line from S1 bisecting the angle S1XS2. The central band is brightest and the adjacent fringes diminish in intensity. Consider wave trains from S1 and S2 that travel to a point X on the screen. The centre of the distribution pattern corresponds to the centre of the brightest central fringe. S1 Using interference patterns to deduce wavelength M d S2 Figure 6. Since the distance from the slits to the screen (L) is far greater than the distance (d ) between the slits.16 The path difference between the wave trains can be determined using a line from S1 that runs perpendicular through the bisector of S1X and S2X. X θ θ A pd = d sinθ L Since different colours (wavelengths) of light produce different fringespacing. 200 INTERACTIONS OF LIGHT AND MATTER . and this extra distance is the path difference. Now if X is positioned so that it lies at the centre of the first bright fringe after the central fringe. Therefore he showed that the physical property distinguishing the different colours of light from each other is actually their wavelength. and sin θ = λ/d.(a) (b) Intensity constructive interference (bright) destructive interference (dark) Distance from central fringe Figure 6. then MX will equal the fringe spacing W.15 (a) The fringes produced by double-slit interference are evenly spaced. The wave train from S2 will travel further than the ray from S1. so the path difference will be just λ. and the angle θ will be extremely small. the fringes will be very close together. a relationship can be determined from the geometry of Young’s experiment. The triangle S1S2A is very nearly a right-angled triangle. Thus the path difference is given by pd = dsinθ.

3 × 10−7 m The wavelength of the laser light is therefore 630 nm. Determine the wavelength of the laser light. yellow. and in recent years it has been removed. The nature of light 201 . who felt that there ought to be seven since this was a ‘perfect number’! In reality.Now.0 × 10−5 m.17).2 mm thick. A CD consists of two layers. The lower layer is a transparent poly carbonate about 1. d = 50 µm = 5. they will reinforce. C and D in Figure 6. and a 0 will be read. creating a path difference of λ/2.g. If the two rays are out of phase—A and B—superposition of the rays will produce annulment. orange.0 m. but this value increases early in life to just below 400 nm. The original seven were identified by Isaac Newton.2A. seven colours are identified in the visible spectrum: red. Colour Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet Wavelength (nm) 750–630 630–600 600–560 560–490 490–420 420–400 −2 −5 = 2. The surface is coated with a thin layer of aluminium. the detector will receive a series of ‘light 0s and 1s’—information in a digital format. blue. PHYSICS IN ACTION Reading a CD λ — 4 opaque transparent A B C D Figure 6. and 5W = 12. Worked example 6. and its underside is covered with a series of steep-sided pits and bumps. The upper layer is opaque and is pressed with a series of bumps and pits. so: W λ L tan θ = = and thus W = λ L d d Physics file Traditionally. The interference of light is a critical part of the operation of compact discs (CDs).5 × 10 × 5.0 m from a screen on which five bright fringes are seen over a width of 12. This underside is coated with a thin layer of reflective aluminium. for very small values of θ. green. We know that L = 2. This occurs when some of the light reflects from within a pit causing it to travel further. The human eye can detect light with a wavelength as low as 280 nm at birth.0 × 10 2. The bottom layer is a transparent polycarbonate plastic which surrounds and protects the pits and bumps. Light of an unknown wavelength emitted by a laser is directed through a pair of thin slits separated by 50 µm. The laser light strikes the aluminium coating and is reflected from the pits and bumps.2 Wavelengths of different coloured light. The reflected beam is detected by an electronic sensor. If the reflected rays are in phase (e. indigo really overlaps the colours violet and blue. which produces a signal based on the intensity of the beam. combining according to the principle of superposition. In this way. and the reflected beam will be bright enough to register a 1 on the detector. we have: d λ= Wd L Solution Table 6. The top layer is opaque. The slits are 2.17 The CD is a sandwich of two plastic layers. λL Since W = . sinθ approximates closely to tanθ (try it with your calculator).0 = 6. When a CD is read.5 cm. indigo and violet.5 × 10−2 m). a laser is directed up from underneath.5 × 10−2 m (so W = 2.

producing the observed pattern on the screen. The extent of the diffraction of the light waves depends on the relative sizes of the wavelength and diffracting aperture (as it does for water waves). Since the wavelength of visible light is far smaller than the size of any everyday object. Ordinarily diffraction effects are not observed in everyday circumstances as we do not see diffraction fringes around the shadows of objects unless particular conditions occur. The observed diffraction pattern is once again a series of bright and dark fringes whose existence can be modelled by using Huygens's idea of secondary wavelets. the pattern will spread. beams of light are observed to travel in straight lines and cast sharp shadows. monochromatic light works best.e. (c) The extent of the diffraction pattern changes as the distance between the blades changes. If the slit size decreases.18a has been produced by using the special conditions described above. An object or aperture is best illuminated by a point source of light. This is why the behaviour of light is.19 Since such small apertures are required in order to demonstrate the diffraction of light. red light (a) is diffracted to a greater extent than blue light (b). Waves diffract significantly when they interact with objects of a similar size. As a consequence. If white light is used fewer or no fringes may be seen. The shadow of a razor blade shown in Figure 6. (a) (b) (c) Figure 6. Diffraction effects are significant only if the aperture or obstacle is of a comparable size to the wavelength of the wave passing through. diffraction is not readily seen.1). Similarly. or mounting the edges of two razor blades so that there is only a tiny gap between them (Figure 6. i. To produce an observable example of single-slit diffraction a single aperture can be created by scratching a fine line on a black-painted projector slide. in most circumstances. as the different wavelengths produce fringes of different spacing and these too may overlap. screen razor blades laser (a) Intensity Red light (b) Note that the wavelengths of visible light first determined by Young turned out to be far smaller than anyone could imagine. 202 INTERACTIONS OF LIGHT AND MATTER . and even single cells are far larger than the wavelength of light.Observing diffraction The development of our knowledge of diffraction is a very good example of how scientific knowledge often progresses alongside developing technology. so adequately modelled via geometric optics. The wavelets emanating from the points along the section of the wavefront passing through the aperture are said to interfere constructively and destructively.18c). (b) Diffraction occurs when light passes through a single slit. otherwise the diffraction fringes created by each part of a large light source would overlap and uniformly illuminate the area adjacent to the shadow. namely each point on a wavefront being considered a source of a secondary wavelet (see Section 6. Its longer wavelength results in more widely spaced fringes and a wider overall pattern.18 (a) Diffraction around a razor blade. Intensity Blue light narrower fringe spacing Figure 6. the ray diagrams studied in Unit 1.

At this point all the waves would interfere. (b) Diffraction has produced the Poisson bright spot due to constructive interference. The wave model seemed. This is convincing evidence for the wave nature of light. Apart from the bright spot seen in Figure 6. These resemble an interference pattern and are due to the interference of light waves being diffracted around parts of the disc. In France.20b. the mathematician Simeon Poisson suggested the following to him. (a) incoming light waves bright spot at centre of shadow 'shadow region screen (b) Figure 6. For example the use of an aperture of a given width will result in greater diffraction of red light than blue light (Figure 6.20 (a) Waves of light incident on a solid disc diffract to give a point of light in the centre of the shadow zone. If different wavelengths enter the same gap. but the experiment was carried out. One night. those with a small wavelength will undergo less diffraction than those with longer wavelengths. greater diffraction is seen. then parallel waves falling on a solid circular disc would diffract at each point on the edge of the disc. Young had not won a great deal of support for his ideas in England. there are a series of bright and dark fringes within the shadow zone. to be vindicated. PHYSICS IN ACTION PRACTICAL ACTIVITY 24 Polarisation effects with light Poisson bright spot After publishing his results on interference.19). The diffraction pattern will have a central fringe that is twice as wide as the other fringes. This idea that there could be light in the middle of a shadow seemed far-fetched. Augustin Fresnel was developing a mathematical theory for light on the basis of this wave idea. The nature of light 203 . since they would all be in phase (Figure 6. however. If the wavelength is held constant and the aperture or gap is made smaller. If light were a wave. finally. and some waves would be diffracted to the centre of the shadow region.Extent of diffraction ∝ wavelength size of slit This ratio determines the spacing of the individual fringes and therefore the width of the overall diffraction pattern. and a spot of light was seen.20a).

once produced. James Clerk Maxwell produced a complete wave theory for light.PHYSICS IN ACTION Diffraction gratings A diffraction grating is a flat piece of glass or plastic which might have as many as 10 000 lines per centimetre. direction of wave B magnetic field 204 INTERACTIONS OF LIGHT AND MATTER . Maxwell’s theory explained how. the electric field in a wave of light creates or induces a changing magnetic field.21). electric field E Figure 6. (b) The maxima are so sharp that the component wavelengths of white light will separate into a spectrum on the screen. In four simple equations. Maxwell’s wave theory In 1864. Some of the light we can see today with powerful telescopes has been travelling through the Universe for more than 10 billion years! Maxwell’s theory was also able to provide a theoretical value for the speed of light. which in turn recreates the changing electric field an instant later. which is the value we accept today: c = 3 × 108 m s−1. refracted or absorbed. and a spectrum is seen (Figure 6.22 The electric and magnetic fields in electromagnetic radiation are perpendicular to each other and are both perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the radiation.21 (a) The interference pattern from a diffraction grating for white light. In this way. and is equal to the frequency of the light. In reproducing itself. This matched the experimental value determined by Fizeau in 1849. Maxwell showed that electricity and magnetism were both elements in one complete theory—electromagnetism. If polychromatic light (a mixture of colours) is used. Each line is a scratch that is opaque to any light that is incident on the glass. The pattern extends through large angles. The gaps between the scratches remain transparent. electromagnetic radiation could be self-propagating. Diffraction gratings produce such sharp fringes that they are a far more precise device than double slits for determining the wavelength of monochromatic light. The result is that this light will be separated into its component colours. Maxwell’s wave theory demonstrated that all light was electromagnetic radiation (EMR) consisting of electric and magnetic fields which oscillate at 90° to each other. each wavelength produces a set of fringes at different (a) (b) angles to the incident beam. a ray of light continues unaltered through space in a straight line until it is either reflected. The frequency of the oscillation of each field is identical. Both fields are also perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the light. This was one of the properties of light which Huygens grappled with some 200 years earlier. n=2 θ white light source grating n=1 n=0 n=1 n=2 Rainbow (lighter) Rainbow White Rainbow Rainbow (lighter) Figure 6.

a 3 cm microwave will be reflected from a light aircraft. Knowing the X-ray wavelength and the diffraction angles for the X-rays. Visible light is just one small component of the whole range of possible frequencies within the entire electromagnetic spectrum. William Henry Bragg. Radio waves Radio waves were first generated and detected by Heinrich Hertz in 1888 using a method which provided an experimental confirmation for Maxwell’s theory. Similarly. visible light will not reflect from an atom whose diameter is about 10−10 m. A comparison of the wavelength and the size of an object (Table 6. It is entirely possible for an X-ray to have a higher frequency than a gamma ray. William Lawrence Bragg and his father. the wavelength decreases. For example. X-rays It is only a little over 100 years ago when the German physicist Wilhelm Roentgen produced the first X-rays. For example. Some radio waves have a wavelength in the order of tens of kilometres while gamma ray wavelengths can be smaller than a proton diameter. went further. Wavelength (m) 3 x 10-8 Ultraviolet X-rays 3 x 10-12 Gamma rays Infrared Microwaves (e. By the turn of the century the Italian inventor Marconi had shown that it was possible to send radio signals across the Atlantic Ocean. CB radio and cellular telephones. From the beginning it was realised that X-rays could be of great value to medicine.23 The electromagnetic spectrum. Hertz made sparks jump across a small air gap using a high voltage alternating current. all light will reflect. X-rays are created when beams of high energy electrons are made to collide with metal atoms located in a target.3) is useful when deciding whether an object will reflect or diffract the light. radio waves are the basis for many of our communication systems. The nature of light 205 . refract. X-rays have very high frequencies and so have correspondingly small wavelengths.g. a 3 x 104 Radio waves 3 3 x 10-4 human cell that is 10−5 m across will reflect visible light. The electromagnetic spectrum is divided into groups on the basis of their method of production. X-rays are produced by the transitions made by the inner electrons of metal atoms. but a 3 km wave will pass around it as if the plane were not there. television. showed that X-rays could be diffracted using crystals as a diffraction grating. but microwaves will just as likely pass through. Essentially. showing how X-rays could be made to diffract from the various planes of atoms in a crystal. Each time a spark was created. radar) 50 Hz (AC) TV 102 104 106 FM TV Cellular phones 1012 1014 Visible light 1016 1018 1020 108 1010 Frequency (Hz) Figure 6. under the right circumstances. a German. This indicated that X-rays did indeed have a wave nature. On the other hand. Hertz detected these waves as an induced EMF in a loop of wire located across the room. But there was great debate as to whether X-rays were streams of high-energy particles or electromagnetic radiation. Values such as 10−12 m are typical. diffract and interfere. It is just that an X-ray originates from within the electron cloud rather than the nucleus. This is why microwaves are chosen for use in radar. the distance between atoms and planes of atoms could be determined by using a relatively simple relationship.PHYSICS IN ACTION The electromagnetic spectrum All electromagnetic radiation demonstrates the basic wave properties and. Hertz had built the first radio transmitter and receiver. and so they were accepted as part of the electromagnetic spectrum. and gamma rays are only emitted from within the nucleus. including AM and FM radio. and modern telecommunications was born! Today. a burst of radio waves with a frequency of about 109 cycles per second (1 GHz) was produced (as predicted). As the frequency of the EMR increases. Von Laue. Roentgen was able to photograph the bones in his wife’s hand as early as 1896.

2 QUESTIONS The following information applies to questions 1–4.. Explain the meaning of this expression. can be determined using the slit separation d and the distance L between the slits and the screen where W = λL/d. b c Why is the intensity a maximum at M? Explain how a point of minimum intensity is produced.X-ray diffraction was very significant in opening up the field of crystallography this century. Type of wave AM radio wave FM radio or TV wave Visible light Ultraviolet X-ray Gamma ray Typical wavelenth ~100 ~3 ~10−7 ~10−8 ~10−10 ~10−15 m m m m m m Comparable object sports oval light aircraft small cell large molecule atom atomic nucleus PRACTICAL ACTIVITY 25 Light and a continuous spectrum 6. wavelength • The extent of diffraction of light ∝ slit size 6. The light emerging from each slit is said to be ‘in phase’. 2...3 A comparison of electromagnetic wavelengths and everyday objects. or decreasing the separation of the slits. This relationship can be used to determine the wavelength of light. W. then a dark fringe is seen.. . n = 0. 1. as it gave physicists and chemists a wonderful tool for probing the atomic arrangement within matter. • If all other factors are held constant the fringe spacing can be increased by using light of a longer wavelength (lower frequency) or placing the viewing screen or film further from the pair of slits. both Braggs—father and son—received a Nobel Prize in 1915.. For their pioneering work. n = 0. 2 The following diagram shows the resulting intensity pattern after light from the two slits reaches the screen. • The fringe spacing. What will be seen on the screen at: i a nodal position? ii an antinodal position? c 206 INTERACTIONS OF LIGHT AND MATTER . is met. a bright fringe is seen. . If pd = (2n + 1) λ/2.2. • If the path difference (pd) between the wave trains from the slits = nλ. 1 . intensity slits monochromatic light source M M a 1 a b screen What is a coherent light source? Describe what happens to the laser light as it passes through each slit. Crick and Watson were only able to discover the double-helix shape of DNA in the early 1950s using X-ray diffraction techniques. A double-slit interference experiment using coherent monochromatic light from a laser is depicted below. Table 6. The small wavelength for light requires that the slits are very close to each other and the screen is a significant distance from the slits.2 SUMMARY THE WAVE MODEL ESTABLISHED • The interference pattern seen in a double slit experiment consists of alternating bright and dark fringes resulting from constructive and destructive interference of monochromatic (single frequency) light.

3 For the interference experiment described in question 2. What phenomenon is responsible for this? The colours in the fringes are not the same as a those produced when white light is separated into its colours by a prism or diffraction grating. Which of the following best describes the colour of the new light source? A B C D 7 Increasing the slit separation increases the spacing of the interference fringes.0 m from a screen. and this results in an interference pattern in which ten bright fringes occupy a space of 12. This filter only permits light of wavelength 630 nm to pass. Increasing the slit separation decreases the spacing of the interference fringes Increasing the brightness of the light source increases the fringe spacing. Decrease L. The slits are exactly 1. Why? B b C c a red orange green blue 8 b The following information applies to questions 5–8. If the screen is at a distance of 2. what will be seen on the screen at positions where the two wave trains have: a b c 5 Which one or more of the following changes would result in an increased fringe spacing on the screen? A B C D Replace the orange filter with a red filter. Determine the wavelength for this light. What is the approximate size of the diffracting particles within opal? Justify your answer.0 m.5 cm. a Which one or more of the following statements is correct? A What is the separation between successive bright fringes on the screen? The light source is altered to produce monochromatic light of a different wavelength. coloured fringes may be observed. This results in a fringe spacing of 2. find the separation of the slits. Increase L. point white light source double slit orange filter 9 L screen The nature of light 207 . The colours in an opal are the result of diffraction effects with visible light. Replace the orange filter with a blue filter.6 cm. A red filter is inserted between the light source and the slits. A double-slit interference experiment in which an interference pattern is obtained on a screen at a distance L from the slits is depicted below. If the orange filter is removed and white light passes through the slits. a path difference of half a wavelength? a path difference of one wavelength? a path difference of one and a half wavelengths? 6 4 Yellow light of wavelength 600 nm is directed through a pair of thin slits separated by 20 µm.

24 In 1916. An experimental arrangement illustrating all the essential aspects of the photoelectric effect is shown in Figure 6. Michelson and Morley. The Americans. This flow of electrons is called the photoelectric current. f0. Heinrich Hertz noticed that he could make a spark jump further if the metal surface from which the spark came was illuminated with ultraviolet light. 6 months apart. Their experiment was designed to measure the speed of light from a star at two times in the year. It was beginning to be believed that it would only be a matter of time before all things could and would be known. The photoelectric effect experiment The photoelectric effect is the ejection of electrons from the surface of a material when light of a sufficiently high frequency shines upon it. Newton’s work is now seen as part of a bigger. the photoelectrons will be helped by the resulting electric field to the anode.6. This experimental result. the voltage may be adjusted to make the cathode positive and the anode negative—a reverse potential. the electrons are emitted from a metal and they are called photoelectrons—a term acknowledging light as the reason for their freedom. During the century following Young.24. and a maximum possible current will be measured. Robert Millikan used apparatus similar to this to determine the threshold frequency. To explain the result.00 × 108 m s−1—regardless of when they took their measurements.3 The particle nature of light Towards the end of the 19th century. and is registered by a sensitive ammeter. Here. called the ‘aether’. the Earth would have been travelling toward the star. In 1887. many startling advances had been made. Michelson and Morley obtained the same value for the speed of light— 3. But there were a few ‘clouds’ on the horizon. a wave interpretation for light would not predict this. together with Michelson and Morley’s celebrated measurement of the speed of light. and lower as the Earth moved away. He found that for different metals a different minimum frequency was required in order to produce photoelectrons. when he was experimenting with the production and detection of radio waves. He found that elements with higher ionisation energies had correspondingly higher values for the threshold frequency. more encompassing theory. Filters which allow only a single frequency to pass make the light light source photocell filter anode A variable voltage PRACTICAL ACTIVITY 26 Photoelectric effect Figure 6. they will be detected at the anode. and it was thought that it was simply a matter of continuing in this fashion. The circuit includes a variable voltage supply which can be used to make the cathode negative (and the anode positive). a clean metal surface—the cathode—is illuminated with light from an external source. 208 INTERACTIONS OF LIGHT AND MATTER cathode V . formed the doorway that led from classical physics to what is referred to as modern physics. for a variety of metal cathodes. either the theory was wrong or it needed significant modification. They expected to find a difference in the values they obtained since at one time. and therefore travelling away from the star. This was the seed for the upheaval in physics which ultimately led to the quantum theory. The frequency of the light source can also be controlled with light filters. One cloud was the photoelectric effect. This arrangement is used to investigate the kinetic energy carried by the emitted photoelectrons. When this is done. As we will see. had tried without success to find the speed of the Earth as it moved through this aether. Intuition would suggest that the speed of light from the star would be higher when the Earth was moving towards it. Physics file At the end of the 19th century it was believed that light needed a medium in which to travel. and 6 months later the Earth would be on the other side of its orbit. If the light causes photoelectrons to be emitted. Alternatively. However. Usually. This was considered a strange result. physics had entered a most confident era. it took a tremendous revolution in mechanics in which Newton’s mechanics had to be replaced by Einstein’s theory of special relativity for fast moving bodies. So it happened that an experiment challenged an accepted theory.

every available photoelectron is included in the current. so the energy of the photoelectrons can be measured when light of different single frequencies is shining on the cathode. there is a certain frequency below which no photoelectrons are be observed. • For light whose frequency is greater than the threshold frequency. as seen by an increase in the stopping voltage. Lenard also showed that the stopping voltage depends only on the frequency of the incoming light. The nature of light 209 . there is a higher photoelectric current. he fixed the frequency of the incident light (above f0. modern experiments show any time delay to be as little as 10−9 s. This fact holds true regardless of the intensity of the light. the ejected photoelectrons are found to be emitted without any appreciable time delay. Recall from our earlier studies of electricity that the work done on a charge (by an applied voltage) is given by W = qV. the maximum kinetic energy of the photoelectrons increases. this expression gives the value of the maximum possible kinetic energy of the released electrons. there is an increase in the stopping voltage. Lenard also used the apparatus to investigate the energy of the emitted photoelectrons. f0. Using the arrangement in Figure 6. the German physicist Phillipp Lenard found the following (for which he received a Nobel Prize in 1905): • By varying the frequency of the incident light for a particular cathode metal. 1. This indicated that fewer and fewer photoelectrons had the energy to overcome the opposing electric field and reach the anode.6 × 10−19 C. and the charge value is equal to the charge on an electron. the photoelectric current was seen to drop. −V0. For frequencies below the threshold frequency (i. no photoelectric current is registered. f > f0). the cathode and anode are enclosed in an evacuated glass tube so that the photoelectrons do not suffer collisions with any gas molecules as they travel to the anode. e. and e is the charge on the electron.e. but the same stopping voltage. Since the stopping voltage is sufficiently large as to stop even the fastest moving electrons from reaching the anode. of course) and applied an increasing reverse potential difference. Importantly. Hence the work done on the electron is given by W = eV0. At a certain fixed value. (a) For brighter light of the same frequency.25 Photoelectric current plotted as a function of the applied voltage between the cathode and the anode in the photocell. • As the frequency of the incident light is increased. For frequencies below the threshold frequency. With a reverse potential. no photoelectrons will be detected. (b) For light with a higher frequency. called the stopping voltage. For this.e.25a). This frequency is called the threshold frequency. photoelectrons will be collected at the anode and registered as a photoelectric current. no photoelectrons are ejected no matter how intense the beam is made.monochromatic. Finally. the number of photoelectrons decreases until none are collected at the stopping voltage. A standard monochromatic light source where f > f0 shows that with a forward potential. In fact. In this case the voltage used is designated the stopping voltage. the rate at which the photoelectrons are produced varies in proportion with the intensity of the incident light (see Figure 6. For frequencies of light greater than the threshold frequency (i. As the reverse potential was increased from zero. See Heinemann ePhysics CD for Interactive Tutorial 3 Photoelectric effect (a) I I2 > I1 I1 −V0 (f1 = f2) 0 V (b) I I1 = I2 −V0 1 −V0 0 2 V f1 > f2 Figure 6. Lenard deduced that: • The photoelectrons have a range of speeds up to a maximum speed. f < f0). The photoelectron with the maximum speed has a kinetic energy (in joules) given by: 1 Ek(max) = 2 mv 2 max = eV0 where V0 is the stopping voltage.25). V0.24. V0. and is totally independent of the intensity of the light (Figure 6. • As long as the incident light has a frequency above the threshold frequency of the cathode material. f > f0.

As stated. A sample of potassium is used as the cathode of a photocell with which the photoelectric effect is studied. such as those involved in the study of the photoelectric effect.6 × 10−19. it can automatically be stated that it has gained 100 eV of kinetic energy. Draw the I –V graph that would result if violet light of a very low intensity is incident upon the cathode. I green light V0 V a What current reading would be expected if red light was shone onto the cathode? Draw the I –V graph that would result if the intensity of the incident green light was doubled.6 × 10−19 J Electron energy values are also commonly given in keV and MeV. When green light of a particular intensity is shone onto the cathode. This is the value of the charge on an electron. With reference to the photoelectric effect.5 eV.3A. eV. Worked example 6. Also. The conversion factor between joules and electronvolts is 1. the amount of energy an electron gets on moving through a potential of 1 V. should a stopping voltage of 2. another (non-SI) unit is often used. When working in electronvolts. Determine the maximum kinetic energy of the photoelectrons working in both joules and electronvolts.5 V be required. when working in joules the Ek(max) = eV0. This unit is the electronvolt. Hence: 1 eV = 1. since 1 eV = qV = 1. if an electron was accelerated through a potential of 100 V. A joule is the quantity of energy that a coulomb of charge would gain after being moved through a potential of 1 V. b c d 210 INTERACTIONS OF LIGHT AND MATTER . Its name is a little misleading—keep in mind that it is a unit of energy and not potential.25 V. When UV light is incident upon the cathode the stopping voltage is found to be 2. the Ek(max) in electronvolts is given directly by the value of the stopping voltage in volts. the following I –V graph is obtained. For example. It is a tiny fraction of a joule. the use of the electronvolt as a convenient unit of energy results in a useful relationship. Therefore. J.Alternative unit for energy The SI unit for work done is the joule. it can automatically be stated that the maximum kinetic energy of any electron is 2.6 × 10−19 J. However.6 × 10−19 × 1 = 1. the threshold frequency for this sample is found to lie in the yellow region of the visible spectrum. when dealing with the very small energy values. 1 eV represents the energy that a single electron would gain after being moved through a potential of 1 V.

There is a frequency for light. photon beam E = Nhf photon hf Ek .e e. where P is the power of the beam and t is the time for which the surface is illuminated. even with a low-intensity source. the wave model of light.25 eV (by definition of the electronvolt) light wavefronts Wave model inadequate! By Lenard’s time. no time delay is evident. I current doubled by doubled intensity original green light V b c I original green light dim violet light (less current) V larger stopping voltage d Working in joules: Ek(max) = eV0 (joules) = 1.6 × 10−19 × 2.e. but each photon still carries the same energy. There may not be a large photoelectric current.Solution a Since red light corresponds to light of a lesser frequency than the threshold frequency (yellow light) no current will be observed.e.e. If the light beam has a low intensity. e. This would suggest that if the beam has a low intensity. Since the light beam will interact simultaneously across the whole metal surface. then photoelectrons will be emitted. • The wave model for light assumes that energy E delivered to the electrons in the metal will be given by the relationship E = Pt.e.e.e. it was quickly seen that. and that each photon interacts with one electron in the metal.6 × 10−19 J Working in electronvolts: Ek(max) = 2. the energy of the beam will be divided equally among all the electrons. A low-intensity beam simply has fewer photons.27 The photon model for light suggests that the beam of light carries its energy as a stream of photons. all light should be able to pry electrons free if the light source is of sufficient intensity. called the threshold. However. it could not be used to explain the photoelectric effect. This is not seen. All light contains an oscillating electric field and. The nature of light 211 . f0. • The wave model predicts that light of any frequency should produce photoelectrons. the electrons might then have enough energy to escape. was taken as an article of faith..25 = 3. The electric field component within each light wave would then start to cause any free electrons to vibrate. no matter how the wave theory might be modified. but the emission is seen to be instantaneous.e. the wave model predicts that there will therefore be a time delay before any electrons are ejected from the metal.e.e- Figure 6. a beam of light can be considered to be a series of wavefronts which will arrive at the metal surface with each wavefront simultaneously acting over the whole surface. The following are several predictions that seem plausible if light behaved only as an electromagnetic wave.e e e metal surface e. After a time.e. regardless of frequency. However. below which no photoelectrons will be emitted.e e. as fully elaborated in Maxwell’s equations for electromagnetic radiation.. but after a longer time.26 The wave model predicts that a wavefront will interact with all electrons near the surface of a material at once. The total energy available will be divided among the electrons.e e e metal surface Figure 6.e e. In a wave model for light.e e.

the energy will now be in electronvolts. To do this. The photoelectric current is seen to be directly proportional to the intensity of the beam. He suggested that the energy carried by each photon is proportional to the frequency of the light. transferring all of its energy at once. this new thinking was threatening to many older physicists. but electron energy is not affected by the light intensity. As 1 eV = 1. Furthermore. and the energy of each photon will be given by hf. A 100-watt light globe produces yellow–green light of wavelength 500 nm.• Finally. The globe will release a total energy of E = Pt = 100 × 60 = 6000 J in 1 minute. depending on whether a wave or a particle model was used.14 × 10−15 eV s E = hf still applies but. Worked example 6.3B. Planck suggested that a single photon can only interact with one electron in the material at a time. discrete bundles called photons or quanta. using the alternative value of Planck’s constant. Determine the number of photons released from the globe every minute. If a photon is absorbed by a particle like an electron. he developed the idea that light energy is not continuous (as in the wave model). so λ Nhc λ Rearranging.5 × 1022 photons emitted each minute—a very large number indeed! 212 INTERACTIONS OF LIGHT AND MATTER . this gives: Eλ N= hc E= = 6000 × 5. and the number of photons in the beam is N.63 × 10−34 J s. At its heart. so the energy delivered to an electron would be greater. Planck’s photon model suggests that the energy carried by a beam of light consists of a number of discrete packets of light energy (the photons).63 × 10−34 × 3.0 × 10−7 6.63 × 10−34 1. the electronvolt.0 × 108 Solution = 1. h. Physics file It is often convenient to give the energy of a photon in the non-SI unit. This was such a revolutionary idea that Planck was widely ridiculed in scientific circles and his contemporaries spent the next few years trying to disprove his suggestion. it will be completely absorbed. where h (Planck’s constant) equals 6. An intense beam would provide more power. so the total energy will be E = Nhf. c and since f = . Photons—a new model for light? In 1900 the German physicist Max Planck was attempting to explain the spectrum for the light emitted by a hot object (called a black-body radiator). This energy is carried by N photons. the value of Planck's constant. can be expressed as: h= 6. using a wave model one would expect that an intense beam will cause the photoelectrons to be emitted with a greater kinetic energy. What is seen is that an increased beam intensity means more photoelectrons of the same energy. where the energy carried by each photon will be hf.6 × 10−19 = 4. The energy E carried by each PHOTON of light depends on the frequency f of the light such that E = hf. but rather it is delivered in tiny. Since the predictions about the interaction between light and matter were distinctly different. This means that the total energy carried by the beam will be N × hf. the idea of photons suggested a particle model for light.6 × 10−19 J.

Some of this energy. This equates to the situation where a photon at the threshold frequency is absorbed by the least bound electron. no matter how intense it is. So: hf = W + Ek(max) Rearranging. will be passed to the electron. The minimum energy required to release an electron from the metal is called the work function (W) for the metal. will be freed where the energy is positive. all the energy of the photon. the work function W. then a least bound electron absorbing the photon will be released with the largest kinetic energy of any photoelectron. while others required less energy. He considered that. the extra energy gained by even the least bound of the electrons is not enough for it to be freed. By considering only the least bound electron. If the y-axis represents the total energy of the electrons. Ek(max). the ejected photoelectron will escape with no kinetic energy.e. since this is the smallest negative potential whose electric field will prevent even the fastest photoelectron (i. When the frequency of the incident light is less than the threshold frequency (f < f0).Einstein’s explanation of the photoelectric effect In order to explain the photoelectric effect. within the metal. least bound electron) from reaching the anode. The nature of light 213 . If light whose frequency is greater than the threshold frequency (f > f0) shines on the metal in question. (At that time he knew nothing of electron shells.) Some electrons required substantial amounts of energy to become free.28 Electrons are bound by different amounts of energy. Experimentally. each electron was bound to the metal by a different amount of energy. will enable the electron to escape from the metal. but have no speed. V0. Einstein was able to represent this situation using a ‘potential well’. Using the law of conservation of energy. and so W = hf0. eV0 = 2 mv 2max 1 As established by Einstein’s equation. For this case. This is why no photoelectrons will be emitted for incident light of frequency lower than the threshold frequency. Photons with sufficient energy will free the least bound electron with the greatest speed. and the remainder will be converted to kinetic energy for the electron. An electron with zero energy would be free. the graph is a straight line whose slope is Planck’s constant. the absorption of a photon can free some electrons. For frequencies greater than the threshold frequency (f > f0). The electron that escapes with the greatest kinetic energy (and hence speed) will be the least bound electron. hf. The y-intercept gives a value of the work function for the metal in the cathode. but all will produce graphs with the same gradient. the electron will be bound to the metal where the energy is negative. the maximum kinetic energy is found from the stopping voltage. the maximum kinetic energy for the least bound electron becomes: Ek(max) = 2 mv 2max = hf − W 1 Energy free + electron 0 _ electron bound to metal least bound electron Ek (max) hf W most tightly held electron Figure 6. Einstein was able to provide a mathematical treatment. Einstein used the photon concept that Planck had developed. and this energy is kinetic energy. Different types of metal cathode will have different threshold frequencies.

6 × 10−19 5. Solution a Ek(max) = eV0 1 = 2mv 2max So rearranging: vmax = 2eV0 m 2 × 1. Worked example 6.29 Magnesium has a high threshold frequency. h.80 9.4 3 Maximum Ek of photoelectrons (x 10-19 J) 2 visible light ultraviolet potassium magnesium 1 f0 0 1 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 f0 9 10 Frequency (1014Hz) Figure 6. Find: a b the speed of the fastest moving photoelectron produced. The gradient for the graph for each metal will be Planck’s constant.97 × 10−19 − 1. Yellow–green light of wavelength 500 nm shines on a metal whose stopping voltage is found to be 0. which is in the ultraviolet region.0 × 10−7 = 3.6 × 10−19 × 0.3C.80 × 1.68 eV 214 INTERACTIONS OF LIGHT AND MATTER .1 × 10 = 5. and the work function of the metal in both joules and electronvolts. The threshold frequency for potassium is in the visible region.63 × 10−34 × 3 × 108 − 0.28 × 10−19 = 2.3 × 105 m s−1 b Ek(max) = hf − W so.1 × 10−31 = 11 = √2 × 8. W = hf − Ek(max) hc = − eV0 λ = 6.69 × 10−19 J = 1.80 V.

Other collisions will be inelastic: the electron will be given some energy and momentum from the X-ray photon. the incident X-ray photons had lost some of their energy to an electron ejected from the graphite. One had the same value as the incident X-rays. we get. and when illuminated by ultraviolet light of frequency 9. there were scattered X-rays of two X-ray wavelengths. The nature of light 215 . Ek(max) = eV0. which prompted him to investigate the photon from the point of view of its momentum (a vector quantity). Potassium has a threshold frequency of 5. where no photon energy is transferred to the electron. the scattering will be elastic.4 × 1014 Hz.30 Compton scattering involves X-ray photons of a given wavelength giving both energy and momentum to a recoil electron.6 × 1014 Now. like a ping-pong ball from a bowling ball. At the time. A photon perspective was needed. Using this framework. He found that.5 volts are produced. at each angle.E = — mv 2 2 energy: hf = hf ' + — mv 2 2 momentum: h _ λ 1 f f' < f h _ scattered photon λ' mv The wave model accounted for the X-rays of identical wavelength.3D. recoil electron incident photon 1 . many physicists reasoned that. The X-rays emerging from the block with an identical wavelength to the incident X-rays were considered to have bounced off the carbon atoms.5 9. Compton found that X-rays emerged at all angles from the block.0 × 1014 − 5. Solution Ek(max) = hf − W = hf − hf0 = h(f − f0) Rearranging. Figure 6. so. Direct evidence for this came in 1923 when Arthur Compton aimed a monochromatic beam of X-rays at a small block of graphite. it might also carry momentum.0 × 1014 Hz. h = Ek(max) f − f0 eV0 f − f0 1.7 × 10−34 J s Momentum of the photon In 1921 Einstein received the Nobel Prize for his work on the photoelectric effect and the theory of relativity. but it could not account for those with the longer wavelength.4 × 1014 2.6 × 10−19 × 1. Determine a value for Planck’s constant. if light could carry energy like a particle. Compton found that the wavelength of these scattered X-rays varied with the scattering angle. photoelectrons with a stopping voltage of 1. In some situations.Worked example 6.4 × 10−19 3. The collision can be considered in exactly the same way as one might analyse two massive objects interacting. h = = = = 6. and the other had a longer wavelength.

Each view is well supported with experimental evidence. He then interpreted the product ‘mc’ to be the momentum of the photon. but what does a photocell detect? Photons! When considered in this way. Taylor attempted an interesting interference experiment in which light was forced to behave only as a photon. There was absolutely no chance for interference to occur! To view the pattern on the screen. and since c = f λ. we cannot explain phenomena such as interference and diffraction.’ In an interference experiment. Rather than look at the pattern. Significantly. Sir William Bragg summed up the problem this way: ‘On Mondays.I. i. Thursdays and Saturdays like particles. Interactions between light and matter could now be seen as two particles interacting with each other. and each experiment can only be explained by one model. light behaves like waves. no experiment has yet been devised in which light displays both its natures simultaneously. and he left the experiment to run for 3 months so that the film would be adequately exposed. a particle nature for light would seem to be indisputable. The source was so weak that only one photon could be present between the slits and the screen at any one time. mc 2 = hf. If we adopt a wave model. Light has a dual nature: it behaves like both a wave and a particle. we cannot explain the photoelectric effect and Compton scattering. Compton considered these X-ray interactions to be elastic. Compton referred to the X-rays in his experiment as having been scattered either elastically or inelastically—terms which previously had only related to matter. and like nothing at all on Sundays. 216 INTERACTIONS OF LIGHT AND MATTER . The MOMENTUM of a photon p is given by hf h = c λ where f and λ are the frequency and wavelength of the radiation respectively. Individual photons display wave property In 1909 G.63 × 10−34 J s. hence mc = hf/c. A very weak source of light was directed at the two slits of a Young’s interferometer. where energy and linear momentum need to be conserved. p= By adding the property of momentum to the photon. a relativistic approach should be taken when deriving expressions regarding its momentum and energy. If we treat light as a photon. and similar to collisions between billiard balls. the alternating bright and dark fringes indicate regions where the light waves have reinforced or cancelled. Taylor had to use a photographic plate. However. since a photon has zero rest mass its energy expression reduces to E = mc 2 anyway. we could use a photocell. since a photon travels at the speed of light. h = 6. Realise that. Wednesdays and Fridays.e. In fact. The dual nature of light By the middle of the 1920s. E = mc 2.Physics file The discussion of the momentum of a photon presented here is overly simplified. we can only interpret the interference pattern as dictating where the photons are to go. Compton equated the energy of a photon E = hf to Einstein’s mass–energy equivalent of the photon. this ambiguous picture for the nature of light had been confirmed. and on Tuesdays. so hf h p = mc = = c λ Note that h must be applied in its SI unit.

The total energy in the beam will be Nhf. p.6 × 10−19 J. This phenomenon cannot be explained by using a wave approach to light. how did they know to leave some spaces? The interference pattern is providing only certain pathways for the photons.0 × 1020 Hz. How could this be? Only single photons were used: what was their path to the screen? If they could not interfere. If the frequency of the incident light is greater than the threshold frequency. These models are further tested by experiment to see how well they perform.3 QUESTIONS For the following questions use: Planck’s constant = 6. and is different for each metal. where h = 6.0 × 1014 Hz and the frequency of a gamma ray is 4. • The work function W for the metal is given by W = hf0. We can use part of the ideas we associate with particles. f0.63 × 10−34 J s. • As a consequence of the explanation of the photoelectric effect and the Compton effect. If the lamp has a power output of 60 W.0 × 1014 Hz. The best we can do is to try to picture what is occurring by using a mental model based on experimental evidence. Ek(max) = hf − W • By experiment. we now understand that light has a dual nature—wave-like and particle-like. How many photons of red light are needed to equal the energy of the gamma ray photon? An infrared lamp emits light of frequency 1. 6. 6. The nature of light 217 .63 × 10−34 J s or 4.60 × 1014 Hz.e. we want to understand it by relating it to things about us of which we have a good understanding. Light really cannot be thought of as a simple wave or particle. and its explanation led to the development of the photon or particle-like model for light. Ek(max) = eV0 • The momentum of a photon. Ephoton = hf.14 × 10 −15 eV s speed of light = 3. • In considering the photon model. V0. The difficulty we have in trying to create a single model for light is that light is not something we can handle or look at directly. where N is the number of photons in the beam.5 × 10−8 m. and we interpret the intensity of interference pattern as a probability distribution for the photons. • The photoelectric effect is the emission of photoelectrons from a clean metal surface due to incident light whose frequency is greater than a threshold frequency. of wavelength λ is given by p = h/λ. the fastest electron) can be found by using a reverse voltage called the stopping voltage. It is just light! However. the maximum kinetic energy for the electrons (i. add in some wave ideas and probability theories and begin to accept light for its subtlety and complexity. then a photoelectron will be ejected with some kinetic energy up to a maximum value. calculate the number of photons emitted by the lamp each second.The result of Taylor’s experiment was a set of interference fringes.11 × 10 −31 kg 1 a b What is the frequency of this radiation? Calculate the energy of a photon of this light in joules and electronvolts. 4 The frequency of a red light is 4. a b What is the wavelength of this light? Calculate the energy of a photon of this green light in joules and electronvolts.60 × 10 −19 C mass of electron = 9. just as if a more intense light had been used over a shorter period.00 × 108 m s−1 charge on electron = −1. as humans. 3 The frequency of a green light is 5. The particle model suggests that light energy is quantised rather than being continuous. a beam of light consists of a stream of photons.3 SUMMARY THE PARTICLE NATURE OF LIGHT • The electronvolt is an (non-SI) alternative unit of energy: 1 eV = 1. 2 An ultraviolet source produces radiation with a wavelength of 1. there is a high probability that the photons will land there. Where there is a bright fringe. each carrying an energy.

A photoelectric cell is connected into a circuit. The longest wavelength of light that will eject electrons from a caesium surface is 652 nm. A heavy and light string are tied together at one end. Calculate the stopping voltage when orange light is incident on the cathode. Explain why no current flows in the circuit when this minimum retarding potential difference is applied between the cathode and anode. a The following information applies to questions 7 and 8. in eV. Fully describe the resulting diffraction pattern. X-rays with a photon energy of 40 keV are directed through a sample of aluminium foil and a certain diffraction pattern results. Orange light of wavelength 620 nm is incident on the caesium surface. carried by the incident photons of orange light? Find the kinetic energy in eV of the fastest photoelectrons emitted from the caesium surface. Yellow light of frequency 5. 8 d B e C D The variable voltage source can be adjusted so that the anode can be made negative with respect to the cathode. The power output of the lamp is 200 W. Find the wavelength of the incident X-rays.67 × 10−27 kg Planck’s constant: h = 6. A 500 W lamp directs a beam of yellow light. 5 a describe the effect on the fringe spacing if: a orange light is substituted for the yellow light blue light is substituted for the yellow light the brightness of the yellow light source is increased the brightness of the yellow light source is reduced. What is the momentum of the fastest photoelectrons emitted from the caesium surface? 6 c increase the energy of the photons emitted from the source reduce the wavelength of the photons emitted from the source increase the number of photons emitted per second from the source increase the wavelength of the photons emitted from the source. Find the fringe spacing. of wavelength 580 nm. What is the energy. on to a perfect reflecting surface of area 4. b µA anode c evacuated tube light variable voltage source V caesium metal cathode CHAPTER REVIEW For the following questions use: charge on electron: e = 1. What would you expect to happen to the frequency and wavelength of this wave? The following information applies to questions 5 and 6. How many photons are incident on the reflecting surface each second? 218 INTERACTIONS OF LIGHT AND MATTER . A progressive wave travelling along c 2 d 7 Describe the pattern seen on the screen. b Explain how the particle approach failed to fully and accurately model the refraction of light. Describe the effect on the bright fringe by: i increasing the slit separation ii increasing the distance of the screen from the slits.20 × 1014 Hz is incident on the cathode. A student sets up a Young’s slit experiment in which yellow light of wavelength 580 nm is incident on two narrow slits whose separation is 1.5 An ultraviolet lamp emits 1. Calculate the energy of each photon in the beam in: i joules ii electronvolts. Calculate the stopping voltage.60 × 10−19 C mass of electron: me = 9. An interference pattern is formed at a screen 2. Determine the frequency of the radiation being produced.63 × 10−34 J s speed of light: c = 3. b What is the momentum of each photon in the beam? a c 3 b c 4 6 If the slit separation and screen distance are kept constant.11 × 10−31 kg mass of proton: mp = 1. Which of the following is correct? Increasing the brightness of a source of yellow light will: A 7 a b What is the threshold frequency for caesium? Calculate the work function for caesium in electronvolts.0 × 10−4 m.89 × 1020 photons each second.00 × 108 m s−1 1 the heavy string passes into the lighter string and its velocity increases by 50%.0 m from the slits. A student constructs a set-up identical to Young's double-slit experiment but she uses white light instead of monochromatic light.0 cm2. The minimum retarding potential difference required to produce zero current in the circuit is Vo .

What is the momentum of each photon? How many photons strike the photovoltaic surface each second? Assuming that only 0. The results are summarised in the following table.246 0. together with the accepted value of Planck’s constant.80 6.001% of the incident photon energy is converted into electrical energy in the cell.0 cm2. All the photons emitted by the lamp strike the photovoltaic surface. electrons may be ejected from the surface.20 5.080 0.40 5. A high-intensity light beam produces photoelectrons with the same maximum kinetic energy as a low-intensity light beam of the same frequency.60 5. No electrons are ejected from the selenium surface. The nature of light 219 .CHAPTER REVIEW 8 A photovoltaic cell consists of a metal surface coated with a thin layer of selenium.411 0. 11 b Plot a graph of the maximum kinetic energy of the ejected photoelectrons (J) as a function of the frequency of the incident radiation (Hz). determine the electrical power generated in the cell by the blue light.20 × 10 × 1014 × 1014 × 1014 × 1014 × 1014 14 Ek(max) (eV) 0.163 0. It varies with the speed of the incident light. A 230 W lamp emits blue light. so that the light beam is incident normally on a photovoltaic surface of area 5. producing a small electric current.494 B d C D 10 Discuss how each of the following observed results of the photoelectric effect contradict the wave model theory of light. 12 Green light with a frequency of 5. of wavelength 432 nm. a A 9 When light is incident on a photosensitive metallic surface.6 × 1014 Hz is directed onto the cathode of the photoelectric cell. What does the gradient of the graph represent? Use the graph to determine the threshold frequency for rubidium. OV Frequency (Hz) 5. Incident light of varying frequencies is directed on to the cathode of the cell and the maximum kinetic energy of the emitted photoelectrons are recorded. calculate the work function of rubidium in eV. Light incident on the surface releases electrons. What is the kinetic energy (J) of the fastest photoelectrons emitted from the cathode? What is the momentum of the fastest photoelectrons emitted from the cathode? What is the magnitude of the minimum retarding potential difference that will prevent photoelectrons reaching the collector of the photoelectric cell? c It varies with the colour of the incident light. d b c d The following information applies to questions 11 and 12. It varies with the incident angle of the light.328 0. Which of the following is true of the speed of the ejected photoelectrons? A collector cathode V b Using the threshold frequency determined above. a Calculate the gradient of the graph. Use this value of work function where required in all subsequent calculations. The cathode of the photoelectric cell shown below is coated with rubidium. Will red light of wavelength 680 nm emit photoelectrons from a rubidium surface? Justify your answer. It varies with the intensity of the incident light. a a Only certain frequencies of light can produce photoelectric emission from a photosensitive surface.00 6. b c c Calculate the energy in joules of a photon of blue light. A low-intensity light beam will produce photoelectric emission in the same time as a high-intensity light beam.

Interactions between particles. The development of the bubble chamber and many other devices has allowed some of the mysteries associated with the behaviour of matter to be unravelled. including: • electron diffraction patterns as evidence for the wave-like behaviour of matter • the de Broglie wavelength and the wave-like nature of matter • atomic absorption and emission spectra • the quantised energy level model of the atom as an explanation for spectra • the absorption and emission of photons by atoms • standing wave model for the quantised energy levels of the hydrogen atom. Among other things. 220 INTERACTIONS OF LIGHT AND MATTER . as we will see. Charged particles fired into the chamber leave trails of gas bubbles in the liquid. which can be identified by the curved paths they take after the interaction. But. or between particles and the atoms of superheated liquid. within a strong magnetic field. T BY THE END OF THIS CHAPTER you will have covered material from the study of interactions of light and matter. they enable us to investigate electron–positron annihilation. when physicists find some answers they invariably reveal new questions as well. produce other particles. Bubble chambers have largely replaced cloud chambers for the study of particle collisions. The chamber contains a superheated liquid.CHAPTER 7 The nature of matter his photograph shows the trails left by high-energy subatomic particles in a bubble chamber. In this chapter you will tour some of the landmark experiments and theories associated with the development of our understanding of matter. usually helium or hydrogen.

an electron moving at a particular speed may be said to behave as if it had a wavelength of 1. In the last section we examined the expression for the momentum of a photon based upon the value of its wavelength. was approaching his area of research from a different perspective. The term matter wave has since been employed. The expression for momentum was p = h/λ. Could he find evidence of the existence of matter waves? Although initially he was being purely speculative. suggesting that λ is the wavelength of the particle itself. the classical expression for momentum (p = mv) was substituted into the above equation giving: h h λ= = p mv He then took the important step of interpreting the equation.7. De Broglie took Compton's relationship for the momentum of the photon and rearranged it as follows: h λ= p Since he was dealing with particles of matter assumed to have mass m and speed v. Louis de Broglie. The nature of matter 221 . or wavelength of the matter wave of a body of mass m moving with a speed v is given by: h h λ= = p mv where λ is the de Broglie wavelength of a particle (m) h is Planck's constant = 6. was found to have a particle/photon nature. once thought of as a continuous wave. This electron would be expected to display some behaviour in common with other waves of this same wavelength. De Broglie wondered whether the relationship between the momentum and wavelength of a photon could be a general relationship that applied to photons and particles of matter alike. de Broglie pursued his proposal with remarkable results. He postulated that since light. A most readily observable behaviour of waves is of course diffraction.63 × 10−34 J s p is the momentum of the particle (kg m s−1) m is the mass of the particle (kg) v is the velocity of the particle (m s−1) (Note that the electronvolt value of Planck's constant does not apply when using this formula!) Figure 7. He reasoned that the dual nature of light must imply a dual nature for matter. For example. perhaps particles of matter might have some wave characteristics. The DE BROGLIE WAVELENGTH. a French PhD student. An effective way of picturing this is to say that the matter will behave as if it had a particular wavelength value.1 Louis de Broglie (1892–1987).5 nm.1 Matter waves Around the same time that physicists were becoming aware that photons of electromagnetic radiation could be observed to behave very much like particles (particularly the high-energy X-rays utilised in the Compton effect). De Broglie had a very strong belief in an underlying symmetry in nature.

and indeed all macroscopic experiments.Matter waves not noticeable every day! The effects of de Broglie wavelengths are not noticeable for matter of everyday speed and mass values.0 × 10 −18 J.1 × 10−31 kg. this property of matter can be very important when explaining some experimental results. as was discussed earlier.11 × 10 −31 = 4. let’s calculate the supposed de Broglie wavelength of an everyday item. but this is smaller than a tiny fraction of a proton diameter (which is 10−15 m itself)! Even if the ball were slowed down.150 × 30 mv At 10−34 m.0 × 10 −18 J Therefore the kinetic energy of the electron after being accelerated through 50 V will be 8. they cannot be ignored! Given that the expression for the de Broglie wavelength is λ = h/mv. find the speed of the electron. in order for the de Broglie wavelength of a body to have a large enough value so that it may be detected. the de Broglie wavelength associated with the ball is far too small to be detected by diffraction.2 × 10 −17 9. Recall that a most readily observable behaviour of all known waves is diffraction.11 × 10−31 kg. electrons are just right. However. a wave will only undergo noticeable diffraction if the size of the wavelength is comparable to the size of the relevant aperture or obstacle. In other words the diffraction angle would be so miniscule that the particle in question would just be observed to pass straight through the slit with no wave behaviour observable. however. For it to ‘diffract’ through a doorway.5 × 10−34 m 0. This is the reason why in all everyday observations. Recall from your Unit 2 studies that the work done on the electron is given by: W = ∆Ue = qV = eV = 1. At only 9. de Broglie wave effects are not observed.2 × 106 m s−1 222 INTERACTIONS OF LIGHT AND MATTER . Find the de Broglie wavelength of an electron that has been accelerated from rest through a potential difference of 50 V. The mass of an electron is 9. a very small mass is required. but at the atomic level.6 × 10 −19 × 50 = 8. In the tiny world of the atom. Solution First.1A. Although ridiculous. For example. the de Broglie wavelength of a 150 g cricket ball being bowled with a speed of 30 m s−1 would be given by: 6. Worked example 7. its relatively large mass would alone ensure a tiny de Broglie wavelength value and make it impossible for diffraction to be detected.63 × 10−34 h λ= = = 1. the opening would need to be comparable to the wavelength. 1 So rearranging Ek = 2mv 2: v= 2Ek m = 2 × 1. Such is the strength of the link between diffraction and waves that any entity that is undergoing diffraction would automatically be described as displaying a wave-like property.

H. This phenomenon is described as interference or scattering. Suppose that a crystal of sodium chloride is used.3.2 × 106 = 1. Bragg. The X-rays emerging from the crystal will interfere with each other. but note that it is much larger than the de Broglie wavelength of the cricket ball discussed earlier. Davisson and Germer bombarded nickel crystals with beams of electrons. There will be locations.2. that a beam of these electrons might produce a diffraction pattern after passing through the gap between atoms in a crystal. In an attempt to find out what X-rays actually were.2.1A is of the order of 10−10 m. where constructive interference occurs and locations where destructive interference occurs. It is conceivable. The wavelength of the electron's matter wave in Worked example 7. A diagram of their apparatus is shown in Figure 7. The nature of matter 223 . because they have been accelerated through a known voltage. determined by path difference values. and W. PHYSICS IN ACTION X-ray scattering inspires quest to find electron diffraction Before X-rays were passed through the gap between atoms in a crystal. a slightly different and very important X-ray interference pattern was observed. A beam of X-rays shone into the crystal will be scattered from the top layer and the next etc. therefore. L. Eventually this is exactly what was done in order to prove de Broglie right.Using this velocity to determine the de Broglie wavelength gives: h λ= mv 6. which is comparable to the spacing between the atoms in a crystal. Matter-scattering experiments The experimental evidence that validated de Broglie’s ideas came in 1927. just like the light waves passing through the two slits in Young's famous double-slit experiment or the diffraction gratings studied earlier.11 × 10−31 × 4.7 × 10−10 m = This wavelength is still tiny. These result in the bright and dark bands of the diffraction patterns displayed in Section 6. incident X-rays reflected rays produce interference pattern atoms are regularly spaced Figure 7. with the layers in a crystal being less than 1 nm apart. the choice of a crystal structure to investigate the possible diffraction of X-rays was quite logical to physicists. It was as early as 1913 that this mode of diffraction of X-rays by crystals had been analysed by W. and measured the intensity of the electrons as they scattered from the nickel in the different directions with their movable detector.63 × 10−34 9. The spacing of atoms in a crystal is regular and lattice like. The electron gun provides a collimated beam of electrons whose speed is known. The X-rays reflecting from the deeper layer have travelled a slightly greater distance than the others.2 The X-rays reflecting from different layers within the crystal structure were known to create an interference pattern like that produced by diffraction gratings. The uniformly spaced atoms are shown in Figure 7.

For more information see the ‘Synchrotron and applications’ Detailed Study on the Heinemann Physics 12 CD.1A.1 × 106 m s−1 = Physics file Bragg’s equation describes the location of maxima in the diffraction pattern produced when X-rays are diffracted by a crystal: nλ = 2d sinθ If X-rays of a known wavelength λ are used.6 × 10−19 × 75 = 1. d. the de Broglie wavelength can be obtained by using exactly the same process as shown in Worked example 7. Synchrotron X-rays are an ideal tool for X-ray crystallography. The electrons were being scattered by the different layers within the crystal lattice. has been used to determine the structures of items as complex as DNA. They were confident that diffraction of the electron beam had occurred. 224 INTERACTIONS OF LIGHT AND MATTER . Electrons emerging from the different layers within the lattice had undergone the interference that is so firmly established as a wave property. of the electron. First. which was very similar to the X-ray diffraction.2 × 10 −17 9. that had been analysed earlier by Bragg (see Physics File). The detector could be swung around on an axis so that it could intercept electrons scattered from the nickel target in any direction in the plane shown.2 × 10−17 J = the kinetic energy of the electron And so v = 2Ek m 2 × 1.vacuum electron beam target plate filament accelerating potential (V) + – scattered electrons movable electron detector Figure 7.11 × 10 −31 = 5. Recall that the work done on the electron is given by: W = ∆Ue = qV = 1. The diffraction pattern indicated that the wavelength must have been 0. the resulting scattering angles θ tell us the distance between atoms. Davisson and Germer used the spacing of their diffraction pattern to arrive at an experimental value of the apparent matter wavelength λ. Since the accelerating potential of the electron gun was known to be 75 V. In our analysis of it the spacing of the fringes of the diffraction pattern were used to determine the wavelength of the 'wave' being diffracted. They then checked out de Broglie’s hypothesis. Davisson and Germer found that as they moved their detector through the different scattering angles they encountered a sequence of maxima and minima intensities.14 nm. This technique. Recall our study of Young’s double-slit experiment. A process can be carried out for this set-up.3 The Davisson and Germer apparatus to show electron scattering. called X-ray crystallography. This situation was similar to the scenario of X-ray scattering discussed in the previous Physics in Action. the speed of the electron is determined.

diffraction patterns) but furthermore their matter wavelength could actually be calculated by using his equation! De Broglie's formula predicted a value for a particle’s wavelength and the particle was shown to diffract just as if it was a wave of this exact wavelength. Since then hydrogen atoms. Their similarity suggests a wave-like behaviour for the electrons. This is utilised in the identification of compounds with a particularly small grain size.14 nm De Broglie’s hypothesis had been verified! Particles of matter had displayed wave-like properties (i.11 × 10−31 × 5. As the electron beam is shone onto the powder the diffraction will happen in all three planes.1 × 106 = 1. De Broglie had been vindicated. The nature of matter 225 .11 × 10−31 kg and using this velocity to determine the de Broglie wavelength gives: h λ= mv 6. In the same year that Davisson and Germer conducted their experiment. protons and neutrons for example have all been diffracted and the de Broglie relation has held for all of them. .) Thomson.4 × 10−10 m = = 0. J. Figure 7. and the symmetry in nature he had believed in was a reality. P (son of J.4. The X-ray diffraction pattern was identical to the one made with electrons. physicists grind small crystals into a powder so that it can be assumed that it contains numerous tiny crystals of random orientation. (a) (b) Synchrotron radiation is ideal for use in powder diffraction techniques. helium atoms. Thomson produced a diffraction pattern by passing a beam of electrons through a tiny crystal. Thomson then repeated his experiment. The de Broglie hypothesis was further verified as all around the world physicists used various particles and observed their diffraction by crystals of various types. The inherent wave nature of matter has been established. A ‘powder diffraction’ technique is commonly adopted for crystal diffraction.e.63 × 10−34 9. resulting in the circular diffraction patterns shown in Figure 7. Rather than scatter an electron beam from a crystal. For more information see the ‘Synchrotron and applications’ Detailed Study on the Heinemann Physics 12 CD.4 These diffraction patterns were taken by using (a) X-rays and (b) a beam of electrons with the same target crystal.Knowing that the mass of an electron is 9. using X-rays of the same wavelength in place of the electrons. Rather than using pure large crystal samples that are difficult to obtain. other supporting evidence was forthcoming from G.

scanning electron microscopes are commonplace in research laboratories. Today. and the neutron was discovered by Chadwick in 1934. revealed by electron microscopy. Thomson at Cambridge in the late 1890s. However. nucleus. Then the magnetic field was switched off. J. As early as 1937. 226 INTERACTIONS OF LIGHT AND MATTER . In an optical microscope the lenses create a single plane of focus. To indicate their importance.PHYSICS IN ACTION Electron microscopy When viewing small objects through ordinary optical microscopes we are limited by the diffraction of light. however. Thomson’s experiment with cathode rays was performed in two stages. The result is that small bodies become fuzzy. At first the forces on a beam of electrons were balanced using an electric and a magnetic field. cathode rays were renamed electrons. the atom was shown to have component particles. and the beam Figure 7. 200× and 2000×. so that for the first time pictures of the electron distribution around a molecule are possible. It was not until 1897 that physicists were able to shed any light on the internal physical structure of the atom. In that year. an electron microscope was built with a magnification of 7000× (compared with 2000× for the best optical microscope). and the wavelength of the beam can be adjusted at will by varying the accelerating voltage of the electron gun. and UV light can double the resolving power of a microscope.1 nm. The laboratories in which Thomson worked became a centre for inspired research into the atom. after all. X-ray microscopes. the electron. electron beams can be focused by both electric and magnetic fields (a lens equivalent). The approximate magnifications are (left to right) 60×. but a significant advantage of the electron microscope is that the whole object remains in focus. Between 1897 and 1934. PHYSICS IN ACTION Thomson’s e/m experiment Our knowledge and use of properties of electrons are only relatively recent accomplishments in science.6 J. In 1919 Lord Rutherford identified the proton. proton and neutron were discovered there. Joseph John Thomson demonstrated that cathode rays—rays emanating from a heated cathode in a vacuum—were particles that are fundamental constituents of every atom. and magnifications to 100 000× with a resolution of 10 nm are typical. This enabled Thomson to find the speed of the electrons. are out of the question since there are no lenses possible for this type of light. For the first time. perhaps. Figure 7. it was not indivisible. One solution is to use smaller wavelengths.5 Bacteria on a needle-point. A scanning tunnelling electron microscope can resolve points closer than 0.

spray caused the individual droplets to become charged. Another important result from Millikan’s experiment was an estimate of the mass of the electron. he was only able to determine the charge-to-mass ratio for the electron—not its charge or mass alone.76 × 1011 C kg−1.+ electric deflection plates cathode _ + magnetic deflection coils cathode rays deflected up by electric field alone Figure 7. Millikan’s results suggested a value of 1. 9. the drops were illuminated and viewed through a microscope.11 × 10−31 kg—a very small number indeed. Thomson used an electron gun to produce a beam of electrons that could be deflected by an electric and magnetic field within an evacuated tube. Figure 7. Fg = FE. Substituting for these forces.8 A schematic diagram of the oil drop experiment performed by Robert Millikan in 1908 and 1909. Millikan introduced a fine spray of oil drops into the region between two charged plates. terminal velocity is quickly reached. noone has found a charged particle with a charge other than a multiple of this value. yielding an integral number.63 × 10−19 C for the electron. allowing him to find the charge-to-mass ratio (e/m) for the cathode rays. J. i. the droplets of oil became charged. Millikan measured the total charge on thousands of small oil droplets. this value ought to divide into each charge. In doing so. See the ‘Synchrotron and applications’ Detailed Study on the Heinemann Physics 12 CD. The act of creating the fine spray of oil ++++++++++ + + + + + + + + + oil drop _ The cathode ray tube is a simple type of particular accelerator. so q = mg/E. The deflection of the beam was measured. Millikan could pick out a droplet and alter the potential difference between the plates until its weight was balanced by the electric force.6022 × 10−19 C. Millikan could find the mass by allowing the droplet to fall in air. These values were not identified until an American. His result produced a value of about 1 × 1011 C kg−1. Furthermore. As they left the atomiser. The charge on the electron Although J. Either some electrons were knocked off or some were added through friction. since he reasoned that then the charge on the electron must equal the smallest difference in charges on the droplets. Once in the experimental chamber. gravitational force observer microscope electric force _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ The nature of matter 227 . and Stokes’s law allows for the mass to be determined. Thomson repeated the experiment with a variety of different cathodes to show that all cathode rays yielded the same value. J. which compares favourably with the accepted value today of 1. we obtain mg = Eq. anode slit _ fluorescent screen cathode rays undeflected was deflected under the influence of the electric field alone. Since then. q = ne.e. that is. For this reason. but in subsequent experiments Millikan used X-rays to charge the oil drops. Thomson was able to show that electrons were components of every atom. Thomson’s apparatus for finding the charge-to-mass ratio (e/m) for cathode rays was carried out in 1897.7 J. the accepted value today is 1. Robert Millikan. was able to determine the electronic charge in 1909. we say that charge is quantised—the total charge q on a body will be a multiple of the charge e on one electron.

but with more and more electrons. The interference pattern of the type that we have been examining is interpreted as being the probability distribution of a matter wave. under the theories of quantum mechanics we look at the probability that particles or photons will take particular paths. which in turn. The pattern can only be interpreted as the distribution of the probability of electrons reaching each point on the screen. An understanding of these functions is outside the requirements of this course. With only a few electrons.9 Individual electron paths are not predictable. the interference fringes are evident. there it is: light and matter each have a dual nature.e. In circumstances where the wave behaviour of matter becomes significant. when dealing with tiny particles. Our observations of light and matter have led us to quantum theory. In such circumstances it is acknowledged that the path of any particular particle cannot be predicted. Figure 7. a mathematical wave function is stated that gives the probability of an electron striking each point on the screen. i.The duality of matter and the duality of light In this chapter we have seen how the relationship between electromagnetic waves and photons has been paralleled by the relationship between de Broglie matter waves and particles. as the next section shows. but that neither light nor matter conform to a simple model. That is. the pattern appears random.9 the white dots in the photographs represent electrons after they have passed through a Young’s double-slit apparatus. So. 228 INTERACTIONS OF LIGHT AND MATTER . any more than we could trace the path of a particular photon! Rather. In Figure 7. but the physics theories that propose a probability distribution for the diffracted electrons elegantly model the experimental results. reveals a great deal about the inside of the atom. even classical wave mechanics has been replaced by quantum mechanics (in response to more and more sophisticated observations regarding the behaviour of light and matter). and the problem is not so much that they cannot be reconciled.

82 × 10 −24 kg m s−1? An electron is accelerated from rest in a uniform electric field through a potential difference of 50.63 × 10 −14 J? a photon of yellow light of energy 2. What is the de Broglie wavelength of a 40 g bullet travelling at 1. Which of the following would be most likely to undergo appreciable diffraction when fired at a thin layer of the crystal? Justify your answer with a mathematical calculation.0 V. • De Broglie suggested his equation by using ideas of symmetry in nature. Consequently.67 × 10 −21 kg m s−1 a neutron with kinetic energy 3. • All matter.67 × 10 −27 kg 1 a b c 5 a gamma ray of energy 6. or wavelength of the matter wave of a body of mass m. Louis de Broglie’s investigation into the existence of matter waves predicts that: A B C D all particles exhibit wave behaviour only moving particles exhibit wave behaviour only charged particles exhibit wave behaviour only moving charged particles exhibit wave behaviour. beams of particles (electrons usually) are made to travel with a speed so that their matter wavelength approximates the interatomic spacing in a crystal.67 × 10 −27 kg mass of electron = 9. P. λ.63 × 10−34 J s speed of light = 3. has a dual nature.00 × 108 m s−1 mass of proton = 1.0 keV electrons X-rays of frequency 1. but the scattering experiments of Davisson and Germer and G. Are there any circumstances in which objects normally encountered in everyday life could exhibit a detectable de Broglie wavelength? Justify your answer.7. Thomson vindicated his relationship. This symmetry in nature—the dual nature of light and matter—is referred to as wave–particle duality. in terms of m. 6 A charge q with mass m is accelerated from rest through a potential difference ∆V. A crystal of Gunners-Love alloy has an interatomic spacing of 1. 8 50 eV neutrons 100 eV protons 1.0 nm? a b c an electron a proton an alpha particle 4 At what speed would a proton travel if it were to have the same wavelength as: The nature of matter 229 .1 SUMMARY MATTER WAVES • The de Broglie wavelength. moving with a speed v is given by: λ = h/p = h/mv. a diffraction pattern is produced which can only be explained if matter had a wave nature.00 × 107 m s−1 a proton with momentum 1. A B C D 2 Calculate the de Broglie wavelength for the following: a b c d 7 a high-speed electron travelling at 1.0 × 103 m s−1? Explain why it is impossible for this bullet to exhibit any diffraction effects. and under some situations it has a wave-like nature. Through everyday experience matter is particle-like. 7. q and ∆V.0 × 10 −10 m.00 × 10 −18 J a 400 g baseball travelling at 10 m s−1. Derive an expression that defines its de Broglie wavelength.0 × 1018 Hz 3 a b c What accelerating potential difference would be required to give each of the following particles a de Broglie wavelength of 2.1 QUESTIONS For the following questions use: Planck’s constant = 6. a b c What is the gain in kinetic energy of the electron? What is momentum of the electron? Calculate the de Broglie wavelength of the electron. like light.67 × 10 −27 kg mass of neutron = 1.11 × 10 −31 kg mass of α particle = 6. • In particle-scattering experiments.15 eV? an electron with momentum 1.

Rutherford’s model was not without its problems. the light that for many years had been observed being absorbed and emitted by atoms suddenly provided information about the energy state of the atom itself. according to the laws of the day. The emitted light could be divided up into its different component frequencies by a spectrograph (essentially the diffraction gratings studied in Section 6.10 Rutherford's nuclear model of the hydrogen atom of 1911 didn’t explain the atom’s known stability. but also laid a foundation upon which the structure of the atom itself could begin to be understood. The radius of the nucleus was around 10−15 m but the radius of the atom itself was some 40 000 times this value. these methods involved heating substances. as described by the equation E = hf.7. Figure 7. applying voltages to gases or indeed burning salts (Figure 7. The nucleus was known to carry a positive charge and by atomic dimensions was a tiny but massive dot in the centre of the atom. its emission spectra (Figure 7. The hydrogen atom.9% of the mass of the atom is concentrated in the nucleus. An electron orbiting in this manner. It was known that the simplest of all atoms was the atom of hydrogen with one proton in the nucleus and one electron orbiting it. of course. did not do this.2 Photons shed light on atom structure In Section 6. In the nuclear model 99.3 the quantum expression for the energy of a photon was introduced. discharge tube 230 INTERACTIONS OF LIGHT AND MATTER . Once physicists had discovered that light of a given frequency carried a very specific quanta of energy.2). For example. (a) +V spectroscope line emission spectrum Figure 7.12). The old model of the atom –e electron nucleus +e In the early 20th century the nuclear model of the atom was established through Ernest Rutherford’s work in shooting alpha particles through gold foil. emitting a range of energies as it went. Observing emission spectra During the late 1800s scientists had devised methods of making atoms emit light.11 Placing gas into a tube and applying a high voltage to it is one technique for producing an emission spectrum. This atom could not be stable and should continually give off energy. Sufficient electrons to balance the charge on the atom were thought to be floating somehow outside the nucleus. Each type of atom was found to be capable of emitting a unique set of frequencies. Thus the emission spectra of an atom became an individualised property of the atom.11). The work done by Planck and later Einstein not only led to the photon model for light. should gradually diminish in energy and spiral downwards towards the nucleus.

The spectral lines seemed to have a mathematical pattern or order. of light.13).12 shows a series of spectral lines.12 The emission spectra of hydrogen and helium. 6. in each group the higher the frequency the closer the spectral lines occurred. showing only the principal lines. We saw earlier that the energy of a photon can be determined from a measurement of the photon's frequency or its wavelength according to the relationship: hc E = hf = λ where E is the photon energy in J or eV h is Planck's constant. Hydrogen atoms produce the simplest spectra.13 Years before emission spectra were understood mathematical descriptions of the series of frequency values for hydrogen were devised.Figure 7. more sets of spectral lines were discovered. 3. Even this simplest of atoms was found to emit up to 40 discernible frequencies of light.63 × 10−34 J s or 4. They occurred in groupings. until infinitely closely spaced lines approached a limiting frequency value. As technology improved. Although physicists couldn’t explain their existence they could list and describe them in detail. Gradually it was found that three related mathematical expressions described the three sets of frequencies emitted by hydrogen (see Figure 7.0 × 108 m s−1 λ is the wavelength (m). Figure 7. It was many Figure 7. with each line corresponding to a particular frequency.14 × 10−15 eV s c is the speed of light. and therefore energy. The nature of matter 231 .

containing all the shades of the spectrum from red to violet.years before a meaningful interpretation of the emission spectra was attained. E = hf. The light that has passed through the gas is passed into a spectroscope as shown in Figure 7. In 1868 it was discovered that there were lines in the solar spectrum that no known element on Earth could produce. cloud of gas spectroscope white light source Figure 7. which means 'Sun'. together with Planck's quantum energy relation. by utilising the emerging knowledge of the photon. The dark absorption lines in the spectrum are caused by particular frequencies of light being absorbed by cool gases surrounding the Sun. the emission spectra provided clues about the atom's structure. indicating that some frequencies have been removed by the gas. provided some starting points for Bohr. If white light is passed through a spectroscope a continuous rainbow of colours is seen. Furthermore. If infrared or ultraviolet frequencies are present they too may be detected. When a beam of white light is passed through a cool sample of a gas an absorption spectrum is created. The existence of absorption and emission spectra for hydrogen. Like the emission spectrum. the emission spectrum also includes many more lines. Bohr model for emission and absorption spectra In 1912 Niels Bohr proposed the first reasonable interpretation of the hydrogen spectrum. There are black spaces in locations throughout the spectrum.) Figure 7. line absorption spectrum Physics file Astronomers became interested in absorption spectra. (The name 'helium' is derived from the Greek helios.14 A line absorption spectrum is produced when white light passes through a cold sample of the material and is viewed through a spectroscope. and in 1862 Jonas Angstrom (a Swede) was able to demonstrate the presence of hydrogen in the Sun from the solar spectrum. for a given sample the missing lines in its absorption spectrum are identical to bright lines in its emission spectrum.14 and instead of a continuous spectrum. but eventually. Helium had been discovered in the Sun— 30 years before it was found on Earth. particular frequencies of light are missing. 232 INTERACTIONS OF LIGHT AND MATTER . however.15 The solar spectrum as seen at the Earth. the absorption spectrum is once again unique to each type of atom. Observing absorption spectra Recall that white light is actually made up of an infinite number of different frequencies of light.

and therefore energies. 3. of very specific values.. ..) Moving on from this assumption.• • • • • He realised that: absorption spectra showed that the hydrogen atom was only capable of absorbing a small number of different frequencies. the energy of the photon that is either emitted or absorbed is given by: Ephoton = hf = Em − En where h is Planck's constant.6 eV. (De Broglie later provided a neat explanation for such an assumption. Bohr devised a sophisticated model of electron energy levels for the atom. work for which he was later awarded a Nobel Prize for Physics. • An electron ordinarily occupies the lowest energy orbit available. The electron may occupy only these orbits. • Electromagnetic radiation can be absorbed by an atom when its photon energy is exactly equal to the difference in energies between an occupied orbit and a higher energy orbit. Starting with the nuclear model. that is the absorbed energy was quantised the emission spectra showed that hydrogen was also capable of emitting quanta of the exact energy value that it was able to absorb if the frequency. 2. The photon energy will be exactly equal to the energy difference between the electron's initial and final level. and therefore energy. Bohr's main ideas were as follows.63 × 10 −34 J s f is the frequency of the photon (Hz) Note that energy values are commonly quoted in eV. the light would simply pass straight through the gas without any absorption occurring hydrogen atoms have an ionisation energy of 13. leaving it a positive ion all of the photons of light with energies above the ionisation energy value for hydrogen are continuously absorbed. 6. light of this energy or greater can remove an electron from the hydrogen atom. • A number of allowable orbits of different radii exist for each atom labelled n = 1. If an electron in an atom moves between energy levels m and n. He just presumed that for some unknown reason the atom was stable. • Electromagnetic radiation is emitted by an excited atom when an electron falls from a higher energy level to a lower energy level. although joules or eV may be used as long as consistency is maintained. • The electron moves in a circular orbit around the nucleus of the hydrogen atom. • The centripetal force keeping the electron moving in a circle is the electrostatic force of attraction (positive nucleus attracts negative electron). The nature of matter 233 . This photon absorption results in an excited atom. Bohr chose to ignore its associated problem with energy emission yet sustained stability (discussed on page 238). of the incident light were below a certain value for the hydrogen atom. • The electron does not radiate energy while it is in a stable orbit.

Since an electron ordinarily occupies the lowest energy orbit there is little chance of an absorption occurring from a high orbit to an even higher orbit. As an electron falls its energy value decreases. velocity and radius. The emission spectra of an atom includes all of the absorption spectral lines plus more lines because these correspond to the energies emitted as the electron falls down through orbits either in stages or in one large fall—these transitions can occur across single levels or multiple levels. This is why incident light below a certain value would simply pass straight through the hydrogen gas without any absorption occurring. In this case the excess photon energy simply translates to extra kinetic energy for the released electron (recall the photoelectric effect studied in Section 6. For information of synchrotron light and its suitability to a wide range of spectroscopic techniques. The electron may fall in one step. And so the observed absorption and emission spectra have to a large part been accounted for by Bohr. 234 INTERACTIONS OF LIGHT AND MATTER . An electron ordinarily occupies the lowest energy orbit.(a) (b) electron falls Figure 7. The photon ceases to exist. To raise an electron the appropriate amount of energy must be delivered by a photon. Note that since a free electron (at n = ∞) must possess zero potential energy the energy levels within the atom are all negative.16 (a) If the incident photon carries a matching amount of energy the electron can be knocked to one of the higher orbits as the photon is absorbed. called the angular momentum. If the electron falls in stages then photons corresponding to the differences between possible energy levels will be emitted.3). Since more downward transitions are possible than upward transitions. that is it becomes a larger negative number. The electron will fall to its ground state. there are more emission lines than absorption lines for hydrogen. The missing lines in absorption spectra correspond to the energies of light that a given atom is capable of absorbing due to the energy differences between its electron orbits. Incident light carrying insufficient energy to raise an electron from this lowest energy level to the next level will be unable to be absorbed by the atom. (b) An atom will not remain in an excited state for long. where n is the energy level number. He had no physical justification for why only these orbits could explain the spectra. incident photon absorbed electron jumps photon emitted n=1 n=2 n=3 n=1 n=2 n=3 Physics file In his explanation of atomic spectra Bohr only allowed electrons to sit in orbits that satisfied the equation mvr = nh/2π. If light with greater energy than the ionisation energy of an atom is incident.16 and a sample is shown in Worked example 7. Energy level diagrams Energy level diagrams can be thought of as a section of the electron orbit diagrams shown in Figure 7. or in a number of stages emitting a photon(s) as it falls. The product of the mass. then any light energy value may be absorbed.32A. The allowed energy levels must be stated and these are written along the left-hand side of the diagram. Only incident light carrying just the right amount of energy to raise an electron to an allowed level can be absorbed. must be equal to one of a series of fixed values involving Planck's constant. see the ‘Synchrotron and applications’ Detailed Study on the Heinemann Physics 12 CD. less than a millionth of a second.

0 and 10.4 − 3. When an electron makes a transition from n = 3 to n = 1. results in the emission of a photon of frequency 4.60 × 10 −19 C mass of electron = 9. a photon of frequency 6. ∆E = |Em − En| = hf hc = λ Rearranging gives: hc λ= ∆E = 6.7 –5. 7.6 × 10−34 × 3 × 108 (10.00 × 1014 Hz. and no radiation is emitted or absorbed unless the electron can jump from its energy level to another.Worked example 7.14 × 10−15 eV s speed of light = 3.00 × 108 m s−1 charge on electron = 1.2 QUESTIONS For the following questions use: Planck’s constant = 6. and an absorption spectrum is created when white light passes through a cold gas. The 10. n=∞ n=4 n=3 n=2 b Solution a The 4.7) × 1. Explain the meaning of the following terms: a b c d quantisation ground state excited states ionisation energy. In this case.5 eV photon may ionise the mercury atom.2A.4 n=1 b = 1. Ultraviolet light with photon energies 4. Where the electron is promoted from the lower level m to the higher n.85 × 10−7 m = 185 nm (in the ultraviolet) 7. The energy levels for atomic mercury are depicted in the diagram on the left. 5. A line emission spectrum is produced by energised atoms. since only certain values are allowed. electron energies within the atom are quantised. a E (eV) 0 –1.6 × 10−19 –10.5 Consider the mercury atom with its valence electron in the ground state.11 × 10 −31 kg The following information applies to questions 1 and 2.50 eV is incident on some mercury gas. What could happen? Determine the wavelength of the light emitted after an electron in an excited mercury atom makes the transition from n = 3 to n = 1.0 eV photon cannot be absorbed since there is no energy level 5. the photon will be emitted.00 × 1014 Hz is emitted. the photon energy will be absorbed. The spectrum for an element is unique. • Niels Bohr suggested that electrons in atoms orbit the nucleus in specially defined energy levels.9 eV photon may be absorbed. ____________ ionisation level ____________ n = 3 ____________ n = 2 ____________ n =1 second excited state first excited state ground state 2 1 A particular atom has four energy levels as shown in the diagram above.0 eV above the ground state.9. The 5. • An electron in an atom which jumps between energy levels m and n involves a photon of energy: Ephoton = hf = Em − En Where the electron starts in level n and drops to level m.2 SUMMARY PHOTONS SHED LIGHT ON ATOM STRUCTURE • The production of spectra suggests an internal structure to the atom.1 eV of kinetic energy. while a transition from n = 2 to n = 1. The nature of matter 235 .6 –3. In this way. promoting the electron from the ground state to the first excited state. the ejected electron will leave the atom with 0.63 × 10−34 J s or 4.

red orange blue infrared X-rays 7 6 b Use Bohr's model of the atom to explain why all of the frequencies of light above the ionisation energy value for hydrogen are continuously absorbed.2 V? 9 b Explain why there is a large increase in current through the circuit when V = 14 V.51 –3. What would happen if a photon of energy 14.6 3 a anode n=1 Calculate the frequency of photons emitted when electrons in atomic hydrogen make the transition from the first excited state to the ground state. pass through the vapour.5 eV. V. c 236 INTERACTIONS OF LIGHT AND MATTER . A glass envelope contains mercury vapour at low pressure. The following energy levels for atomic hydrogen apply to questions 3–5. Would a photon of energy 12.88 –1. will any photons be emitted from the mercury atoms in the tube? Justify your answer.8 eV electron collides with a hydrogen atom while in the ground state. Use Bohr's model of the atom to explain why hydrogen was capable of emitting quanta of the exact energy value that it was able to absorb. a b What is the highest energy level that the atom could be excited to by such a collision? List all the possible photon energies that could be produced as the hydrogen atom returns to the ground state after such a collision.a What is the wavelength of the photon emitted in a transition from the n = 3 to n = 2? Which of the following best describes the light that corresponds to this wavelength? A B C D E 5 A 12. Electrons emitted thermionically at the cathode. E (eV) 0 –0.0 eV collided with the hydrogen atom while it was in the ground state? b _ b + V 8 a µA c 4 a If the potential difference between the cathode and anode. and are collected at the anode. is set at 4. What is the wavelength of light that is emitted when the electron in atomic hydrogen goes from the second excited state to the ground state? What is the minimum energy (in eV) required to ionise a hydrogen atom from the ground state? If a hydrogen atom is initially in its ground state.5 V.5 eV be able to excite the hydrogen atom to the same level? Justify your answer. cathode –13.39 n=4 n=3 n=2 n=∞ The following information applies to questions 8 and 9. What wavelength light will be emitted from the tube when V = 6. determine the highest energy level to which it can be excited by collision with an electron of energy 12.

7. The nature of matter 237 .5 −3.17 shows the measured energy levels for hydrogen with its ionisation energy of 13. involving the kinetic and potential energies resulting from the force between the orbiting electron and the positive hydrogen nucleus. the energy levels are seen to crowd together.6 En = n2 where En = the energy of the nth level for hydrogen (eV) n = the energy level number 1. The ground state is bound by 13. Bohr used classical physics ideas. 2. Each set of arrows indicates the energy level transitions that end at a common level. Bohr’s energy levels of hydrogen Figure 7. de Broglie and standing waves In the previous section it was shown that Bohr’s model of the atom could account for many of the observations made about absorption and emission spectra... The negative sign indicates that energy must be added to the system to excite the atom. The Balmer series includes energy transitions from various levels to the first energy level.4 n = 2 −5 Energy (eV) Balmer series Paschen series n=4 −10 −13.6 −15 n=1 Lyman series ground state Figure 7. The Paschen series ends at the second energy level. to deduce that the value of the various allowed energy levels for the hydrogen atom could be represented by the equation: −13.6 eV and as one looks to higher energy levels.6 eV. n=5 ionised atom (continuous energy levels) excited states E=0 −0. or indeed the spectra of other elements. 3. called the Lyman series. The energy level transitions to the ground state.3 Bohr.85 n=3 −1. All that remained to be done was to check whether it would account for the actual energies of the hydrogen spectra.17 This is an energy level diagram for hydrogen. . produce a series of spectral lines in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum.

6 = −3. For these reasons though. Standing waves In the previous section we looked at how small particles can be thought of as matter waves and that wave functions are used to indicate the probability of finding a particle in a given location. He assumed his standing wave must be three dimensional. Bohr had the insight to correctly apply a quantum approach to the energy levels of atoms. De Broglie.6 eV (the ground state) 12 E2 = E3 = E4 = −13. the Bohr model was limited in its application. applied his approach to the discussion of Bohr's hydrogen atom. the person who proposed that matter ‘had wavelengths’. Nor could it explain the discovery of the continuous spectrum emitted by solids (now understood to be due to the interactions between their closely packed atoms).5 eV (the second excited state) 32 −13. Bohr obtained: −13. To picture it. Although Bohr’s model hasn’t been able to quantify the exact electron energy levels of all atoms. He was the first to make links to the emerging areas of the quantum nature of electromagnetic radiation. If particles can be thought of as matter waves. Bohr’s theory could not explain this. Soon even the emission spectrum of hydrogen was found to challenge Bohr’s model. De Broglie’s objective was to gain a picture of how the electron wave was arranged around the nucleus of the atom. then these matter waves must be able to maintain steady energy values for the particles to be considered stable. its importance cannot be underestimated.85 eV (the third excited state) 42 These energy levels matched the experimental data to a high degree of accuracy. these being hydrogen and ionised helium! It could not account for the spectrum of helium or any other elements. his model was only comprehensively applicable to one-electron atoms.4 eV (the first excited state) 22 −13.Substituting in the known ionisation energy of 13. We have not examined the detail of how he based his model on classical laws of orbiting systems and electrical forces. It modelled inner-shell electrons well but could not predict the higher energy orbits of multi-electron atoms. He suggested that the only way that the electron could maintain a steady energy level is if it established a standing wave. Bohr had provided a conceptual framework on which future developments would be based. 238 INTERACTIONS OF LIGHT AND MATTER . Some of the emission lines could be resolved into two very close spectral lines by using magnets. It signified a conceptual breakthrough.6 E1 = = −13. and wrap it into a loop as shown in Figure 7. He viewed the electrons that were orbiting the hydrogen nucleus as matter waves. The problems with Bohr’s model Despite its success regarding hydrogen. take a normal standing wave such as might be established in a vibrating string.6 = −1.6 = −0.18.6 eV for hydrogen.

18 (a). Bohr is credited with helping to provide an escape route for Jewish scientists. A comprehensive theory has since developed. Danish Niels Bohr was 36 years old and had just been awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics for his work on the atom. However.. by adopting a standing wave model and treating the orbiting electrons as matter waves. Thus. it allowed new. culminating in Heisenberg being awarded his own Nobel Prize for Physics 10 years later in 1932. These examples only touch upon the very beginnings of the remarkable ideas of quantum mechanics. It was said that ‘Bohr understood the world and Heisenberg knew the maths’. in a race to build a The nature of matter 239 . partially recognising the wave–particle duality of light and matter. Therefore the circumference of the orbit (2πr) must be equal to (nλ) where n could be equal to 1. de Broglie had actually given a good reason for an assumption for which Bohr had been unable to provide a physical justification. who had found a flaw in the maths of his argument! This meeting led to a strong friendship and working partnership between the two. As he gave a lecture he was interrupted by a 20year-old student Werner Heisenberg. The only wavelength values that the electrons could ‘have’ were the wavelengths that fitted perfectly into the orbit. Heisenberg visited Bohr in the now occupied Denmark. and the orbit cannot represent an energy level. (c) Where an integral number of waves do not fit. namely En = −13. PHYSICS IN ACTION Bohr and Heisenberg In 1922. De Broglie stated that nλ = 2πr and substituting in his own matter wavelength expression λ = h/mv gives nh/mv = 2πr. Bohr lived in Copenhagen. 3. Bohr later claimed that in this meeting Heisenberg confirmed that he was leading an atomic weapons program for the Germans. By 1939 it is reported that 29 of the 32 Nobel Prize winners who lived in Germany had fled. As a team their accomplishments were astounding. destructive interference occurs. (b) If a whole number of matter wavelengths ‘fit’ into the circumference of the electron orbit. Bohr’s theory had been a mixture of classical and quantum theories. theories to be developed by the physicists that followed him.(a) (b) (c) Figure 7.. and a standing wave is produced. Heisenberg remained. and absorption and emission spectra. such as Werner Heisenberg and Erwin Schroedinger. In our studies we have seen how early quantum ideas have explained the photoelectric effect. Before the German invasion of Denmark. In conclusion. In 1933 Hitler came to power in Germany. In September 1941 an infamous meeting took place. particle diffraction.6/n2. This was exactly the relationship that Bohr had assumed to exist (see Physics File page 234) and that led to the expression that we examined for the energy levels of the electrons of the hydrogen atom. .. 2. then the wave reinforces itself. explaining a wide range of phenomena. This can be interpreted by saying that an energy level may exist with this circumference. more radical..

20 A close-up of a standing wave in the plucked guitar string on the right. on length and diameter. as surely a wave must involve movement of some type. The resultant sound has a large amplitude. When the string is vibrating in its most simple mode the centre of the string is going through a maximum change in its displacement over a period of one cycle. Figure 7. Bohr was shocked. as shown in Figure 7. tension and mass of the string. The easiest way to gain an understanding of standing waves is to look at a string vibrating in its fundamental mode. nuclear weapons testing continued. it is quite loud. Heisenberg continued to work for the German government until the Russian invasion. In strings this expression refers to a situation where a number of waves are interfering and result in the impression of a wave that is standing still.19 Although nuclear physics helped to bring World War II to a close. Many years later Heisenberg claimed that in the meeting with Bohr he was actually attempting to have a covert conversation with him. The British government were sent their first confirmation of a German attempt to build an atom bomb.nuclear bomb. they experience no change in their displacement value. Hence each of these points is at a displacement node. Whenever a musical instrument is played it is forced to vibrate by the musician. that is. Figure 7. PHYSICS IN ACTION Standing waves The expression ‘standing wave’ appears to be a contradiction. Reportedly. for air columns. If this forced frequency is equal to a natural frequency of the instrument. For strings this depends on the length.21 shows a number of modes in which a string can vibrate. That is. New Mexico.21. the amplitude of the vibrations add together and resonance occurs. in order to establish an agreement that they should both undermine the work on nuclear weapons for humanitarian reasons. This issue was never resolved between the two former friends. At either end of the string there are fixed points. 240 INTERACTIONS OF LIGHT AND MATTER . Bohr secretly fled occupied Denmark and joined the US nuclear weapons project in Los Alamos. All physical objects have natural frequencies at which they can most readily vibrate. German scientists had made enough progress for their seconded documents to provide a firm start to the Russian nuclear energy and arms program after the war. Figure 7. Heisenberg claimed that Bohr had misunderstood his double-speak. all related to the fundamental mode.

He suggested that the only way that the electron could maintain a steady energy level is if it established a standing wave so that: nh = 2πr mv 7. Each harmonic is a whole-number multiple of the fundamental frequency. 1 1 third mode (second overtone) 2L _ λ3 = 3 fourth mode (third overtone) L _ λ4 = 2 7.first mode (fundamental frequency) λ 1 = 2L second mode (first overtone) λ2 = L The fundamental standing wave is established so that the length of the string is equal to half a wavelength. • The Bohr model was limited in its application.21 that any other modes of vibration cannot possibly exist. The visible spectrum extends from approximately 700 to 400 nm. The relationships between wavelength. but it was a significant development because it took a quantum approach to the energy levels of atoms and incorpo- rated the quantum nature of electromagnetic radiation. 15th and 20th excitation levels for hydrogen.3 QUESTIONS 1 Of the spectral lines in the Balmer series.21 A string is able to vibrate at a number of natural frequencies called harmonics. that is formed in each of the modes of vibration can be written: L = 2λ L = 1λ L = 12λ L = 2λ etc. The existing standing waves have a specific relationship to one another that can be expressed as: 2L λn = n Figure 7. DE BROGLIE AND STANDING WAVES • Bohr deduced that the value of the various allowed energy levels for the hydrogen atom could be represented by the equation: −13. It is clear from Figure 7. it being only applicable to one-electron atoms.6 En = 2 n where En is the energy of the nth level for hydrogen (eV). and string length.3 SUMMARY BOHR. Other modes of vibration are possible but all involve the wave envelope fitting exactly into the length of the string. a 2 6 3 7 4 Use Bohr's equation for the energy levels of hydrogen to calculate the fifth. Are all the Balmer lines in the hydrogen spectrum visible? What is the longest wavelength of EMR that can be absorbed by a hydrogen atom when an electron makes a transition from the ground state? 5 What do de Broglie's matter wave concept and a bowed violin string have in common? Show how de Broglie's matter wave concept was important because it provided a model which vindicated some of Bohr's assumptions about atomic structure. What do you notice about the differences between the energy levels as n increases? b The nature of matter 241 . 10th. L. • De Broglie viewed electrons as matter waves and his standing wave model for electron orbits provided a physical explanation for electrons only being able to occupy particular energy levels in atoms. which fall results in light of the shortest wavelength? Calculate the wavelength of the first three (longest wavelength) lines of the Lyman series. λ. as a node must be present at each end of the string.

Show how Bohr’s model of the atom explained why: a 8 1.7 –5. which of the following must be true? A the hydrogen atom was only capable of absorbing a small number of different frequencies of light hydrogen atoms have an ionisation energy of 13. a hydrogen atom will stay excited for approximately 10 −8 s before the electron returns to ground state. 9 B C 3 If the electrons in the beam each have the same energy as a photon of yellow light: a When a 10.7 eV 6.6 –3. The electrons must be travelling at the speed of light. Why then is this photon missing from the emission spectrum for hydrogen? Both the Bohr model and the standing wave model can explain the spectra of hydrogen. 4 What is the shortest wavelength of light that can be absorbed by a hydrogen atom when an electron makes a transition from the ground state? Describe the main features of the nuclear model of the atom as described by Rutherford.4 1 n=1 An electron beam with an energy of 8. Which one of the following photon energies could not be produced from this interaction? A B C D E The following information applies to questions 4 and 5.0 cm2. emitting a photon of the same energy.6 eV. 7 c n=4 n=3 n=2 n=∞ b determine the number of electrons that are incident on the surface each second in order to produce a pressure of 0.9 eV An electron beam is directed on to the reflecting surface. 6 c –10. In order for the electron beam to exert the same pressure on the surface as the light beam.8 eV 4. b 2 List all the possible photon frequencies that could result when a mercury atom returns to the ground state from the second excited state.553 N m−2. A 500 W lamp directs a beam of yellow light.CHAPTER REVIEW The energy levels for atomic mercury are used in questions 1 and 2. on to a perfect reflecting surface of area 4.2 eV photon is absorbed. a E (eV) 0 –1. 5 Each electron must have the same energy as a photon of yellow light. Each electron must have the same momentum as a photon of yellow light. The two-slit interference experiment can be duplicated by directing electrons through a copper foil. of wavelength 580 nm.9 eV 3.5 What would be detected at a position of zero path difference? What would be detected at a point where the path difference is half a wavelength? Explain how electrons can exhibit this type of effect.8 eV passes through some mercury vapour in the ground state.7 eV 3. Why is one model preferable to the other? 10 determine the momentum of each electron calculate the de Broglie wavelength of each electron b 242 INTERACTIONS OF LIGHT AND MATTER . The resulting interference pattern is displayed using an electron detection screen.

33 × 10−6 N on the target. The reverse current in the circuit can be altered using a variable voltage. Replacing the yellow filter with a blue filter. The beam exerts a force of 3. in a piece of copper foil. at what speed would a neutron need to travel to have the same de Broglie wavelength as the electrons in question 9? The following information applies to questions 4–7. The beam power is 100 W. At the ‘cut-off’ voltage. In a Young’s doubleslit interference experiment. Light passing through a yellow filter is incident on the cathode of (a) emitter yellow filter Current (µA) light beam collector (b) Y X V µA V0 0 Potential difference between emitter and collector (V) Exam-style questions 243 . a Calculate the number of photons that are incident on the reflecting surface each second. is incident on a target which absorbs all the radiation falling on it. The following information applies to questions 9 and 10. 5.11 × 10 −31 kg mass of proton: mp = 1.2 × 1014 Hz.0 × 1014 Hz. Increasing the intensity of the yellow light. The current in the circuit is plotted as a function of the applied voltage in diagram (b). 7. how do you interpret the behaviour of the electrons in this experiment? b 3 A beam of yellow light. B If the experiment were to be repeated using neutrons. The speed of the electrons is 0.60 × 10 −19 C mass of electron: me = 9.21 V. The work function of the emitter is increased to a value higher than the energy of a photon of yellow light. What is the momentum of each photon in the beam? What is the force that the beam exerts on the reflecting surface? Which one of the following alternatives best describes the reason why there is zero current in the circuit when the applied voltage equals the cut-off voltage? A b The threshold frequency of the emitter increases to a value higher than the frequency of yellow light.STYLE QUESTIONS INTERACTIONS OF LIGHT AND MATTER For the following questions use: charge on electron: e = 1. 7 A 60 W lamp emits radiation of wavelength 3. The emitter of the photocell is coated with nickel. 9 a c B Calculate the de Broglie wavelength of the electrons used in the experiment.63 × 10 −34 J s speed of light: c = 3. Vout. Graph X is produced by yellow light while graph Y is produced by blue light. What do you expect to see on the photographic plate? Given that electrons are particles.67 × 10 −27 kg Planck’s constant: h = 6. a C c 6 How many photons are striking the target each second? What is the power of the beam? Which of the following descriptions of the graphs X and Y are correct? A 10 b Both graphs are produced by yellow light of different intensities. The filter is removed and a 200 nm light is directed on to the cathode.0 m. a Which of the following changes would result in an increase in the size of Vout? A How many photons per second is the lamp emitting? What type of light is the lamp emitting? 5 Replacing the yellow filter with a red filter. The minimum value of Vout that will result in zero current in the circuit is 1.00 × 108 m s−1 1 the photoelectric cell in diagram (a).EXAM . The emitted photoelectrons do not have enough kinetic energy to reach the collector. 8 B b C 2 A beam of blue light.1% of the speed of light. What is the work function of nickel? Describe three experimental results associated with the photoelectric effect that cannot be explained by wave model theory of light. the photoelectric current is zero. is incident normally on a perfect reflecting surface.0 × 10 −6 m. 4 C Each graph is produced by light of a different colour and different intensity. an electron beam travels through two narrow slits. The resulting pattern is detected photographically at a distance of 2. 20 mm apart.

6 –3. C 14 20 D 21 What is the ionisation energy of this atom? What is the lowest frequency of light that would be able to ionise this atom? What is the lowest frequency of light that could excite this atom? Would incident light of energy 2000 eV be absorbed by this atom? An X-ray photon of energy 18. a b halving the separation of the slit? doubling the distance between the slits and the screen? halving the frequency of the light used? using white light? covering one slit? b Determine the kinetic energy of the electron after the collision.11 × 10−31 kg) a n=4 n=3 n=2 n = ∞ 15 How would de Broglie explain the light and dark rings produced when a beam of electrons is fired through a sodium chloride crystal? 16 a –10.0 keV collides with a stationary electron. calculate its de Broglie wavelength. Why are all of the frequencies of light above the ionisation energy value for hydrogen continuously absorbed? How do our models of waves and particles of light parallel the ideas related to electrons and matter waves? Referring to the apparatus used by Young in his double-slit experiment. Calculate the wavelength of an electron that has been accelerated through this potential difference. Which of the following phenomena can be modelled by a pure wave model of light? A B C 23 12 An electron is accelerated across a potential difference of 65 V. What is the speed of the scattered photon? b c c d d e 244 INTERACTIONS OF LIGHT AND MATTER . what is the effect on the observed diffraction pattern of: a 25 B The electron must have the same energy as the proton The electron must have the same speed as the proton. me = 9. −703 eV (n = 2) and −312 eV (n = 3).5 If a muon was travelling at 2% of the speed of light. e E (eV) 0 –1.60 × 10−19 C. a Define an electronvolt. (h = 6. Explain why an electron microscope is able to achieve a much greater degree of resolution than an optical microscope. The electron must have the same momentum as the proton. b b n = 4 to n = 1 n = 2 to n = 1 n = 4 to n = 3 17 For the above set-up show how the wavelength of the red light would be calculated from the measurements taken. 22 In a typical electron microscope.11 The energy levels for atomic mercury are as follows.63 × 10−34 J s.7 –5.4 n=1 Determine the frequency and wavelength of the light emitted when the atom makes the following transitions: a b c Describe a double-slit experiment designed to measure the wavelength of red light. e = 1.60 × 10−19 C. Consider an imaginary Bohr atom of a single muon orbiting a single proton. a What kinetic energy will it gain? What speed will it reach? What is the de Broglie wavelength of the electron? the photoelectric effect refraction double-source interference of light reflection diffraction the Compton effect 24 Would a ‘proton microscope’ be able to achieve a higher degree of resolution than an electron microscope with the same accelerating potential difference of 10 kV? (mP = 1. me = 9.67 × 10−27 kg. e = 1.0 keV. the light would simply pass straight through the gas without any absorption occurring? A muon is a particle with the same charge as an electron but its mass is 207 times greater.63 × 10−34 J s. The energy of the scattered photon is 16. It is impossible for an electron and a proton to have the same wavelength. with energy levels at −1810 eV (n = 1).11 x 10−31 kg) For an electron and a proton to have the same wavelength: A b c D E F 18 19 13 How would Niels Bohr explain the observation that for the hydrogen atom when the frequency of incident light was below a certain value. electrons are accelerated through a voltage of 10 kV. h = 6. Include a diagram and all dimensions and details of your apparatus.

The energy levels for atomic mercury are shown below.00 eV passes through some mercury vapour in the ground state.51 eV E = −3.60 eV E = −3.63 × 10−34 J s.00 eV electron when it is already in an excited state.26 n=∞ n=4 n=3 n=2 E=0 E = −0. Describe the result of such a collision. What is the highest energy state that the mercury atom could be excited to. What is the shortest wavelength of light present in the emission spectrum? An electron beam of energy 8. As a result a 30.0 eV collided with a hydrogen atom in the ground state.7 eV Determine the energy of each proton in joules. What was the wavelength of the incident photon? Electrons of energy 4. a 32 n=1 n=∞ n=4 n=3 n=2 E=0 E = −1. me = 9. Consider the energy level diagram for the hydrogen atom shown in the diagram for question 26.70 eV E = −5.6 eV The following information applies to questions 29–34. Discuss the likelihood of a mercury atom colliding with an 8. Explain why there is a large increase in current through the circuit when electrons of energy 14 eV pass through the vapour. What is the momentum of the ejected electron? Determine the wavelength of the ejected electron? Calculate the energy of the photon that would be emitted if a mercury atom made a transition from the n = 4 state to the ground state. e = 1.0 eV photon. Calculate the wavelength of the photon that would be emitted if a mercury atom made a transition from the n = 4 state to the ground state.90 eV 1. What wavelength light will be emitted from the tube when V = 6. Calculate the energy of the ejected electron in electronvolts and in joules.63 × 10−34 J s. using the diagram in question 26.11 × 10−31 kg.11 × 10−31 kg) a Will any photons be emitted from the mercury atoms in the tube? Justify your answer.40 eV Consider the energy level diagram for the hydrogen atom shown above. c = 3.60 × 10−19 C.0 eV proton and a hydrogen atom in the ground state: A 30 28 A proton beam of energy 7.88 eV E = −1. (h = 6.63 × 10−34 J s) B 36 d C D Exam-style questions 245 . List all the possible photon energies that would be present in the emission spectra.10 eV 4. What is the shortest wavelength of light present in the emission spectra? 35 b will result in the hydrogen atom being excited to the first excited state will result in the hydrogen atom being excited to the second excited state will ionise the hydrogen atom will leave the hydrogen atom in the ground state. What is the momentum of a gamma ray with a wavelength of 3.00 eV travel through a glass tube containing mercury vapour.0 eV passes through some mercury vapour in the ground state.0 eV travel through a glass tube containing mercury vapour.0 pm? (h = 6. a 2.00 eV passes through some mercury vapour.80 eV 6. A collision between a 12. What is the minimum energy of an incident particle that could produce ionisation of a mercury atom in the ground state? c 33 b b Electrons of energy 9.2 V? b n=1 29 a Explain why this collision will eject an electron from the atom.39 eV E = −13. c An electron beam of energy 8.50 eV E = −10.4 eV electron is ejected from the atom.00 × 108 m s−1) 31 A photon collides with a mercury atom in the ground state. me = 9. A photon of energy 14. Which one of the following photon energies could not be produced from this interaction? A B C D c 34 d c 27 A hydrogen atom in the ground state collides with a 10. (h = 6.

There is good evidence that the Chinese had an understanding of magnetism even earlier. By understanding electromagnetism. and hence to shape. This century. the knowledge of electromagnetism and our uses for it increased at a tremendous rate. is of very basic importance to us. Two of them are types of nuclear forces. The atoms and molecules that make up our physical world are built on the electrical forces between their protons and electrons. Once that link was discovered. Apart perhaps from the bicycle. we increase our power to comprehend.the words electricity and magnetism come from the ancient Greek language. no modern mechanical means of transport would be possible without it.ELECTRIC POWER he existence of electric and magnetic forces has been known to humans since the days of the early Greek philosophers. television and mobile telephones—are based on electromagnetic technology. around 4000 years ago. (Electrical and magnetic forces are different aspects of the same fundamental force. The way we use this power will undoubtedly be of great significance to the future welfare of human life on Earth. And yet it wasn’t until a little less than 200 years ago that the link between the two was discovered by Hans Christian Oersted. laying the foundations for our modern ways of life. our world. Our homes are full of electrical machines of all sorts. the other two are gravitation and electromagnetism. Virtually all our communication systems— from printing machines to radio. both in terms of the workings of our modern technological world and in the development of a fundamental understanding of the nature of our Universe. An understanding of electricity and magnetism. then. In the next two chapters we will look at much more than the production of electricity by power stations.) It is electrical forces that hold the very fabric of matter together. . In fact. physicists have discovered that there are only four fundamental forces at work T in the Universe. Our factories are powered by electricity.

And yet less than 200 years ago most people thought of electricity and magnetism as being quite separate. The progress that has occurred as a result of our understanding of the connection between magnetism and electricity. gained only in the last 200 years. The photo on this page shows an aurora.CHAPTER 8 Magnets and electricity oday we talk of electricity and magnetism as though they are different aspects of the same thing. trains or aeroplanes either. no radio or TV. See section 8. no washing machine.5 for more details. Of course there would be no cars. no electric cooking or heating. some revision of the fundamentals of electricity covered in year 11 would be useful. distinct phenomena—with little but curiosity value. The northern and southern auroras are one of nature’s most beautiful phenomena. T BY THE END OF THIS CHAPTER you will have covered material from the study of electric power including: • the nature of magnets and the origin of magnetic fields • magnetic forces on currents and moving charges • applications of magnetic forces—including electric motors. And indeed they are! If you were to remove everything in your home that is based on electromagnetism you would be left with no electric light (except a torch perhaps). no telephone and certainly no computers and all the other modern technology on which we seem to be increasingly dependent. has truly been one of the remarkable achievements of humankind. Before commencing this chapter. They are produced when changed particles from the Sun enter the Earth’s magnetic field. Magnets and electricity 247 . The list would go on and on.

with its south pole to the geographic north and its north pole to the geographic south. more particularly. The space around the magnet must therefore be affected by the presence of the magnet. For example. Like magnetic poles repel each other. The most obvious magnetic effect is that any piece of iron will be attracted to a magnet. These observations soon give rise to some obvious questions: • Can we obtain separate north and south magnetic poles. If the magnet is free to swing vertically as well. Geographic North Pole Magnetic North Pole A magnet suspended so that it is free to rotate horizontally will always align itself in a north–south direction. We refer to the ends of magnets as magnetic poles. On the other hand there are some clear differences too. It is as though the Earth itself is acting as a huge magnet.2 The Earth as a magnet. whereas it is hard to keep an electric charge on an object. in the southern hemisphere the north pole end will point upwards as well as northwards. that of a magnetic field? • Are there other ways of producing magnetic effects? • Are there materials other than iron and its alloys that show noticeable magnetism? • What causes the Earth’s magnetic field? Why does it change slowly? What is its significance to us? S N Magnetic South Pole Geographic South Pole Figure 8. On experimenting with two magnets.8. The iron filings line themselves up with the field. just as we can obtain separate positive and negative charges? • Why is it that unmagnetised pieces of iron are attracted by either pole of a magnet? • Can we change or destroy the magnetism of a magnet? • How can we measure the strength of a magnet or. making it clear that there are ‘lines of force’ which seem to run from one end of the magnet to the other. An even clearer way to see the presence of this field is to sprinkle iron filings on a piece of card held over a magnet. where like charges repel and opposite charges attract and the force of attraction or repulsion increases as the distance between the charges decreases. This gives us a natural way to label the ends of the magnet. The one that always points to the north we call the north pole. that is. we find that each end of a magnet acts differently from the other. there is a magnetic field around the magnet— a space in which magnetic effects can be noticed. such as a rubbed plastic comb. This is one reason that some 19th century philosophers believed that there may be some connection between magnetism and electricity. and unlike magnetic poles attract each other.1 Fundamentals of magnetism Simple magnetism If you put a paper clip or pin near a magnet. then the other end will be repelled. it will be pulled towards the magnet.1 Iron filings sprinkled around (a) magnets with unlike poles together and (b) with like poles together. Magnetic poles do not run away through metal wires to ground as an electric charge will do. and the one that points south is called the south pole. Magnets are more or less ‘permanent’. for much more than 10 or 15 minutes. however. Figure 8. 248 ELECTRIC POWER . if one end of a magnet is attracted by a second magnet. The properties of magnets may remind us of the forces between electrical charges. The patterns in the fields clearly show the attraction and repulsion. In the northern hemisphere the north end points downwards.

particularly from the fact that cutting a magnet in half seemed to produce two new poles. one soon discovers that while all types of iron become magnetised when placed near a magnet. Comparing magnetic fields Before trying to answer fundamental questions about the nature of magnetism. Can we obtain separate north and south poles? We could try cutting a magnet in half. Physics file The north end of the needle in a good compass made for use in the southern hemisphere is a little heavier than the south end to compensate for the upward pointing field. each with its own north and south poles. Originally it was thought that the poles were some sort of physical entity which gave rise to the lines of force. We can see. We simply define the direction of the field as that of the direction of the magnetic force on the north pole of a magnet. we need to have a clear understanding of the concept of a magnetic field and its use in describing magnetic interactions. therefore. we always get more little magnets with two opposite poles. Magnets are DIPOLAR and the field around a magnet is called a DIPOLE FIELD. The first type is called ‘soft’ iron and the second ‘hard’ iron. Eventually it became clear. some types of iron lose their magnetism once the magnet is removed and others don’t. First let us look at the question of measuring the strength and direction of a magnetic field.4 The field lines around and inside a bar magnet. but all we get is two smaller magnets. The lines show the direction of the force on an (imaginary) single north pole. When a magnet is broken. It is easy to see why a magnet will always try to align itself with the field. The force on a south pole. Magnets and electricity 249 . N S N S N S N S N S N S N S Figure 8. chisels are hard iron—the difference is in the tempering process. and thus they attract. We call this effect induced magnetism. then.5 A strong magnet in the base induces each little leaf to become a magnet. Induced magnetism is a temporary phenomenon. A torque (a turning force that will try to rotate an object) will be created if the two poles are not aligned with the Figure 8. No matter how often we keep cutting magnets. but that the lines of force continued right through the magnet and out the other end. The filings show us that in the presence of the permanent magnet the piece of iron has also become a magnet.3 Magnets are always dipolar. As soon as the permanent magnet is removed. and return to the others later in this chapter. is always in the direction opposite to the field. why a permanent magnet will attract another piece of iron. Because magnets always have two poles they are said to be dipolar. that there was no such thing as a separate pole. (Nails are made of soft iron.) We can place a piece of soft iron close to a permanent magnet and use iron filings to look at the fields around the magnet and soft iron. In the northern hemisphere the opposite is the case. the soft iron loses its magnetism.We will answer two of these questions here. The permanent magnet has somehow ‘induced’ the piece of iron to become a magnet. Why does a magnet attract an unmagnetised piece of iron? In experimenting with magnets and iron. N S Figure 8. It induces the other piece of iron to become a magnet with the opposite pole closest. So if a compass made for use in one hemisphere is taken to the other it will appear to be a little out of balance. two new poles appear at the broken ends. and that they were embedded near the ends of the magnet.

an area where lodestones were found.8. mounted on the front of his chariot. It appears that the Chinese also discovered.7 A compass magnet is free to align itself with the Earth’s magnetic field. and with their north ends pointing toward the compass.field (see Figure 8. In a high-quality compass like this one. or a specially shaped and balanced magnet mounted in an oil-filled case—a magnetic compass. In Figure 8. the resultant field to which the compass will respond. 250 A simple piece of vector analysis enables us to compare the strengths of the two fields. and even wondered about their connection with the electrical phenomena associated with amber rubbed with fur. who found that the iron on the end of his staff was attracted to certain stones on Mount Ida. Figure 8. The symbol B is used to represent the vector magnetic field. (Another version is that the word magnet came from the name of a shepherd. from Magnesia. Around 600 BC the Greeks also discovered the properties of lodestones. Magnes. natural pieces of magnetite are found to be permanently magnetised. Early humans were probably aware of the properties of these natural curiosities. since the north pole of the compass is more strongly repelled by it than by magnet 2. that a steel needle could be magnetised.6). Consider this simple experiment. we can see that they can be added vectorially to give BR. In Figure 8. PHYSICS IN ACTION Natural magnets Magnetite. the case is filled with light oil to dampen the motion of the magnet. This will be true whether the magnet is a bar magnet hung on a string in the Earth's field. and magnet. (a) F N F F S (b) S N F Figure 8. Align two magnets so that they are at equal distances from the compass. (a) The torque will tend to rotate the magnet.6 The torque (turning force) on a magnet in a magnetic field. magnet 1 is clearly stronger than magnet 2. if B1 represents the field due to magnet 1 at the location of the compass and B2 represents that of magnet 2 at the same place. perhaps as a result of lightning strikes. and then used as a compass.) Although we are not ready to define the strength of a magnetic field in absolute terms. He is said to have had a compass. (b) The magnet is still subject to the opposing forces but now experiences zero torque. The Greeks gave us the words electricity. around 1100 BC. and the north end is slightly weighted to balance the upward component of the Earth’s field in the southern hemisphere. but the first recorded use of a lodestone as a compass was by a Chinese emperor around 2600 BC. but at right angles to each other. If the magnets were both of equal strength the compass would make an angle of 45° to the axes of the magnets. The north end of the compass will try to point away from both magnets. a natural oxide of iron (Fe3O4) is moderately abundant on the Earth’s surface. in the form of the figure of a woman who always pointed south. Place a small compass on a table. we can certainly compare the relative strengths of two fields. meaning ‘amber’. by stroking it with a lodestone. ELECTRIC POWER . These natural magnets are known as lodestones. Occasionally.9. a tiny iron filing near a bar magnet.

That is. The most intense artificial fields produced are over a million times that of the Earth.8 The compass needle points away from the north ends of the two magnets. At any position the direction the needle points is an indication of the relative strength of the Earth’s field compared with that of the magnet. 251 Magnets and electricity . so that B2 = B1tanθ.58 we can see that the strength of B2 is given by B2 = B1 × 0.9 The two magnetic fields add as vectors. The bar magnet is aligned east–west and the compass is moved along a line extending lengthwise from the magnet. The direction θ of the resultant field is given by tanθ = B2/B1. θ = 45°) we know that the two fields are equal in strength. The two fields would be equal. giving a resultant field to which the compass needle responds. but clearly magnet 1 is stronger than magnet 2 in this case. θ is 30°.0 2. we can use the Earth itself in place of one of the two magnets in an experiment similar to the one described in Figure 8. In Figure 8. against distance in cm from the magnet. in terms of the strength of the Earth’s field at that location. the ratio of the strength of the field of the magnet compared to the Earth’s field. The relative strengths at the other positions can be found from the value of the tangent of the angle (tanθ) as in the previous example. the field B2 due to magnet 2 is 58% of the field B1 of magnet 1. Note that in this case the field of the magnet is equal to the Earth’s field at about 23 cm from the magnet. The following graph gives the magnetic field strength of a typical bar magnet at various distances from its end. The strength of the Earth’s magnetic field To get some idea of the strength of the Earth’s field compared with that of a typical magnet. (If the angle had been 45°.N S 1 N W S E N 2 S Figure 8. (b) Bm Be 4. (a) N Where the compass points north-east (i.9.0 W S N x S E 0 Figure 8.e. tan θ = 1 and so B2 = B1. while the Earth’s field extends not only over the whole Earth.58. but for many thousands of kilometres out into space! PHYSICS IN ACTION BR θ B1 B2 Figure 8.8. As tan30° = 0.) Strong magnets can quite easily produce magnetic fields of around ten thousand times the strength of the Earth’s field.10 10 20 30 40 50 60 x (cm) The experimental set-up and the graph of Bm/Be. But of course these fields are concentrated into a few cubic centimetres or less.0 1.0 3.

Which of the following is true if d is increased? A B They are an inherent part of its atomic structure. The magnet is in the southern hemisphere and its N end is poining towards the geographical south pole. 2 C 5 N A S d N S Which of the following statements is true concerning a magnet attracting a piece of soft iron? A An attractive force greater than F will exist between the poles. • The Earth has a dipolar magnetic field which acts like a huge bar magnet. • An unmagnetised piece of iron will have magnetism induced in it when placed in an external magnetic field. • The magnetic field (B) is a vector quantity. Which of the following is true? Explain why a magnet will always try to align itself with the direction of the existing magnetic field. B B C C D 3 The following diagram shows a bar magnet suspended by a light wire. They depend on the arrangement of the atoms in the crystal lattice.8. due to the magnet shown was: a b c 10 −3B? B? 103B? C D 4 Repeatedly cutting a magnet in half always produces magnets with two opposite poles. • When a magnet is placed in a magnetic field. relative to the Earth's field B. • The direction of a magnetic field at a particular point is the same as that of the force on the single north pole of a magnet. A repulsive force greater than F will exist between the poles. 6 The soft iron is already a magnet before it interacts with the permanent magnet. which of the following can be deduced in relation to the poles of the magnet? 252 ELECTRIC POWER . The permanent magnet induces the soft iron to become a temporary magnet with the opposite pole closest.1 QUESTIONS 1 Explain how a magnetic field might be detected at any point in space. that is. Vector addition enables us to add fields and to compare the magnitudes of different fields. magnetic forces cause a torque which tends to align it with the field. 8. The magnet is in the southern hemisphere and its N end is pointing towards the geographical north pole. An attractive force less than F will exist between the poles. From this information. with the south end near the geographic north pole. north and south poles always occur together. A repulsive force less than F will exist between the poles.1 SUMMARY FUNDAMENTALS OF MAGNETISM • All magnets are dipolar. They depend on the shape and dimensions of the material. and unlike magnetic poles attract. The magnet is in the northern hemisphere and its N end is pointing towards the geographical north pole. 7 N X S The magnet is in the northern hemisphere and its N end is pointing towards the geographical south pole. The following diagram shows two bar magnets separated by a distance d. The permanent magnet induces the soft iron to become a permanent magnet with the opposite pole closest. N S N W S E A B In what direction would a compass point if it was placed at position X and the field strength at X. In the following diagram take the strength of the Earth's magnetic field at position X as B units. • Like magnetic poles repel. the north end of the magnet pointing in the direction of the field. The direction of the force on the south pole of a magnet is in the direction opposite to the field. At this separation the magnitude of the magnetic force between the poles is equal to F.

0 cm P 1. N A S N 1. describe the direction of the resultant magnetic field at point P for magnets with the following relative fields: a b c 9 What would be the magnitude of the magnetic field at point B? magnet X = B.0 cm N Y S N W S E 8 Ignoring the magnetic field of the Earth.5 cm 1. Two strong bar magnets which produce magnetic fields of equal strength are arranged as shown.0 cm 1.The following information relates to questions 8 and 9. The following information relates to questions 10 and 11.0 cm S E X N B C N SW S 1.5 cm 1. magnet Y = 10−3B magnet X = B. Two identical bar magnets X and Y are located as shown. magnet Y = 103B magnet X = B. while the field at P due to magnet Y is equal to 3B. describe the approximate direction of the resulting magnetic field at: a b point A point C. What is the magnitude of the resultant magnetic field at point P? Magnets and electricity 253 . magnet Y = 3B 11 The magnetic field at point P due to magnet X is equal to 4B. 10 Ignoring the magnetic field of the Earth.

These lectures became so popular that the University of Copenhagen created a special position for him. As a young physics graduate in Copenhagen in the early 1800s. the idea that everything is somehow connected. Figure 8. but that a wire carrying an electric current also experiences a force if it is placed in a magnetic field. 254 ELECTRIC POWER . The iron filings are acting as little compasses and show the circular nature of the magnetic field. the greater the effect. The stronger the current.2 The foundations of electromagnetism The first discoveries Early experimenters wondered whether there were ways (other than using lodestones) to produce a magnetic field. Volta’s piles could deliver quite a bit of power—enough to make a wire glow red hot or to produce a brilliant white light from a carbon arc. His discovery can be understood by placing some small compasses near a vertical wire through which a strong electric current is flowing. but without much success. Oersted recognised the significance of this discovery. and the closer the compasses are to it. perhaps. he had an inclination to believe in the ‘unity of nature’. As a result.11 Hans Christian Oersted discovered the magnetic effect of an electric current in 1820. by passing an electric current through molten soda and potash. Benjamin Franklin had aroused greater interest from scientists by showing that lightning was actually electricity on a grand scale. he noticed that when he switched on a current from a ‘voltaic pile’ a magnetic compass nearby moved. but did not attract much serious attention from scientists. It would have been these types of phenomena that Oersted was demonstrating in his lectures. showed that they contained two new metals never seen before—sodium and potassium. for example. 70 years before Oersted. Hans Christian Oersted was looking for a university teaching job. and just 1 year later Alessandro Volta invented the ‘voltaic pile’. The electric current is creating a magnetic field. The compasses tend to become aligned at a tangent to circles around the wire. For this reason he felt that there must be some link between electricity and magnetism: even. In 1820 the Danish physicist Hans Christian Oersted came up with an answer that eventually had enormous consequences for the development of human society. Even more interestingly perhaps. Humphrey Davy (director of the Royal Institution in London). that they were different aspects of the same phenomenon.8. Oersted was also something of a philosopher and had visited the famous German philosophers of the time and studied their work. Physics file By the early 17th century. Unlike the electrostatic machines.12 The magnetic effect around a current-carrying wire. Further investigation convinced him that it was indeed the current that was affecting the compass. While preparing for a lecture. However. ‘static’ electricity and ‘magnetostatics’ had become interesting curiosities. the Frenchman André-Marie Ampère had given a comprehensive mathematical description of the effects. He also performed new experiments which showed that an electric current responds to the magnetic field produced by another electric current— magnetism without magnets! Figure 8. To earn a little income he gave public lectures on recent developments in physics—particularly the phenomena associated with an electric current from a ‘voltaic pile’. This produced current electricity from piles of metal discs separated by acidsoaked paper—the forerunner of our modern batteries. He went on to find that not only did an electric current create a magnetic field. But in 1800 Galvani discovered that electricity could be produced by the chemical action of different metals. Within weeks of hearing of Oersted’s work. The current seems to be creating a circular magnetic field.

are in the direction of the external field (fingers = field). (fingers) field B (palm) force F (thumb) current I I S N F Figure 8. the wire experiences a force at right angles to the current and to the field. (It is called a right-hand screw rule because if you turn a normal righthanded screw in the direction of your fingers. Another simple right-hand force rule helps remember these relative directions. the magnetic field is directly proportional to the electric current. the wire moves—there is a magnetic force acting on it. and the direction of the force is out from the palm of the hand. as you would push. Magnets and electricity 255 . twice as far away. and drops to zero if the current and field are parallel. When a current flows in the wire.15 The right-hand palm rule gives the direction of the force F on a current I in a magnetic field B.It is easy to remember which way the magnetic field around a current points by using the right-hand screw rule. I is the current. twice the electric current gives twice the magnetic field. Further investigation reveals that the force is maximum if the current is perpendicular to the field. Mathematically this can be written as: KI B = .14 When current flows in the flexible wire between the poles of a strong U magnet. Orient your right hand so that your thumb points in the direction of the current (as for the previous rule) and your fingers. the stronger the magnetic field. If you were to grasp the conductor with your right hand in such a way that your thumb points in the direction of the conventional electric current. The direction of the force is perpendicular to both the current and the field. your fingers curl around in the direction of the field. The effect of a magnetic field on an electric current The fact that an electric current responds to an external magnetic field can most easily be seen by letting a wire hang freely near a magnet. held straight this time. Figure 8. It was found that the magnetic field decreased directly with distance. the magnetic field is half as strong. The force is then in the direction we would normally push: out from our palm.13 The direction of the field around a straight wire is given by the righthand screw rule. the fingers represent the direction of the field. where B is the strength of the r magnetic field. The thumb represents the direction of the current. it moves in the direction of your thumb.) Physics file Naturally. As well. r is the distance from the wire and K is a constant which depends on the medium around the current. the closer we are to the electric current. You may also see this rule called the right-hand grip rule. N S I PRACTICAL ACTIVITY 27 Direction of induced current in a wire Figure 8.

We can regard one as creating a magnetic field and the other as responding to that field. and use the maximum current that is safely available from the power supply. the force is repulsive (Figure 8. • It is important not to confuse the two right-hand rules. there is a magnetic force between two parallel circuits. • As a current produces a magnetic field and also experiences a force when placed in a magnetic field. This field is created by the current. You can use the two right-hand rules in turn to show that if the currents flow in the same direction. • An electric current placed in a perpendicular magnetic field experiences a magnetic force perpendicular to both the current and the field. This force is the result of putting a current in a magnetic field. the palm rule gives the direction of the force on a current carrying wire placed in an external field. The direction of the force is given by the right-hand palm rule. The right-hand force rule (sometimes called the right-hand palm rule or just the right-hand rule) tells us the direction of the force on a current in a magnetic field (Figure 8. You can repeat this experiment with a length of flexible wire connected to a power supply and looped over a hook on the wall. 8. The screw rule gives the direction of the field produced by a current. Ampère showed that there is also a magnetic force between two parallel electric currents. It is very important not to get the two right-hand rules mixed up.16).16 Two wires with a current flowing in opposite directions experience a repulsive force.13) tells us the direction of the circular magnetic field that occurs around a currentcarrying conductor. as they apply to quite different situations.F I I F Figure 8. When you turn the power on and off the wires should swing out as a result of the repulsive force. the force is attractive.15). The direction of the field is given by the right-hand screw rule. 256 ELECTRIC POWER .2 SUMMARY THE FOUNDATIONS OF ELECTROMAGNETISM • An electric current produces a magnetic field which is circular around the current. The right-hand screw rule (Figure 8. Have the wires about 2 cm apart and at least 2 metres long. and that if they flow in opposite directions. Don’t confuse it with the field created by the current itself.

current-carrying conductor. magnitude I into the page. what is the direction of the magnetic force exerted on it by the Earth’s magnetic field? For the current described in question 2. C and D? The direction of the current in the conductor is now changed so that it is carried out of the page. what is the direction of the magnetic force exerted on it by the Earth’s magnetic field? 8 What is the direction of the magnetic field at point P due to conductor m? What is the direction of the magnetic field at point P due to conductor n? What is the direction of the resultant magnetic field at P? With conductor n carrying current into the page. straight. what is the direction of the magnetic force on conductor n due to the field produced by conductor m? With conductor n carrying current out of the page.8. B.2 QUESTIONS The following information applies to questions 1–4. What is the direction of the magnetic field produced by this conductor at the four points A. 5 a What is the direction of the magnetic field at point P due to conductor m? What is the direction of the magnetic field at point P due to conductor n? What is the magnitude of the resultant magnetic field at P? b A N 6 c D X B W S E 7 At which of the points Q. m and n. R and S. each carrying currents of equal N Q m X I P n X I R W S S E Magnets and electricity 257 . The following diagram shows a cross-sectional view of a long. a C 1 What is the direction of the magnetic field produced by this conductor at each of the points A. with its axis perpendicular to the plane of the page. B. could the resultant magnetic field due to the currents and the Earth be zero? The direction of the current in conductor n is now reversed. The conductor carries an electric current into the page. C and D? For the current described in question 1. what is the direction of the magnetic force on conductor n due to the field produced by conductor m? 2 b c 3 a 4 b The following information applies to questions 5–8. The following diagram shows a cross-sectional view of two long parallel conductors.

But what does the magnetic force act upon? The answer is that it acts on a length of current. F = IlB You may realise that earlier we effectively defined the relative strength of a magnetic field in terms of the torque forces on a compass needle.8. The unit for magnetic field then becomes the newton per amp metre (N A−1 m−1). each with the same current. The force on a wire carrying a curent in a magnetic field is proportional to the current. If we had two wires. the strength of the magnetic field. This is not surprising. Physics file An older unit for B.) Table 8. F B= Il We can write this relationship as F = I lB. high-voltage electricity.5 gauss. What do we mean by the magnetic field B? In discussing the gravitational field g and the electric field E. 10−3 T. We could see this experiment as either doubling the current or as doubling the length of the wire in the field. the gauss. and tied them together in the magnetic field. as well as the gauss! (See Physics file at left. forces and fields Physics file The force on a wire carrying a current in a magnetic field (B) clearly depends on the amount of current flowing (I ) and the length of wire in the field (l ). we might well expect that the force on the pair would be double the force on each one separately. The Earth’s magnetic field at the surface is around 5 × 10−5 T. and so we see that the constant in our earlier proportionality is B. a source of high-frequency. F ∝ I l. The Earth’s magnetic field has an intensity of around 0. That this is equivalent to the force on an electric current will become clear as we discuss the real nature of magnets. or 500 mG.3 Currents. The intensity of the magnetic field is then the force per unit length of unit current. and the strength of the field. 1 gauss = 10−4 tesla or 100 µT. Now we can see that there is a natural way to measure the strength of a field in terms of the force (in newtons) on a current (in amperes) in a field of length l (in metres). including the Tesla coil.17 The magnitude of the force on a current depends on the component of the field at right angles to the current. and microtesla. the meaning of a field was clear. it was the force per unit of mass or unit of charge respectively and the units were newton per kilogram and newton per coulomb. A field of 1 tesla is a very strong field. the length of wire in the field. He was also a prolific inventor of electrical machines of all sorts. or 50 µT. B⊥ = B sinθ. For this reason a number of smaller units (especially the millitesla.e. of course. In either case we are not surprised to find twice the force. based on the cgs system of units (centimetre/ gram/second) is also commonly used. This unit was given the name tesla (T) in honour of Nikola Tesla. i. That is. Another way of writing the expression is F = IlB⊥ where B⊥ is the component of the field at right angles to the current. You are likely to come across both these units. This is equivalent to 0. Earlier when we talked of the strength of a magnetic field we put off the question of the units for magnetic field. In fact. The surface of a neutron star Largest artificially produced pulsed fields Very strong electromagnets and ‘supermagnets’ Magnetic storms on the Sun Alnico and ferrite magnets The Earth’s surface Interstellar space Smallest value achieved in a magnetically shielded room 108 T 103 T 1–20 T 1T 10−2–1 T 5 × 10−5 T 10−10 T 10−14 T 258 ELECTRIC POWER . I B B θ F (out of page) Figure 8. 10−6 T) are in common use.05 mT.1 Some typical magnetic fields. 1 TESLA = 1 newton per amp metre (1 T = 1 N A−1 m−1) Physics file Nikola Tesla (1856–1943) was the first person to advocate the use of alternating current (AC) generators for use in town power-supply systems. We say that the unit for field strength will be the field that produces a force of 1 newton on a 1 metre length of a current of 1 ampere. Simple experiments will soon confirm that indeed the force is directly proportional to each of these.

due to the Earth’s magnetic field.2 × 10−3 N Using the right-hand rule enables us to find that the direction of the force will be to the east if the current is flowing north. 8. we have been careful to avoid the term ‘magnetic field strength’. F = IlBsinθ = 100 × 1 × 5 × 10−5 × sin 40° = 3. Worked example 8. If we assume the Earth’s magnetic field is 5 × 10−5 T. To express the relationship between them fully we need what is called ‘vector cross multiplication’. l and B). this is taken to mean that the magnitude of vector F is the product IlBsinθ. Solution As the line is running east–west.) Solution This time the field and current are not at right angles and so we need to include the sinθ. While we have talked of the strength of the magnetic field. as in the diagram on the left.3A. If we write F = Il × B. which is actually the name of a slightly different quantity in more advanced physics.There is often some confusion around the name and units of B. In fact. Determine the magnetic force. and the direction is at right angles to both l and B and in the sense given by the right-hand rule. The dip angle is the angle of the field below the horizontal and so it is also the angle between the current and the field. Physics file The three quantities force. l and B is: F = IlBsinθ. Worked example 8. on a suspended power line running east–west and carrying a current of 100 A. A field of 1 T is a very strong field. the current and field are at right angles. • The unit for magnetic field B is the tesla. if the field and current are parallel there is no force at all.3A runs north–south instead of east–west. the force is correspondingly less. The general formula to describe the relationship between F. I. or to the west if the current is flowing south. where θ is the angle between l and B. A current of 1 A in a field of 1 T will experience a force of 1 N on each metre of its length in the field. where θ is the angle between l and B. The name given to B is more correctly magnetic induction or magnetic flux density. the magnitude of the force on 1 metre of this power line is given by: F = IlB = 100 × 1 × 5 × 10−5 = 5 × 10−3 N The direction of the force will be up and a little to the south. Magnets and electricity 259 . If the 100 A power line in Worked example 8. but for simplicity we will continue (in line with common practice) to just refer to the strength of the magnetic field. • The direction of the force is given by the right-hand palm rule and is perpendicular to both the field and the current. In practice the current in a power line is normally AC and so the force would alternate in direction. FORCES AND FIELDS • The magnitude of the force on a wire carrying a current I in a magnetic field B is given by: F = IlBsinθ where l is the length of current in the field and θ is the angle between the current and field. If the field is not at right angles.3B. and the dip angle of the Earth’s field is 40°. length and field are all vectors (F. B F N W I E S We have seen that an electric current that is placed in a magnetic field at right angles to the current experiences a force.3 SUMMARY CURRENTS. what would be the force on the line? (The dip angle is the angle of the field below the horizontal.

0 mm section of conductor for: a b B = 1. S 10 I 4 For diagram (a). Over time the ground underneath the eastern tower subsides.0 × 10−5 T.0 cm section of conductor with: a b B θ l The angle between B and I is θ. straight.0 × 10−3 T 5 For diagram (b). M and N. 2 Assuming that g = 10 N kg−1 and that the total mass of the power line is 50 kg. calculate the value of the ratio of the weight to the magnetic force on the power line when carrying a current of 100 A.0 × 10−2 N north for B = 0. L X 5. so that the power line is lower at that tower.0 × 10−3 T north-west. for B = 0. would the magnitude of the magnetic force on the power line in this new situation be: A B C N M X A 25 cm N X B W S E 3 The magnetic field at point B due to M is equal to 4. currentcarrying conductors. B = 2.0 × 10−3 N south.0 A into the page. The magnetic field B of these magnets. Assuming all other factors are the same. Three current-carrying conductors L.0 mm section of conductor of: a b 8.0 A l = 2.8. The following information applies to questions 8 and 9.10 T I = 1. each carrying currents of 5.00 cm M 8 N W 5.0 A flowing through M out of the page.0 × 10 −3 T I = 1.0 mm l = 5.3 QUESTIONS The following applies to questions 1–3. and the currents I. M and N. calculate the magnitude and direction of the magnetic force on a 5. in an external magnetic field of magnitude B. current-carrying conductors.10 T 2. located at points A and B.0 A out of the page. Assume that the strength of the magnetic field of the Earth in this region = 5. B = 2.0 mT south.0 T 260 ELECTRIC POWER . carrying a current of magnitude I. are mutually perpendicular in all cases. Calculate the magnitude of the magnetic force on this conductor for: a b c I = 2. Calculate the magnitude and direction of the magnetic force per metre of conductor on: a b N M greater than before? the same as before? less than before? The following information applies to questions 4–6.0 mA I = 10 A I = 5. calculate the magnitude and direction of the current that would result in a magnetic force on a 2.00 cm X N S E (a) N S N W S E Calculate the magnitude and direction of the magnetic force per metre on M for: a b (b) a current of 2.0 A into the page.0 A into the page. N (c) N S 9 If the current flowing in conductor L is switched off.0 A out of the page.0 mT B = 1.0 cm l = 1. B = 0. what would be the direction of the resultant magnetic field at the point where M is located? The following diagram shows a conductor of length l.0 A flowing through M into the page. each located between the poles of a permanent magnet. The following diagram shows two parallel.0 mm θ = 90° θ = 0° θ = 30° I = 3. B = 1. calculate the magnitude and direction of the magnetic force on a 1.50 T I = 3.50 T Calculate the magnetic force on this power line if it carries a current of: a b 7 80 A from west to east 50 A from east to west. a current of 1. each with their axes perpendicular to the plane of the paper are located as shown in the following diagram. 1 6 For diagram (c). The resultant magnetic field at the position of M is equal to 1. The diagram below depicts cross-sectional views of three long.0 T B = 0. An east–west power line of length 100 m is suspended between two towers.

If a long wire is made into a circle and a current is passed through it. in fact. When the current is turned on. We saw earlier that a piece of soft iron placed in a magnetic field becomes a temporary magnet. each cross representing a ring of field going into the page and each dot the ring reemerging from the page. magnets and atoms (a) I B out of page (b) The great significance of the work of Oersted and Ampère was that magnetism was seen to be primarily an electrical phenomenon. is called a dipole field. This can be checked either by exploring the field with a small compass. This type of field. (c) Field lines coming out of the page are shown by dots.20 (a) The field lines around a single current loop. (a) (b) B into page B I B Figure 8. in fact. Magnetism could be obtained without magnets! Ampère. and so will tend to cancel. in which lines appear to converge towards two ‘poles’ at either end of the solenoid or bar magnet. This arrangement is called an PRACTICAL ACTIVITY 28 Magnetic field strength in a coil Magnets and electricity 261 .18 (a) The field around a straight current-carrying wire is circular. These can be represented by dots if the lines are coming out of the page and by little crosses if they are going into the page. the magnetic field is enhanced inside the circle and somewhat diminished outside. The field around the solenoid is like the field around a normal bar magnet. x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Figure 8.19. it can be 1000 times greater. If many loops are placed side by side. whereas at any point outside the circle the contribution to the field from opposite sides of the loop is in opposite directions.8. The Earth’s field is another example of a dipole field. or by putting iron filings on a card around the solenoid. just as Ampère said. The field is now into the page in the centre and out of the page around the outside. A piece of soft iron can easily be put right inside the solenoid. making the total field very much stronger than that due to the current alone.) So the field around the loop could be drawn as in Figure 8. showed that the magnetic effects of a coil of wire carrying a current (a solenoid ) were just the same as that of a permanent magnet of similar size and shape. those going into the page by crosses. It is easy to see why this is so. and the dots the point of the arrow coming towards you.4 Magnetic fields around currents. I I I Figure 8. (The crosses representing the tail feathers of an arrow going away from you. This is because inside the circle the field from all parts of the wire is pointing in the same direction (into the page if the current is clockwise). By way of contrast. the field around a long straight current is a non-dipole field—the lines do not converge towards any ‘poles’ at all. This can easily be done by winding many turns of wire into a coil (solenoid). their fields all add and there is a much stronger effect. The field from the iron is now added to that of the current. (b) The wire is bent into a clockwise loop.19 The density of the crosses inside the loop will be greater than the density of the dots outside. We often need to draw field lines pointing into or out of the page to represent the magnetic field around a current. the field of the current induces magnetism in the iron. (b) The field lines become much more concentrated inside a solenoid. suggesting a stronger field inside the loop.

or 1018). 262 ELECTRIC POWER . When the external field is removed.22 When placed in an external field. but if all the domains are oriented differently. Normally the directions of their dipoles are random and so their fields all cancel out. These groups of atoms are called the domains. The groups contain huge numbers of atoms (around a billion billion. Permanent magnets need to be made out of iron that is as ‘hard’ as possible. cobalt and gadolinium. in soft iron) or they may retain their new directions (e. only a small number of materials are ferromagnetic. not right throughout the whole piece of metal. The extent to which these things happen determines how strong the magnet will become. in some way. towards the south pole of another magnet. The arrows indicate the direction of the current as seen from that end. The fact that a relatively small electric current in a coil around a piece of iron can turn the iron into a magnet is a reminder that all magnetism seems to be electrical in its basic nature. The compass points in the direction of the field lines. nickel. A simple way to remember which end of a solenoid is which pole is to put arrows on the letters N and S as shown. the domains may flip back to their random directions (e. but are still rather small in size (of the order of micrometres—10−6 m). N S electromagnet. non-magnetic magnetic Figure 8. Although all atoms have spinning electrons. and not all pieces of iron are magnets. It turns out that while almost all of the magnetic dipoles do line up with their neighbours. This was the obvious question that Ampère asked: If magnetic effects could be produced by electricity alone. Each domain has a very strong (but tiny) magnetic field. in hard iron). the domains that are oriented in the right direction grow and the others either shrink or change direction. They are made by heating the iron in a strong field. the overall effects will cancel out. or whole domains may switch their orientation so that they are more in line with the field. iron in which the domains are very resistant to changes in their orientation once the iron is cool.g. they do it in large groups of atoms. The heat enables the domains to change more easily. two things can happen: the domains whose magnetism is already pointing in the direction of the field may grow by (in a manner of speaking) taking over nearby groups of atoms. that is.Figure 8. magnets had tiny electric currents in them? PHYSICS IN ACTION Magnetic domains Ferromagnetic substances include iron (and some of its compounds and alloys). Electromagnets in various forms are used in vast numbers in our modern world.21 This solenoid has an effective ‘north’ end at the left and a ‘south’ end at the right. what did this imply about magnets? Could it be that.g. When the iron is put into a magnetic field.

up to the huge electromagnets used in junk yards to pick up whole cars. many of the little electromagnets are aligned in the same direction. (a) (b) (c) Figure 8. in fact. PRACTICAL ACTIVITY 29 Investigating electromagnetic induction Magnets and electricity 263 . The major contributor to the magnetism in each of these is iron. less expensive and less fragile rare earth magnets use neodymium. however. He felt that all the ‘molecules’ of iron (we would now say atoms) had their own permanent. No matter how big or small the magnet is. Alnico stands for aluminium. Barium or strontium is often added to make a stronger crystal structure. In fact. In the 1970s it was found that the rare earth element samarium could be alloyed with cobalt to produce a very strong rare earth magnet. Figure 8. A normal magnet is really made up of huge numbers of these tiny electromagnets. just as a solenoid does. making them like little electromagnets. iron and boron. they are often referred to as ceramic ferrites. both in the case of putting a piece of iron near a magnet and in putting a soft iron core in a solenoid. the elements added to iron to make an alloy which has superior magnetic properties compared with normal hard iron. The most widely used magnets are now made from ferrite. Materials in which this happens are described as ferromagnetic. The little electromagnets in the iron become aligned by the influence of the other magnet or current (just as little magnets will line themselves up with each other).24 (a) A little atomic electromagnet with its magnetic field.23 The electromagnet has become an extremely useful device. (b) Many little electromagnets oriented randomly produce no external field. Each one of these tiny electromagnets has two ‘poles’ itself. there is a continuous field threading through each little electromagnet. cutting it will not enable us to find a single pole. and then add their fields to that of the original field. at this level it is hardly worth speaking of poles at all. Physics file There are three main types of permanent magnet: alnico. Natural lodestone is a form of ferrite. In a permanent magnet. (c) Many little electromagnets aligned with their fields parallel produce a large external field.Ampère’s explanation of the magnetisation of iron was. The reason that cutting a magnet in half does not give us separate poles is now clear. from the tiny. through the enormous variety of relays (electric switches). high-speed electromagnets that operate the pins in a dot matrix printer. Normally these little ‘electromagnets’ are oriented in all different directions so that their fields cancel each other. closed current loops. We can also now understand induced magnetism. remarkably like the modern theory. nickel and cobalt. It is used in all sorts of applications. We now know that the atomic electromagnets that arise from a current loop are due to the electrons spinning around in the iron atoms. compressing it and then heating it strongly. or iron oxide (Fe2O3). This tends to happen within groups of atoms called domains (see previous Physics in Action). Newer. ferrite and rare earth. Because they are made by grinding the ferrite into a very fine powder. and physicists have developed a very good picture of the fundamental mechanism of magnetism. so that their fields add together to make a field big enough to spread out from the magnet into its surroundings. What we have called the poles are really just the two sides of the current loop.

These currents are themselves generated by the magnetic field they create. It is thought that the present rate of decrease in the strength of the field may indicate that we might be due for another reversal within the next few thousand years. Geophysicists now believe they have a fairly good picture of this process. Most map users know that even over a few years the magnetic declination (the angle between true north and magnetic north) changes slightly. would we lose the magnetic shield that protects us from the high energy particles from the Sun and cosmic rays? No one really knows. The magnetic field of the Earth arises from huge electric currents deep inside the Earth. with its ‘S’ pole uppermost.0 2. But there is no need for concern: as far as the Earth’s magnetic field is concerned. These irregularities are taken as an indication that the process that generates the field is itself a rather turbulent one. If it were to keep up the present rate of change it would disappear within 2000 years.6 million years there have been about 15 changes of polarity. This reflects the fact that the Earth’s field is actually in a constant state of turmoil! Over thousands of years it changes very considerably. Of course.25 Magnetic declination changes gradually. although possibly with some damage. By looking at the magnetism set in rocks that were formed at known times in the Earth’s geological history. there is no huge bar magnet inside the Earth. the last being about 730 000 years ago. but careful measurement shows that it varies irregularly over the Earth’s surface. The present declination and the annual change are recorded on official maps. However. Not only does the Earth’s field change in time.0 3. In Australia it varies from around 45 µT in the north to 60 µT in the south. But where do the electric currents come from and how do we know anyway? Perhaps the clearest indication that the magnet inside the Earth is not a ‘permanent’ one is that the field of the Earth varies with time. At present the Earth’s field varies from around 25 µT in South America to 65 µT near the magnetic poles. the iron in it becomes permanently magnetised as a result of being in the Earth’s field.PHYSICS IN ACTION The Earth: One huge electromagnet It is common to see pictures illustrating the Earth’s magnetic field with a large bar magnet. in the last 1000 years its average strength has dropped by about 40%.5 1.0 Millions of years before present 4. It seems that it has undergone complete reversals of polarity at rather irregular intervals. inside the Earth. it produces the magnetic field from huge electric currents generated in the swirling molten iron that makes up the Earth’s core. In other words. 264 ELECTRIC POWER . this sort of change is quite normal! When molten rock sets hard. In fact. Figure 8.26 Over the last 5 million years the direction of the Earth’s magnetic field has reversed at least 20 times.0 Figure 8. In the last 3. If we were to have a reversal. the good news is that the fossil record shows that life on Earth has survived reversals in the past. geophysicists are able to deduce the story of the Earth’s magnetic field. epoch Brunhes Matuyama Gauss Gilbert reversed field normal field Present 0. They see the Earth as a self-sustaining dynamo-electromagnet.

8. The following diagram shows a current-carrying solenoid located next to a long. the fields from each atom tend to align so that they add together to produce a greater field. The diagrams below show a current loop with its plane parallel to the page. • The field around a loop or solenoid is a dipole field. The following diagram shows a loop carrying a current I which produces a field B in the centre of the loop. Insert a copper cylinder inside the solenoid. like that of a bar magnet. so that the resultant field is 2B. The current is doubled. The direction of the current is reversed. A current-carrying solenoid. A permanent magnet. • The magnetic field of a solenoid is much stronger inside than outside. x B C Which one or more of the following produces a dipole field? A A long. A solenoid cannot induce magnetism in a piece of: A B C D Magnets and electricity 265 . current-carrying conductor C (perpendicular to page) that carries a current out of the page. B A C W N E S I I (a) 1 I I (b) 5 What is the direction of the magnetic field inside the loop in diagram (a)? What is the direction of the magnetic field inside the loop of diagram (b)? Explain why the magnetic field strength inside a current loop is stronger than an equivalent point outside a loop. The following information applies to questions 5–8. a magnetic field originates from the electrons orbiting in atoms. and is stronger inside the loop than outside. • A soft iron core in a solenoid can increase the overall strength of the magnetic field up to around 1000 times. nickel cobalt aluminium gadolinium. What is the direction of the magnetic force on C? Which one or more of the following would cause this solenoid to produce a magnetic field of greater strength than before? A 2 3 7 4 8 x x x x I x x x x 2B x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x I 9 Increase the value of I. which point (A or B) represents the north pole of this solenoid? If the direction of the current through the solenoid is reversed. What would the magnitude and direction of the resultant field at the centre of the loop become in each of the following cases? a b c B C 10 The current in the loop is switched off.4 SUMMARY • The magnetic field produced by a single loop of current is perpendicular to the loop.4 QUESTIONS The following information applies to questions 1 and 2. 8. At the fundamental level. straight. It is in a region where there is already a steady field of B (the same as that due to I) directed into the page. current-carrying conductor. straight. This alignment can be permanent (hard iron) or temporary (soft iron). • In ferromagnetic materials. what is the subsequent direction of the magnetic force on C? The direction of the current through the solenoid is returned to its original direction (clockwise) and the direction of the current through C is reversed (it is now into the page). • All magnetism is electrical in nature. Insert a soft iron cylinder inside the solenoid. 6 If the direction of the magnetic force on this conductor is north.

the force on the faster charges must be greater to compensate for the fact that there are less of them. Now imagine that in that 1 m of wire the current is carried by n charges which each carry q coulomb of charge. As the magnetic force on either of these currents is the same. the current is given simply by I = Qv. (a) (b) x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Physics file The force on a 1-metre length of wire carrying a current I in a perpendicular field B will be given by F = IB (taking l = 1). and divide this by the number of charges that make up that current. The current in the coils varies rapidly in order to create the magnetic field which causes the beam to sweep across the screen at the same time as it is moving down the screen. If we imagine an electric current in a wire to be equivalent to a stream of moving charged particles. 25 times every second. the electrons rushing down the length of a TV tube at enormous speeds are deflected by the magnetic force they experience as they pass through the ‘yoke’—the coils of copper wire at the back of the tube (Figure 8. which might be electrons in a metal wire. This suggests that the magnetic force on an electric current is really a force on the moving charges that make up that current. or yoke. electrons and mercury ions in a fluorescent tube. The force Fq on each individual charge is then given by: F IB Fq = = n n If the charges are all moving at speed v they will take t = 1/v seconds to move through this 1-metre length. or cations and anions in an electrolytic cell. In other words the current I depends on the total amount of charge Q and the speed v at which the charges are moving. Thus we should be able to find an expression for the force on an individual charge which will depend on these two quantities. making it possible to make the screen reasonably short. In each case it is simply the total rate of flow of charge—the current—that determines the field produced or the force experienced.8. This is indeed the case. it is not hard to see that a given current could be produced either by having a large number of charges moving relatively slowly or by having a smaller number of charges moving very fast. . For example. The nature of the flowing charge that makes up the current does not matter: the same magnetic field is produced around it. the velocity and the field. at the neck of a TV cathode ray tube cause the beam to be deflected through a large angle. The current will be given by I = Q/t where Q is the total charge (nq) that moves through the 1-metre length in time t.27 The deflection coils. This suggests that the force on the individual charges that make up the current will depend on their speed v as well as their charge q. and if it is put into a magnetic field the same force is experienced. This can be done if we start with the expression for the total force on a certain length of current. So the expression for the force on a single charge q becomes IB QvB nqvB Fq = = = = qvB n n n 266 ELECTRIC POWER Figure 8. As this time t = 1/v. The result is that the force is proportional to the charge.27b). Altogether it traces out 625 horizontal lines in two vertical sweeps of the screen.5 Forces on moving charges An electric current is a flow of electric charges.

The Earth’s magnetic field protects us from a stream of very high-energy particles. but this time the current direction is represented by the velocity of the positive charges. As the particles approach the Earth they encounter the magnetic field and are deflected in such a way that they spiral towards the poles—losing much of their energy and creating the wonderful auroras (the southern aurora. when the high-energy particles in the solar wind from the Sun meet the Earth’s field they experience this same force. Remember that we have assumed the field was perpendicular to the motion of the charges.28 Charged particles from the Sun or deep space are trapped by the Earth’s magnetic field which causes them to spiral towards the poles. Furthermore. is just the opposite. emitted by the Sun. mostly protons. The direction of the force on a negative charge. then the expression becomes: Fq = qvB sinθ If a moving object experiences a net force which is constant in magnitude and always at right angles to its motion. for example an electron. and the northern aurora. The fingers represent the direction of the perpendicular component of the field. As they do this they lose their energy and become harmless to the life on Earth. N charged particles from Sun S Figure 8. this is a relationship between vector quantities. If it is not. it turns out. or aurora australis.The magnitude of the force Fq on a charge q moving with velocity v perpendicular to a field B is given by Fq = qvB Physics file The right-hand palm rule is used again to find the direction of the force on the moving charges. is extremely important for all life on Earth. or aurora borealis)—a visible benefit of the action of the Earth’s magnetic field on moving charges! For more information see the ‘Synchrotron and applications’ Detailed Study on the Heinemann Physics 12 CD. Magnets and electricity 267 . The direction of the force is as it was in the case of the force on a current. B⊥. and again the force on the charges is in the direction you would normally push with your right hand. the thumb this time represents the direction of the velocity v of positive charge q. its direction will be changed but not its speed. This. Like the equation for the force on a current. this will result in the object moving in a circle. We can see that a particle travelling at a steady speed in a magnetic field is going to experience just this type of force and so will move with circular motion. As we have seen. Mass spectrometers and particle accelerators both exploit this fact.

Fundamentally. Because the gas is so hot it is ionised and so traces out a gigantic arc as the charged particles move in the Sun’s enormous magnetic field. Figure 8.30 The direction of the force on a positive and a negative moving charge as they travel in a magnetic field directed into the page. magnetism is a force between charges moving relative to each other. x x F x x x + x x x x x x x x x x v x x x x v x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x (a) x x x x Bin x - x x x F x x x x x x x x x x (b) x x x x Figure 8. The fact that it also depends on its velocity is a reminder that this is what magnetism is really all about—a force that depends on the motion of electric charges. It seems reasonable that the magnetic force on a moving charge depends both on its charge and on the strength of the field.Figure 8.29 Solar flares are caused by huge ejections of gas from the Sun’s surface.31 A fluorescence produced by electrons moving through gas at a very low pressure in a glass bulb. It is worth noting that the field B itself is also due to moving charges: either an electric current or the electrons spinning in their atomic orbits. Can you tell whether the field is pointing into or out of the page? 268 ELECTRIC POWER . For more information see the ‘Einstein’s relatively’ Detailed Study on the Heinemann Physics 12 CD. The electrons are being fired from an electron gun (similar to that used in a TV tube) into a magnetic field which is more or less perpendicular to the page. Use the right-hand palm rule to confirm these directions for yourself. This flare is over 20 times the size of the Earth.

(A new type of mass spectrometer. the composition of the original sample can be determined. As well as the bending magnets there are other magnets called undulators and wigglers which. physicists accelerate particles (such as electrons or protons) to very high speeds and then let them crash into atoms. accelerate the electrons back and forwards. effects their effective mass at that speed will be about 300 times the rest mass.PHYSICS IN ACTION Mass spectrometers and particle accelerators One of the most powerful tools of the modern chemist is the mass spectrometer. or the mud on the shoes of a suspected criminal. that is used for many different research purposes. again causing them to give off enormously intense light.5 T. Understanding the properties of these particles is fundamental to understanding our Universe. This is equivalent to accelerating them through 3000 million volts. The results of these collisions have revealed that an incredible array of sub-atomic particles exist. ranging from visible and ultraviolet to X-rays. The sample is heated in an evacuated container until it is ionised. Magnets and electricity 269 . They then enter a magnetic field where they experience a ‘qvB’ force which will cause them to move in a circle. It can be much smaller because it accelerates electrons not protons. The circular accelerator at CERN in Switzerland is nearly 9 km in diameter! Closer to home. the particles travel through very strong magnets which cause them to move in a circle. The radius of this circle depends on the mass of the particle: heavier particles with the same charge and speed will experience the same force. The Australian synchrotron to be built near Monash University will accelerate electrons to a massive 3 GeV of energy. as the name implies. for example tiny amounts of a rare element in a sample of Moon rock. It enables the very accurate determination of the mass of the atoms in a tiny sample of material. Because of relativistic Figure 8.33 The proposed Australian synchrotron. and it uses more powerful superconducting magnets to deflect the electrons into the circular path. This can help chemists to identify the substances in very small samples. and the positive ions are accelerated electrically to high speeds. The electrons or protons are accelerated by electric fields of various sorts. because they are being accelerated. a new synchrotron to be built at Monash University in Melbourne will be about 60 m in diameter. It is this light. The path of the electrons is not so much a circle. Figure 8.32 A simple mass spectrometer. As the electrons go through these magnets. but because of their greater inertia they will move in a larger circle. Thus ions of different masses end up in a different place on the detector. they give off energy in the form of light. does not use this principle at all. It uses high-frequency radio waves to trap ions of a certain mass. but very long paths are needed to obtain the extremely high speeds necessary (close to the speed of light). As the relative amounts of each ion can also be measured. At this energy they will be travelling at about 99. but a series of straight sections in between about 24 bending magnets 2 m long and with field strengths of about 1. Because it is impractical to have a straight path hundreds of kilometres long.999% of the speed of light. called an ion trap.) To study the basic constituents of matter.

with initial velocity v. the magnetic force on an electric current is due to the force on the moving charges. • The magnitude of the force Fq on a charge q moving at speed v in a field B is given by Fq = qvBsinθ. B is out of the page q is positive. Which of the following combinations would result in the particle following path X? A B C D 8 q is positive. what would be the magnitude of the magnetic force if (i) the velocity is doubled and field strength remains the same. and (iii) both the velocity and field strength are doubled? b B C 5 If this particle is negatively charged: a An alpha particle (charge +2e. The acceleration of the particle is zero in this field. 8. a b 6 7 What type of particle could follow path B? The following diagram shows a particle with charge q entering a uniform magnetic field of strength B. about to enter a uniform magnetic field B. A N v B W S C 3 Which of the alternatives in question 7 would result in the particle following path Y? E The following information applies to questions 9 and 10. (ii) the velocity remains the same. B is out of the page q is negative. about to enter a uniform magnetic field B directed into the page. whose charge is e. The initial b In terms of F. X velocity of the particle v is perpendicular to the field. The direction is at right angles to the motion and to the field. B is into the page The following information applies to questions 3–6. but the field strength is doubled.5 QUESTIONS 1 Which of the following quantities does not affect the magnitude of the magnetic force experienced by a particle moving through a magnetic field? A B C D Y B v q charge velocity mass field strength 2 Which one of the following is correct? The force on a charged particle moving through a magnetic field will be a maximum when its velocity is: A B C perpendicular to the direction of the field parallel to the direction of the field at an angle θ to the field that is between 0 and 90°. directed out of the page. B is into the page q is negative. what would be the magnitude and direction of the force on this alpha particle just as it enters the field? How would the curvature of its path compare to that of the electron? 270 ELECTRIC POWER . • Charges moving freely at right angles to a magnetic field will move in a circular path. The initial velocity v of the electron is perpendicular to the field. The following diagram shows an electron.8. what is the direction of the force on the particle just as it enters this field? which path will the particle follow? 10 b 4 Which of the following statements is correct? A What is the direction of the magnetic force F on the electron just as it enters the field? In terms of F.5 SUMMARY FORCES ON MOVING CHARGES • Fundamentally. The momentum of the particle remains constant in the field. The following diagram shows a particle. B or C will this particle follow? The kinetic energy of this particle remains constant in the field. x e _ x v x x x 9 a x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x W S N E If this particle is positive: a What is the direction of the force on this particle just as it enters the field? Which of the paths A. with mass about 7500 times that of the electron) enters the field with a velocity v. The magnitude of the magnetic force on this electron in the field B is F.

Sides AB and CD are perpendicular to the field.35). (a) B I A D C B (b) C B Figure 8. Normally. This produces a horizontal force on the wire which will keep it rotating around the magnet. A magnet was mounted vertically in a pool of mercury. They are placed in a magnetic field provided by either a permanent magnet or an electromagnet.35 Forces acting on a currentcarrying wire loop in a magnetic field. Magnets and electricity 271 . so there will be a downward force on AB and an upward force on CD (Figure 8. on the coil which will tend to rotate it anti-clockwise. this understanding provided a more practical form of excitement. If the coil is free to turn. An electric current in a magnetic field experiences a force: F = IlB.35b. All direct-current motors work by the action of this force on a wire loop containing an electric current. Use the right-hand rule to convince yourself that if the current flows down and the magnetic field points up and out. there is no force on them. It enabled the generation and use of electricity on a large scale. the wire will rotate clockwise. D A B C (c) D B The operating principle of all electric motors is simple. Because sides AD and BC are parallel to the magnetic field. several coils of many turns of wire are used. B A C (d) D B B A Figure 8. Consider a wire loop ABCD carrying a current I. however. (The mercury provided a path for the current.8. Current is flowing clockwise around this coil in the direction A→B→C→D.6 Electric motors Physicists have always been interested in the relationship between electricity and magnetism because they want to understand the basic workings of the Universe. For the world at large. One of the most obvious applications of the understanding of electromagnetism gained last century is the electric motor.34 In 1821 Faraday built what could be called the first electric motor. initially horizontal in a magnetic field B (Figure 8. a little later it will be in the position shown in Figure 8. A wire carrying a current hung from a support above.) The magnetic field of the magnet spreads outwards from the top of the magnet and so there is a component perpendicular to the wire. or torque.35a). These two forces will produce a force couple.

They simply tend to stretch the coil. and the situation is as shown in Figure 8. There is no torque on the coil. the current is fed to the coil via a commutator—a cylinder of copper on which conducting brushes (usually carbon blocks) rub. 272 ELECTRIC POWER . The coils are wound on a soft iron core to intensify the magnetic field through them. All the forces are then reversed. you apply a torque to a nut with a spanner. armature windings carbon brushes shaft r r⊥ F Figure 8. as in Figure 8. The commutator feeds current to the armature coils in the position where most torque will be experienced. showing the main components. Provided the coil has a little momentum it will pass the vertical position. The whole arrangement of core and coils is called an armature. and the now reversed forces on AB and CD will again create an anti-clockwise torque.37. The forces on AB and CD are still the same. so practical motors are usually made with many coils. Permanent magnets are often used to provide the magnetic field in small motors. receiving maximum torque only twice every turn. but any displacement from the vertical position will result in a torque that will cause the coil to rotate back to this position. as distinct from the rotating armature. For maximum effect the force you apply should be at right angles to the spanner. all spaced at an angle to each other. As the coil rotates. so the coil will continue to rotate.35d. The torque. where r⊥ is the perpendicular distance between the force and the point of application. the direction of the current is reversed at this point. Now all four sides will experience some magnetic force.37 The commutator switches the direction of the current every half-turn in order to produce a torque which continues to rotate the coil in the same direction.36 armature stator coils segmented commutator F brushes N S F spring loaded brush holders commutator Figure 8. and the commutator is arranged to feed current to the coil that is in the best position for maximum torque. but in larger motors. To do this. Soon the coil will be perpendicular to the field (Figure 8. Because these magnets are stationary. electromagnets are used because they can produce larger and stronger fields. but the forces on the two sides AD and BC are in line but in opposite directions. It is made in two halves. The larger the force and the longer the spanner. they are often referred to as the stator. After every halfturn the direction of the current must be switched to maintain the anticlockwise torque. This type of motor would be rather jerky. but the torque is less because the line of action of the force is closer to the axis of rotation. τ. Some motors would have additional stator coils. and the forces will try to keep the coil in this position. To make an electric motor out of this device. This is shown in Figure 8. the commutator reverses the current at just the right moment. This type of motor will operate on either DC or AC power. the greater the torque.35c). Each half is connected to one end of the coil of wire.36.Physics file A torque is the turning effect of a force.38 A typical universal electric motor. Figure 8. For example. is defined by τ = Fr⊥.

So: F = 20 × 5 × 0.8 T. If the stator and armature are both fed with alternating current. The motors used in food mixers. at the peak of the current cycle. The large number of coils in the armature is needed to ensure that there are always loops in the best position to produce maximum torque. This is achieved by the use of a strong field. I = 5 A. because the coil current reverses as well.8 = 3. Only a small proportion of the current goes through the coil. so the design of a motor has to be carefully considered in the light of its potential use. turns against a spiral spring. In a voltmeter a high resistance is placed in series with the coil of the galvanometer. The magnitude of the force on the other two sides is given by F = nIlB.2 N The force on AB is down and on CD it is up.04 m and B = 0.02 × 3. This is important if the meter is to be accurate. I = 0. pointer permanent magnet coil spring N pivot iron core S uniform radial magnetic field Figure 8. and the small current through the coil is a measure of the potential difference across the terminals.6A. The shaped pole pieces and the iron core in the centre intensify the field as well as making it more uniform. a high current and a large area of coil. where r is 2 cm (0. Figure 8.40 A 1. All this adds to the cost. The coil shown in Figure 8. the direction of the force on the coil remains constant even though the field reverses 50 times each second.35a is 4 cm square and consists of 20 turns of wire and carries a current of 5 A in a field of 0.Worked example 8.02 m) and F is 3. An ammeter has a low resistance in parallel with the coil.8 T. the further it turns against the spring. a large number of turns of wire. where n = 20 turns. Only a very small current is needed to deflect the coil through its full range. The total torque will be twice this as both arms contribute the same torque So: τ = 2 × 0.04 × 0. the coil. a b Physics file Older ‘analogue’ voltmeters and ammeters also use the principle of a coil in a magnetic field. The key to using a motor of the type we have been discussing on alternating current is to use an electromagnet for the stator and a large number of coils in the armature. The torque on one arm of the coil is given by τ = rF. This basic apparatus is called a galvanometer.128 N m b Generally speaking.2 N. The greater the current through the coil.5 kV DC motor used in Melbourne trains Magnets and electricity 273 . but this is an indication of the total current flowing. electric drills and so on are known as universal motors because they can be used on either AC or DC power. What are the forces on each side? What is the torque on the coil? Solution a The forces on sides AD and BC are zero because they are parallel to the field.39 The movement of a galvanometer. with needle attached. the higher the torque obtainable in an electric motor the better. In this case there is no need for a commutator.2 = 0.

10 T. • The loop keeps rotating because the direction of current. the number of turns and the area of the coils. The corresponding top view of this loop is shown in (b). PS = QR = 5. Diagram (b) is the corresponding crosssectional view as seen from Y. • The torque depends on the strength of the field.6 QUESTIONS The following information applies to questions 1–5.0 cm. The following information applies to questions 6–9. Note the current directions. and hence torque. • The armature of a practical motor consists of many loops that are fed current by the commutator when they are in the position of maximum torque. Reverse the direction of the current through the loop. The following data applies to this diagram: B = 0. Calculate the magnitude and direction of the magnetic force acting on side QR. Diagram (a) below shows a cross-sectional view of the sides L and M of a current-carrying loop. the dimensions of the loop the magnetic field strength the magnitude of the current through the loop the direction of the current through the loop 10 Briefly explain the function of the commutator in an electric motor. located in an external magnetic field of magnitude B directed east. which one of the following actions will result in a torque acting on the loop that will keep it rotating in an anti-clockwise direction? (Assume it still has some momentum when it reaches the vertical position. 8.0 A.8. Diagram (a) below depicts a top view of a current-carrying loop in an external magnetic field B. 274 ELECTRIC POWER . I = 2. the current. what is the direction of the magnetic force on: a b side L? side M? clockwise B 1 7 8 In what direction will the loop rotate? When LM is aligned vertically (L2 − M2): a b c Sx R anti-clockwise Calculate the magnitude and direction of the magnetic force acting on side PS. This loop is free to rotate about an axis through XY.6 SUMMARY ELECTRIC MOTORS • An electric motor relies on the magnetic force on a current-carrying loop in a magnetic field: F = IlB • There is a torque on the loop whenever its plane is not perpendicular to the field. Increase the magnetic field strength.) Which of the following does not affect the magnitude of the torque acting on this loop? A B C D 9 what is the direction of the magnetic force on side L? what is the direction of the magnetic force on side M? what is the magnitude of the torque acting on the loop? 2 3 4 5 When LM is aligned vertically.0 cm. is reversed each half turn by the commutator. In what direction would this loop rotate? (As seen from Y. What is the magnitude of the force on side PQ? This loop is free to rotate about an axis through XY. PQ = 2. With reference to diagram (a): (a) B X P Q top view up (a) M2 I I (b) E X W down B L L1 x Y x L2 M1 M S I Y (b) I R 6 Y When LM is aligned horizontally (L1 − M1).) A B C Increase the current through the loop.

state the nature of the force (attraction or repulsion) between these conductors for: a A N R D m S C 1 The following information applies to questions 8–10. if the resultant field at this point is zero? What is the direction of the electric current responsible for producing this field? What is the magnitude and direction of the resultant magnetic field at point B for a current I flowing through this conductor out of the page? A current I flows through this conductor out of the page. of the force per metre on this conductor if m and n both carry currents I into the page? Conductor m now carries a current I into the page. (a) v1 Bx (b) v2 By N m R P R n W S E 7 Magnets and electricity 275 . The diagram shows two conductors.0 × 10−5 T south 1.0 mm l = 1.10 T I = 2.0 A B = 1.0 T I = 5.0 × 10−4 T south 11 If a current I flows through both conductors. m and n. Which of the following correctly describes the change in the magnetic field at point B produced by this current reversal? The direction of the magnetic field and current are changed.0 × 10−5 T. while n carries a current I out of the page. What is the magnitude of the resultant field at point A? What is the direction of the resultant magnetic field at point C for a current I flowing into the page? This conductor is carrying a current I out of the page when the direction of the current is reversed. I north B west.0 mT I = 1. A B C 5. Describe the direction of the magnetic force on this conductor for: a b a point between m and n a point west of m a point east of n 3 B west. The following diagram shows a conductor of length l carrying a current I.0 T at point P .0 A l = 5. perpendicular to a magnetic field of strength B. I out of page for n b c B E A N l W S E 12 B W In which direction (into or out of the page) would the current need to be flowing through this conductor for it to produce the following field directions at the points specified? a b c d I 8 Calculate the magnitude and direction of the magnetic force on this conductor for the following sets of data: a A third conductor. The following diagrams (a) and (b) show two different electron beams being bent as they pass through two different regions of uniform magnetic field of equal magnitudes Bx and By. A current I flowing through either conductor will produce a magnetic field of magnitude 1. The initial velocities of the electrons in the respective beams are v1 and v2.0 mA B = 0. I south 15 10 4 What would be the magnitude of the magnetic force on this conductor if it were aligned so that the current was parallel to the field? 5 6 The following information applies to questions 11–14. at which of the following points could a third conductor experience zero magnetic force? A B C 13 B = 1. I into page for both conductors I out of page for both conductors I into page for m. The local magnetic field strength of the Earth is 5. The diagram below shows a conductor m with its axis perpendicular to the plane of the page. Ignore the magnetic field of the Earth.0 A? If m carries a current into the page and n carries a current out of the page. with their axes perpendicular to the page. What will be the magnitude of the force on a third conductor placed at point P if this conductor carries a current I = 1. is placed at point P What is the magnitude .0 cm 14 east at A west at A south at D east at C 9 b c l = 10 mm 2 What is the magnitude and direction of the magnetic field produced by this conductor at point B.0 × 10−4 T north 1. carrying a current I into the page. A current I flowing through the conductor produces a magnetic field of magnitude 50 µT at a distance R.CHAPTER REVIEW The following information applies to questions 1–7.

X. Y is an electron. increasing the current increasing the magnetic field strength increasing the cross-sectional area of the coil all of the above X Y 0. Z is a neutron. Which of the following could be correct? A 18 X is a proton. Z is an electron. as they pass through a uniform magnetic field.50 m N V X coil Q Y C D Z S W B = 0. 19 B For the position of the coil shown. Y is a neutron. The following diagram shows a simplified version of a direct current motor.20 T x P + - 276 ELECTRIC POWER .0 A flows through the coil. Y is a neutron. In which direction will the coil begin to rotate? Which of the following actions would cause the coil to rotate faster? A B Justify your answer to question 15. x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x C 20 17 The following information applies to questions 18–20. X is an electron. calculate the magnitude of the force on segment WY when a current of 1. The following diagram shows the paths taken by three different particles. Y and Z. X is a proton.Which of the following is correct? A B C D 16 v1 = v2 v1 = v2 v2 > v1 v2 < v1 Bx into the page By into the page By into the page By out of the page. Z is a proton.

In fact. falling water.CHAPTER 9 Electromagnetic induction n this chapter we explore electromagnetic induction—the creation of an electric current from a changing magnetic field. nuclear fission or the Sun. virtually all of the electricity generated in the world’s power stations is the result of electromagnetic induction. how they work • alternating voltage and current • electric power production and energy usage • the transmission of electric power. In 1831. It became clear that it would be possible to produce electricity in quantities far beyond the capacities of chemical batteries. I BY THE END OF THIS CHAPTER you will have covered material from the study of electric power. It has become the basis of our modern technological society. beginning a massive expansion in our understanding and use of electricity. including: • the generation of an EMF by electromagnetic induction • the factors which give rise to an induced current in a coil in which there is a changing magnetic flux • transformers—what they do. and much more. . Englishman Michael Faraday (below) and American Joseph Henry independently discovered how to create an electric current by using magnetism. the origin of the Earth’s magnetic field. A new phase of the industrial revolution was about to begin. Whether the primary source of energy is burning coal. and it has enabled us to deepen our understanding of the fundamental processes of the Universe including the nature of light. electromagnetic induction is one of nature’s fundamental principles.

It was not the presence of the field that mattered. Modern mechanical galvanometers use a coil of many turns free to rotate in a strong magnetic field. the larger the change and the faster the change. One day he noticed that his galvanometer gave a small kick when he turned the field on. such as a circle of wire. Figure 9. indicating an induced current in the coil as the magnetic field increases. We can gain a feel for electromagnetic induction by experimenting with a coil of wire near a permanent magnet or an electromagnet. but the fact that it changed! He soon found that any method of changing the amount of magnetic field cutting through a coil of wire created a small current in the wire. the galvanometer registers a current. In one of his attempts to create an electric current with magnetism. Michael Faraday was convinced that somehow a magnetic field should be able to produce an electric current. when he turned it off. if we change the strength of the field) the galvanometer again registers a small current. The coil is connected to a galvanometer—a sensitive current meter. thus creating a strong magnetic field in the ring.1 Magnetic flux and induced currents After Oersted’s discovery that an electric current produces a magnetic field. but only while it was changing. Next. but only while the magnet is moving.9. A galvanometer is simply a sensitive current detector. A⊥ is the effective area of the loop perpendicular to the field lines. But no matter how strong a magnetic field he managed to produce. When the electromagnet is turned off again the galvanometer indicates another brief pulse of current in the coil. If the magnet is moved away. The needle responded to the field created by a current in the coil. The creation of an electric current in a loop of wire due to changes in a magnetic field is called ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION.1 An early galvanometer of the type Faraday would have used in his studies of electricity and magnetic fields. in the opposite direction.) Magnetic flux ΦB = BA⊥ = BAcosθ PRACTICAL ACTIVITY 29 Investigating electromagnetic induction 278 ELECTRIC POWER . and another kick. To describe the ‘amount of field’ more precisely. In fact it does not matter whether it is the coil or the magnet that is in motion—it is only the relative motion that is important. Faraday used a fixed coil of wire around a magnetic needle. and the term ‘coil’ for a series of loops wound together. even changing the shape of the coil so that more or less field passes through it results in an induced current. Into one coil he fed a strong current from a battery. not once it stops. While a steady current flows in the electromagnet no current is registered by the galvanometer. Indeed. So it seems that any method of changing the ‘amount’ of magnetic field cutting through the coil will induce a current. When the current in the electromagnet is switched on there is a brief pulse of current through the galvanometer. defined as the product of the field B and the area A⊥. Simply moving a permanent magnet into a coil induced a brief current pulse. A⊥ will equal Acosθ. this time in the opposite direction. Faraday wound two coils of wire onto an iron ring. physicists use a quantity called magnetic flux (ΦB). In all cases. If the magnet is moved towards the coil. with another brief pulse in the opposite direction when it was removed. where θ is the angle between the field and the normal to the coil. we use a stationary electromagnet but change the field by turning it on and off. a current in the opposite direction is registered. If we increase or decrease the current in the electromagnet (that is. the greater the current. he could not detect an electric current in the other coil. (If the loop is not perpendicular to the field. Physics file We use the term ‘loop’ for a single closed conducting path.

or T m2. a unit that is still often used. Electromagnetic induction 279 . is rather like the total number of these lines—the same flux could be produced by a weak field spread over a large area (the lines are spread out) or a strong field concentrated in a small area (a high density of lines). This unit is also known as the weber (1 Wb = 1 T m2). the closeness of the lines representing the strength of the field. Faraday went on to show that the amount of induced current in a coil was proportional to the rate at which the number of lines of force cutting through a coil was changing.3 The magnetic flux is the strength of the magnetic field B multiplied by the effective area (A⊥ = Acosθ). Thus the unit of magnetic flux is the magnetic field (tesla) multiplied by area (m2).4 (a) A strong field. that is. Magnetic flux then. for example) the field is strong. but the same amount of flux. This picture leads to the common expression for the strength of the magnetic field B as the magnetic flux density. B can be thought of as proportional to the number of lines of force passing through a unit of area perpendicular to the lines. (b) A weaker field. the rate of change of magnetic flux passing through the coil.2 The original apparatus with which Faraday discovered electromagnetic induction. Conversely. or weber per square metre (Wb m−2). here shown shaded. Figure 9. where they are less dense the field is weaker. this implies that the unit for magnetic field can be expressed as the flux density. Where the lines are crowded (near the poles of a bar magnet.B A ΦB = BA A θ A⊥ ΦB = BA⊥ A ΦB = 0 Figure 9. The induced current in a conducting loop is proportional to the rate of change of flux: I∝ ∆ΦB ∆t PRACTICAL ACTIVITY 30 Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction (a) B1 B2 (b) Figure 9. Faraday pictured a magnetic field represented by many lines of force.

While the coil is coming out of the field she finds that a current of +2 mA is registered on the ammeter connected to it. φB = BA⊥ = 0. The greater the rate of change of flux.1A. That is: φB = BA⊥ = BAcosθ.1 SUMMARY MAGNETIC FLUX AND INDUCED CURRENTS • Symmetry suggests that if an electric current creates a magnetic field. this is the point of maximum flux change. (Although the flux is momentarily zero when the coil is vertical. If she puts the coil back into the flux at the same rate what current will she observe? If she pulls it out again.052 = 2.5 × 10−4 Wb). Describe the current that will be induced.1 T. what current will be induced? Now she steadily rotates the loop while it is fully in the field in such a way that it takes 2 seconds to rotate through 180°. The current will be +4 mA. However. This time ∆t was halved so the current will be doubled. Iin ∝ ∆φB/∆t.1 × 0. but twice as fast as before. a b How much flux cuts through the coil? She then pulls the coil out of the field at such a rate that it takes 1 second for the coil to lose all the flux. • It is relative movement between the field lines and the loop that induces a current in a conducting loop.5 × 10−4 Wb s−1) so the average current will again be +2 mA. it should be possible to use a magnetic field to create a current.5 × 10−4 to −2. It will be a maximum (>2 mA) as the loop passes through the vertical.5 × 10−4 Wb (1 T m2 = 1 Wb) c d Solution a b c The same current but in the opposite direction: −2 mA.) d 9. this will not be uniform. 280 ELECTRIC POWER . A student places a horizontal 5 cm square coil of wire into a uniform vertical magnetic field of 0. • Magnetic flux is defined as the product of the magnetic field and the perpendicular area over which it is spread. The total change of flux that occurs in the 2 s is −5 × 10−4 Wb (as the flux changes from +2.Worked example 9. the greater the current. • Any way of changing the magnetic flux through a loop induces a current in the loop. The average rate of this flux change is the same as in part a (−2.

The switch is closed again and remains closed.0 ms to decrease uniformly to zero. When S is closed.0 cm has its plane perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field of strength 2. B = 2. a positive current flows through coil X. x x x x x 8 a b 9 x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x X mA Y The magnetic field strength is reduced to zero.0 ms. The direction of the magnetic field is reversed. magnet moved to right. What is the magnetic flux passing through the loop when θ has the following values 0°. a What is the change in magnetic flux through the coil when the field is turned off? What is the rate of change of flux through the coil during this time? What momentary current will flow through the coil when the field is switched back on? b galvanometer left right 10 c 4 For each of the following situations state whether the current through the galvanometer will be zero.0 ms instead of 1. a The direction of the original magnetic field is reversed in 1. 0° to 60°. Determine the change in magnetic flux through the loop when the following changes are made to the original magnetic field. A square loop of wire. When a bar magnet is placed near the coil and moved to the left. a b c d 7 2 3 The following information applies to questions 8–10. The magnetic field strength is doubled. The switch S is initially open. Two coils X and Y are wound on the same length of steel rod. Coil stationary.0 mA flowing through the milliammeter from X to Y. x x x x x x What is the magnetic flux through the coil? What is the current in the coil? N S The magnetic field is then switched off in such a way that it takes 1 ms to drop to zero. as in the following diagram. positive or negative. as shown. magnet stationary. is in a region of uniform magnetic field. 0° to 90°. The magnetic field strength is halved.0 × 10−3 T north. b c 5 What condition is necessary for a magnetic field to induce a current in a coil? Electromagnetic induction 281 . 45°.0 mT directed into the page. Describe the current flowing in coil Y when the resistance is at first steadily increased and then steadily decreased. The magnitude of the current through coil X can be altered using a variable resistor R. The original field is switched off but it takes 2. of side 4. When switched on again it also takes 1 ms.1 QUESTIONS The following information applies to questions 1–3. When the loop is in its initial position its plane is perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field and the angle θ between a normal to the plane of the loop and north is 0°. X Y X W S 4.0 cm N E S 6 R B Y 1 Describe the current flowing in coil Y as S is closed. magnet stationary. Coil stationary.0 cm and the original field is then switched off. A coil of radius 4. Coil moved to right. The following information applies to question 6 and 7. Switching off the field results in a momentary current of 4.9.0 cm. and then opened. the galvanometer indicates a positive current. 90°? Calculate the change in magnetic flux through the loop when θ changes from 0° to 45°. 60°. magnet stationary. The loop is free to rotate about a vertical axis XY. Coil moved to left. The loop is fixed in its initial position (θ = 0°). 45° to 90°. as in the following diagram. a b c d Find the induced current in the coil when the following changes are made to the same coil. as shown in the following diagram. A coil of wire connected to a galvanometer forms a circuit. The following information applies to questions 4 and 5. The original coil is replaced with one of radius 2. held closed for some time.

Thus the closer end of the wire (to us) will become positive. and the other end. thus there will be no induced EMF along the wing. So for a single wire of length l moving at speed v in a perpendicular field B the EMF is given by E = vBl. The potential difference is equal to the potential energy gained per unit of charge. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ N υ ++ + + ++ + ++ ∆V S We will consider the simple case of a straight wire moving in a magnetic field first. The reason for this is not hard to see if we remember that charges moving in a magnetic field experience a force. In the last chapter we saw that. There is then a potential difference between the ends of the wire. a 282 ELECTRIC POWER . He found that it was the EMF (or voltage) induced that was independent of the particular characteristics of the circuit. Near the magnetic poles the field is close to vertical. The force on the negative electrons in the wire will be inwards. The qvB force will do work on the electron as it moves along length l (the length of the wire in the field) given by: W = Fl = qvBl Given that there are many other charges being moved as well. will become negative. Near the equator the Earth’s field is nearly horizontal and so the plane is flying parallel to the field lines and does not cut them. Figure 9. The right-hand rule tells us that the force on positive charges in the wire in Figure 9.2 Induced EMF: Faraday’s law Faraday realised that the induced current depended on the particular characteristics of the coil as well as the flux changes. a current would flow.2A.9. This is just what is happening as a coil moves through a magnetic field. Worked example 9. is the EMF (E) generated as a wire moves through a field.5 A potential difference ∆V will be produced across a straight wire moving to the left in a downward magnetic field. into the page. there is a magnetic force on it equal to qvB. starting from the closer end and moving inwards.5 would be in the direction along the wire and out of the page. a At which places on the Earth will the induced EMF across an aeroplane’s wings be maximum? What is the maximum EMF which would be induced across the wings of a Boeing 747 with a wing span of 64 m. By dividing the previous expression by the charge q. and the overall change of potential is the sum of all the changes in potential for each little segment. Consider an electron moving through this wire. This will result in a potential difference (∆V) created across the ends of the wire. then. If they were connected by a closed circuit outside the field. b The maximum magnitude of the induced EMF near the poles is found from E = vBl. when a charge q moves through a perpendicular magnetic field B at a speed v. As an aeroplane flies along through the Earth’s magnetic field it is acting rather like the straight wire described above. Solution As the plane flies horizontally it cuts through the vertical component of the Earth’s field. so this is where we would expect the maximum induced EMF. flying at 990 km h−1 through the Earth’s magnetic field? Take the maximum magnitude of the Earth’s magnetic field as 60 µT. we find: W qvBl Potential difference (∆V) = = = vBl q q This. b Physics file It does not matter that any one particular electron may not actually travel along the whole length of the wire. This same analysis applies to each little segment of wire. this work will go into the potential energy because of the concentration of positive charge at one end relative to the concentration of negative charge at the other.

but a voltage.6 The area ∆A (shaded) swept out by the wire in the field in a time ∆t is equal to l v∆t. for example). as the wire moves.v = 990 km h−1 990 = 3. it is also true whenever a change of flux gives rise to an EMF. it can be used to derive a more generally useful expression if we note that. so the area ∆A it has swept out is then equal to lv∆t. In a battery the energy comes from chemical reactions. but any attempt to use it.6 = 275 m s−1 B = 60 µT = 60 × 10−6 T = 6 × 10 So: −5 v x x x l x x x x x x x ∆A x x x v∆t Figure 9. or electromotive force (E). x x The relationship E = vBl is only useful for a straight wire moving in a magnetic field. Notice that a negative sign has appeared in the expression. or even measure it.06 V Not only is this EMF very small. would be thwarted by the fact that the same EMF will be induced in any wires connecting the wing tips. so ∆φ E= B ∆t So the magnitude of the EMF generated in the wire is equal to the rate at which the wire is sweeping through the magnetic flux. E =− Physics file The EMF. Since the turns in a coil of wire are in series: In a coil of N turns. While this derivation was for a straight wire moving across a field. but it is normally ignored in simple calculations. the TOTAL EMF is given by: ∆φ E = −N B ∆t Electromagnetic induction 283 . In time ∆t the wire moves a distance v∆t. This expression applies to a single conducting loop. A rigorous derivation (taking into account the vector nature of the quantities involved) leads to Faraday’s Law of Induction: ∆φB ∆t That is. EMF is not a force. This law is known as Faraday’s law of induction in honour of its discoverer. giving us two equal but opposite EMFs in the circuit. This means that the amount of magnetic flux swept through by the wire in this time is given by: ∆φB = B∆A = Blv∆t This can be written Blv = ∆φB ∆t But the EMF E was just equal to vBl. This has an important significance (as we shall see). In this situation the energy comes from whatever is moving the wire (the steam turbine in a power station. is a potential difference created by giving charges potential energy. it sweeps across lines of magnetic flux. Despite the name. However. x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x T E = vBl = 275 × 6 × 10−5 × 64 = 1. the EMF GENERATED in a conducting loop in which there is a changing magnetic flux is equal to the negative rate of change of flux.

An acoustic guitar amplifies sound from the vibrating strings by setting up resonance in the air and the wood of the guitar body. Thus the flux through the coil is φB = 0. the average induced current is given by Ohm’s law: V I= R = 0. He places it horizontally in a vertical uniform magnetic field of 0. The permanent magnet induces the section of the wire above it to become a magnet. and that this current is proportional to the rate of change of flux. this moving magnet induces an EMF in the coil.0040 m2. and connects it to a galvanometer with resistance 200 Ω. on the other hand. There will be an EMF.1 T. A coil not connected to a closed circuit will act like a battery not connected in a circuit. The average EMF induced in each turn is given by the average rate of change of flux. but no current will flow. As the string vibrates.2B. to produce the sound required. Ohm’s law tells us that the current would be equal to E/R. The coil vibrates within the magnetic field of a permanent magnet.016 V Assuming that the only significant resistance in the circuit is the galvanometer. a b How much flux passes through the coil? If it is then withdrawn from the field in a time of 0. what would be the average current reading on the galvanometer? φB = BA⊥. The pick-up consists of a coil around a small permanent magnet. A student winds a coil of area 40 cm2 with 20 turns. Worked example 9. thus producing an induced EMF which varies with the original sound. ∆ΦB E= ∆t = 4 × 10−4 0. This is then amplified. 284 ELECTRIC POWER .5 s. uses electromagnetic induction to generate an electric signal which is then amplified electronically. a current will flow. where R is the total resistance in the circuit.1 × 0. This is consistent with the fact that an induced current always arises when the flux through a coil changes. i. Here B = 0.016 200 = 8 × 10−5 A or 80 mA PHYSICS IN ACTION Microphones and electric guitars The function of a microphone is to convert sound vibrations into electrical signals.e. The electric guitar. and often electronically ‘doctored’.0040 = 4 × 10−4 Wb.1 T and A⊥ = 40 cm2 = 0.If the ends of the coil are connected to an external circuit. The so-called ‘dynamic’ microphone uses a tiny coil attached to a diaphragm which vibrates with the sound.5 Solution a b = 8 × 10−4 V Hence the total EMF generated in the coil of 20 turns will be: Ecoil = 20 × 8 × 10−4 = 0.

While it is in the field the student allows the coil to regain its original shape. as shown. so that its plane becomes parallel to the magnetic field. work is done on the moving charges to produce a potential difference along the wire. The rotation is completed in 20 ms. • This potential difference appears as an induced EMF in any loop in which the flux is changing. In doing so the area of the coil changes at a constant rate from 50 cm2 to 250 cm2 in 0. b B out of page c a How much magnetic flux is threading the loop in this position? The loop is rotated about XY. The coil is then rotated through an angle of 90° so that its plane becomes perpendicular to the field. directed out of the page. Figure 9. 3 b c A student stretches a flexible wire coil of 30 turns and places it in a uniform magnetic field of strength 5. The plane of the coil is initially parallel to a uniform magnetic field of 80 mT.7 Sound waves vibrate the diaphragm of a microphone.2 SUMMARY INDUCED EMF: FARADAY’S LAW • Faraday found that the EMF induced in a loop was dependent only on the rate of change of magnetic flux through the loop. • The induced EMF in a loop is equal to the (negative) rate of change of flux through the loop. Electromagnetic induction 285 .50 s.0 mT. The loop is free to rotate about a horizontal axis XY and has a resistance of 1.8 A guitar pick-up magnetises the steel string with a permanent magnet and then uses this vibrating magnet to induce an EMF in a coil below it.0 mT. a What is the change in magnetic flux through each turn of the coil during this time? What is the average EMF induced in each turn during the rotation? Calculate the average EMF induced in the coil during this time. 9. These vibrations are converted to a tiny electric current by the relative motion of the coil and permanent magnet. 9. as shown. d 2 What is the average current induced in the loop? 3 cm 2 cm X Y A coil of 500 turns. directed into the page.diaphragm soft cover N S N metal guitar string permanent magnet coil moving coil permanent magnet to amplifier S Figure 9. through an angle of 90°. is wound around a square frame.5 Ω . How much flux is threading the loop in this new position? Calculate the average EMF induced in the loop if this rotation took 40 ms.2 QUESTIONS 1 A rectangular wire loop is located with its plane perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field of 2. • As a conductor moves perpendicular to a magnetic field. each of area 10 cm2.

are located concentrically in a horizontal plane perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field of strength 0. .0 0.10 s. calculate the ratio of the average EMF induced in coil X to that induced in coil Y.0 cm2 and contains 10 turns. The loop has an area of 8. What EMF would be induced between the centre of the record and the rim? Would an EMF be induced between opposite edges of the record? Time Time Time Time 286 ELECTRIC POWER . A square loop of conducting wire is moved with constant velocity v from a region of zero magnetic field into a region of uniform magnetic field and then out again into a field-free region. b 4 The vertical component of the Earth’s magnetic field in Melbourne is 5. The final position is free of the field.0 mV in the loop during its motion. each of area 2. and Y of radius 8.10 0.0 cm and 10 turns.5 1. The radius of the record is 26 cm.0 cm coil Y The following information applies to questions 6 and 7.5 m s−1.30 s? between t = 0. has its plane perpendicular to a magnetic field whose strength varies with time according to the following graph.0 cm and 20 turns.20 s and t = 0. a What current flows through the loop in its initial position? Calculate the average EMF induced in the loop by the student’s action.10 T.30 s and t = 0.80 T 0. calculate the magnitude of the magnetic field that could induce an EMF of 5.0 × 10−5 T upward.20 s? between t = 0.0 revolutions per second.0 × 10−5 T.0 cm 4. calculate the average EMF induced between the axis and tip.0 × 10−3 m2.30 Time (s) 0. on a turntable that rotates at 33 revolutions per minute.10 s and t = 0.50 s? v magnetic field out of page 10 c d 6 Which of the graphs A–D best represents the current I in the loop as a function of time t? A B C D I I I I A record collector plays an Elvis LP made of platinum. B = 0. During a physics experiment a student pulls a rectangular conducting loop from between the poles of a magnet in 0. Assume that the direction of the Earth’s magnetic field is always perpendicular to the plane of the record. 2.6 × 10 −3 m2 and v = 2.10 s. circular coils. If the direction of the magnetic field is reversed in 0.80 T.50 What is the magnitude of the average EMF induced in the loop: a b between t = 0 and t = 0. 5 Magnetic field strength (mT) Two flat. X of radius 4.40 0.0 m long from axis to tip. Without changing the coil or magnet. and has a uniform strength of 5.10 s? between t = 0. as shown. a 8 a What is the change in magnetic flux through each turn of the coil during this time? Find the average EMF induced in the coil during this time.7 If the area of the loop is 1.50 0 coil X 8. A helicopter at Melbourne airport has metal rotor blades 4. Initially the entire loop is located in a region of uniform magnetic field of strength 0.0 1. how could the student generate an EMF of greater magnitude? b c How much magnetic flux would a rotor blade cut through during one rotation? If the blade rotates at 8. 9 b A conducting loop containing 100 turns.20 0.

we have an impossible situation.10a. as you might expect. Heinrich Lenz (a German physicist working in Russia) discovered a simple principle by which the direction of the induced EMF could be found. In this situation. the induced current would rapidly escalate. Just 3 years after Faraday's discovery. or vice versa. which gave rise to the induced current. Clearly a current will be induced in the loop. which would increase the induced current—and so on. Figure 9. In other words. Fortunately there is a simpler way of finding the direction. that is an induced current that flows anti-clockwise around the loop (Figure 9.10b). Use of the right-hand screw rule (as in Figure 9. Consider the loop shown in Figure 9. for a moment. we can see that the flux created by the induced current does oppose the increasing flux from the magnet.10c). that the induced current is clockwise (upwards in the near side of the loop). (b) The actual induced current opposes the changing flux. This is indeed the situation we find in practice—the induced current creates a flux that reduces the actual change of flux in the loop. the flux. This in turn would increase the induced current. The magnet is moving to the left and increasing the amount of flux in the loop.9 Using the right-hand screw rule to find the direction of flux from the current in a coil. The negative sign in Faraday's law implies a direction. Electromagnetic induction 287 . B LENZ'S LAW states that any induced current in a loop will be in the direction such that the flux it creates will oppose the CHANGE in the flux that produced it. it opposes the change of external flux by creating a flux that attempts to replace the decreasing flux. is decreasing (Figure 9. (a) (b) Figure 9. the induced current creates a flux that points in the same direction as the flux from the magnet. but in which direction? Imagine.10 (a) An impossible situation! As the magnet approaches. which would increase the flux change. It is not hard to see that this has to be the case. Now this would create an interesting situation! The flux from the induced current would add to the increasing flux from the magnet and produce a greater change of flux. contravening the principle of conservation of energy. A small initial change of flux would lead to an ever-increasing induced current. Again. which opposes the loss of flux. as we would be obtaining electrical energy from nowhere! Lenz realised that the flux created by the induced current must be such as to oppose the change of flux from the magnet.3 Direction of EMF: Lenz’s law I It is important to know the direction in which the induced current will flow in a circuit.9.9) will show that this current will produce a magnetic flux that points in the same direction as that from the magnet. (c) B N I – + S B N I – + v Actual S B N I – + v S v Impossible! If the magnet is moved away from the loop instead of towards it. Clearly this cannot be allowed. the induced current creates a flux. (c) As the magnet is withdrawn. He realised that the principle of conservation of energy meant that any magnetic flux produced by the induced current must tend to oppose the original change of flux. If we imagine the reverse of the previous situation. while still pointing to the left. but the vector analysis required is difficult.

b c X + Y Physics file How does the Earth create its magnetic field? The energy that drives the Earth’s dynamo comes from the enormous heat produced by radioactive decay deep in the Earth’s core. which float on a repulsive magnetic force between magnets in the train and eddy currents in the special track. or eddy. spins close to an aluminium disc to which the speedo pointer is attached. There are two components to the force: one is an undesirable drag force we normally notice when a conductor is moved slowly near a magnet. Instead of using a permanent magnet to change the flux in the loop in the example just given. This has the effect of retarding the motion that is giving rise to the current and so can be used as a magnetic brake. the so-called ‘Faraday dynamo’ utilises this effect to create large currents. Eddy currents induced in the disc experience a force that tends to drag the disc around against a spring—the faster the magnet. just as in the case of the permanent magnet above. Many car speedometers utilise eddy currents. connected by a cable to the wheels. At around 300 km h−1 the lift force is about 50 times stronger than the drag force. the flux is decreasing and hence the induced current will now flow through the meter in the direction from X to Y. PRACTICAL ACTIVITY 27 Direction of induced current in a wire Figure 9. The eddy currents produced in a moving conductor will themselves be subject to the IlB force. Worked example 9. To create an induced current we do not always need loops and magnets. the greater the force. preferably a neodymium ‘super’ magnet. These currents are often called eddy currents and may result in lost energy in electrical machinery. A magnet. When the electromagnet is switched off. A copper disc is rotated in a strong perpendicular magnetic field. Generally the force is between currents induced in flat conductors under the train by strong. magnets mounted in the fast-moving train—normal suspension is needed for slow travel. It is these eddy currents that produce the magnetic field. Because of the very low resistance involved. currents. Various systems are being trialled in several countries.11 A maglev train is supported by magnetic forces created by induced. A more dramatic use of eddy currents is in so-called ‘maglev’ trains. Thus the current will flow through the meter in the direction from Y to X. What is the direction of the current induced in the loop when the electromagnet is: a b c switched on? left on? switched off? Solution a When the electromagnet is switched on. possibly superconducting. You will observe the effects of eddy currents. The heat causes huge swirling convection currents of molten iron in the outer core. an electromagnet could be used. While the current in the electromagnet is steady. See if you can deduce the direction of the eddy currents produced and hence reason out an explanation for the slow fall of the magnet. the flux is not changing and therefore there will be no induced EMF or current in the loop. Application of the right-hand palm rule will show that a current will flow from the centre to the rim of the disc (or vice versa). Whenever a changing magnetic flux encounters a conducting material an induced current will occur. and drop it down a tube made of a good conductor such as copper or aluminium. These convection currents of molten iron act rather like a spinning disc. very large currents can be generated. the induced current must create a flux which will oppose the increasing flux to the left.Physics file Eddy currents in action: find a small strong magnet. On the other hand.3A. the other is the repulsive lift force. 288 ELECTRIC POWER . Fortunately the drag force decreases with speed and the lift force increases with speed. They are moving in the Earth’s magnetic field and so eddy currents are induced in them.

which are very good conductors at normal temperatures. Unfortunately the superconducting metals lost their superconductivity in magnetic fields around 0. It was known that the electrical resistance of metals decreases as they cool. Onnes was awarded the 1913 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work in low-temperature physics.2 K (−268.2 K its resistance vanished completely! Onnes coined the word ‘superconductivity’ to describe this phenomenon. at the University of Leiden in the Netherlands. however. By 1973 the niobium–germanium alloy Nb3Ge held the record with a critical temperature of 23. it would not be possible. Most ceramics are insulators.12 A disc magnet is repelled by a superconductor because the magnet induces a permanent current into the superconductor. Soon he found that some other metals also became superconducting at extremely low temperatures: lead at 7. the induced currents die out quickly. In a superconductor an induced current does not fade away! As the resultant field opposes the changing flux.2 K in a critical field of 38 T—an extremely strong field. Helium liquefies at 4. They received the 1987 Nobel Prize in Physics for their work.2 K and tin at 3. Much of the great promise of superconductivity has to do with the magnetic properties of superconductors. Onnes was hoping to find that as the temperature of mercury dropped towards absolute zero its resistance would also gradually drop towards zero. so one of the first things that Onnes and his assistant did was to measure the resistance of some metals at these very low temperatures. will exactly cancel the flux from the magnet. Curiously. On a large scale this could perhaps provide us with virtually frictionless maglev (magnetic levitation) trains one day. metals such as copper and gold. At 4. the record is held by bismuth and Figure 9. In 1986 an entirely new and exciting class of superconductors was discovered. but in fact most loops and coils are not perfect conductors and. Georg Bednorz and Karl Müller.You may wonder how there can ever be an increase in the flux in a conducting loop if the induced current always sets up a flux that opposes any change. However.7 K for example.12). If a magnet is brought near a superconductor. as a result of their resistance. retained their properties in stronger magnetic fields. PHYSICS IN ACTION Superconductors and superconducting magnets Technological breakthroughs have often led to advances in physics. Such conductors are called superconductors. more particularly. Electromagnetic induction 289 . within the superconductor. which results in an opposing field. A similar effect enables a very strong magnet to be made from a superconducting ring. These new ‘warm superconductors’ are ceramic materials made by powdering and baking the metal compounds. it was a combination of good science and inspired guesswork that led Müller to try such unlikely candidates for superconductivity. the induced current will create a flux which. What they found. working in Switzerland. was a complete surprise. found that compounds of some rare earth elements and copper oxide had considerably higher critical temperatures. in the 1940s it was found that some alloys of elements such as niobium had higher ‘critical temperatures’ and. So far. the magnet is repelled. This gives rise to the ‘magnetic levitation’ effect that is by now well known (Figure 9.1 T—quite a moderate field. If the loop were a perfect conductor.9°C). However. do not become superconducting at all. succeeded in liquefying helium. This was the case in 1908 when Kamerlingh Onnes. at very low temperatures some materials are perfect conductors and have zero resistance.

S N v B C 2 A square conducting loop forms the circuit shown below. no-loss transmission of electricity. A bar magnet is falling towards the centre of a horizontal copper ring. many difficulties to be overcome before these promises can be realised. It will be in the direction that will oppose the change that produced the induced current. large copper ring G a B out of page b What is the direction (clockwise or anti-clockwise as seen from above) of the induced current in the ring when the magnet is in the position shown in the diagram? Describe the direction of the induced current in the ring just after the magnet has passed completely through the ring. The promise of superconductivity is enormous: lowfriction transport.thallium oxides with a critical temperature around 125 K— still rather cold. A current is induced in the loop. • Lenz’s law is an expression of the principle of conservation of energy. 9. particularly in the newer materials. but one rather picturesque way of thinking about it is that electrons pair up and ‘surf’ electrical waves set up by each other in the crystal lattice of the material. 9. Which of the following alternatives best describes the direction of the magnetic field due to the induced current? A a b c 3 The field is switched off. It will always be in the opposite direction to the external field. The initial direction of the field is out of the page. but significantly above the temperature of readily available liquid nitrogen (77 K). The direction of the field is reversed. as shown. It can really only be discussed in terms of quantum physics. producing almost pollution-free energy in much the same way that the Sun does. is still not fully understood. Superconductivity. The plane of the loop is perpendicular to an external magnetic field whose magnitude and direction can be varied.3 QUESTIONS 1 A conducting loop is located in an external magnetic field whose direction (but not necessarily magnitude) remains constant. It will always be in the same direction as the external field. and smaller and more powerful electric motors and generators. The field strength is doubled. At what instant does the direction of the induced current in the ring change? Name four factors that would influence the magnitude of the induced current in the copper ring. c G What is the direction of the magnetic field due to the induced current when the following changes are made to the initial field? d 290 ELECTRIC POWER . however. • Induced currents set up by the relative motion of a conductor and magnet will create a field which will apply a force that will oppose the relative motion. Superconducting magnets might be used to contain the extremely hot plasma needed to bring about hydrogen fusion.3 SUMMARY DIRECTION OF EMF: LENZ’S LAW • Lenz’s law states that induced current in a loop will be in the direction so that the flux it creates will oppose the change in the flux which produced it. There are.

R is increased. The following information applies to questions 6–8. Electromagnetic induction 291 . Coil Y is connected to a circuit containing a galvanometer. Positive IP is from a to b through loop P Positive IQ is . and the induced current IQ in loop Q can be measured. i.e. from c to d through loop Q. it is now directed into the page. The velocity v of the rod is perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field directed out of the page. The resulting graphs 1–3 of the induced current IQ in Q versus time are shown. a 0 0 Time What is the direction of the induced current in the rod now? What is the direction of the magnetic force on XY now? Time 0 Time 8 b Which one or more of the following graphs (A–E) represents the IP versus time relationship which could have caused IQ to behave in the way shown in: Which of the following is correct? The induced current in the rod will always produce a force whose direction: A B C is opposite to the direction of the external force is the same as the direction of the external force depends on the direction of the external magnetic field. An electric current IP can flow in either direction through loop P . An experiment is performed in which the current through P is varied with respect to time in three different ways. Justify your answers. Coil X is connected to a circuit containing a battery. variable resistor R and switch S. when the following changes are made to the initial circuit containing X. producing a positive current through X and a magnetic field which extends through coil Y. X B out of page F v left right c d + + loop Q a loop P b b 6 a Y What is the direction of the induced current in the rod? What is the direction of the magnetic force on the rod due to the current induced in it? 7 1I Q 2I Q 3 IQ The rod is still being pushed along the rails to the right. but the direction of the magnetic field is reversed. R is reduced. a b c 5 0 Time 0 Time S is opened.4 Two coils X and Y are located next to each other. Two conducting loops P and Q are located with their planes parallel to each other as shown below. Initially S is closed. A metal rod XY is being pushed along part of a copper rectangle by an external force F as shown. a b c graph 1? graph 2? graph 3? B IP C IP A IP coil X coil Y left + right 0 Time 0 Time 0 Time D R S G - IP E IP State the direction of the induced current through the galvanometer.

AC systems began to dominate. in the direction opposite to the motion. as shown in Figure 9. We find this to be a general principle. Physics file Whenever a current is induced in a wire moving in a magnetic field. (b) After the loop has turned through a quarter of a revolution the plane of the loop is parallel to the field and the flux through the loop is zero. Energy is used to rotate a coil in a magnetic field. The direction of the EMF induced in the coil (and therefore the current in the coil) will alternate as the flux through the coil increases and decreases. the magnetic force on the current will oppose the motion. If it were somehow possible to induce a current without expending energy. uniform magnetic field.9. This is followed by another maximum (e) and the cycle repeats. Nowadays. it is only the relative motion that is important. it is easier to consider the EMF induced in a coil rotating in a uniform magnetic field. there will be a force on it which will oppose the motion. some by alternating current and some by direct current.4 Electric power generation We take the supply of electric power to our homes for granted. the coils are stationary and an electromagnet rotates inside them. where Thomas Edison’s General Electric Company championed a DC system while George Westinghouse promoted an AC system. who had recently demonstrated his AC induction motor. With the new motor. It then decreases to zero again (d). This is. Because of this. It is this energy that will appear as electrical energy in the circuit. If the movement of a conductor results in an induced current. Because the current is taken from fixed coils there are few moving parts and little friction. of course. In fact.6: as the wire moves to the right. such as steam. i. The basic principle of electric power generation is the same. In 1888 Westinghouse enlisted the brilliant young Serbian inventor Nikola Tesla. and in car alternators. this principle would have been violated. in the coil. The ‘magneto’ which powers the spark plug in small twostroke engines uses a similar principle. The arrow indicates the normal to the plane of the area. This current will in turn experience a force to the left. energy must always be used to move a conductor in a magnetic field.13 A bicycle dynamo is a simple rotating magnet generator. as well as other Tesla inventions. output coil Electric power generators Although most generators work on the rotating magnet principle. with the exception of train and tram systems (which convert the AC supplied by the power companies into DC). whether the result is alternating or direct current: relative motion between a coil and a magnetic field induces an EMF. (c) The flux then increases but in the opposite sense relative to the loop. the EMF produced in a rotating magnet generator has the same characteristics. Consider the simple case of a rotating loop in a constant. a consequence of the tremendously powerful principle of nature we call the law of conservation of energy. φB = −BA. The main battle between AC and DC systems took place in America. However. all major power supply systems are based on alternating current. soft iron core driving wheel axle N S permanent magnet (rotor) metal case Figure 9. It is important to remember that the energy appearing in the external circuit has to be provided by some mechanical source. At that time there were many small electric power companies. and hence a current. any current induced will flow towards the top of the page. This was to be the turning point in the battle. 292 ELECTRIC POWER . This can be seen in Figure 9. The angle θ is between the field and the normal to the plane. (c) C C D θ = 180˚ B (d) D B A θ = 270˚ A θ = 360˚ C (e) B D C See Interactive Tutorials 4 AC Generators and 5 DC motors (a) B A θ = 0˚ D C (b) A B A D θ = 90˚ Figure 9. A rotating coil generator looks very like a standard DC motor. provided by either a permanent magnet or an electromagnet. all supplying different voltages and different systems. In some generators a coil is rotated in a magnetic field.14 (a) The field B and the plane of the area A of the loop are perpendicular and the amount of flux through the loop is maximum φB = BA. water or wind. but in large power stations.14.e. it is only a little over 100 years since the streets of Melbourne and Sydney were first lit by electric light.

Remember that it is the changing field that induces the EMF. For a generator turning at 50 Hz the angular velocity will be: 50 × 2π = 100π rad s−1 (2π radians is one full rotation or 360°) Hence the expression for the flux becomes φB = BAcosωt.15 The angle θ is the angle between the field and the normal to the area. The induced current will change direction every time the flux reaches a maximum. (b) The rate of change of flux ∆φB/∆t through the loop (and hence the EMF E) as a function of the angle θ between the field and the normal to the loop. the EMF generated is given by: E = NBAωsinωt PRACTICAL ACTIVITY 31 Current from an electric motor Notice that the maximum (peak) value of the EMF is given by NBAω.16 (a) The flux φB through the loop as a function of the angle θ between the field and the normal to the loop. The loop is rotating at a steady speed. it is necessary to calculate the rate at which the flux through the loop is changing. as well as the rate at which it is turning. For a coil of N turns the EMF will be N times as much. φB (a) Physics file Lenz’s law tells us that the induced current creates a field to oppose the change of flux. where θ is the angle between the field (B) and the normal to the plane of the area (A). The right-hand screw rule then shows us that the current will flow in the direction D–C–B–A. The actual value of the EMF generated will depend on the rate at which the flux is changing.16. That expression is for a single turn loop. The value of θ. As we could well expect. Lenz’s law tells us that the induced current will be in the direction so as to create a field in the same direction. the field resulting from the induced current will therefore be in the same direction as the original field in order to try to maintain the flux in that direction. θ A θ 90˚ 180˚ 270˚ 360˚ A cosθ Figure 9. as the initial field. where θ is 90° or 270°). Electromagnetic induction 293 . rotating in a magnetic field B at an angular speed ω. The EMF induced is the rate of change of this flux. it is proportional to the strength of the field.e. and hence EMF. We have derived it in the adjacent Physics file. as otherwise two directions would be required. For a coil of area A and N turns. the angle of the loop. when the plane of the loop is perpendicular to the field. i. While the flux is decreasing. relative to the loop.The amount of flux cutting through the loop varies as it rotates. the maximum rate of flux change. As we can see from Figure 9. To find the magnitude of the induced EMF. the area and number of turns of the coil. It is usual to describe the orientation of a plane by the direction of the normal. as Faraday’s law tells us. the angle (in radians) turned through in one second. occurs where the loop itself is parallel to the field and the flux through the loop is zero (i. To find the expression for the EMF is not hard but requires a little calculus. While the flux decreases from the maximum (a) to zero (b) and then becomes negative (c). The rate of change of this flux is given by: dΦB d(BAcosωt) E= =− = BAωsinωt dt dt Figure 9. θ 90˚ 180˚ 270˚ 360˚ (b) E=− ∆φB ∆t Physics file The flux through a loop turning in a uniform magnetic field is given by φB = BAcosθ.e. The actual flux though the loop is given by φB = BAcosθ. can be expressed as ωt where ω is the ‘angular velocity’.

Figure 9. while still creating some friction. In the second. This AC is often rectified by diodes inside the housing and so the output from the device is actually DC.17a. Figure 9. In a rotating magnet alternator the slip rings only need to carry the relatively small DC current to the electromagnet. do not involve breaking the current at all. 294 ELECTRIC POWER . and the device is often referred to as an ‘alternator’. (b) A DC generator has a commutator to reverse the direction of the alternating current every half cycle and so produce a DC output.17 (a) An AC generator uses simple slip rings to take the current from the coil. This time the device is called a DC generator (Figure 9. Because it involves breaking the current there is the possibility of sparking. which can consist either of two simple slip rings with brushes or a split cylinder commutator as in the DC motor described in the last chapter.18 A modern car alternator employs a rotating electromagnet which induces an alternating EMF in the stator coils.e. The DC generator was widely used in cars up until the 1980s when semiconductor diodes enabled the simple conversion of AC into DC. The alternator does not require the reversal of current and therefore can use slip rings which. DC) although it varies from zero to maximum twice every cycle. In the first case the output will be just the alternating current which results from the EMF shown in Figure 9. (c) Two (or more) coils may be used to smooth the DC output. For these reasons modern car alternators are more reliable than their older DC counterparts. axle (a) coil axle (b) coil (c) slip rings commutator carbon brush carbon brushes commutator carbon brush Induced EMF + + EMF Time EMF at brushes + EMF two-coil DC generator – Time EMF in coil Time – – Physics file The main disadvantage of the DC generator is the commutator. The sparking causes wear on the brushes and can gradually burn out the commutator. the direction of the output is changed by the commutator every half turn and so the output current is always in the same direction (i. The current induced in the coil is drawn off by a commutator.17b).

it takes about 23% of the energy content to evaporate the water. The output voltage may be 20 000 V with a current of 17 500 A. Figure 9. giving a power output of 350 MW.PHYSICS IN ACTION Power station generators The large generators used in power stations are rotating magnet alternators. The generator itself converts the mechanical energy of the rotating turbine into electrical energy at around 98% efficiency. The water used in the boilers and turbines is extremely pure and is reheated after being condensed. The heat from the coal is used to generate steam at temperatures of over 500°C and pressures of around 160 atm. The result of this unavoidable inefficiency is that large amounts of heat end up as waste in the process of converting the steam energy into mechanical energy.20 The steam is from the cooling water used in the heat exchangers (condensers) to condense the steam after it has passed through the turbines.19 This photograph shows the turbine of a 500 MW steam-driven generator. This steam is used to drive three stage turbines. The energy used to drive the generators in Victoria’s Latrobe Valley is obtained from burning brown coal. The DC current used for the rotor of a typical generator is around 2500 A. each stage operating at a lower pressure and temperature than the one before.) Victoria’s coal-fired power stations operate at an overall efficiency of about 26% because the brown coal they use has a considerable moisture content. The other 51% is wasted as heat. Most of it goes into the water used to condense the steam once it has done its work. which has an efficiency of only about 15%. (Compare this with a typical car engine. Note the size of the engineers! Figure 9. via transformers. This enables energy to be extracted from the steam and converted into mechanical energy in the most efficient way. The alternating current is fed. straight into the electricity grid. After the steam goes through the first stage it is reheated and sent through the second and third stages. Electromagnetic induction 295 . In fact. modern turbines can operate at effciciencies of up to 40%.

field = 2B. The coil is to be rotated about Q in a counter-clockwise direction at a rate of 15° per millisecond (i.02 0 4 t (s) 0. at each of the following values of θ? a e Which of the following graphs best describes the voltage–time relationship of this generator for the following modifications? a b c d e 0° 60° b f 15° 75° c g 30° 90° d 45° N = 1000.01 0. • A practical generator either rotates a coil inside a magnetic field. field = B.02 What is the magnetic flux (φB).0 kV.02 0 t (s) 0. 9.0 ms intervals of its rotation. or. Considering your answers to question 2.02 t 0 t 0 t 0 t 0 8 Calculate the strength of the magnetic field required to produce a voltage of 8.01 0. in mWb. The following information applies to questions 7 and 8. the number of turns and the speed of rotation. field = 2B. more commonly. the area of the coil.01 0. f = 50 Hz 2 Calculate the average rate of change of flux through the coil when it is rotated through each of the six 15° intervals from 0° to 90° as in question 1. • The electrical output of a coil rotating in a magnetic field is sinusoidal. r = 10 cm. 296 ELECTRIC POWER .0 mT θ Q 7 1 8. What is the peak value of the induced EMF for this coil? b C D 6 Assuming that a counter-clockwise rotation of the coil from θ = 0° initially produces a positive current.02 5 At what value of θ do you think the peak value of induced EMF would occur? Justify your answer. A simple generator consists of a coil of N = 1000 turns each of radius 10 cm. mounted on an axis in a uniform magnetic field of strength B. a 3 A B V 0 V t (s) 0. f = 100 Hz N = 1000.0 0 t (s) 0. mounted on a horizontal axis through Q. r = 10 cm. f = 100 Hz N = 1000. what do you notice about the rate of change of flux through the coil as it rotates from θ = 0° to θ = 90°? Determine the average EMF induced in the coil during each of the first six 1. Voltage (kV) B = 5. • The work done by the force moving the loop is equal to the electrical energy produced. r = 10 cm. f = 100 Hz N = 2000. field = 2B. The peak EMF is the product of the strength of the field. which of the graphs best illustrates the variation of the induced current as a function of time? V V A I 0 I B I C I D I E 0 t (s) 0. field = B.01 0. r = 5. a frequency of 42 Hz). The following graph shows the voltage output as a function of time when the coil is rotated at a frequency of 50 Hz. f = 50 Hz N = 500. r = 10 cm. The following diagram shows a square coil containing 100 turns each of area 20 cm2. which will oppose the motion causing the current.4 SUMMARY ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION • An induced current in a loop will experience a force.e.0 cm. The plane of the coil is initially perpendicular to a vertical uniform magnetic field of 5. a magnet (permanent or electromagnetic) inside a fixed set of coils.9.4 QUESTIONS The following information applies to questions 1–6.0 mT.

This is referred to as the root mean square or RMS voltage. this can be seen in terms of the alternating movement of the electrons in the circuit. We can describe an AC voltage by the simple expression V = Vpsinθ where Vp is the peak voltage (340 volts for mains power) and θ varies from 0 to 360° every cycle. –340 peak reverse EMF –340 V Figure 9. (θ is the angle of the rotor in the generator. that is. It is the RMS value of the voltage. Power in AC circuits The power in any circuit element is the product of the current and the voltage. Worked example 9. Note that the frequency is 100 Hz. the average 1 power will be given by 2 Vp2/R. the average power can be obtained by using a value for the voltage which is equal to the peak voltage divided by 2 . In an AC circuit then. 1 — Vp2 2 0 10 Time 20 (ms) Figure 9. The average value of V 2 is equal 1 to 2 Vp2. P = IpVpsin2θ. Electromagnetic induction 297 . We do not normally notice this 100 Hz variation of power in our lights as our eyes don’t respond to flickering at frequencies greater than about 20 Hz. It is the value of a steady voltage which would produce the same power as an alternating voltage with a peak value equal to 2 times as much. If this same power was to be supplied by a steady (DC) source. which simplifies to Vav2 = Vp2. so the frequency of the alternating voltage produced is 50 Hz. Physically. Physics file In an AC circuit the power produced in a resistor is equal to (Vp2/R) sin2θ. A 60 W light bulb supplied with 240 V AC uses 60 J every second.22 The square of the voltage for an AC supply. Whether they are moving one way or the other. the voltage (say Vav) of this source would have to be such that Vav2/R = Vp2/R. this voltage is known as the root mean square voltage or VRMS. Vp-p = 680 V for mains power). The current that flows through a simple resistive device. Justify this statement. but the instantaneous power varies from 0 to 120 W.) The peak-to-peak voltage is also sometimes quoted (e. This is the ‘effective average value’ of the voltage—the value which can be used to find the actual power supplied each cycle by an AC power supply. P = IV. or Vav = Vp/ 2 . or P = (Vp2/R)sin2θ.5A. a current whose direction oscillates back and forward in a regular way at a certain frequency. and so a similar relationship will hold for the current: IRMS = Ip/ 2 or Ip = IRMS. Because of the process of obtaining it.g. In this section we look at some of the basic characteristics of AC electricity. It is often more useful to know the average power produced in the circuit. the power varies at a frequency twice that of the alternating voltage (as sin2θ is +1 when sinθ = ±1). the RMS voltage is the value of a DC voltage that would be needed to provide the same average power as the alternating voltage. The value of a DC supply that would supply the same average power is 240 V. As can be seen from Figure 9. In a simple resistive circuit the current is directly related to the voltage (I = V/R). can be calculated by using Ohm’s law.21 The voltage in our power points oscillates between +340 V and −340 V 50 times each second.5 Alternating voltage and current EMF +340 peak-to-peak EMF 680 V 20 0 10 Time (ms) peak forward EMF +340 V Nearly all electric power generators produce alternating current.9. Mains power in Australia oscillates at 50 times per second (Hz) and reaches a peak voltage of about ±340 V each cycle. such as a light bulb. Radio waves are produced from alternating currents of frequencies that range from less than 1 million hertz (1 MHz) to over 10 billion hertz (10 GHz). they still transfer energy to the atoms of the conductor. Thus the current during the cycle will be given by I = Ipsinθ where Ip = Vp/R. As is shown in the Physics file. Generators in Australian electricity supply systems rotate at 50 revolutions each second (3000 rpm).22. VRMS = VP 2 or VP = 2 VRMS V2 Vp2 mean value In effect. The mains voltage supplied to our houses has a peak value of 340 volts. As we might expect. 340/ 2 = 240 volts that is normally quoted. 100 times every second.

have three conductors. In fact. as shown in Figure 9. It is these three phases that are carried by the three conductors in the high-voltage power lines we see coming from the power stations and terminal stations. The other ends of the coils are the three output phases which are one-third of a cycle apart. are both zero. The peak power will occur at both the positive and negative voltage peaks in the cycle. and therefore the current. The 240 V power lines in the street have at least three conductors. or substations. i.e. The quoted 60 watts is the RMS power. The ends of each of the three stator coils are connected together—this becomes the ‘neutral’. (b) + 0V – A B 10 20 C 30 40 Time (ms) N A S A Figure 9. (a) stator C B 3-phase output Current or EMF One end from each coil is connected to a common point termed the neutral. is grounded (literally. the frequency is so fast that the charges do not have time to enter the body before they are on the way out again— hence it is relatively safe. or 100 times per second. B C neutral 298 ELECTRIC POWER . or neutral. The DC current is fed to the rotating magnet via slip rings (not shown). connected to the Earth) at the power station.25 A The peak power is given by: Pp = IpVp = Figure 9. as shown in (b). For these reasons three pairs of coils at 120° to each other are used. The other ends carry the high AC voltages which are onethird of a cycle apart. twice every cycle of the 50 Hz supply. very little current flows in the neutral because the currents in the three phases always tend to balance each other as they are flowing in opposite directions (see Figure 9. It is obtained as the product of the RMS voltage and RMS current. PHYSICS IN ACTION Three-phase electricity All of the high-voltage transmission lines we see coming from power stations. Only the line running into individual houses has two. The common connection of the coils.24 (a) A three-phase generator. it would result in uneven forces on the rotor as it turned through one cycle. In designing a large generator it would be inefficient use of space to simply have one pair of diametrically opposite coils around the rotating magnet. Power generated in large power stations is three-phase power. 2 IRMS × 2 VRMS = 2IRMSVRMS = 2 × 0. Although the voltage is very high.24b). The RMS voltage is 240 V and so the RMS current is given by: IRMS = P/VRMS 60 = 240 = 0.24.Solution The minimum power is obviously zero at the two points in every cycle when the voltage.23 A Tesla coil produces very high frequency alternating voltages. At any time the average current is actually zero. More particularly.25 × 240 = 120 W The peak power will always be double the RMS power.

a d 4 An AC supply of frequency 50 Hz is connected to a circuit. resulting in an RMS current of 1. The RMS value of domestic voltage is 240 V. 9.4 5 −1. The peak value of the voltage of domestic power (Vp) is ±340 V.0 −1.02 120 0. a What is the resistance of the heating element in the toaster? What is the peak voltage across the heating element? What is the peak current in the heating element? What is the peak voltage between A and N? What is the peak-to-peak voltage between A and N? An appliance of total resistance 100 Ω is plugged into the socket.4 I (A) t (s) I (A) 0 50 1.0 Electromagnetic induction 299 .02 t (s) 0. • For simple resistive circuits the current is given by Ohm’s Law.02 t (s) 6 a b c −120 What is the frequency of this power supply? What is the peak-to-peak voltage of the supply? What is the RMS voltage of the supply? 340 V (V) −340 3 −480 An electrician is called to check a household power point and confirms that the voltage between the active (A) and neutral (N) is 240 V RMS.0 What is the RMS current in the speaker when it operates at maximum power? What is the peak current in the speaker when it is operating at its maximum output? What is the peak-to-peak voltage across the speaker when it is operating at maximum power? What is the apparent resistance of the speaker? b c d I (A) 0 I (A) 50 t (s) 0 0. a b c An electric toaster designed to operate on 240 V RMS has a power rating of 600 W. VRMS = Vp/ 2 .02 t (s) −1. Which graph best shows the variation of current with time for this circuit? A B 1. and IRMS = Ip/ 2 . • The average power in a resistive AC circuit is given by 1 P = VRMS × IRMS = 2Vp × Ip.9.4 The following diagram shows the voltage–time characteristics of a particular power supply.02 t (s) is equivalent to a DC voltage of 340 V is equivalent to a DC voltage of 170 V will provide the same average power to a circuit as a 240 V DC voltage. 2 Which graph best describes the variation of voltage with time for the household supply in Victoria? B A 120 V (V) 240 V (V) t (s) V (V) 0.02 t (s) 0 5.5 QUESTIONS 1 Which of the following is true? A 240 V RMS voltage A B C D C D is the same as a 240 V DC voltage 1. −1.4 0 0.5 SUMMARY ALTERNATING VOLTAGE AND CURRENT • The alternating current (AC) produced by power stations and supplied to cities varies sinusoidally at a frequency of 50 Hz.0 10 15 20 25 t (ms) −240 C D −120 480 V (V) 0.0 1. What is the peak current that will flow in the circuit? What is the RMS current that will flow in the circuit? b c 7 A loudspeaker is rated at 60 W RMS maximum at 24 V RMS.0 A being observed. • The root mean square voltage (VRMS) is the value of an equivalent steady voltage (DC) supply which would provide the same power.

The lamp has an operating resistance of 100 Ω . The result is shown at right. 10 6 2 0 –2 –6 –10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 What DC voltage is required to operate this lamp at optimum efficiency? How much power would this lamp be consuming when operating at optimum efficiency on (i) AC and (ii) DC? When this lamp is operating on AC. how many times per second will peak power occur? What is the peak power produced by this lamp? a b c V I 10 6 2 0 –2 –6 –10 I (A) b V (V) c d t (ms) What is the RMS voltage output of the amplifier? What is the RMS current in the amplifier? What is the RMS power rating of the amplifier? 300 ELECTRIC POWER .8 A lamp purchased in the USA is designed to operate at optimum efficiency when it is connected to an AC supply that has a peak voltage of 170 V and a frequency of 60 Hz. a 9 A student decides to test the output power of a new amplifier by using a CRO to display the alternating current I and voltage V that it produces.

The coil connected to the AC supply is referred to as the primary. as the current increases. if it has the same number of turns as the secondary it would have the same voltage. whenever a changing magnetic flux passes through a coil.26 (a) In an ideal transformer.9. because of the back EMF. Provided we do not overload the transformer it will maintain a secondary voltage very close to that given by the ratio of the turns. there will be an induced EMF. In any case the ratio of the voltage induced in the secondary to that of the primary will be equal to the ratio of turns in each coil: Vs Ns = Vp Np Even when the load draws a current from the transformer. the iron core ensures that all the flux generated in the primary also passes through the secondary. However.25 A modern transformer is most commonly made by winding the two coils around an iron core. Also. As very little current flows in the primary we can see that the back EMF in the primary must almost be equal to the applied (mains) voltage. this so-called back EMF will tend to reduce the current. In this case no current flows in the secondary and so all the flux is being generated by the primary coil. As we have seen. over the whole community this can add up to megawatts of wasted power! Electromagnetic induction 301 . it is possible to leave a transformer connected to the supply permanently and it will use very little power. PRACTICAL ACTIVITY 31 Transformer operation AC supply load primary coil secondary coil Figure 9. Because this changing flux also goes through the secondary coil. That is. Physics file Because very little current can flow into the primary of a good transformer to which there is no load connected. A transformer with a greater number of primary turns than secondary turns is referred to as a step-down transformer and one with a greater number of secondary turns a step-up transformer. the basic idea is simple enough. In a good transformer this process is very effective and very little current will flow in the primary if none is flowing in the secondary. Any transformer is simply two coils wound so that the magnetic flux from one goes through the other. however.26 shows an ‘ideal’ transformer.6 Transformers When Faraday first discovered electromagnetic induction he had virtually invented the transformer. this flux will induce a voltage in the primary coil that will oppose the change of flux. In many of the electronic devices we leave on ‘standby’. the changing flux originates from an alternating current in the primary coil. Therefore. there will be an EMF induced in that coil. Consider first the case where there is no load connected to the secondary coil. is the secondary. The two coils are wound on one core so that all the magnetic flux generated by one passes through the other. the voltage ratio does not change much. and the coil connected to the ‘load’. In a transformer. transformers are constantly connected to the mains but. A transformer operates on the principle that. A common iron core increases this ‘flux linkage’ considerably. very little current is used while the device is not operating. Figure 9. as the same voltage must be induced in each turn of both coils (it is equal to the rate of change of flux) we can deduce that the voltage induced in the secondary coil will depend on the number of turns it has. Although a detailed analysis of transformer operation is complex. (a) changing magnetic flux (b) Figure 9. (b) The symbol used in circuit diagrams for an iron core transformer.

Because this loss increases with the square of the current (P = I 2R).) The rate of energy transfer is the power. Alternatively the input power was 240 V × 0. For this reason it is important not to exceed the rated capacity of a transformer. Assuming these losses are negligible. the law of conservation of energy enables us to assume that all the energy that goes into the primary will be transferred to the secondary. so we can say IpVp = IsVs Is Vp or = Ip Vs The TRANSFORMER EQUATIONS are: Is Vp Np = = Ip Vs Ns Worked example 9. there will be a point at which the transformer starts to overheat rapidly. the core is made of laminations— thin plates of iron electrically insulated from each other and placed so that the laminations interrupt the eddy currents. Physics file Eddy currents set up in the iron core of transformers can generate a considerable amount of heat.Physics file A transformer will be overloaded if too much current is drawn and the resistive power loss in the wires becomes too great. as we assumed that the transformer itself uses no power. Energy has been lost from the electrical circuit and the transformer may become a possible fire hazard. what will be the number of turns in the primary coil? If the train requires a current of up to 4 A. b The current ratio is the inverse of the turns and voltage ratio so that the current in the primary will be 1/20 of the secondary current. A transformer is used to supply a model train that operates on 12 V from the mains 240 V supply. To reduce eddy current losses. Thus: 4 Ip = 20 = 0. what will be the current and the power drawn from the mains? Ns Vs is equal to the voltage ratio . a If the number of turns in the secondary coil is 100.2 A The power required by the train was 12 V × 4 A = 48 W. 302 ELECTRIC POWER . (A well-designed transformer might lose around 1% of the electrical energy that passes through it. A transformer effectively transfers EMF from one coil to another and does not use energy itself—apart from small resistive power losses in the windings and eddy currents in the core.6A. Np Vp b Solution a We know that the turns ratio Thus we can write: Np Vp = Ns Vs = 240 12 = 20 As there are 100 turns in the secondary there must be 2000 turns in the primary.2 A = 48 W. which is of course the same.

PHYSICS IN ACTION AC induction motors In order to have a current flowing in the armature of a DC motor it is necessary to use brushes which rub on the commutator. was not sufficient to cause the rotor to move. That. creating in effect a rotating field. The induced currents flow lengthwise in copper or aluminium rods which are joined at the ends (as in a squirrel cage). dragging the rotor around with it.28 The principle of a simple single-phase.28. The distorted (or ‘shaded’) field causes the rotor to turn in one direction in preference to the other. As the alternating current in each coil peaks.29 (a) In a three-phase motor. so the field appears to travel from one to the next. just as though it was rotating. thick. His idea was simple: he used the changing magnetic flux from stationary coils. The current induced in the rotor of the induction motor opposed the relative motion between the apparently rotating field and the rotor—and so the rotor tried to spin with the field! (a) coils (b) stator power supply cooling fan rotor bearing electromagnetic field windiings drive shaft Figure 9.27 A typical AC induction motor. as the current in each pair of opposite coils peaks. The alternating current in the stator coils made the field appear to be continually reversing direction. Tesla’s trick was to make the field appear to rotate. (a) + Current 0 – 2 1 3 Time (b) conductor bars rotor 1 2 3 end ring 1 2 3 Figure 9. in effect. to induce a current into a solid conducting rotor (see Figure 9. Electromagnetic induction 303 . soft iron casing distorted field causes asymmetric torque Figure 9. but Tesla distorted the field by placing a con- Of course. A great advantage of three-phase power is that it is just what is needed to make the magnetic field always appear to rotate in one direction.27). In the three-phase induction motor. each connected to one of the three phases. the field could seem to be rotating in either ducting ring on one side of the pole. Tesla realised that a current could be induced in a rotor without any mechanical contact by using. The rotor is made of iron laminations to cut down undesirable eddy currents. fed with AC current. as in Figure 9. are arranged at 120° intervals. three pairs of coils. with consequent wear and friction. copper shading ring direction. the transformer principle. however. the field appears to rotate. By far the largest number of electric motors used in industry are induction motors. Because they have no brushes they are both more efficient and more reliable. This asymmetry made the field appear to rotate in one direction. (b) A ‘squirrel cage’ rotor. ‘shaded pole’ induction motor.

The primary RMS voltage input is 8.0 A is flowing. What is the value of the peak current in the primary coil? Calculate the power input to the primary coil of the transformer. • Each turn in both the primary and secondary coils experiences the same flux changes and so the voltage ratio is given by Vs/Vp = Ns/Np. Which of the graphs (A–D) is the most likely output displayed on the CRO for: a 5 a steady DC voltage? 304 ELECTRIC POWER . How much energy is consumed by the primary circuit during this time? Justify your answer. a Vp and ∆φB/∆t Vs and ∆φB/∆t Vp and Vs What is the RMS voltage across the load in the secondary circuit? What RMS current will flow in the secondary circuit? What power is being supplied to the load? b c 2 With S closed. The following diagram depicts an iron core transformer. • Where there is no load on the secondary a ‘back EMF’ in the primary opposes the current and reduces it to almost zero. This results in no current flowing in the secondary circuit for 10 minutes. The secondary circuit contains a switch S in series with a resistance R. Would the security light still operate? Justify your answer. 7 a b V pI p B V sI s C V pI s D I s2 R Calculate the number of turns in the secondary coil. and a series of different inputs are used. Assume that the light is operating normally and that there are no losses in the transformer. 3 Again with S closed. The number of turns in the primary coil is N1 and in the secondary N2. which one or more of the following alternatives A–D is equal to: a the input power to the primary coil of an ideal transformer? the output power from the secondary coil of an ideal transformer? A b The following information applies to questions 7–9.0 V and a primary RMS current of 2. which one or more of the alternatives in the key correctly describes: a the power input to the primary coil of a non-ideal transformer? the power output from the secondary coil of a nonideal transformer? A 8 c b V pI p B V sI s C V pI s D I s2 R 9 During some routine maintenance work the primary coil is unplugged from the AC mains and mistakenly connected to a DC supply of 240 V. A security light is operated from mains voltage (240 V RMS) through a step-down transformer with 800 turns on the primary winding.6 QUESTIONS The following information applies to questions 1–6. the power into the primary is the same as the power out of the secondary. The security light operates normally on a voltage of 12 V RMS and a RMS current of 2. Thus the current ratio is the inverse of the turns and voltage ratio: Pp = Ps. write an equation that defines the relationship between: a b c Assume that the primary winding consists of 20 turns and the secondary of 200 turns. during which time the primary coil is still connected to the supply. The primary coil is reconnected to the mains supply. 4 What are the sources of power loss in a non-ideal transformer? A cathode ray oscilloscope is now connected to the output of the transformer. • Assuming no power loss in the transformer.6 SUMMARY TRANSFORMERS • A transformer consists basically of two coils wound on an iron core in such a way that all the magnetic flux generated by one also passes through the other.0 A. It is then decided that the globe in the security light needs replacing and it is removed. so IpVp = IsVs or Ip/Is = Vs/Vp 9. b a DC voltage that is increased gradually from zero at a constant rate? a sinusoidal voltage of frequency 50 Hz? c A B C D N l turns Ip primary AC voltage iron core N 2 turns Is S secondary AC voltage 0 t 0 t 0 t 0 t Vp Vs R 6 1 Assuming that the transformer is ideal.9. An alternating voltage applied to the primary coil produces a changing magnetic flux ∆φB/∆t.

25 × 10−6 Ω. especially for a cable 100 km long! (The resistance of copper wire used in homes is about 0.9. This is much more feasible. A 10% voltage drop is 50 kV. but safety considerations require the nuclear plant to be located well away from population centres. with its widely separated population centres. any practical power line has a significant resistance which causes an I 2R power loss. this would require a current of 2. The resistivity ρ of aluminium is 2. We know that the current required is 20 million amperes.0 × 104 A. Physics file The resistance of a material depends on the length and cross-section as well as the nature of the material. Electric power for our cities The amount of electrical energy required by a modern city can only be supplied by large power plants located near a primary source of energy. The higher the voltage. where R is the resistance in ohms (Ω). as the power loss depends on the square of the current. The corona effect makes transmission voltages greater than this impracticable. made of aluminium. or 10 000 A. The four spaced conductors have the effect of creating a larger conductor which reduces the intensity of the electric field (just as the dome of the Van der Graff does). if the current were doubled. would be needed to carry 5000 MW of power a distance of 100 km at: a b 250 V? 500 kV? Assume that a 10% drop in voltage along the line is acceptable. A large city like Melbourne.01 Ω per metre. the lower the current needed. Physics file There is a fundamental reason that 500 kV is about the limit for power transmission. This corona effect can sometimes cause a faint glow in the dark.) We can find the diameter required for an aluminium conductor 100 km long with this resistance. Solution a At 250 V.25 × 10−6 = 2240 m2 This corresponds to a solid conductor with a diameter of 53 metres! At 500 kV the current is 10 000 amps. The transmission of electrical energy over large distances is therefore a very important consideration for power engineers. Unless the dream of ‘warm’ high-current superconductors becomes a reality. uses over 5000 MW of power at peak times. l is the length (m). The formula for resistance can be transformed to give the cross-section area required: A = ρl/R = 2. such as coal or a hydro-electric dam. allowing it to conduct the charge away. The fuel for nuclear energy is more easily transported. The power carried by a transmission line is the product of the current carried and the voltage (P = IV). The field around a single very high voltage cable would also result in a corona discharge. the resistance would have to be reduced by a factor of four to avoid more power loss. the 5000 MW could be carried by a current of 5000 MW/500 kV = 1. utilises this principle—the corona discharge can neutralise the clouds.7 × 10−8 Ω m and that of aluminium is 2. The resistivity of copper is 1. used on buildings prone to lightning strikes.7 Using electrical energy Physics file P = I 2R results from the substitution of Ohm's law V = IR into the power equation P = IV. 305 Worked example 9. This is summed up in the expression R = ρl/A.8 × 10−8 Ω m. At 250 V. A is the cross-section area (m2) and ρ is the resistivity in ohm metres (Ω m). The resistance of the line therefore needs to be R = ∆V/I = 25/20 × 106 = 1.7A. Up to voltages of around 500 kV this can be avoided by using conductors consisting of four cables held apart by spacers. b Electromagnetic induction . so conductors four times the weight would be required. particularly in a country like Australia. the acceptable voltage drop along the line is 25 V. so the resistance of the line is R = ∆V/I = 50 000/10 000 = 5 Ω. At a voltage of 500 kV.0 × 107 A (20 million amperes). Clearly it is important to reduce the current as much as possible. Most alternative forms of energy are also remote from the cities where the energy is required: wind. wave or solar power for example.8 × 10−8 Ω m. This is a very low resistance indeed. The intense electric field near a small point at a high voltage can ionise the air in the vicinity. How large a conductor. The lightning rod. For example. Resistivity can be thought of as a measure of the inherent resistance of the material. How can the power be transmitted from the generating station to the users? The solution is to use much higher voltages.8 × 10−8 × 100 × 103/1. No practical conductor could carry this current over long distances.

For this reason it is very good practice never to put two hands near a suspect electrical appliance. Electric power: the large scale Starting up a coal-fired power station is not a simple task. The principle is simple: if the currents in each wire are equal but in opposite directions. It is even better practice to disconnect it and take it to an expert! appliance A X trip coil N E X pick-up winding earth leakage current Figure 9. The RCD is designed to detect this and instantaneously shut off the circuit. the demand for electricity increases rapidly.6 × 10−4 m2. but still small for such a long cable. an equal amount of current flows in both conductors. This corresponds to a diameter of 2. PHYSICS IN ACTION Electrical safety In the last few decades the use of electrical appliances has boomed. If the currents are equal. Unfortunately we do not use electrical energy at a constant rate. As we wake up. turn on the lights and heater. or carelessness.6 cm.30 Residual current devices prevent fatal shocks by shutting off the current within about 0. Once running it is an equally time-consuming process to shut it down again. no net field is created. the RCD will do nothing because the current going through you is returning through the neutral. If the currents are not equal there will be a net magnetic field. Any appliance used around the home is connected between the active (±340 V) and neutral (0 V) terminals. steam pressure built up and the generators run up to the correct speed of 50 revolutions per second. An RCD cannot eliminate all risk. we can find the cross-section area required: A = ρl/R = 2. the active and neutral currents are no longer equal. only about 2% of the power transmitted is lost in the cables. Normally.8 × 10−8 × 100 × 103/5 = 5. would be considerably greater than 2. electricity supply companies use the coal-fired stations to supply the ‘base load’ demand. typically it might increase by over 50% in an hour.A more acceptable resistance. One reason for this is the use of earth leakage detectors. Figure 9.03 s. which switches off the main supply. If a fault. To cope with this. For this reason the actual cables used in the transmission lines between the Latrobe Valley and Melbourne are considerably larger than the cable we calculated. Another way of coping with the fluctuations is to use excess power for ‘pumped 306 ELECTRIC POWER . which is made up of many strands. cook breakfast and then catch the train or tram to school or work. the resultant field will induce a current in the pick-up winding. In Figure 9. The boilers have to be fired. The diameter of a real cable. This example shows that the power lost in the 500 kV line is quite significant: 500 MW is the output of a very large generator. In fact. allows some current to flow to earth through a person. If you put one hand on a live terminal in the appliance and the other on a neutral wire.30.31 shows the variation on a typical winter’s day. the active and neutral conductors pass through a toroidal core. This process can take over 12 hours. or residual current devices (RCDs). while deaths from electrocution have dropped considerably. but hydro-electricity for rapid response (it is just a matter of turning on the tap) and gas-powered generators (which still take some time to heat up) for the intermediate fluctuations in load. As above. their magnetic fields will cancel each other. If the currents are not equal. This current activates a solenoid.6 cm—a heavy cable but very much more reasonable.

31 This graph shows the variations in demand for electricity in Victoria on a typical winter’s day. At an efficiency of 25% this represents one-quarter of the total coal energy used.7B.m. manufacturing and industry.storage’. Roughly one-third of our energy consumption is electrical energy. In Australia. Converting these quantities to SI units. how much coal would have been burnt that day? (The heat value of brown coal is 8. there are many problems associated with our current use of energy: the emission of carbon dioxide and other ‘greenhouse’ gases from fossil fuels. Australia being one of the largest suppliers of uranium.m. Mass of coal = 1 000 000/8. You can see that gas is cheaper.7 = 115 000 tonnes This amount of coal would fill the MCG to a height of about 1 m! 4 a.) intermediate load Solution a The total energy used is represented by the area under the graph. where it can be re-used to provide power for the morning peak. or 7200 GJ (1 gigajoule = 109 J). Power companies charge around 15 cents for 1 kW h (3. the rest is mainly oil for transport as well as oil. midnight Figure 9. we have: Energy in each square = 500 × 106 J × 4 × 3600 = 7. noon 4 p. The Snowy Mountains hydro scheme uses around 100–200 MW of excess Victorian coal power each night to pump water back uphill to the high level dams. gas and coal used directly for agriculture. The total coal energy required is then: 4 × 250 000 = 1 million GJ As each tonne of coal provides 8. the gas companies charge at the rate of about 0. 3500 peak load 3000 2500 Load (MW) 2000 1500 base load 1000 500 0 midnight Worked example 9.8 cents per MJ of gas. The rate at which the rotor turns is governed by the power flowing. As we well know. an appliance that uses 2 kW for 5 hours will use 10 kW h. but you cannot run your radio on it! It is usually cheaper. which is rather like a combination of an AC electric motor and a car odometer. Physics file The kilowatt hour is simply another energy unit. Per head of population. On the other hand. as well as various forms of pollution. and environmentally better.6 × 106 J = 3.6 MJ The future Modern technological societies consume vast amounts of energy of all sorts.2 × 1012 J. The number of squares under the graph is approximately 35. For example. On this graph each square represents 500 MW × 4 hours. In many technologically developed countries a considerable proportion of electrical energy is generated by nuclear power.6 MJ). b Electric power: the small scale Power companies measure the electrical energy we use at home by installing a watt hour meter. where 1 kilowatt hour (kW h) is simply the amount of energy used by a 1 kW device in 1 hour. 8 a. The area under a graph such as this represents the total amount of energy used in one day. The rotor is connected to a series of dials which register the number of kilowatt hours. nearly 90% of our electrical energy comes from coal. being obvious ones. so the total electrical energy used that day was 35 × 7200 = 250 000 GJ.7 GJ of energy we can find the mass of coal needed. The rest is mainly hydro-electricity. 8 p.m.31? If the power station works at an overall efficiency of 25%.7 GJ per tonne.m. Australians consume around eight times the world average and over fifty times that in developing countries. with a small contribution from gas. Electromagnetic induction 307 . a b How much electrical energy was used on the day shown in Figure 9. Energy is the product of power and time: E = Pt 1 joule = 1 watt × 1 second 1 kilowatt hour = 1 kilowatt × 1 hour To convert kilowatt hours to joules: 1 kW h = 1000 watts × 3600 seconds = 3. to use gas directly for home heating.

Table 9. computer monitors and mobile phones.6–10 0. they will have to be. There is growing concern. Although research on the subject is difficult. they are used very close to the head. There is considerable interest in alternative sources of energy. so that we can contribute positively to discussions on energy production and use.32 PHYSICS IN ACTION Coefficient of friction the fields from the three conductors spread out some distance into the surrounding area. Our task is to understand the physics. or where the operation of an appliance involves a magnetic field (e.33 There is little concern about the effects of steady electric and magnetic fields on our health: humans have always lived in the Earth’s natural magnetic and electric fields.5 0. Vacuum cleaner. Figure 9. motors and transformers) are there significant ELF fields. not all emfs come from things we plug into the power point. Virtually any source of energy can be used to create electricity. but it must be generated from some form of primary energy. At the moment little hard evidence exists to implicate them in health problems. undesirable effects on our health from changing electromagnetic fields (emfs). Figure 9. it produces ‘waves’ in these steady fields. drill Food mixer Fluorescent lamp (30 cm away) Mains electric razor (at face) Battery electric razor (at face) Electric blanket Brush cutter (petrol engine) 25 m away from a 400 kV power line 2–20 0. These waves travel at the speed of light and are usually referred to as electromagnetic waves. can be a health hazard. which powers the spark plug.g. Values are in microtesla (1 µT = 10−6 T). Mains 50 Hz alternating current produces an extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic wave. The very low strength of the signals that we are normally exposed to from radio and television transmitters is probably of no consequence. The net current in all three conductors is zero. and help find new and better ways of dealing with a very fundamental issue for our society. The connection between human welfare and electromagnetism has become a significant social question with claims that exposure to the electromagnetic fields. The high-frequency fields emitted by radio transmitters are also of some concern. People living near the high-voltage lines that carry power to our cities may be exposed to higher ELF fields than are desirable. however. but much more research is needed. wind and wave energy. There is no doubt that patterns of future energy production and use will be very different from the current ones. that there may be some subtle. Surprisingly. such as those of power lines. It is not so much the high voltages that are the concern. Only where the conductors are separated (such as in electric blankets). consists of a rapidly rotating magnet which induces an EMF in a coil which is connected to the spark plug. Most of the wiring in our houses is not a problem because the active and neutral are close together and the fields from the opposite currents cancel. so if they could all be bundled together the fields would cancel.Electricity itself is a very clean form of energy. Two main classes of electromagnetic waves are of concern: the low-frequency fields associated with electric power transmission. but the magnetic component of the field due to the high alternating current in the line.5–2 20 0. such as solar. there is evidence that prudence is desirable—we should limit our exposure to emfs where possible.1 Typical electromagnetic fields 30 cm from some household devices. Small two-stroke petrol engines emit quite high-level ELF fields because the magneto. When an electric charge accelerates.1–1 10–50 8 308 ELECTRIC POWER . and higher-frequency radio fields. The problem is that while the power of the transmitter is relatively low. But because of the wide spacing needed to insulate the three phases in a high-voltage line. perhaps. but increased mobile telephone use is exposing large numbers of people to the fields from the transmitters in the phones. but it may be prudent not to use them unnecessarily.

As well. Furthermore. while the third is basically Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction. they would propagate through space at just 3 × 108 m s−1—the speed of light! Now was this just a coincidence or was light itself an electromagnetic wave? There was little doubt in Maxwell’s mind. James Maxwell published his Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism in which he distilled much of the work of Faraday and others into four elegant equations. he had found what it was that was waving in light waves—crossed electric and magnetic fields propagating through space at right angles to each other and to the direction of travel. the third equation relates the changing magnetic field to an electric field—which is what gives the charges their energy (as expressed by the emf). ds = − dΦB dt dΦE B. dA = 0 E. electric flux is the product of the electric field and the perpendicular area. Figure 9. We do not need to concern ourselves with the maths! You will see. The fourth relates the magnetic field to the current producing it. but how do we know this? The story of the discovery of the nature of light has been one of the most fascinating aspects of physics since Newton suggested that it was made up of particles while Huygens argued that it was a wave.PHYSICS IN ACTION Light—an electromagnetic wave In our course we have frequently heard that light is an electromagnetic wave. The first relates the electric field to the charge that produces it. so should a changing electric flux produce a magnetic flux. Sure enough. because the moving charge represents a current. This was well before Rutherford’s atomic model with its accelerating electrons.) This term would not have surprised Maxwell realised that there was an interesting possibility here. but left unanswered the question as to what exactly was doing the waving. Rather than giving an emf. Faraday. But what started these oscillating electric and magnetic fields off in the first place? Maxwell’s equations had the answer! Whenever an electric charge accelerates. a sort of ‘kink’ arises in the electric field it produces. which … and so on? He found that indeed there was. as he suspected.35 This is a version of Maxwell's famous equations. however. In 1873. As well as a term involving the electric current there is a term that involves the rate of change of electric flux. He had achieved what physicists had been trying to do since Newton. from symmetry. there being no magnetic ‘charge’.34 James Clerk Maxwell (1831–1879) was born the year Faraday discovered electromagnetic induction and died the year Einstein was born. (Like magnetic flux. that they are not all that frightening. E. now known as Maxwell’s equations. As we now know. a magnetic field is produced. It was Faraday who first suggested that light might in fact have an electromagnetic nature—but he had no way of showing this. that just as a changing magnetic flux produces an electric field (third equation). they were both partly right! Young’s interference experiments convincingly demonstrated the wave nature of light. The second expresses the fact that all magnetic fields are continuous in nature. dA = q/∈0 B. His equations showed that oscillating electric and magnetic fluxes could ‘self-propagate’ through space. but it was well established that Electromagnetic induction 309 . the changing electric field (the ‘kink’) is just what is needed to produce the changing magnetic field and the process continues. Could a situation arise where a changing magnetic flux led to a changing electric flux. but has a very interesting extra term. ds = µ0∈0 + µ0i dt Figure 9. which produced a further changing magnetic flux.

A little earlier. However. These two changing electric and magnetic fields are just what Maxwell said would propagate through space at the speed of light. Figure 9. (a) When a charge is at rest (or moving steadily) it only has a radial (outward) electric field. As the charge (therefore current) moves down. A moving charge is a current. You can probably guess what they found! In 1888 Heinrich Hertz demonstrated that indeed oscillating currents in a coil produced electromagnetic waves that could be detected in another coil. This was not unreasonable. this conflicted badly with Newtonian physics. (d) A pair of oscillating electric and magnetic fields moves outwards from the vibrating charge. A little earlier it had moved up and produced the inward field shown further out. was Albert Einstein. The electric field oscillating between up and down while the magnetic field oscillates between in and out of the page. Heinrich Hertz demonstrated the existence of electromagnetic waves by transmitting them from oscillating currents in a coil to an ‘antenna' that produced a tiny spark in a gap. (b) When it oscillates this causes 'wiggles' in the field to move outwards. that they just had to be true.36 In 1888. of course. one good discovery opens the way to many more. which has moved further out. These wiggles move outwards. what about accelerating charges in ordinary sized objects? It was not long before experimenters were trying out the idea. Most physicists thought that there must be some mistake in the equations and that eventually this would become clear. he suggested. some 20 years after Maxwell predicted them. Radio. there were other assumptions— about the nature of time and space—that were wrong? His name. as it was moving up. and so beautifully expressed the nature of electricity and magnetism.37 Electromagnetic waves are generated when a charge is accelerated. and the energy was presumably responsible for the acceleration. regardless of the motion of the source or detector. If atom-sized accelerating charges could produce electromagnetic waves. which will point in and out of the page. 310 ELECTRIC POWER . Perhaps. So along with the wiggle in the electric field goes a magnetic field. (c) These waves of field have a tangential component. (c) E up x x x x x E down x x x x x + + B out Electric field Magnetic field + + B in (d) + + x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x (e) c x x x x x x x x x x x x Direction of wave travel Figure 9.matter contained charged particles. As is often the case in physics. was born. In other words it had an absolute velocity. and Maxwell suspected that somehow the processes that produced light (heating a wire for example) involved the acceleration of these basic charged particles. at right angles to the radial field. which said that all motion should be relative. it produced a downward electric field. having just produced an upward field. (a) (b) who felt very strongly that Maxwell’s equations were so elegant. (e) A graphical representation of the situation in (d). But that wasn’t all! Maxwell’s equations had predicted the speed of light very accurately. There was one young physicist. they also suggested that it would always have this value. We are looking only at the waves on the right-hand side. that there was no possibility of an absolute velocity. However. This diagram shows the charge at the bottom of its oscillation. that is where the charge was moving fastest. This component is strongest where the wiggle diverges most from radial. however. just as waves in a rope would if the end were shaken. and the whole basis of much of our modern technological world. and a current produces a magnetic field. that is. the field points out of the page. as all such processes require the use of energy. usually by oscillating it.

2 A power station generates 500 MW of electrical power which is fed to a transmission line.0 Ω cables are used. The power output from the generator remains at 5. The graph shows the average demand for electricity in a Western Australian town over a 15-hour period on a particular day. • The kilowatt hour (kW h) is a useful unit for electric energy.7 GJ of energy. estimate the energy deficit that would have occurred on this day. The base load is normally provided by coal-fired (or nuclear) plants and the peak demand by hydro or gas turbines.00 12.0 cm) of the line described in question 3. Calculate the percentage power loss in the line when the power station is operating at: a The following information applies to questions 8–10. electric power is transmitted at very high voltages (up to 500 kV). determine the cost of running the following: a b c d e What is the main reason for this? What factors limit the use of even higher voltages for power transmission? 1.0 kW and the same 4. How will the percentage power loss in this line compare to that in the line in question 3 when it is operating at 500 kV? The following information applies to questions 5 and 6.) An alternative-power company claims that it can provide electricity generated from solar power.00 Time of day 250 kV b 500 kV.0 kW of electrical power at 500 V. • The demand for electric power varies during the day.00 p. at a constant rate of 100 MW. 9. and 6. Electromagnetic induction 9 The supplier is unhappy with this power loss and uses a transformer to step up the transmission voltage to 5.0 cm and a total resistance of 10 Ω.0 kW heater for 2. a b If the cost of electricity in Victoria is 15 cents per kilowatt hour.0 Ω.m.m.m.m. between 9.00 a.0 kV. 5 a b c d 6 What is the current in the cables? What is the total power loss in the cables? What is the percentage power loss in the cables? What is the voltage available at the house? 8 Estimate the total amount of electrical energy consumed between 9. • The power lost whenever current flows through transmission lines is equal to I 2R. 250 Power (MW) 200 150 100 50 0 9.6 megajoules. 4 A transmission line made from aluminium cable is twice the length (200 km) and twice the radius (2.00 9. during that time. • Total energy demand is represented by the area under a load–time graph (E = Pt). It is equal to 3. 3. 1 c 7 What is the voltage output to the house? In Victoria.m. 12. on this particular day? (1 tonne of coal provides 8. A solarpowered generator produces 5.9. What current would flow in the transmission line if the input voltage is: a 250 kV? b 500 kV? 3 A 100 km transmission line made from aluminium cable has an effective radius of 1.7 QUESTIONS All voltages referred to in these questions are RMS. The electricity is supplied from a nearby coal-fired power station.0 W clock radio for a week computer printer using 3 W on standby for a year. • Because the power loss is proportional to the square of the current. and a step-down transformer at the other end.7 SUMMARY USING ELECTRICAL ENERGY • The power delivered by an electric transmission line is equal to the product of the current and voltage. and midnight on this day.00 a. Assuming that this power station operates at 30% efficiency. High power requires high current and/or voltage. how much coal would have been used in this 15-hour period. • The practical upper limit to the transmission voltage is around 500 kV.00 p. This power is transmitted to a distant house via twin cables of total resistance 4. If this company had been the only source of electric power on the day in question. The line carries the electrical power from the 500 MW power station to a substation.00 6. it is important to reduce the current in long-distance transmission lines by using very high voltages. 10 a b 311 .00 a.0 hours 80 W light globe for 30 minutes 250 W television for 12 hours 6. What current now flows in the cables? Calculate the percentage power loss for this new arrangement.

0 Ω. b S c 4 2 The coil is rotated about the axis XY with constant frequency of f = 100 Hz.0 1.0 1. X left S right coil moved to the right N initial position Y A X final position Y A X Y which completes a circuit with a total resistance 1. A ship with a vertical steel mast of length 8. The coil has 40 turns. The coil is pulled out of the field faster than before. These rails are connected to a switch S. XY. directed out of the page.CHAPTER REVIEW The following information applies to questions 1–3. The magnitude of B is halved in 1. The direction of B is reversed in 2.0 m s−1.0 Hz.0 Ω when it is closed.10 s. The number of turns in the coil is increased.0 × 10−4 T f = 100 Hz.0 1. t (ms) t (ms) 312 ELECTRIC POWER . The switch is now opened. B = 4.0 × 10−5 T north. The area of each turn is reduced. What is the direction of the induced current in the rod? Justify your answer. B = 8.0 × 10 −4 T which is directed out of the page. a Y The following information applies to questions 4–6. B = 4.0 Ω.0 m is travelling due west at 4. Which one or more of the following would result in a greater induced EMF in the coil than for the original situation? A 8 What is the magnitude and direction of the average current induced in the rod? What is the magnitude and direction of the magnetic force on the rod due to the induced current? b What is the maximum EMF induced in the coil? What is the peak current induced in the coil? 5 b 3 Which one of the graphs A–D best describes the current–time relationship for the coil for the following values of frequency and field strength? a b c The force moving the rod is removed and the rod is stationary. A uniform magnetic field of strength 10 mT. The following information applies to questions 7 and 8.0 cm.0 ms.0 1. The field strength between the magnets is 20 mT.0 × 10−4 T B C A I (mA) 2. The direction of the magnetic field is reversed before the coil is pulled out. is located in a uniform magnetic field B = 8. A rectangular coil of area 40 cm2 and resistance 1.0 20 D The following information applies to questions 9 and 10. The initial position of the coil is entirely in the field while the final position is free of the field. f = 50.0 ms. The plane of the coil is initially perpendicular to the field as depicted in the diagram below. a What is the magnitude and direction of the average current induced in the coil as it is moved from its initial position to its final position? The student makes some modifications to the equipment and then repeats the experiment. t (ms) t (ms) clockwise current P X Q counterclockwise current 1 State the magnitude and direction of the average current induced in the coil when the following changes are made to the original situation. of length 20 cm is free to move along a set of parallel conducting rails as shown in the following diagram. is established perpendicular to the circuit.0 10 What would be the direction of the induced current in the coil when the student moved it from its final position back to its original position? Justify your answer. S is closed and the rod is moved toward the right with a constant speed of 2.0 × 10−4 T f = 200 Hz.0 ms. and a total resistance of 2. 7 a The magnitude of B is doubled in 1.0 10 I (mA) D 2. 6 C I (mA) 2. During a physics experiment a student pulls a horizontal coil from between the poles of two magnets in 0. each of radius 4.0 20 B I (mA) 2. A copper rod.0 m s−1 in a region where the Earth’s magnetic field (assumed horizontal) is equal to 5.

0 4.CHAPTER REVIEW 9 a What average EMF would be induced between the ends of the mast? A crew member connects a rectangular wire frame across the ends of the mast. 0 t The student decides to test the power output of a new stereo amplifier. A b Vi c 3.0 2.0 10 Time (ms) 3.0 A 14 V N 1 N 2 = 30 R 42 V B a 0 Vi t 14 a b What is the RMS output current? How many turns are there in the primary winding? How much power is consumed by the resistor R? c b 0 C Vi t 15 c 12 The following diagrams show the output voltages for a transformer as they appear on the screen of a cathode ray oscilloscope. The maximum RMS power output guaranteed by the manufacturer (assumed accurate) is 60 W. What would be the average current induced in the circuit? Justify your answer. 30 V (V) 20 10 0 −10 −20 Which of the following input voltages A–C would produce: a b c V 30 I (A) 20 10 The ship is still moving with the same velocity but now encounters a mysterious region where the Earth’s magnetic field is changing at a rate of 1. and the voltage V across. The circuit formed by the loop and the mast has a total resistance of 8. The broken line in the displays is the time base and represents zero voltage. Which set of specifications is consistent with this power output? Peak–peak voltage (V) A B C D Peak–peak current (A) 3. Calculate the average current induced in the circuit previously described. The graph obtained from the CRO display is shown below.0 0 −10 −20 −30 a −30 13 11 display 1? display 2? display 3? What is the frequency of the output signal from the generator? What is the RMS voltage of this signal? What is the peak-to-peak voltage for the signal? Calculate the RMS power output of the signal generator. The output voltage is 42 V. An ideal transformer is operating with an RMS input voltage of 14 V and RMS primary current of 3. the terminals of a loudspeaker which has been connected to a signal generator.0 × 10−5 T s−1.0 Ω. There are 30 turns in the secondary winding. forming a 40 m2 loop whose plane is perpendicular to the Earth’s field.0 6. 3 I 1.0 A.0 20 40 40 20 Electromagnetic induction 313 .0 6. A physics student uses a cathode ray oscilloscope to display the current I through. 1 b 2 The following information applies to questions 13–15.0 12. What is the peak power output of the generator? Calculate the apparent resistance of the speaker.

Use the graph to estimate the maximum electrical energy output required to satisfy the power demand on a typical working day. a c What is the peak voltage output of the alternator when the coil is rotating at a frequency of 50 Hz? What is the RMS voltage produced by the alternator when it is operating at a frequency of 50 Hz. 6. and 6.5 km from the nearest power supply. Assume that the demand between each hour varies in a linear fashion.m.00 p.m. 3.m.m.7 GJ of energy.m.00 p. calculate the mass of coal needed to supply the maximum power demand for this community on a typical working day between 9.00 p.0 Ω. between 9. and 6. What frequency of rotation is required for the alternator to produce a voltage of 16 V RMS? b The following information applies to questions 19 and 20.m. 4. 5. each of area 10 cm2.00 a.00 a. c 314 ELECTRIC POWER .m. PD (MW) 100 110 120 130 140 150 150 150 170 190 The coal-fired power station that supplies the power to this community operates at an efficiency of 25%. 10.00 p. 2.m.m.00 p. Give your answer in: a b c d e gigawatt hours megawatt hours kilowatt hours GJ J.00 p.00 a. 11. The generator is connected to the machine via twin cables. 12 noon 1. 1. The farmer considers two options: (1) buy a 200 V. The data show how the peak demand (PD) for electrical power might vary in a small town in East Gippsland. power consumed by machine in option 1: power consumed by machine in option 2 power lost in the leads in option 1: power lost in the leads in option 2 power supplied by generator in option 1: power supplied by generator in option 2 20 15 V 17 b A student builds a simple alternator consisting of a coil containing 500 turns.m.16 Which set of specifications in question 15 would best describe the AC voltage–current combination that would produce a power consumption equivalent to the DC circuit shown in the following diagram? 18 15 Ω A farmer needs to operate a 1.m.00 p. and (2) buy a 400 V. each of resistance 2.6 kW machine. The data were recorded over a 9-hour period on a typical working day. between the hours described. determine the following ratios: a 19 Plot a graph of peak demand (MW) as a function of time (hours).m. Time 9. If each tonne of coal can provide 8.6 kW machine.00 a. mounted on an axis that can rotate between the poles of a permanent magnet of strength 80 mT. 1.6 kW machine that is 1.00 a.m.00 p. Comparing the two options.

05 kg m−1. The side PQ has length 5. A 100 A current passing through this cable would produce: A 10 4 11 point P? point Q? point R? 6 5 An electromagnet with a soft iron core is set up as shown in the diagram below. What is the direction of the force on side PQ? C E Out of page F Into page G Zero field What is the direction of the magnetic field due to the two currents at: a b c 2 What is the magnitude of the magnetic force on a 1.0 A then flows through this loop.8 N kg−1.STYLE QUESTIONS ELECTRIC POWER 1 The diagram represents two conductors. The switch S is initially open. The following questions refer to the force between the electromagnet and the bar magnet under different conditions. A The following information applies to questions 3–7. Describe the force on the bar magnet now.0 m section of this cable? Assume that a 100 A current is flowing through this cable from west to east. 12 X A B 7 N S N S the same magnetic force on the cable as when it was horizontal a smaller magnetic force than when it was horizontal a larger magnetic force than when it was horizontal. X is connected to the positive terminal of a battery while Y is connected to the negative terminal. A small bar magnet with its north end towards the electromagnet is placed to the right of it as shown.25 T as shown above. a What is the magnitude and direction of the magnetic force on sides: Exam-style questions 315 .0 cm section of side XQ that is located in the magnetic field? The direction of the current through the loop is reversed by connecting X to the negative terminal and Y to the positive terminal of the battery. The coil carries a constant current I = 200 mA flowing in the direction ADCB. It is free to rotate about the axis XY.0 × 10−5 T. + S a D Y C B Describe the force on the bar magnet while the switch remains open. both perpendicular to the page and both carrying equal currents into the page. The battery is removed and then replaced so that the current flows in the opposite direction. The cable has a mass of 0. What would be the magnitude of the change in magnetic force per metre on this cable if the direction of this current was reversed? The cable is no longer horizontal.0 T. Describe the force on the bar magnet when the switch S is closed and a heavy current flows.0 cm. located in a region where the magnetic field of the Earth is horizontal and has a magnitude of 1. C b c The following information applies to questions 8–11. The following diagram shows a section of a conducting loop XQPY. The diagram below shows a horizontal.0 cm is located in a magnetic field B = 0. Assume that g = 9. A rectangular coil containing 100 turns and dimensions 10 cm × 5. east–west electric cable. N Y X P Q N W S E viewed from above S 8 What is the magnitude of the force on side PQ? 9 electric cable Q P D B 3 x R x What is the direction of the force on side PQ? What is the magnitude of the force on a 1.0 m section of this cable if a 100 A current is flowing through it? What is the direction of the current that will produce a force vertically upward on this cable? What magnitude of current would be required to produce zero resultant vertical force on a 1. A current of 1. The arrows A–D and letters E–G represent options from which you are to choose in answering the following questions. part of which is placed between the poles of a magnet whose field strength is 1. In these questions ignore any contribution from the Earth’s magnetic field. but makes an angle θ with the direction of the Earth’s magnetic field.EXAM .

0 cm. so that its plane is now parallel to B. A rectangular conducting loop of dimensions 100 mm × 50 mm and resistance R = 2.CHAPTER REVIEW AB? DC? b What is the magnitude and direction of the magnetic force on sides: i AD? ii BC? c Describe the likely motion of the coil if it is free to rotate. Determine the average EMF induced in the loop. 14 Consider the electric motor shown below.50 Ω is moving with a constant horizontal velocity of 5. Which one or more of the following modifications will most likely increase the speed of rotation of the armature? A A rectangular loop of 100 turns is suspended in a magnetic field B = 0. i ii 13 becomes zero.0 cm s−1 towards a region of uniform magnetic field of strength 0.80 T. 15 17 Calculate the average EMF induced in the loop when it is halfway through the field. The loop is rotated through an angle of 90° about an axis.0 mT. What is the direction of the induced current in the side XY just as it begins to emerge from the field? Justify your answer.50 T. Connect a 100 Ω resistor in series with the armature windings. The magnetic field is confined to a cubic region of side 30 cm. as shown in the following diagram. A 5. The plane of the loop is parallel to the direction of the field.0 Ω coil.2 s after it is halfway through the cube? Justify your answer. Use a 12 V battery instead of a 9 V battery. A square conducting loop with sides 20 cm and resistance 0. It is then moved out of the field of 316 ELECTRIC POWER . a 18 19 20 It is found that there is a force of 40 N on each of the sides perpendicular to the field. What is the direction of the force on sides AB and CD? In what position of the coil is the turning effect of the forces greatest? At one point in the rotation of the coil the turning effect v = 5.40 T directed vertically downward. Determine the value of the average current induced in the loop during the rotation. The dimensions of the loop are 20 cm perpendicular to the field lines and 10 cm parallel to them. with the twice the current and half the number of turns. a A student constructs a simple DC electric motor consisting of N loops of wire wound around a wooden armature. c B C D Calculate the magnitude of the magnetic flux ΦB threading the loop. Replace the wooden armature with one of soft iron. Determine the magnetic flux ΦB threading the loop in the new position. b c d B = 0.40 T e a The direction of the current in the coil is shown (from D anticlockwise to A). Will the current keep flowing once the rotation is complete and the loop is stationary? Explain your answer. How much electrical power is consumed in the loop when it is halfway through the field? What is the source of this power? What is the magnitude of the magnetic force experienced by side XY when it is halfway through the field? What is the average EMF induced in the loop 1. is located with its plane perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field of strength B = 1. What is the force on the 20 cm side now? 21 b 22 23 Increase the number of turns N. The time interval for the rotation ∆t = 2. and a permanent horseshoe-shaped magnetic of strength B. What is the current in each turn of the loop? This loop is then replaced by a square loop of 10 cm each side. The coil is connected to a sensitive current meter that has an internal resistance of 595 Ω. is placed between the poles of a magnet so that the flux is a maximum through its area.0 cm s-1 X Y 24 b 16 c Describe the direction of the induced current in the side XY of the loop just as it begins to enter the field. of 100 turns and radius 3. Justify your answer. What is the force on each of the perpendicular sides now? The original rectangular loop with the original current is returned but a new magnet is found which provides a field strength of 0. He connects the motor to a 9 V battery but is not happy with the speed of rotation of the armature.0 ms.0 Ω. Explain where this occurs and why the motor actually continues to rotate. B C N A D S The following information applies to questions 16–22.

The current through the primary windings produces a steady magnetic field in the secondary windings.50 T. A B 31 What is the frequency of the voltage produced by the alternator? What is the peak-to-peak output voltage of this alternator? What is the RMS output voltage of the alternator? Calculate the RMS output power of the alternator. a Had the coil been moved out more quickly so that it was removed in only 0. each of area A = 100 cm2.CHAPTER REVIEW the magnet and it is found that an average current of 50 µA flows for 2 seconds. The following diagram represents the alternating voltage output of a generator whose rotor is rotating with a frequency of 50 Hz. The best explanation for this is that A 27 The primary and secondary coils are in series and so no current can flow in either if the secondary coil is open. An ideal transformer is operating with peak input voltage of 600 V and an RMS primary current of 2.9 V.50 0.0 5. The current through the primary windings produces a changing magnetic field in the secondary windings.0 −1.0 t (ms) When a transformer is plugged in to the 240 V mains but nothing is connected to the secondary coil very little power is used. It is found that during the rotation the peak voltage produced is 0. The magnetic field strength produced by the magnetising current is 0.00 0.5 s.0 3.0 −10.0 4. What is the RMS voltage generated? The student now rotates the coil with a frequency f = 200 Hz. The coil is mounted on an axis perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field of strength B = 50 mT and rotated at a frequency f = 100 Hz. Exam-style questions 317 . V (V) 10.50 N 200 200 50 400 A (cm2) 100 100 100 100 b 50 100 100 50 Sketch a graph showing the voltage output of the generator for at least two full rotations of the coil. Which of the following is the best description of how a transformer transfers electrical energy from the primary windings to the secondary windings? A The following information applies to questions 31–34. How would your answers to parts a and b be effected? c d b Which of the diagrams A–D best describes the display on the CRO when the generator is operating at a frequency of 100 Hz? Which of the specifications in the table could produce a CRO display described by diagram A? Which of the specifications in the table could produce a CRO display illustrated by diagram C? 36 e c 29 30 The following information applies to questions 26–30. The total number of turns in the armature coils of the stator is N = 200.50 1. each of area 1.0 t (ms) 37 The current through the primary windings produces a constant electric field in the secondary windings.0 2. Include a scale on the time axis.0 0 −5. There are 1000 turns in the secondary winding.0 cm2. Calculate the peak power consumed in the secondary circuit.0 A.0 1.0 4. a The following diagrams A–D and table apply to questions 28–30.0 2.0 1. f (Hz) A B C D 28 B (T) 0. a What is the RMS output current? What is the output peak-topeak voltage? How many turns are there in the primary winding? Determine the RMS power consumed in the secondary circuit . The peak output voltage is 3000 V. The following diagram shows the voltage–time graph and corresponding current–time graph for an alternator that was built by a physics student as part of a research project. B C 26 What is the peak voltage output of the generator? What is the RMS voltage output of the generator? I (A) 1.0 3. what would have been the average current? What is the strength of the magnetic field? C D 32 33 34 b 35 25 A physics student constructs a simple generator consisting of a coil of N = 400 turns.

41 c d The following information applies to questions 38–41. along with a power line consisting of two cables with a combined total resistance of 2. she finds that the voltage supplied at the house is rather low. How did the power loss in the two systems compare? Explain why it was that the system operated with much lower power loss when the voltage was transmitted at the higher voltage. and assuming ideal transformers.0 Ω. C connects up the system and finds that the voltage at the house is indeed 250 V. The magnetic flux generated by the secondary coil almost balances out that due to the primary coil. when she turns on various appliances so that the generator is running at its maximum power output of 4000 W. Calculate the voltage at the house. However. 39 Describe the essential features of the types of transformers that are needed at either end of the power line. The output of the generator is given as 250 V AC (RMS) with a maximum power of 4000 W.0 kV. The magnetic flux generated by the current in the primary produces an EMF that opposes the applied voltage. 318 ELECTRIC POWER . A farmer has installed a wind generator on a nearby hill. She She then decides to install transformers at either end of the same power line so that the voltage transmitted from the generator end of the line in this system becomes 5. 38 40 When operating at full load from the generator (4000 W). what is: a b the current in the power line? the voltage drop along the power line? the power loss in the power line? the voltage and power delivered to the house? D Explain why the voltage dropped when she turned on the appliances in the house.CHAPTER REVIEW B There can be no magnetic flux generated in the transformer if the secondary coil has no current in it.

6 m 7 62.8 × 1029 kg m s–1 c 0.2 s b 510 m c 9.8 m s–2 down 6 a At the maximum height b 24.3 m s–1 144°T 18 6. 10 F (a) (b) FN Fg 3 294 N 4 322 N 5 750 N 6 490 N 9 4. 3 0.23 kg m s–1 4D 5 a This extends his stopping time and so reduces the size of the force that acts to stop him.0 m s–1 N17°W 19 2.5 m s–1 west 17 9.3° 8 4.0 m s–1 east 5 a 10.89 m s–1 8 a 6. is needed to maintain the car’s motion.5 m s–1 west b 4. its tendency is to continue rolling.4 m 12 4.57 s CHAPTER 1 REVIEW F Force exerted on racquet by ball Force exerted on ground by pig (c) (d) F F Force of attraction that seal exerts on Earth Force exerted on ground by wardrobe 1 a 3.5 m s–2 b 120 N c 60 N 7 a 0 N b 66 N c 66 N 8 a equal b opposite 9 The trolley will move.1 × 10–3 N 20 9.9 m s–1 c 0.8 m s–2 down 4 a 11.8 m s–1 d 1.3 m s–1 2 a 10 m s–1 b 4.86 s b 28. Once the car is rolling.6 m s–1 down 5 a 1.2 m s–1 north b 24.2 m s–1 horizontally c 1.5 m 3 a 24.64 s b 8. however.6 m s–1 9 9.43 s 7 a 2.8 m s–2 down 15 C 16 5.5 s 5 a 9.8 m s–2 down 10 8.1 Mechanics review 1 a 103 m s–1 south 14° west b south 14° east 2C 3 a i 40 m ii 160 m iii 160 m b 200 m north c 360 m d 13 ms–1 e 0 m s–2 4 32.5 m s–1 east 4 6.0 m s–1 south b 10. 1.5 m s–1 e 22.0 m s–1 b 6.4 The normal force and inclined planes 1 a 509 N b 294 N c 4.9 m e 1. would be very serious.2 m 8C 9 a 6.4 m s–1 e 13 m at an angle of 30° to the horizontal f 2.9 m s–2 10 Acceleration is unchanged at 4. A collision while travelling in opposite directions. Phil stayed where he was as the tram moved forward. the Solutions 319 .26 m s–1 c 5.4 m s–1 north c zero 7 a i 1 km h–1 ii 119 km h–1 b If they were moving in the same direction.098 N 4 C 5 a 45 N b 165 N 6 a 1.26 m s–1 b 6.2 × 103 : 1 1.0 m s–1 south c 10 s 6 a 1.8 m s–1 b 19.7 m s–1 north b 11. Only a small pushing force.0 s b 20 m c 9.3 Frames of reference and the nature of space and time 1 a A.0 m s–1 13 16 J 14 9.42 m s–1 d tomato. it is greater than the speed of light. its tendency as described by Newton’s first law is to remain at rest.3 m s–1 up c 45° d 11. It would be the same as a car travelling at 119 km h–1 crashing into a stationary car.2 Newton’s laws of motion 1 When the car is at rest.0 m c 3.1 m s–1 b 6.9 m s–2 11 a FN = 0 b Fg < FN c Fg << FN 7A 8C 1.2 m s–1 up c 5.71 s d 3.6 s f 6. 8 a 55 km h–1 south b 55 km h–1 north c 55 km h–1 east d 47 km h–1 N58°E 9 a 43 km h–1 N36°W b 43 km h–1 S36°E 10 a 4.9 m s–1 b A down Fg and a FN normal reaction 1.9 m s–2 2 a 9.2 m s–1 east 3 3.C 2 a 3. it can be seen that if the momentum change occurs over a long time interval.33 m s–1 b 1. 2 No. Objects will remain at rest unless forces act to change the motion.26 m s–1 e golf ball.9 m s–1 west c 2. –6.7 m s–1 south 5 a 510 km h–1 b 510 km h–1 11°T 6 a 0. Using F∆t = ∆p.2 m s–1 north 4 a14 m s–1 up b 4.7 m s–1 up be only minor because their relative speed is only 1 km h–1.0 m s–1 c 9. The pushing force is greater than friction so the trolley will accelerate forwards.8 m s−2 down 6 a 98 N b 69 N 7 a 1.2 m s–1 north c 24.43 s b 10 m c 9.8 m s–2 down d 21.31 s g 26.8 m s–2 down ii 9. to overcome resistance forces.67 m s–1 d 1. This is an example of the law of inertia.4 m s–1 down c 11 m s–1 at 24° to the horizontal d 0.53 m b 11.4 m 11 a 4.0 m s–1 at 30° to horizontal c 69.7 × 10–23 kg m s–1 b 1.3 m s–2 S49°W 2 960 N S49°W 3 a 10. A large force is needed to overcome its inertia and start the car rolling. 11.1 Momentum and impulse 1 the mosquito 2 Pavithra 3 a 2.45 s e 4.4 m s–1 south b 1. the collision would Chapter 2 Collisions and circular motion 2.5 × 108 m s–1 b No. however.9 m s–1 b 11. The horizontal forces acting on the trolley (pushing force and friction) are unbalanced.6 m c 14 m s–1 d After 4.1 m 10 a 22.0 s e i 9.SOLUTIONS Chapter 1 Motion 1.5 Projectile motion 1 a 1.11 m s−2 c 2.

7 m s–2 radially inwards c 3.1 m s–1 c 126 m s–2 towards the centre of the circle d 316 N e tension in the wire f The ball will move off at a tangent to the circle with speed 10. 10 The force needed to give the car a larger centripetal acceleration will eventually exceed the maximum frictional force that could act between the tyres and the road surface.5 m s–2 east 9 a 9.5 m s–1 8 C 9aB bA 10 a 192 kg m s–1 right b 3.71 s b 700 W (max).0 kg m s–1 forwards e 50 m s–1 9 The padding extends the time over which the players lose their momentum and are brought to a stop.0 m.3 m s–1 8 7.0 × 104 kg m s–1 east b 4.force that is acting must be reduced in size. the stored energy is released in restoring the ball to its original shape. An unbalanced gravitational force is acting on her.0 × 103 N. 3 a A: 2. energy and power 1 a 7. this will result in smaller forces acting on the person as they come to a stop.8 × 10 -2 J 6 a 0. 5 1.0 J. B: 0.08 N radially inwards 6a Ft Fg 2.0 J 7 a 0 b 200 kg m s–1 east c 200 kg m s–1 west 8 1. b His momentum would change over a very short time interval.44 kg m s–1 upwards d 1. 2 a 2.50 s b 10. the car would skid out of its circular path. The vertical component has had no influence on the energy of the mass.2 J b There is no loss of energy due to friction as the string returns to its unextended position. b Us(J) 2 1 1. B. so each will continue to travel forwards at 5.92 × 103 J b 2. 6 a −2.06 × 105 J b 3.1×103 N east b Friction between the tyres and road surface.0 × 104 kg m s–1 west c 0 2 a 0 b 4.7 m s–1 west 10 a 136 kg m s–1 west b 136 kg m s–1 east 11 11.23 kg 7 a 4:1 b spring S1: 80 J. making it move very slightly. There is no transfer of momentum between the tanker and the water.2 J b It is being stored as elastic potential energy in the bow. the girl does work to alter the shape of the ball.0 N 6 3. 10 a equal for both cars b equal c B d FA = 5.2 m s–1 right 6 Mary is correct.0 m s–1 east 13 25% 14 75% of the initial kinetic energy has been transformed into heat and sound energy. This will result in fewer or less serious injuries.0 J 2 a 0.0 N s forwards d 5.50 J b During compression. c 1.0 Compression (cm) 2. d 3.0 × 104 N m–1 c 2. His momentum has been transferred to the Earth.0 m s–1. i.3 Work. 350 W (average) 6 a 3.0 2.8 × 103 N up 2 a 225 J b 1.5 kJ c 1.16 J b 0.0 × 104 kg m s–1 east 3 12 m s–1 right 4 5. B: 1. It would require a very large force to do this which would be painful (or damaging) for Vijay. spring S2: 20 J 8 C 9 a 7.0 × 103 J c This is due to energy losses caused by friction. 10 a 7.50 J.92 × 103 J b 3. A c A: 1. C: 0.8 kg m s–1 up d 4.84 m s–1 right c 3.2 Conservation of momentum 1 a 4. 5 a 0.28 × 103 J 3 a 150 W b 128 W c 22.0 kg m s–1 up c 4. CHAPTER 2 REVIEW 1 a 2.0 m s–1 5 22.50 J 320 SOLUTIONS .8 kg m s–1 down b 2.4 Hooke’s law and elastic potential energy 1 a 200 N b 1.9 × 105 J c 15. 2.7 N m–1 b 1.e. C: 5.0 m s–1. It is during this interval that the puck loses kinetic energy due to friction.56 N 7 8.7 m s–2 towards centre of circle b 133 N towards centre of circle c The force exerted on the blades by the ice.6 × 105 J b 1.0 × 103 N m–1 b C.08 × 106 J c 18 kW 7 a 0.0 m s–1 west 9 1. friction. The force that is acting to stop them must therefore be reduced in size.5 W 4 The section between 2. 12 No.0 × 104 N m–1. Using F∆t = ∆p.0 m s–1 b 18 m s–1 upwards c 1.0 and 5. Because the water keeps its horizontal momentum so too will the tanker retain its momentum.0 × 104 N e Crumple zones reduce the magnitudes of the forces that act on the occupants of a car during a collision.7 kW 2 a 250 J b 50 J c 200 J 3 a 200 J b 50 J c friction 4 Zero.25 J 1 4 √2 5 a 14.0 × 104 N m–1.9 J 12 a 1. During release.84 kg m s–1 right 11 The footballer’s momentum has reduced to zero.92 × 103 J e 1. 2.0 W 8 32 mm 9 a 3. FB = 2. f This will further extend the time taken for a passenger to come to a stop. the water continues to move forwards at 5.44 kg m s–1 upwards 7 a 29 N up b 29 N up c 29 N down 8 a 500 N forwards b 500 N backwards c 5. the diver is not an isolated system.0 × 104 kg m s–1 west c 4. 7 2.85 m s–1 b 61.1 m s–1. 3 a i east ii NE iii south b i north ii NW iii east c i west ii SW iii south d west 4C 5 a 7. As the water spills from the tanker. At this time.5 Circular motion 1 a 0.

2 × 10–53 kg 2 3.58 10 7. oil.0 Extension 1. 55 The cart will move with constant acceleration.7 × 109 J Chapter 3 Gravity and satellites 3. D 17 a 10 m s–1 north b 10 m s–1 west c 10 m s–1 south 18 12.30 × 10–23 m s–2 6 10 Earth radii 7 a 100 b 0.8 × 103 s 8 a 6.98 × 103 N 3 The density of the Earth is much greater than that of Saturn.2 Gravitational fields 1 Mercury g = 3.0 m s–1 156°T 13 6.52 × 10–2 m s–2 7 5.0 × 103 N north 50 C 51 4. 4 A.6 s 19 a 5.7 m s–1 328°T 11 1.g.7 × 10 N c 1.9 m 41 9. b 12.0 × 106 J b 2.54 × 109 m b 4.8 × 107 J b 3.4 × 102 m s–1 Force (N) 20 10 0.4 days 7 a 3.4 N kg–1 Jupiter g = 24.5 km s–1 25 20 N m–1 26 2.88 × 105 s 2 210 m s–1 3 3.7 m s–1 57 13 m s–1 Solutions 321 .5 × 109 J 3.0 × 1012 N kg–1 8 8.8 × 105 J 30 1.0 m s–2 9 B.95 × 105 J 31 7. or large deposits of high-density material.3 × 102 N 4 The centripetal force is produced by the gravitational force of attraction between the Earth and the satellite.0 × 106 m s–2 10 The gravimeter would respond to differences in the gravitational field strength in a particular region due to either large deposits of low density material.48 × 104 N b 2.9 × 102 N f 3.7 × 1011 J c 5.35 km 6 a 4.43 × 108 m b 3.6 m s–2 36 1.55 km s–1 b 2.74 m s–1 20 1400 J 21 600 J 22 200 W 23 30% 24 30 3.0 × 103 W 34 12. 11 a 270 N b 0.6 km s–1 b 5. iron ore. 3 3.25 7 2.1×10 J 45 2.8 3.5 12 0.6 × 106 m 6 a 8.0 × 107 J c 2.0 × 106 N kg–1 9 8. C 5 a 9.3 Satellites in orbit 1D 2 Since the gravitational force of attraction between the Earth and the satellite is always perpendicular to the satellite’s velocity.0 m s–1 336°T 14 E 15 5.3 × 1011 J 12 1.8 m s–2 down 42 68° 10 43 2.5 × 103 s 9 a 1.6 m s–1 35 31.5 × 103 N 17 12° 18 2.70 N kg–1 Saturn g = 10.e.0 × 103 N 7 10 s < t < 40 s and 60 s < t < 80 s 8 4.6 × 10 N d 2. 56 6.3 × 1011 J b The orbital speed needed to maintain the higher orbit is less than that required to maintain the lower orbit.3 × 10 N b 6.47 × 104 N b 7.5 km s–1 46 The acceleration increases from 8.8 × 107 J c 1. and therefore its change in kinetic energy is zero. 6.8 m s–2 d 1.1 N kg–1 b 11.89 × 103 N 37 2.7 m s–1 29 1. the speed of the satellite remains constant.5 × 103 N south c 7.66 b 7.39 × 103 m s–1 b 1.78 × 108 m 3 100 N 4 16 5 a 11.4 1.1 Newton’s law of universal gravitation 1 a 5.0 kJ 19 3.0 m s–2 west b 7.g.5 N 4 38 5 a 2.3 × 105 W 33 6. c 4. 24 hours). C.8 × 107 J d 7. so the height is one Moon radius above the surface.31 N kg–1 b 3.2 0.4 × 1011 J c 8.2 m s–2 to 8. b Another very famous universal constant is the speed of light.73 × 10–4 m s–2 towards Mercury 10 a 2.0 J 44 2.96 × 1018 N 4 5.05 × 10–3 m s–2 towards Jupiter c 235 days 8 a A satellite is said to be in a geosynchronous orbit if its orbital period is the same as that of the Earth’s rotation (i. c No.54 N kg–1 12 3.6 × 1011 J 11 1.0 × 1030 kg 16 A 17 C 18 3. 47 10 kg m s–1 south 48 10 kg m s–1 south 49 a 1.8 m s–2 as it falls.4 J 16 A. e.15 8. e.0 m s–2 5 3.5 m s–1 south 12 6.4 m s–1 52 200 kg m s–1 53 200 kg m s–1 54 The cart will move with increasing acceleration.2 × 107 m 9 a 2.38 km s–1 c 5.48 × 104 N c 24.0 × 103 N south b 1.61 × 102 m s−1 c 1.54 m s–2 c 27 N d 0.e.064 13 39 1 14 a √ 8 b √2 c 4 15 2.5 N b 2.3 × 103 J 27 C 28 8. This means that Newton’s law of gravitation is valid throughout the Universe. 12 a 0.0 × 103 N b 5.61 m s–2 6 0.61 N kg–1 5 0.38 × 10–4 m s–2 9 a 1.0 × 102 N 16 2.64 × 1026 kg 8 a 1.4 Energy changes in gravitational fields 1C 2 The gravitational field strength increases.6 m s–1 40 4.0 × 10 N e 5. b This satellite will always be in the same place in the sky and can therefore transmit radio signals to any point that can see it.90 days 6 a 5.54 m s–2 e 0.909R –12 –7 5 20 CHAPTER 3 REVIEW 1 2.1R 8 distance = 0. 5 a 5. 10 2.67 × 10–11 N m2 kg–2) has exactly the same value everywhere in the Universe.96 × 103 N 38 4.5 × 103 N east 20 C 21 a 1.1 m s–2 6 27.7 km s–1 b 4.6 1.61 × 10–47 N 2 a The term universal constant refers to the fact that the value of G (i. B.4 × 108 m EXAM-STYLE QUESTIONS (Motion in one and two dimensions) 1 5.0 × 106 m 11 The centre of the circular orbit of a satellite must be the centre of the Earth. The booster rockets have done work against the Earth’s gravitational field and have added energy to the system.7% 32 1.8 N kg–1 2 a 296 N b 832 N c 1. 4 0.0 m s–1 39 10. 3 The acceleration of the meteor will increase as given by the gravitational field strength.9 × 103 m s–1 11 2. D 10 4.40 × 10–2 m s–2 b 4. 3 a Distance from the centre of the Moon has doubled.01 × 102 m s–1 c 3.5 × 103 N west 22 C 7 a 7.

0 3.7 –5 c –10 +5 V 8aF bB 9 +5 –5 V –0.14 mA in direction P .7 V 10 V 6 a i Forward-bias voltage that gives a normal operating current through the diode (i.0 mA 3aA bB 4 a circuit 2 b circuit 1 5 a i B. C ii A b 5.3 Amplification 1 a Output voltage directly proportional to input voltage.05 mA b 50 mA –100 mA 2 a i Y and Z ii X b 16 kΩ c Current through X = 3. current through Y = 4. R4 and R5 3aC bC 4 a Through 5 kΩ resistor I = 1 mA in direction P. resistor I = 1. b Lamp C turns off. circuit 2.5 mW.0 15 19 0 4.5 W is 288 Ω. e Potential Difference across lamp C decreases.3 V iii germanium iv VY > VX v From X to Y b Circuit 1. through 2 kΩ resistor I = 1.7 V –5. c Signal distortion when gain is non-linear.2 V c 0. 13. 1 W is 144 Ω 9 a same b 1 W globe c 1 W globe 10 a 0. f Total power increases.5 W globe 11 a D b F c D d A 12 a 48. c Current increases. d Ratio of output 322 SOLUTIONS .0 900 100 2.8 kΩ b 8.0 mA.7 V b –10 V 10 V b + 0. b Ratio of output voltage over input voltage. 10 + 0. ii 0. 0 W.5 W globe b same c 0.7 8 0.0 2.145 mA d 1. 7a +0.14 mA in direction P.e.7 4.0 400 100 4.1 Analysing electronic circuits 1 a Lamp A gets brighter.5 mA in direction P b Through 5 kΩ . through 2 kΩ resistor I = 1.08 V across the 10 and 30 kΩ resistors.Chapter 4 Electronics 4.2 Capacitors and diodes 1 a +0. R4 and R5 b R2 and R3 c R1. d Potential difference across lamp B increases.7 –0.05 mA –0. 5 R1 (Ω) R2 (Ω) Vout (V) 1000 1000 10 3000 1000 5.0 12 6 R1 (Ω) 200 300 50 100 200 7a R2 (Ω) 200 100 50 100 100 R3 (Ω) 100 25 75 1000 100 S open open open open closed Vout (V) 10 5. 2 a R1. where Rdiode is very small).

RA + RB] VA = I(R) [i.9 W 11 a Vd = 0. 17 a This amplifier is called a linear non-inverting amplifier.5 V –10 to –10 V 20 to –20 mV –0.50 V –5. and this combination in series with the other two resistors.50 V c –20 5 Range of input voltage Range of output voltage 100 to 200 mV –2. d The sound output would contain appreciable distortion.4 mA iii 21. and this combination in series with the other resistor.e.25 4 a RA = 15 Ω.7 V 10 a Y b 1.6 mA b i 5 mA ii 5 mA iii 1 nA 13 a 1. RA] VA/V = R/4R = 0. 2B 3 a Biasing transistor in the middle of its linear range. b 0.9 kΩ c 40 mA d 98 V e 3.e.0 to –4.0 V 0. RB = 45 Ω b 1.5 W 7 R1 (Ω) R2 (Ω) Switch Vout (V) 1000 2000 open 60 2000 4000 open 60 4000 2000 open 50 8000 5000 closed 0 –6.1 V b 2. Ib = 133 µA. Id = –100 nA 12 a i 23 mA ii 1.80 V –10 to 10 V 6a Input (not to scale) 10 8a Potential difference (V) 9 6 3 0 X 9V X Position b 20 15 10 5 0 X 20 V 10 V X Position Volts Time –10 Voltage (V) b no c The output waveform has been clipped and inverted.40 V 0. opposite sign) with respect to input voltage. amplifier is in nonlinear region of operation. d Three resistors in parallel.5 V or above 0. b Two resistors in parallel.80 to –0.9 mA b Vd = –6 V.0 V 18 a D (max = +2 V) – 2 1 Vout 0 1 –1 –2 2 3 4 5 6 7 Time (ms) 8 B (max = +1. 4 a For Vin below –0.67 –10 16 D1 made of germanium semiconductor material.40 to 0.7 0 output Time CHAPTER 4 REVIEW 1 a R4 b R3. 7aD bA cB dD 8 a Ic = 20 mA.15 kΩ.8 W 5 20°C 6 a 75 V b 37. Vce = 4 V b Vb = 1.5 V.8 V) – Solutions 323 .3 kΩ d Rc = 1. c Four resistors in parallel. 9 a 0.3 10 Diode will short out any significant reverse bias across b-e junction.7 V. b A capacitor that is used to decouple (or isolate) the DC from the AC in a voltage signal.0 to 1. R1 = 9. Rb = 85 kΩ b D c D 9 a Rc = 1 kΩ.24 J 15 input +10 2. 3 V = I(R + 3R) [i.23 A b 5.25 to 0.e. Re = 2. e Output voltage is 180° out of phase (i.0 to –10 V 1.1 V 14 a 100 mA b 0 c 0.7 V.Potential difference (V) current over input current. b 10 c 4. Id = 18. D2 made of silicon semiconductor material. AV = –2.8 kΩ c R2 = 3 kΩ. R2 c R4 d E 2 2 a All four resistors in series.

5 –1 –2 –2. For silicon Vs ~ 0. thus they recombine and a current flows. 17 The voltage across the terminals of a diode beyond which the diode conducts strongly. 216 V. I2 = 0.20 A d 240 W e 240 W 8 a A semiconductor is a material which has a greater resistance than metals.0 2. forming a ‘depletion layer’ which does not conduct unless forward biased. c 216 V d 440 W e 432 W 2 220 V 3 a 98 Ω b 1. It conducts as a result of electrons gaining sufficient energy to break out of the crystal lattice.20 A. V2 increases b ≈ 0. 10 a 20 mA b 20 mW c 200 Ω d 0. b n-type semiconductors are doped with an element such as phosphorus which has 5 electrons in its outer shell (silicon has 4) and thus the extra one is mobile and becomes a charge carrier. that is the junction is reverse biased.150 W c 0 d 3.e. c A pn junction is the interface between a p-type and ntype semiconductor where the extra electrons and holes will tend to recombine.1 Ω b 0. the holes and electrons withdraw further from the junction thus making it effectively an insulator.0 4. p-type semiconductors are doped with an element such as aluminium which has 3 electrons in its outer shell (silicon has 4) and thus the missing electron acts as a ‘hole’ into which mobile electrons can jump. acceptable level. 9 If the p-type material in a pn junction is made positive relative to the n-type material.03 V c 3.b A (range +6 6 5 4 Vout 3 2 C (range 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 Time (ms) 5 6 7 8 3 V) +3 V) 5 R1 (Ω) 1000 3000 400 900 2.0 12. i.7 V. If the p-type is negative and n-type positive.5 V e 0 W f 35 Ω g 0.0 × 10–18 J d 8.5 V – Chapter 5 Introducing photonics 5.50 W 12 a 1. 4 a 2 MΩ b 0. for germanium Vs ~ 0.5 2 Voltage (V) 1 0. When a diode is connected in reverse bias its resistance is so great as to produce only a negligible current. 10 a 500 Ω b 625 Ω c 10°C 5.10 W e 20 mA 11 a 1. but less than insulators.5 Vout range: + 2.35 W h 0. b 500–550 mW m–2 6 a 3.1 Photonics in telecommunications 1 B 2 B 3 A 4 B 5 D 6 D 7A 8 D 9 C 10 A 5.2 Optical transducers 1A 2C 3 Advantage: higher optical gain.64 V c 43 kΩ 9 a 86 kΩ b V0 increases to 10 V c V0 ≈ 0 V d no EXAM-STYLE QUESTIONS (Electronics and Photonics) 1 a 2.0 6 a 0. I3 = 0.0 A b The reading on the voltmeter is equal to the terminal voltage of the battery.5 V – Vin range: + 0.2 W b 1% 5 8 W m–2 6 130 W m–2 7 4 W m–2 8 a V1 decreases.0 A c i 80 V ii 10 V iii 8. This may result from an energy input from light or heat.5 V b 0.5 V b photoconduction 7 a 20 µA b 4 W m–2 8 350 Ω 9 a i 117 Ω ii 150 Ω b same c Circuit ii because it draws less current from the battery. holes will flow toward the junction from the p-type and electrons from the n-type. thus resulting in the hole moving and becoming a charge carrier.5 b 2 c 4.0 V b 20 mW c 0 13 a 22 mA b 11 mA c 11 mA 14 a 309.0 A c I1 = 1.0 × 10–18 J e 100 V 7 600 500 400 V (V) 300 200 100 0 0 20 40 60 80 x (cm) 100 120 140 160 19 125 20 2.4 kΩ 5 a Above min.60 A.0 V d 98 V e 100 W 4 a 60 Ω b 2.0 100 Vout (V) 10 5.0 400 R2 (Ω) 1000 1000 100 100 3.15 W c 220 mW 15 150 Ω 16 A diode will only conduct electricity when it is connected in forward bias.3 V. 324 SOLUTIONS .0 4.5 –0. Silicon and germanium are examples. disadvantage: generally slower response time. Thus the pn junction is said to be forward biased.3 Audio transmission via a light beam 1A 2B 3D 4B 5C 6D 7A 8A 9B 10 C CHAPTER 5 REVIEW 1B 2D 3B 4 a 0.

allowing more time.42 × 1013 d 3. c Vout approaches zero 33 a 200Ω b 87 Ω c 79 mA d 2. The resistance of a typical thermistor may range from 10 kΩ at 0°C to 100 Ω at 100°C. T = 6. Vout rises.0 µW b 3. and emerge from the slits as two sets of circular wavefronts. b A small decrease. 7A 8D 9 A wave can reflect part of its energy at the glass (creating the image of yourself) and allow part of its energy to continue through the glass to be reflected from the items within. thus allowing a small reverse current which is proportional to the amount of light to flow. b 50 c 5.5 mA b 0. b A point of minimum intensity occurs when a crest and a trough meet. For example. Vin = +0. 21 a 0. This is because a positive input voltage becomes a positive output voltage.65 kΩ g They decouple the DC voltages from the AC signal voltages. d AV = 2.013 mA 29 a The bias voltage would be too low b C1 allows the AC but not DC from the signal to reach the base. 6. 2 a The path difference at M is zero. 3 f = 160 Hz.50 V b –20 V 22 Peak input voltage Output voltage range 100 mV –2 to +2 V 0.5 V. b As they pass through each slit. 28 a 2.45 mA f Very little effect on Vb. and a negative input voltage becomes a negative output voltage.1 Review of light and waves 1 Both involve the transfer of energy without a net transfer of matter.3 × 10–3 s 4 1. Solutions 325 .288 m 6 Decrease. producing destructive interference.8 m s–1 5 0. b The output will be clipped. During this recombination. Si or a mixture of various oxides. f 1. When the diode is forward-biased the recombination of holes and electrons takes place. e The ratio is 20 30 a Approximately 400 mV p–p. It is usually constructed from Ge. some of the excess energy possessed by the unbound free electrons in the pn junction is converted into light energy. The result of this is that an increase in the incident light intensity will produce an increase in collector current. Inverting. The Vb will vary between 0.2 The wave model established 1 a A coherent light source produces plane parallel wavefronts. Particles could not split themselves up. The current produced by the photoelectric effect due to incident light is the base current of this device.18 1.1 kΩ e 0.25 V –5 to +5 V 1.2 mV.5 38 a An LED is a diode that will emit visible light when it is energised.0 × 10 –3 C 19 When the capacitor is fully charged. 31 a Increase of 0. 2 Mechanical waves involve the physical transfer of vibration from particle to particle within the medium. 25 The coupling capacitor isolates (or blocks) any DC component of the collector voltage of the first stage from the input to the second stage (but passes the AC signal voltage).95 V d 2.952 V. It is very small.25 V c 0. 35 a 500 kΩ b 32 µW c 150 µW d 50 µW e 200 µW 36 A phototransistor is a transistor that has a photosensitive collector–base pn junction.6 kΩ d 22 mW e 100 mW 39 E 40 C 41 A 42 C 43 D 44 A Chapter 6 The nature of light 6. no more current flows in the circuit so no voltage drop across the resistor and all of the voltage across the battery appears across the capacitor.70 V c A voltage divider to bias the base correctly d 121 kΩ e The base current through R1 is significant and is thus causing Vb to drop.948 and 0. 26 a 1mA b 10.80 V –16 to +16 V 23 a This is a non-inverting amplifier.0 V 24 a A thermistor is a temperature-sensitive resistor whose resistance decreases as its temperature increases.2 kΩ b 1. Vout = +10 V. theplane waves will diffract.5 V. 32 a 4 V b above. 37 a 9. Vout = –10 V and for Vin = –0. b 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Temperature (˚C) d The voltage gain is reduced. and therefore more distance between wavefronts. This means constructive interference will occur at this point.88 µA e 51. c IC will increase and Vout will increase.71 × 10–19 J c 2.6 V.0 V –20 to +20 V 20 mV –40 to +40 mV 0. This means that the DC biasing conditions of the second stage are not disturbed by the DC voltage of the first stage collector. c The current through a photodiode is only zero when there is a small positive voltage across it to oppose the photocurrent. 0. c 1. b The dark current is the current that flows when reverse biased while no light falls on the diode. c A small decrease IC and a small increase in Vout. The table indicates that this value is around 1.6 V c 10 V d 20 µΑ e 50 27 a 1. Vc = Q/C = (50 × 10–6)/(100 × 10–9) = 500 V 20 It is an inverting amplifier because the amplified output voltage has the opposite sign to the input voltage (over the linear amplification range). c The term in phase refers to the fact that if a crest is emerging from one slit then the wavefront simultaneously emerging from the other slit will also be a crest. well under a microamp. Without Re the voltage gain is much higher. Denser materials have closer particles and so this transfer occurs more readily.6 V 34 a A photodiode is like a normal diode but the pn junction is exposed to light which can release electron-hole pairs when the diode is reverse biased. b The threshold voltage is the minimum forward voltage that will allow current to flow in the diode.

5 × 10−9 m e 0. 2.0 × 10−18 J b 3.46 × 1021 8 a 4. b The wave model predicts that the energy delivered to the electrons by a light beam of constant intensity will be proportional to time. 5 a A series of alternate bright and dark fringes.30 mW 9A 10 a The wave model predicts that light of any frequency will emit photoelectrons from a metallic surface. 2 The central band is white since constructive interference occurs here for all component wavelengths of the white light. d Fringe spacing will remain unchanged. The energy quanta absorbed or emitted by an atom correspond to the differences between the allowed energy states. resulting in the side bands having coloured edges and merging into one another. .03 × 10−7 m c 13. The de Broglie wavelength of the 1.2 × 10–7 m.4 eV. i. the levels are quantised. 12. The difference between the ground state and n = 3 is 12. higher energy end.6 eV 4an=3 b No.4 × 10−7 m b i 3.0 × 10–7 m.7 × 10–8 m 3 No.e. 12 a 2. A photon will not give up a fraction of its energy to the atom.c i dark ii bright 3 a dark b bright c dark 4 a 3. 4 a 1. The objects that we encounter in our daily lives are simply too massive to have a momentum small enough to produce a detectable matter wave. 5 a n = 4 b 0.2 cm c i width of central bright fringe will decrease ii width of central bright fringe will increase 6 a Fringe spacing will increase. but of the same order of magnitude.25 V 326 SOLUTIONS 7.0 × 10–4 m 9 For appreciable diffraction to occur.0 cm b 500 nm c C 5 A. it is not quantised. Chapter 7 The nature of matter 7.88 eV. A freed electron may not have kinetic energy of any value. b 2. 8 a 0. d The ionisation energy is the least amount of energy required to eject an electron from an atom.07 eV b 4.4 × 1014 Hz d No.63 eV. the approximate size of the diffracting particles would be equal to the wavelength of visible light. This suggests that low intensity beams of light will take longer to eject photoelectrons from a surface. c According to the wave model of light.0 × 1016 Hz b i 1.38 V b 2.09 eV. 7 a i 3.2 Photons shed light on atom structure 1 a The term quantisation refers to the fact that the energy levels in an atom cannot assume a continuous range of values but are restricted to certain discrete values. i.1 Matter waves 1B 2 a 7.74 × 10−10 m 6 λ = h/(2mq∆V)1/2 7 C. 1.28 × 10−11 m b 3.14 eV b 1. is not visible.40 eV.32 × 105 m s−1 b 0.62 × 10−12 m d 1.14 × 10−27 kg m s−1 c 1. 2 1. 3 3.3 The particle nature of light 1 a 5. c The atom would be ionised and the ejected electron would be emitted with kinetic energy 0. of 4.6 × 1015 Hz 6 C 7 a 4.46 × 1015 Hz b 1.25 V CHAPTER 6 REVIEW 1 The particle model predicted that as light sped up it would be refracted towards the normal. D.6 × 10−34 J s b Planck’s constant c 4. 7. b The ground state is the lowest energy state that an atom can exist in and represents the stable state of the atom before any external energy has been added.72 eV.57 × 10−5 V 6.10 V b The photoelectrons do not have sufficient kinetic energy to reach the anode. but it is refracted towards the normal as it slows down as the wave model predicts.10 eV e 1. 10. 8 a No. around 10–7 m. 8 1.6 × 1014 Hz b 1. c −0. C 6 B 7 a interference b The colours produced by a prism are due to dispersion.1 × 10–11 m 4 The frequency is unaltered and the wavelength will be 50% longer.66 × 10−34 m 3 a 1.00 × 1020 d 2.69 m s−1 c 1. The phenomenon described is due to interference.09 × 103 m s−1 5 a 8. and represents the highest energy state of the atom.33 × 10−17 J ii 83 keV 3 1 × 106 4 9.51 eV. c Excited states are the possible energy levels that an atom can move to after it has absorbed energy from an external source.21 eV 6 The excess energy is given to the electron in the form of kinetic energy. This is smaller than the interatomic spacing. a higher intensity beam will deliver more energy to the electrons and consequently emit photoelectrons with a greater kinetic energy. The other alternatives do not satisfy this criteria.97 × 10−13 m c 6. c No.d. i. de Broglie and standing waves 1 The fall from E = 0 to E = –3.7 × 10−35 m b There is no slit small enough for such a wave to pass through in order to be diffracted. A p. 12.0 keV electrons is 3. b Fringe spacing will decrease. The frequency of red light is below the threshold frequency for rubidium. the different colours will produce bands at different locations.53 × 10−27 kg m s−1 c 5.43 × 10−19 J ii 2.9 eV c 2. 11 a 6. c Fringe spacing will remain unchanged.e. Since the degree of diffraction is dependent upon wavelength. approximately 365 nm. 9.0 × 10−4 V c 2.5 V will produce electrons with kinetic energy of 4. 2 a 1.7 × 10−19 J ii 2.0 × 10−20 J c 2.5 eV which is not enough to excite the atom to the n = 2 state.9 × 10−11 m. 1.09 eV.50 × 10−6 m b D 3 a 2. This wavelength is many times smaller than the radius of an atom.7 × 10−25 kg m s−1 8 a −0.1 × 1020 5 1.3 Bohr.e. b 1.60 × 10−19 J b 1.54 × 10−7 m 9 Ionisation of the mercury atoms occurs.0 eV d 0.3 eV 2 a 2. resulting in more electrons being available.7 × 10−25 kg m s−1 d 2. 7 Bohr’s model states that electrons may only have specific energy values.82 × 10−24 kg m s−1 c 1.

034 eV b The differences become smaller.11 × 1015 Hz. 7 a north b north-east c east 8 a east b west 9 0 10 a east b north c 30° east of north 11 5B 8.0 × 10–17 J b 4.92 × 10−7 m 12 a 1.5 × 10−27 kg m s−1 c 6. nickel. E 18 The energy that a single electron would gain after being moved through a potential of 1 V. 9 The photon is absorbed.1 Fundamentals of magnetism 1 A magnetic field exists at any point in space where a magnet or magnetic material (e.34 × 1014 Hz 3 a a high intensity of electrons b a low intensity of electrons c wave-like behaviour 4B 5 a 7. therefore no absorption.00 × 108 m s–1 26 a Photon energy > ionisation energy i.39 × 10–10 m c 1.7 × 10−7 N 3 a 2. –4.41 × 10−7 m b f = 1. 4.g.0 eV above the ground state.8 × 106 m s–1 c 1.18 × 1015 Hz. 10 6.40 eV 30 a 1. 36 2. E15 = –0. L = 1 m. cobalt) will experience a magnetic force. The only field in existence at that point would be that due to the Earth.5 × 10–7 m 33 1.0 kW 4 B 5 C 6 A 7 5.9 × 10–13 m 15 De Broglie would say the electrons had diffracted through the gaps between the crystal atoms.12 × 10–18 J b n = 3 c –1.0 × 1020 b infrared 2 a 2.4 × 10–7 m 34 A 35 Extremely unlikely. Electron only remains in an excited state for less than a millionth of a second. whose direction is north.2 × 10–7 m 5 de Broglie proposed a model of the atom in which electrons were viewed as matter waves with resonant wavelengths.07 × 1014 Hz.9 × 1021 b 1.544 eV. fringes separate colours. At least 4. λ = 1.90 eV d 1. therefore no orbital change. D.136 eV.2 × 1020 b 1. Electrons can have much smaller wavelengths than visible light. –6.4 eV = 6. 10 Only the standing wave model provided a physical explanation for the existence of orbital levels.9 × 10–7 m 31 3. 23 Protons would have smaller wavelength giving greater resolution. the photon cannot be absorbed.2 The foundations of electromagnetism 1 A east B south C west D north 2 A west B north C east D south 3 east 4 west 5 a south b north c The resultant magnetic field due to the conductors is zero. but proton microscopes are not as easy to build! 24 C 25 a 2. W. 16 a Slit width of 1 µm. c 2.8 eV b 1. 28 D 29 a –8.0 keV b 3.60 × 10−7 m c f = 5. 2C 3B 4A 5C 6 While in a magnetic field a magnet will be subjected to forces which produce a torque that will tend to align the magnet with the field. CHAPTER 7 REVIEW 1 C 2 1.0 × 10–8 m 32 a Incident energy insufficient for any excitation. 6 Point R. λ = 5.4 × 10–25 kg m s-1 d 1.62 × 1015 Hz.4 × 10–20 J c 3. e 5.01 eV 8 i Only certain frequencies of light will emit photoelectrons. b Electron raised beyond the highest possible orbital level. hence the black line. d White central band.80 eV. b Electrons have escaped mercury atoms and conduct current across tube. b 0. just as the violin string can only support waves of resonant wavelengths that are integer multiples of the string’s fundamental wavelength. λ = 2.15 × 1015 Hz.4 1.5 × 104 m s−1 11 a f = 2. iii The maximum kinetic energy of the ejected photoelectrons is the same for different light intensities of the same frequency. 19 Electron absorbs energy required for release. e Wider central band. 1. Only if the S field from m and n is balanced by the Earth’s N field. E10 = –0. b Fringe spacing doubles. C. d = 2 mm. 6 The circumference of an electron orbit must correspond to an integer multiple of the de Broglie wavelength of the electron.90 × 10–25 kg m s–1 b 8. c Electrons travelling at high speed exhibit wave-like behaviour.9 × 10–19 m 27 Since there is no energy level 10. All light above ionisation energy may be absorbed.5 × 10–10 m 13 Incident energy less than minimum energy difference between the lowest and next orbital level. there is enough energy to free the electron. monochromatic red light source. E 20 = –0. 9 a 2.4 × 1017 Hz c 1107 eV d Yes. b λ = W d/L 17 B. Measure fringe spacing. 22 a 1.70 eV.4 × 10−9 m b A series of bright and dark fringes. ii There is no time difference between the emission of photoelectrons by light of different intensities.90 eV required. 14 a 1810 eV b 4. Solutions 327 . excess energy results in extra kinetic energy of the electron. iron. 20 The surprise that light can display both particle and wave properties was repeated when electrons (known to have particle properties) were found to have wave properties as well when very fast moving. therefore in the direction that the incident light shines the intensity of this photon is largely reduced.4 × 10–7 m c 10. 21 a Fringe spacing doubles. EXAM-STYLE QUESTIONS (Interactions of Light and Matter) 1 a 9. the emitted photons go in all directions.060 eV.2 × 10–11 m b Resolution affected by diffraction.2 × 10–22 m Chapter 8 Magnets and Electricity 8.39 × 1020 6 No minimal wavelength. 7 a E5 = –0. atom would be ionised. c Fringe spacing doubles. 7 See points on page 233 8 a Only frequencies matching the differences between energy levels can be absorbed.e. Significant diffraction occurs if object size is similar to wavelength.

e. 0.1 Magnetic flux and induced currents 1 3.0. 2.0 mA from X to Y b 1. 0 (×10−2) mWb 2 0.50.0 × 10−9 N b 0 c 2.0 mA from X to Y 8.g.0 × 10−2 N.0 × 10−3 N into page c 5.6. 4 0. 0. 2.2 × 10−6 Wb 3 a 3.0 × 10−3 N east 6 a 40 A into page b 20 A out of page 7 a 2.3 Direction of EMF: Lenz’s law 1C 2 a out of page b into page c out of page 3 a anti-clockwise b clockwise c As the centre of the magnet passes through the ring. 0. e.0 × 10−5 T south 3 into page 4 1. and since magnetic fields and charges are also equal. C 9 B. each radius is moving in an opposite direction.0 × 10−5 Wb b 0. 9 a 0 b 2. the field inside the loop is more concentrated than the field outside the loop.2 Induced EMF: Faraday’s law 1 a 1.0 × 10−2 N m−1 west b 2. A steady positive current through Q can only be produced by a negative current through P which is changing at a constant rate. 4 a right b right c left 5 a E.9 × 10−6 Wb.3 × 10−6 Wb. 7 A positive current then a negative current. v1 = v2 (F = Bqv). 0.0 × 10−3 N m−1 south-west 9 north 10 a 2.7 a south b south c south (assuming it is greater than the Earth’s field) 8 a west b east Chapter 9 Electromagnetic Induction 9. a neutron.4 Magnetic fields around currents. 0.26.0 × 10−5 Wb b 0 9 a 1. B 9 a south b i 2F ii 2F iii 4F 10 a 2F. 0.71.40 N up b 0.0 × 10−2 T 8 a 0 b 8.97. magnets and atoms 1 into page 2 out of page 3 Due to the circular geometry.24 V.87. diameter of ring.6 × 10−6 Wb 4 a zero b negative c positive d negative 5 There must be a non-zero rate of change of magnetic flux.3 Currents.10 N 19 anti-clockwise 20 D 9.6 Electric motors 1 1.6 × 10−6 Wb.0 × 10−5 A 2 a 8 × 10−5 Wb b 4. 8 a 1. 0. mWb s−1 3 The rate of change of flux increases as the coil is rotated from 0° to 90°.2 × 10−6 Wb d 1.2 × 10−6 Wb.81 T 9.16 V. the direction changes) 5 a north b A 6 A particle that does not carry an electric charge. which must be into the page for BY.0 × 10−2 N into page 9 a out of page b into page 10 0 11 a attraction b attraction c repulsion 12 0 13 2.5 Forces on moving charges 1C 2A 3 a south b C 4 A (the speed remains constant.0 mA from X to Y c 2.4 Electric power generation 1 1. There is a greater magnetic flux density inside the loop. 2. b 0.4 × 10−6 Wb c 3.26 V 5 a Maximum rate of change of flux occurs at 90°. 2.0 V 3 a 1. C 15 B 16 Using the right-hand rule gives direction of the field. 7 C.25 N down 2 1000 : 1 3 B 4 a 2.1. 0. This enables the resultant torque on the coil at that point to keep the motor rotating in a constant direction. 9.0 × 10−2 N m−1 east 8 a 2.1 × 10−5 T 6 north-west 7 C 8 a 5.6. forces and fields 1 a 0. C ⇒ IQ ∝ −∆IP/∆t 6 a X → Y b left 7 a Y → X b left 8A 8.5 Alternating voltage and current 1D 2C 3 a 339 V b 679 V c 3. out of the page 3 0 4 anti-clockwise 5 D 6 a down b up 7 anti-clockwise 8 a down b up c 0 9C 10 The commutator reverses the direction of the current through the coil of the motor at a particular point.5 × 10−3 Wb b 0. velocity of the magnet. CHAPTER 8 REVIEW 1 a into page b out of page c out of page d out of page 2 5.0 × 10−3 V c 0 d 1. north b Very much less curved (i.2 × 10−6 Wb b 6. D 8 A. 1.40 A 4D 328 SOLUTIONS .6 × 10−6 Wb.8 × 10−6 V. greater radius).3.2 × 10−6 Wb b 0 c 3. 1.0 × 10−3 V c 2. a momentary positive current.0 × 10−3 N m−1 north-east b 1. b D ⇒ IQ ∝ −∆IP/∆t c A. 0 2 0.3 × 10−6 Wb.4.0 mA from Y to X 10 a 8.0 N m−1 14 B.03 V.02 V 5 1: 2 6 D 7 5.5 × 10−3 N west b 3. 4 a B into page b 3B into page c 0 5 A 6 south 7 south 8 A. 6 A momentary negative current. 17 C 18 0.0 × 10−3 V c By pulling the loop from between the poles of the magnet with greater speed. into the page 2 1. 3. Since the amount of deflection is the same.0 × 10−4 N south 5 a 1.0 × 10−3 V 10 5. B. 1.0 × 10−5 V d 2. C 10 C 9. 2.21 V. 0.5 × 10−4 N 8.0 × 10−2 N.0 × 10−4 Wb b 6. zero current.39 A d 2.10 V. 0.0 × 10−4 N north b 1. resistance of circuit containing the ring. the force on each electron beam is equal.0.0 × 10−9 N into page b 2.263 V 6B 7aC bD cC dB eD 8 0. No.01 Wb s−1 c 4.0 × 10−3 V 4 a 2.0 × 10−4 T north 5 7. 8. 1. d Strength of the magnet. This is because IQ ∝ −∆φB/∆t in P where ∆φB/∆t in P ∝ ∆IP/∆t (since the amount of magnetic flux through a coil is proportional to the current in the coil).

5 A c 68 V d 9.14 A c 24 W 8 No. 7 a 4. C 6 From X to Y.25 mA e No. period 0.7 Using electrical energy 1 a Lower current is required and so thinner cables can be used.2 mA clockwise b 3.1 : 1 19 a 1. 20 6.7 × 103 GJ e 4.5 A 8 a 120 V 9 a 7.6 W b i 144 W ii 144 W c 120 d 289 W b 4.9 × 104 A 6 2. 2 a 2. CD down b position shown c vertical.9 V. 3999 W 41 13% and 0.2 A c 30 W EXAM-STYLE QUESTIONS (Electric Power) 1aA bB cG 2 a To left (induced magnetism) b left c right 3 1. power loss = I 2R 9.5 a 50 Hz 6 a 96 W 7 a 2. 218 V 39 1:20 step up and 20 : 1 step down. B. 5aB bD cA 6 a 80 V b 0.0 mN 4 west to east 5 4.0 W 35 a 0. The direction of the magnetic force on side XY must oppose the entry of the loop into the field. The direction of the magnetic force on the side of the loop still in the field must oppose its exit from the field.3 V 26 314 V 27 222 V 28 B 29 D 30 C 31 500 Hz 32 20 V 33 7.6 Transformers 1 a VP = N1 ∆φB/∆t b VS = N2 ∆φB/∆t c VP/VS = N1/N2 2 a A.6 V c 1. Energy losses in the core are due to eddy currents.5 mV d 1. 9.40 A b 6000 V c 200 d 850 W e 1700 W 36 C 37 C 38 Voltage drop on line.0 A b 0.9 V. 40 a 0. 9 There will be no power consumed in the primary circuit of an ideal transformer.67 W 15 C 16 D 17 a 12.0 A b 10 c 42 W 12 a C b A c B 13 a 500 Hz b 17.7 V c 50 V 14 a 188 W b 375 W c 1.0 × 10−5 A 11 a 1.1 V b 240 V c 85 V b 339 V c 3.3 × 106 kW hours d 4. The direction is predicted by the right hand force rule.00 × 103 A 3 a 8. D 4 Power losses occur when electrical energy is converted into heat energy in the copper windings and in the iron core. In a real transformer like this one there may be a loss of around. 22 The direction of the induced current is from X to Y.0 µWb b 0 c 2.01 s b 0.20 A c 16 W 7 a 40 b 0. 17 4.0% 4 1.0 mV 18 3.0% d 460 V 6 a 1.2 × 10−5 W 19 the source of this power is the external force that is moving the loop towards the cube. A direct current cannot induce an EMF in the secondary coil because ∆φB/∆t = 0. which would add up to 1200 J in 10 minutes. 15 a 4.8 A b 1.0% 5 a 10 A b 400 W c 8. 9 a 1.08% c 4996 V 7 a 30 cents b 0.6 mV b Zero. D 3 a A b B. twice amplitude.3 × 103 MW hours c 1.3 W d 249.7 × 1012 J 20 2.03%.0 mA 3aA bC cB 4 20 mA from Y to X 5 A.0 mA from X to Y b 8. C 14 a AB up. say.50 N out (ii) 0.1 cents e $3. it rapidly loses energy. The direction is predicted by the right hand rule.3 GW hours b 1.53 A b 3.0 A b 20 N c 64 N 16 The direction of the induced current is from Y to X.6 × 103 tonnes 10 3500 GJ CHAPTER 9 REVIEW 1 a 3. 10 5. 23 a 5.2 s the entire loop is moving in a region of uniform magnetic field. The loop is moving in a region of uniform magnetic field.6 cents c 45 cents d 15.1 V 34 5. b The limit to the voltage is set by losses such as current leakage via insulators and the atmosphere.21 T 25 a Sine wave amplitude 0.0 mN 7 B 8 50 mN 9 left 10 10 mN 11 left 12 a (i and ii) zero b (i) 0. 24 a 200 µA b 0.2 × 103 tonne Solutions 329 .89 V c 90 Hz 18 a 1 : 1 b 4 : 1 c 1. This means that the rate of change of flux and hence the induced EMF are zero.0 mV b 2.6 mA anti-clockwise 2 a 2. 2 W. The coil will induce a current that will create a magnetic field in the opposite direction to the established field. After 1. 1.6 V b 8. motor continues to turn due to its momentum which propels the coil past this point of zero force. D b A.5 N in c Rotate 90° 13 A.00 × 103 A b 1.94 8 12 000 GJ 9 4. B. This is because the induced current in the primary coil is equal in magnitude but opposite in direction to the applied current. This means that the rate of change of magnetic flux and therefore the induced EMF will be zero.2 mA anti-clockwise c 1. B.0% b 2.64 V c half period.0 × 10−6 N left 8 No induced current as circuit is open.4 × 10−4 N 21 0.

particular frequencies of light are missing. The absorption spectrum is unique to each type of atom and is due to the absorption of energy as electrons move to higher energy levels within the atom. current or conventional current The transfer of positive charge with respect to time. indicating that some frequencies have been removed by the gas. energy cannot be created or destroyed. elastic limit The point at which the F–x graph for an elastic material starts to behave in a non-linear manner. apparent weightlessness The state of a body that is falling freely in a gravitational field. in which the peaks of the output waveform are limited (usually to the positive and/or negative power supply voltage). effectively bending the direction of travel of a section of the wave. branch current Current flowing in a particular branch of an electronic circuit. which states that energy can be transformed from one form to another. It is always present even when the semiconductor is in total darkness. The body will move with an acceleration that is equal to the gravitational field strength g at that location. the total momentum of the bodies involved in the collision remains unchanged. but that the total amount of energy remains unaltered. defined as the ratio of the magnitude of the charge on either plate to the potential difference between them. de Broglie wavelength Also known as the ‘matter wavelength’. Conventional current is in the opposite direction to electron flow. amplifier clipping Non-linear amplification that results in signal distortion. commutator The rotating cylindrical copper segments in an electric motor that carry the current from the brushes to the coils in the armature. See also thermal leakage current. conservation of energy A fundamental principle of nature. Emits electrons in a discharge tube. which are in the best position for maximum torque. cathode ray oscilloscope (CRO) An electronic measuring instrument that can display AC and other periodically varying voltages. the waves spread around the aperture or obstacle. diode A non-ohmic electronic device that conducts well in one direction but poorly in the other.e. The base current is amplified to give a larger collector current via transistor action. BJT transistor A bipolar junction transistor is made by connecting ptype and n-type semiconductor materials to form two interacting pn junctions. circuit ground (or earth point) Zero electrical potential reference point. Also known as strain energy and measured in joules (J). aphelion Point in an elliptical orbit that is furthest from the Sun. depletion region Region around a pn junction that has virtually no mobile charge carriers. diffraction When a wavefront meets an aperture or obstacle of a similar dimension to the wavelength. elastic potential energy Stored energy in a stretched or compressed material. can include gravity. dark current Small current (due to the thermally generated charge 330 GLOSSARY carriers) that flows when a photosensitive semiconductor has a potential difference across it. The material will experience permanent deformation if the elastic limit is exceeded. centripetal acceleration An object moving with a constant speed in a circular path has a centripetal acceleration towards the centre of the circle.GLOSSARY absolute quantities Physical quantities that remain constant within any frame of reference. cathode The electrode maintained at a negative potential. dipole field The magnetic field around a magnet appears to come from the two (di-) poles at the ends of a magnet. absorption spectrum When a beam of white light (a continuous spectrum) is passed through a sample of a gas. capacitor An electronic device designed to have a specific capacitance. centripetal force The force that causes an object to travel in a circular path. capacitance Measure of the capacity of two separated conductors to store charge. i. conservation of momentum During any collision. . this term refers to the wave/particle duality of matter whereby very fast moving particles display wave-like properties and hence can be allocated a de Broglie wavelength through observation of their diffraction patterns for example. The field around a current has no poles and so is a ‘non-dipole’ field. doping Process of increasing a semiconductor’s conductivity significantly by the addition of impurity atoms in the semiconductor lattice. tension and friction. anode The electrode maintained at a positive potential. Attracts electrons in a discharge tube. corpuscles Isaac Newton interpreted rays of light as streams of tiny particles or ‘corpuscles’ travelling at high speed.

LASER (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation).e. Usually have a narrow spectral range of a few tens of nanometres (i. gravitational potential energy Energy that can be considered to be ‘stored’ in a body due to its position in a gravitational field. matter waves Extremely fast moving particles that display wave-like properties. interference The effect on the amplitude or intensity at a given location due to the superposition of two or more waves incident upon the location. light-emitting diode (LED) A pn junction diode made of Ga (As) or similar semiconductor material. A light source that has a very narrow emission spectrum (i. magnetic field A region of space around a magnet or electric current in which another magnet or electric current will experience a force. light-dependent resistor (LDR) Semiconductor device whose resistance varies significantly as the illuminating light level changes. mutually perpendicular components: a varying magnetic field and a varying electric field. Also known as gravity. internal forces Forces exerted on bodies involved in a collision by each other. fast moving electrons will diffract as they pass between the atoms in a crystal structure. A measure of the total ‘amount’ of magnetic field. i.e. GLOSSARY 331 . for example. A scalar quantity that is measured in joules (J). gravitational field The region around an object where other objects will experience a gravitational force.electromagnet A magnet with a field produced by an electric current. Iron is the most common ferromagnetic material. In south-eastern Australia it is around 10° east. inertial frame of reference One involving a constant velocity or stationary frame of reference. Usually have a very narrow spectral range of around a few nanometres or less. magnitude The size of a quantity without regard for its direction. gravitation Force of attraction between two objects. magnetic pole The ends of a magnet that the magnetic field lines appear to point to (south) and away from (north). Very fast moving particles display wave-like properties and hence can be allocated a de Broglie wavelength through observation of their diffraction patterns. Hooke’s law Elastic materials for which there is a direct relationship between the force acting on them and the extension or compression that they undergo are said to obey Hooke’s law. magnetic declination The difference between true north and the direction of the Earth’s magnetic field at any point. they emit one single colour). electromagnetic radiation Energy emitted in continuous waves with two transverse. laser diode (LD) Similar in concept to an LED but emits laser light. emission spectrum The particular.g. It is merely converted from one form into another. ideal battery Battery that maintains its terminal voltage regardless of how much current is drawn from it in phase Two or more points in waves of the same frequency that at a given point in time have the same displacement and velocity. magnetic flux The product of the strength of the magnetic field and the perpendicular area over which it is spread. energy levels of atoms The orbital levels in which the electrons orbiting the nucleus of an atom can remain stable. measured in watts per square metre (W m–2). Field lines point away from north and towards south magnetic poles. intensity The energy incident per second on 1 m2 of surface area. where all the wave components of the light are in phase. heliocentric Sun-centred. law of conservation of energy Energy cannot be created or destroyed. it emits a very pure colour). When forward biased the diode emits light.e. free-fall A motion whereby gravity is the only force acting on a body. Internet Distributed digital communications system that uses fibre optic cable (and other technologies) to transmit information in an asynchronous manner. line current Total current flowing from the battery into a circuit. interference pattern The pattern due to light (or fast moving particles) from two or more sources arriving at the one location. Kepler’s laws Three rules devised by Johannes Kepler that describe the orbital motion of planets. inclined plane Sloping surface or ramp. ferromagnetic A material in which tiny ‘domains’ of atoms combine to form a strong magnetic field. There are no magnetic poles around electric currents. unique set of frequencies of light emitted by an excited atom as the excited electrons return to lower energy levels. forward bias voltage Voltage across a pn junction that greatly increases its conductivity. electromagnetic induction The creation of an electric current (or an EMF) in a loop of wire as the result of a changing magnetic flux through the loop. action–reaction forces. matter wavelength Also known as the ‘de Broglie wavelength’. electron diffusion When mobile electrons move from a region of high electron concentration into a region of low electron concentration. e.

optical attenuation Reduction in propagating optical power as a signal travels through a medium.g. 2. The flow is regulated by the electrical potential difference and the electrical resistance to the flow. quanta Discrete quantities. probability distribution A mathematical wave function that gives the probability of a particular event occurring in a region of interest. through the 332 GLOSSARY visible light spectrum (violet to red) into the non-visible IR. Can be modelled by having an ideal battery in series with a fixed internal resistance. This photocurrent is amplified to give a larger collector current via transistor action. monochromatic light Light of a single frequency (and wavelength). Penetration depth decreases as the frequency of the signal increases spectra A set of frequencies. optical spectrum Part of the EM spectrum that ranges in wavelength from the non-visible UV. the positive and negative terminals switch locations. photoelectron An electron released from an atom due to the photoelectric effect. phototransistor A transistor device that can absorb light into its base region (creating a base photocurrent). nuclear model A model of the atom in which the majority of the mass of the atom is concentrated in the central nucleus. this suggests a particlelike nature of light. measured in kg m s–1. negative charge flow Flow of mobile negative charge or electrons around a circuit.e. positive charge flow Flow of mobile positive charge around a circuit. momentum of a photon An interpretation of light describes the momentum of a photon as dependent upon the frequency (and therefore wavelength) of the photon. ohmmeter An instrument that can measure the electrical resistance of a particular circuit element. multimeter An instrument that can measure voltage difference. photodiode or junction optical detector A pn junction semiconductor device that can absorb light into its depletion region and generate a measurable separation of charge. power The rate at which work is done—a scalar quantity measured in watts (W). projectile Object moving freely through the air without an engine or power source driving it. i. reverse potential The external source of potential difference in a circuit is reversed. real battery Battery where the terminal voltage decreases with increasing current drawn from it. Usually refers to a discrete quantity of energy gained or lost by an atom during an electron level transition. right-hand rules 1. p-type semiconductor Doped semiconductor that easily generates free positively charged holes in the lattice. power dissipated The rate of change of electrical energy with time. non-ohmic device An electrical device whose resistance changes as the applied voltage changes. usually electromagnetic radiation. e. . perihelion Point in an elliptical orbit that is closest to the Sun. n-type semiconductor Doped semiconductor that easily generates free negatively charged electrons in the lattice. pn junction An electronic structure that arises when a p-type semiconductor region is adjacent to an n-type semiconductor region. an LDR. The right-hand screw rule tells us the direction of the magnetic field (curled fingers) around a current (thumb). photophone System for communicating voice signals using a light beam over a free air path. Invented by Alexander Graham Bell in 1880. reverse bias voltage Voltage across a pn junction that greatly decreases its conductivity. Energy is transmitted from a photon of light to a surface electron in quantised amounts. photoconductive detector A light detector. photoelectric effect The emission of electrons from the surface of a material when light of sufficiently high energy shines on it. satellite Object in a stable orbit around a central body.momentum The product of the mass of an object and its velocity—a vector quantity. The element must be electrically disconnected from the rest of the circuit. ohmic device An electrical device whose resistance is independent of the applied voltage. photon A packet of electromagnetic energy released from an atom as an excited electron falls to a lower energy level. whose conductance varies significantly as the light level illuminating it changes. The flow is regulated by the electrical potential difference and the electrical resistance to the flow. current and resistance. The right-hand force rule tells us the force (palm) on a current (thumb) in a magnetic field (straight fingers). skin effect How far electrical signals can penetrate into a conductor. relative motion Comparative motion of one object with respect to another object. with the electrons orbiting the nucleus. Also equal to the potential difference multiplied by the current. natural satellite A body such as the Moon or a planet that is in orbit around another body. If photons can be described as ‘having momentum’.

proportional to the ratio of turns. threshold frequency The minimum frequency of electromagnetic radiation for which the photoelectric effect can occur for a given material. the object absorbs maximum energy from the driving force and it resonates. WLED or white light emitting diode An LED that emits light over a broad spectral range and approximates a white light source. temperature-dependent resistor (TDR) An electronic device whose resistance varies as a function of temperature. in the other and so can ‘step up’ or ‘step down’ the supply voltage. An AC current in one will induce an EMF.3 V. Vs ~ 0. heat etc. The spring constant (or force constant) is given by the gradient of the F–x graph for the material. the product of the force and the perpendicular distance between axis and line of force. for Ge. transducer A device that converts electrical energy into non-electrical energy (light. strain energy See elastic potential energy. A thermistor is an example of a TDR. GLOSSARY 333 . measured in joules or electronvolts. variable resistor An electrical device whose resistance can be varied by a mechanical or electronic control. An object would remain at rest or move with constant velocity in this region. voltage amplification The process of electronically magnifying a voltage signal. Vs ~ 0. For linear amplification the ratio is constant.) or vice versa transformer Two coils wound on an iron core so that the magnetic flux from one links the other. thermal leakage current Small current (carried by thermally generated mobile charge carriers) that flows when a semiconductor has a potential difference across it. measured in hertz (Hz). A standing wave is established in the object so that particular locations of maximum amplitude of vibration occur and locations of minimum disturbance also occur in set positions.spring constant (k) Gives a measure of the stiffness of an elastic material. transistor Semiconductor device that can be used to amplify electronic signals true weightlessness The state of a body in a region where the gravitational field strength is zero.7 V. work function The energy required to remove an electron from its state of being bound to an atom. mechanical. torque A force tending to rotate an object. switch-on voltage The voltage across the terminals of a diode beyond which the diode conducts strongly. For Si. thermistor Semiconductor device whose resistance varies significantly as the temperature changes. standing wave When a physical object is subjected to a periodic driving force that matches a natural frequency of it. voltage gain Ratio of output to input voltage.

Jonas 232 antinode 199 anode 208 armature 272 atom structure and photons 230–5 atoms and magnetic fields 261–5 attenuation 148 audio transmission via a light beam 173–8 batteries 105 battery back-up for mains-operated appliance 126 Bell. 241 de Broglie wavelengths 221. 58 electric charges 266–9 electric current 255–6. 258–9. 238–9 dielectric material 120 diffraction gratings 204 diffraction of light 197–8. Thomas 292 Einstein. 308 collisions 35 colour spectrum 201 commutator 272 compact disks (CDs) 61. 264. 223. 201 Compton. Neils 232–4. 258. William 187 Bohr. 213–14. 261. 52 alternative unit for 210–11 changes in gravitational fields 91–7 changes in pole vaulting 57–8 conservation of 51–2. 292 magnetic flux and induced 278–80 measuring 115 cycling 65 Davey. 266–8. 241 Bohr’s energy levels of hydrogen 237–8 Bragg. 20–1 centripetal 61–2 of free falling objects 79. 130 depletion region 124 I–V curves 124 laser 168–9. Graham Alexander 150. 216. 258–9. 30–1 alternating voltage and current 297–9 ammeter 115 Ampère. 292 conservation of momentum 43–6 corona effect 305 crumple zones 40–1 current(s) alternating 297–9 electric 255–6. 264 electron diffraction 223 electron microscopy 226 electronic circuits 105–16 circuit ground point 105 circuit symbols 106 current. Arthur 215–16. 263 amplification 133–40 non-linear 133 amplifier biasing. Albert 16. 224–5. William Lawrence 205. 230 elastic potential energy 55–7. 171. Louis 221. 213. 130 coupling 121 non-polarised 119 polarised 119 car safety 40–1 cathode 208 cathode ray oscilloscope 127–30 cathode ray tube 227 centre of mass 6 centripetal acceleration 61–2 circular motion 35. André-Marie 261. Humphrey 254 Davisson and Germer experiment 223–5. 292 electrical 305–11 kinetic 48. measuring 115 using multimeters 114–16 Ohm’s Law 107. 209 level diagrams 234–5 levels of hydrogen 237–8 of objects moving through a changing gravitational field 92–3 potential 91 334 INDEX . 224–5. 229 DC generator 294 DC system of current 292 de Broglie. 262. 223. 266–8. 239–40. 202–4 diffusion 158 diodes 121–6. measuring 114 voltage division principle 110 electronics 103.INDEX absorption spectra 232–4 AC circuits 297 AC generator 294 AC induction motors 303 AC system of current 292 acceleration 4. transistor 138 amplifier clipping 134–5 amplifiers transistor 136–7 voltage 133 amplitude 189 Angstrom. 305–11 generation 292–6 electrical energy 305–11 safety 306 electricity 247 three-phase 298 electromagnetic forces 74 electromagnetic induction 277. 211 electromagnetic spectrum 205–6 electromagnetic wave 309–10 electromagnetism 254–6. 222. 151 black holes 77 Blake. 267 Edison. 229. 221 conservation of energy 51–2. 176 light-emitting (LEDs) 164–6. 292–3 emission spectra 230–2 energy 48–9. measuring 115–16 simplification 110 voltage 105 voltage. 278 electromagnetic radiation 204. 168. 213. 91. mass of 73 Earth’s magnetic field 251. 215. 224 capacitors 119–21. 104. 171 reverse biasing 124 silicon semiconductor 164 white-light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) 167–8 Earth. 292 electric guitars 284 electric motors 271–4 electric power 246. 105–7 electrons 226–7 electronvolt 210 EMF direction of 287–90 induced 282–5. 110 resistance. 60–6 coefficient of friction 23. 84 acceleration–time graphs 7 action–reaction pairs 11 air resistance 14.

150–3 junction detectors 158–60 Kepler’s laws 87 kinetic energy 48. 43 Oersted. 23 inertia 11 interference of light 198–201 Internet 148. 84 and gravitational fields 78–80 Fresnel. 60–6 equations 8–9 graphing 6–7 projectile 25–32 relative 16–17 motors AC induction 393 electric 271–4 moving charges. 36. 278 Geostationary Meteorological Satellite (GMS-5) 85. Bohr’s energy levels of 237–8 impulse 37. 308 galvanometer 273. 158. 293 light diffraction 197–8. 169. 194–5 speed of 208 wavelength 200–1 wave model 107–206 and waves 189–96. calculating 77–8. 309 and colour spectrum 201 and refraction of light 194–5 Newton’s corpuscles 193 Newton’s law of universal gravitation 70–4. 174–5 light-emitting diode (LED) 164–6. 193–4. 41 inclined planes 20–2. 309 hydrogen. Isaac 2. coefficient of 23. Christian 192. magnets and atoms 261–5 magnetism electromagnetism 254–6 fundamentals 248–52 magnets 247 natural 250 superconducting 289–90 Marconi 205 mass spectrometers 269 matter duality 228 nature of 220 waves 221–9 matter-scattering experiments 223–5 Maxwell. Kamerlingh 289 optical detectors 156 optical fibre 148–9. 87. 36. 192. 227 mineral deposits 79 model for light 191–4 momentum 36–8. 88 global positioning system (GPS) 84 Goddard. 284 Onnes. 175–6 laser safety 173–4 Lenard. 41 conservation of 43–6 definition 36 monochromatic light 198 motion 4 circular 35. Joseph 277 Hertz. Phillipp 209 Lenz’s law 287–90. 171 longitudinal wave 190 magnetic domains 262 flux and induced currents 278–80 flux density 259 induction 259 poles 248. 284 Millikan. 208 high-fidelity photonics telecommunications system 175–8 Hooke’s law 54–5. 211 mechanical waves 189 mechanics 2–8 microphones 133. 11. 171. 254. 249–51. 176 laser light pointers 173. 23 on moving charges 266–70 see also gravitation Franklin. 278–9 Faraday’s law 282–5. Heinrich 205. Robert 208. 258–9 around currents. 110. Werner 239–40 Henry. 82. 37. 194. 255–6. Benjamin 254 freely falling objects acceleration of 79. 87 Newton’s laws of motion 11–15. 152 see also photonics INDEX 335 . 205 model for 191–4 monochromatic 198 nature of 188. 205. 216–17 Newton’s corpuscles 193 particle nature of 208–17 Poisson 203 polarisation effects 203 polychromatic 198 properties of 195 reflection 192 refraction 192. 171. 193. 43. 202–4 duality 228 Fresnel 203 Huygens’s wavelets 193–4 interference of 198–201 Maxwell’s wave theory 204. audio transmission via 173–8 light-dependent resistors (LDRs) 156. 293 ferromagnetic substances 262. 199 light beam. 91. 16.energy of satellites in circular orbits 91 and waves 189 and work 49 Faraday. 263 force–time graphs 38–9 forces electromagnetic 74 normal 20. 249 magnetic fields 248. 84 gravitational potential energy 48 gravity 69–74 Heisenberg. James 309–10 Maxwell’s wave theory 204. Robert 46 graphs 6–7 gravimeters 79 gravitation 74 Newton’s law of universal 70–4 gravitational fields 76–80 diagrams to represent 76–7 and energy changes 91–7 energy of objects moving through changing 92–3 and freely falling objects 78–80 strength. Hans Christian 254. 261 Ohm’s Law 107. forces on 266–70 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellite 89 Neptune 72 Newton. Michael 277. 209 laser diodes (LDs) 168–9. Augustin 203 friction. 58 Hubble Space Telescope (HST) 88 Huygens.

136–8 transverse wave 189 tyres. 221 and atom structure 230–5 photophone 150–3 phototransistors 162–3. 211 radio waves 205 reflection of particles 192 refraction of particles 192. 223 Young. Ernest 226. Newton’s law of 70–4 vector techniques 3–4 velocity 4 constant 21 velocity–time graphs 7 Volta. Wilhelm 205 Rutherford. 238 waves describing 190–1 diffraction 197–8 electromagnetic 309–10 and energy 189 and light 189–96 light. 158 as temperature sensors 158 silicon semiconductor diode 164 skin effect and information-carrying capacity 148–9 skysurfing 14 solar cell 161 solar-powered traffic monitors 162 solar system 88 solenoids 261–2 sound waves 285 speed 4 Sputnik 1 83 standing waves 238–9. Alessandro 254 voltage 105. 309 zero electric potential reference point 105 336 INDEX . Erwin 239 semi-conductors atomic structure 122–3. 213–14 photodiodes 158–60. 273 wave equation 190–1 wave source 191 wave train 189. electromagnetic 204. Simeon 203 polarisation effects with light 203 pole vaulting 57–8 polychromatic light 198 position–time graphs 6–7 potential energy 91 power 50. electric 292–6 station generators 295 projectile motion 25–32 Ptolemy 192 quantum mechanics 239 radiation. 171 photonics 103. 267 right-hand screw 255 rock climbing 55 rockets 46 Roentgen. 175–8 Tesla. 88 natural 83. 215–16. 240–1 weightlessness 96 white-light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) 167–8 work 52 defined 49 and energy 49 X-rays 205. 161. 230 satellites 69. 145 information-carrying capacity 148–50 in telecommunications 146–53 photons 212. 91 orbital properties. 209 torque 272 traffic monitors. 226–7 Thompson’s e/m experiment 226–7 threshold frequency 208. car 56 universal gravitation. 199. G. J. model 197–206 longitudinal 190 matter 221–9 mechanical 189 periodic 189. Thomas 198. 198–9 wavelength 190. 190 pulse 189 radio 205 sound 285 transverse 189 standing 238–9. 200–1. 171 Pioneer 10 83 Planck. 240–1 superconducting magnets 289–90 superconductors 289–90 superposition 198 synchrotron radiation 225 Taylor. measuring 115–16 reverse potential 208 right-hand force rule 255.J. Nikola 258. 91 in circular orbits 84 communication 85 energy in circular orbits 91 geostationary 85. designing a 173–5. 190 photoconductive detectors 156 photocurrent 159 photoelectric current 209 photoelectric effect 208–9. 213. 194–5 relative motion 16–17 residual current devices (RCDs) 306 resistance. solar-powered 162 transformers 301–4 transistor amplifier biasing 138 transistors 133. Max 212. calculating 85 scalar 3 Schroedinger. 230 Pluto 92 Poisson. 52 generation. 110 alternating 297–9 amplifiers 133 DC and AC 121 gain 133–4 measuring 114 voltmeter 114. 292 Thompson. 82–9 artificial 83–4. 216–17 telecommunications photonics in 146–53 revolution 147 system.I.optical sources 164–6 optical transducers 155–71 oscilloscope 155 cathode ray 127–30 particle accelerators 269 particle nature of light 208–17 periodic wave 189.