KENNETHJOHN ..,r--..rearuui*r*^
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A R C H I T E C T L R E 8 O OT O 1 2 O O

Yale UniaersityPress' New Haaen and London

First published 1959by PenguinBooksLtd Fourth edition r978. New impressionrgg3 by Yale University Press z o r g 1 8 r y 1 6 t 5 1 4 1 31 2 r r r o g 8 7 6 5 Copyright @ Kenneth John Conant, ry59, 1966,ry74, ry78 Set in Monophoto Ehrhardt, and printed in Hong Kong through World Print Ltd Designedby Gerald Cinamonand Inge Dyson All rights reserved. This book may not be reproducedin whole or in part, in any form (beyondthat copying permitted by Sectionsro7 and ro8 of the U.S. Copyright Law and exceptby reviewers the public press),without written permission for from the publishers. ISBN o-3oo-o5zg8-7 Library of Congress catalogcard number 78-r4g8or

To my two namesakes Ken and Kenny


This new edtion, in addition to routine minor rectifications, contains text changes suggested by increasing knowledge of the development of the Romanesque style, and figures have been introduced which tend to make this development clearer. The text has new material on Montecassino, Saint-Benoit-sur-Loire, Saintes, Cluny, Florence, and Saint-Denis. It presents the great church at Cluny as embodying the classic moment of the Romanesque, with Saint-Denis and Sens Cathedral as the first Gothic churches provided with flying buttresses of systematic design The original drawings were made or adapted by Donald Bell-Scott, further drawings were done for this edition by Ian Stewart, and the maDS were drawn bv Sheila Waters.

Note on the Second Intesrated Edition Foreword Maps: rr


Carolingian Divisions in and near France c. 8oo 814 France and Contiguous Areas about rooo r5


Medieval Ecclesiastical Metropolitanates (France) and Provinces (Germany) T h e S t y l i s t i c B o u n d a r i e so f R o m a n e s q u e F r a n c e The Pilgrimage Routes to Santiago de Compostela Spain and Portugal 2r 22-23 r8-rg 20


Germany, Neighbouring Lands, and Hungary Italy and Yugoslavia British Isles Scandinavia 25 26 27 24

The Holy Land

Part One: The Pre-Romanesqueand Proto-Romanesque Styles r . The Preparation for Medieval Architecture The Institutional Background 3r 34 36 37 3r

Primitive and Local Architectural Trends

The Persistence of Roman Architectural Ideas and Practice The Transition from Roman to Early Medieval Architecture z. The Carolingian Romanesque 43 8rq

Northern Architecture in the Reign of Charlemagne,TTr


Church Architecture in the Northern Part of the Empire under the Later Carolingians 3. Pre-Romanesque Architecture in the North, outside the Empire Ireland 69 Architecture in Saxon England 72 69


Ninth- and Tenth-Century Scandinavia 77

and the Holl Land r7. The Great Churches of the Pilgrimage Roads The Preparation: General Considerations St Martin at Tours t6z t6z r63 r57 r57 L e o n . C a s t i l e . The Cistercians and their Architecture 227 The ByzantineExarchate ro2 Styles Part Tpo: TheEarlier Romanesque 'First Romanesque' ro7 The Lombardy ro7 of Part Four: The Mature Rornanesque Midd. the Ottonian Romanesque The Salian or Franconian Emperors France: goo ro5o The Ambulatory r3g r3g r3I 12r BurgundianDevelopments The Spacious Wooden-Roofed Basilicas Preliminary Considerations 3rr Aragon and Navarre 3r2 Part Three: The Mature Romanesque Inter-Regional and International Architecture as 8.sAsstttiated pithin the Holy Roman Empire Introduction to Chapters rg zz rg. Ducal Burgundy 243 Provence 2So Aquitania.k and Southern France rz.with BorderingAreason the Loire and the Mediterranean 263 The West of France 26+ The School ofAuvergne 293 The SchoolofLanguedoc 297 r2r Part Fiz:e: The.the'EcoleClunisienne' r85 in the Land. or Pontius. de Melgueil Abbot Peter the Venerable 213 r r. General Considerations in regard to the Regional Schools r3.44ature Romanesque Architecture of Spain. The Two Sicilies 345 Apulia 345 352 343 The Basilicata .8 coNrnNrs Architecturein SouthernEurope 87 4. Portugal.a n d G a l i c i a J I 5 Portugal 329 333 The Templars and the Hospitallers The Holy Land 336 Saint-Martial at Limoges Sainte-Foi at Conques E x c h a n g eo f I n f l u e n c e s : T h e P r o b l e m o f A r m e n i a Architecture Part Six: . de Goal of the Pilgrimage 167 Reflexfrom the Pilgrimage ry7 The Role of Cluny in the History of Romanesque Architecture r85 The Early Abbots. The Kingdom of Arles. Styles dependdnt on the Moors and on Lombardy Mud6far Romanesque Architecture in Brick The Mature Catalan Romanesque Style 18. and Burgundy 243 49 5. Styles dependent on France r4r I53 3r I 306 303 3o3 Dalmatia r r I and Andorra r r I Catalonia The Kingdom of Arles r r9 Germany r rg Romanesque Architecture in Germany under the Saxon and Franconian Emperors (936 r rz5) The Ottonians.I4ature Romanesque 34I Saint-Serninat Toulouseand PilgrimageSculpture r65 Santiago Compostela. Proto-Romanesque The Asturian StYle 87 The MozarabicStyle in Northern Spain 93 The Lombard Kingdom roo Abbot Hugh of Semur 187 zo8 Abbot Pons.

it is necessary to understand the monasticism and the incipient medievalism of Late Classical times. and the ile-de-France in contrast with the Empire. middle Europe. In view ofthe enduring value of Paul Frankl's Fr il hmit tela h erlic he und r omanischeBauhunst.but that is natural in the work ofan author who is academically the heir of Herbert Langford Warren and his teachers Henry Hobson Richardson and Charles Eliot Norton. Northern Italy Venice 385 386 Joan Evans was engaged on her comprehensive publications in England. was responsible for several significant studies in the Cluniac ambient by Americans during the period when Dr zr. o r R h i n e l a n d F r a n c e The Royal Domain (ile-de-France) and Champagne Normandy 442 . the Holy Land. Central ltalY 367 367 FOREWORD Rome and the Papal State Tuscany 372 38-5 The present volume is devoted to the genesis. and transformation of Romanesque architecture and is concerned with the principal artistic effort of four centuries. Following the epoch of mature Romanesque achievement. is the flowering o{' the many and varied regional styles. a freer pattern has been adopted for this +Jg -+39 treatise. Its foil. which is somewhat more personal. Lombardy Neighbouring Regions showing Components of Mature Lombard Style zz. and Northern France Part Sez. to his mentor. In the Holy Roman Empire there was a particularly wide panorama of interesting regional styles: older architectural forms were perfected and embellished. rather encyclopaedic in character. shown in important work of his own. was at the same time preparing his encyclopaedic work on Cistercian architecture in France. the result of their effbrt in architecture was the creation ofa new Saxony and Neighbouring Regions The Lower Rhine Main District The Netherlands +27 Architectarc in Scandina.en:Mature Romanesque zq.+54 4j9 England: l'he Saxo-Norman Overlap Norman England Notes $j 4-5. Britnin.^ia. development. and liiend. colonists as the Romanesque area expanded into Spain. before the creative spirit 4I5 121 ofthe Carolingian Age gave them a special direction. and the noble monuments which resulted in such great numbers have been admired ever since the Romanesque centuries. The theme of the book is carried by' church architecture. Northern France and Norman England some of them carried forth by missionaries or F r e n c h R o m a n e s q u co f t h e S c h o o l o f t h e E a s t .+ Bibliography List of Illustrations Index 5og . Therefore at the end of our work we ref'er to Romanesque Normandy. 49. to whom the author is much beholden for many kindnesses. the latter an intimate f riend ofJohn Ruskin. This record. With all these materials now available. the after-life of the Romanesque extended into the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries in regions where the style offered a suffrcient answer to local needs. and M. The reader will find here.IO CONTENTS Sicil-v 3Sz 362 Campania and Neighbouring Regions zo. colleague.1 50I Arthur Kingsley Porter. England.+o3 ment would imply. however. His interest in Cluny. during Rornanesque times. brings forward traditional forms culminating a synthesis of at Cluny and Citeaux. But they do not show the drive for logical synthesis in structure which characterized the North-western region. in our exposition. and Scandinavia. a record of the architectural advances by which the highly organized conventual establishment and the beauti(ully articulated great monastic church were achieved. it is possible to present . and exoressed the local temper well. following an account of the renewal in Charlemagne's time. Nt.the monastic accomplishment in church architecture. Scandinavia 43I Denmark Sweden Norway' 43r $+ 436 24. The greatest direct indebtedness ofthe author is. cast when possible in the form of a narrative. whose wide-ranging re-study ofRomanesque art and chronology resulted in considerable activity on the part ofart historians. Charles Oursel on his learned works concerning. with the Netherlands and Flanders South Germany 4r-1 4I r Marcel Aubert.as such . Germany. Cluniac and Cistercian art in Burgundy. General works on Romanesque architecture are not numerous. but the chronological limits are not as strict as this state. To understand Romanesque architecture well.

28 June r954 . Bannisterfor a searching reviewand discussion of the text while it wasin proof. could reinterpret and carry on all of the effects achieved in local varieties of the parent Romanesque. By making clear these facts the author hopes to enrich the reader's appreciation both of Romanesque and of Gothic tecture. Hilberry. who made excavations at Cluny possible through the Mediaeval Academy of archi- America. to Dr Isabel Pope Conant for thoughtful criticism. he also owes thanks to Miss Helen Kleinschmidt. Fully developed. The author wishes to express his gratitude to the medievalists who have been mentioned for the benefits which have come from their scholarly work and their counsel. Special thanks are due to Dr Turpin C. to Dr Harry H. by its use. this unit the typical ribbed groin-vaulted bay with its spur or flying buttress . And thanksare most particularly due to the Editor. but surpassed them all.who is deeply versedin the subiectmatter of the volume. Professor Sir Nikolaus Pevsner. and became the mainspring of Gothic architecture. far exceeding the merely editorial function.12 FOREWORD structural unit which had elements drawn from all of the older types of vaulting. John Nicholas Brown. and to Mrs Hart Chapman and to Mrs Judy Nairn for experthandling of the manuscript. KENNETH JOHN CONANT Maps .was universally applicable. It was further remarkable in that designers. He is grateful for the generosity of the Hon. and to Dr Alice Sunderland Wethey for their work in fitting parts of the Cluniac puzzle together. his work on the manuscriptwasthat of a wisecolleague and friend. to Dr ElizabethReadSunderland.

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The barbarian torment and the civil strife which had overturned the f'altering late Empire were far from ended. in the pattern of classic life and thought. w h o r v a sa l r e a d y K i n g o f t h e Franks in 476. i t m a d e a s v n t h e s i so f G e r m a n i c c u l ture with traditional late Roman lbrms and persistent influences from B1'zantine and Oriental l a n d s . by the year 8oo. The consular dignity'conferred in 5 o 8 u p o n C l o v i s . u n d e r t h e c o n f i d e n ta n d e n e r g e t i cC . -Ihus.ER I THE PREPARATION FOR MEDIEVAL ARCHIf'ECTURE T H E I N S T I T L I T I O N AB A C K G R O T J N D L The Leaders The 1'ear 8oo came to a Western rvorld readv for a great revival of'man1' things which Antiquity held dear. but the lorces of order were decisivelv rallied. h a r l e magne. It is fiair to sa]' that the great triangle formed b y t h e R h i n e . the wa]. pro- moted the Christianization of this vast domi n i o n . half German medieval rvorld could be organized. a n d t h e s e a .by addressing themselvesto Rome's old task of administrative and economic development. The implic'. rvhich had been confused and periphcral.s in which the half Roman. \1erefbrming the groundwork on rvhich an1'' lasting renaissance perforce would rest. philosophl'.al world of gor. Pepin.q u i e s c e n t before. and great men like Charlemagne and his companions were hnding.PART ONE THE PRE-ROMANESQUE A N D P R O T O . a n d b o u n d i t b y s t r o n g e c c l e s i a s t i c aa n d l political links to Rome. had implications which began to be realized as the Frankish settlers showed their sturdy worth and their power to build an enduring state. found its direction and its unil-ving p r i n c i p l e .rtions \\ere further realized when Charlemagne's grandfather. repulsed the Saracenic advance near Poitiers in 732. learning and legal svstem rvere being advanced again. aided i n e s t a b l i s h i n gt h e p a p a l P a t r i m o n l ' . 'l'his socien. now put forward almost all the grand conceptions on which the new medier. Charlemagne extended the area to inGermans. t h e L o i r e . when Romulus Augustulus was deposed. Charles N{artel. Bv his care fbr the Roman Church he gave new impetus to that institution. and art was to be clude all the mid-continental based. and enlarged the boundaries of Christendom by his conquests. and the monasteries.R O M A N E S Q U ES T Y L E S CHAPl. a n d m o s t o f a l l w h e n C h a r l e m a g n eh i m s e l f c r e a t e d a p a n Germanic state with an orderlv political system. whose coronation as Roman Emperor . which was perhaps the greatest s i n g l ei n h e r i t a n c ef r o m A n t i q u i t v . a n d b 1 ' a c t i v e favours to learning he made a beacon of his court.ernment. when his irather.

ooo. and not a great urban architecture suclt as classic architecture had been.ated or dcsolate when g.R O M A N E S Q U E A N D P R O T O . and receded before Gothic art lrom about rr3o onward. and prohibitcd the Gallican.ooo. d e s i g n e r sh a d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o merge what was good in all the old forms within the ample horizon of vast civic and religious conceptions. The larger monasteries presented intricatc administrative problems.ooo people.Charlemagne reinforced the tcndencv by imposing on all monks a rule of Bencdictine character. suffice it to say that the fecund and dynamic character so notable in the other arts is equally found in the architecture. Yet its design would be more monumental.ery degree. obedience.ooo.and all England only 5. seemed labulous to visitors from the West.ooo to its nadir of about ro. with the consequence that novel problems would arise spontaneously'. f'he C a r o l i n g i a n R o m a n e s q u ew a s i n r e n t i r e I i t w a s also experimental style. and sculpture differ more sharply than architecture lrom acknowledged Romanesque works. Benedictinism itself. Such conmunities became oases of Christian life in the midst of wild countr) or social chaos. in addition to being the spiritual capital.ooo in the \{iddle Ages. but all were in the south and east. Ambitious projects involving new problems were few in number.13).l The conditions of society were such that the solutions developed in Roman and barbarian times for the various problems ol' ordinary architecture were still sufficient. and synthesis which were possessed by the gireat masters of rhe Palace Alcuin and Einhard particularly were strongly I'elt in architecture. liturgv tn the Frankish kingdom.ooo in population.ooo people. with its reflexes of oriental. Roman in spirit (78g). when a refbrm was inaugurated under St Benedict of Aniane (died 8zz). l'rance was relativelv more settled and prosperous.ooo. and were the accepted schools for men of business and government. then in relativc decline because of uphcavals. and the monastic commonwealth remained as the only stable community 2 The way of Roman churchmanship in Gaul was smoothed by Pepin III. Priories on identical lines were soon founded. built the Cornelimiinster on the Inden.ooo. In the late classical period the population of the Empire declined. becauseof large land holdings it would have certain administrative and judicial lunctions too. manuscripts. A splendid nt:w monrster]' was built at Aniane. who introduced the Roman. on the modest scale which we associate with villages. . Rome being an e\treme example with a decline from nearly r. and with rare exceptions they were long .'l'heir industry laid the lbundations of economic recoverl in Europe after the Dark Ap. There were several cities approaching r. A m o n a s t e r yo f i m p o r t a n c e o f t e n s e r v e dn e a r l y a l l the needs of a thousand persons or more. and thus presented architectural problems on the scale of a whole town. and in general thel managed their quite considerable resources well. The leading Carolingian architects anticipated certain Romanesque characteristics. Louis the Pious. j54 68. For the discerning historian can see that the general programme of earll' medieval architecture was already understood at the court of CharlemaEne and that charac- teristic Romanesque I'eatures or elements were created and used.1. sound and strong. is a very complex phenomenon.ooo. which maintained a population of nearly r.iven. and acted as an international constitution in the early Middle Ages when temporal government had broken down. for him to regularize monastic life in the Emperor's dominions. The brilliant ideas developed by the church architects of Charlemagne's day were of enduring importance. between Arles and Narb o n n e . organization. hel prefbr to reserve the term fbr the better integrated art which flourished from the time of Otto the Great (936-73) in western Europe. and the countrvside rather sparsely peopled. and the great gifts for understanding. fullv articulated under construction even when favoured by exc e p t i o n a l r e s o u r c e sa n d o t h e r c i r c u m s t a n c e s . This is perhaps becauseCarolingian painting. which lies nerr Saint-Guilhem-le-D6scrt or Gellone in Languedoc. Bec a u s el h c R o m a n c o m p o n e n ti s \ e r \ i m p o r t a n t . particularly in the cities. even in late medieval times. chastity. taking vows ofpoverty. and only the architecture can concern us here. It seems clear that most of the building operations were traditional. up to modern times. The impulse fbr novel alchitectural development came chiefly lrom the monasteries. 48o 5. while the German urban centres had from 5ooo to ro.8oo.R O M A N E S Q U ES T Y L E S THE PREPARATION FOR MEDIEVAL ARCHITECTURE 3J at Christmastide.es. which were often largelv uncultir.{lthough the monks were individualll'' vowed to poverty. the name C:rrolingian Romanesque is suitable for the architecture. art. who succeeded Charlemagne in 8r. northern.ooo. the monastic institute was able to accept manifbld opportunities to preserve piety and learning. Artistic initiative stirred.hristendom on its os'n mcrits.Monasticistn Monasticism itself came to Carolingian times with the strong Roman imprinr giren to an originally Egvptian and cenobitical institution 'l'here by St Benedict of'Nursia (r. and were done. so that there was little occrsion for the exercise of new ingenuity in such work. and integrated in a more sophisticated manner than that of a town. to aid communications by turnishing hospitality to wayfbrers ofer. This Rule made its rvavthroughout Western C. and to enlarge the borders of Christianitv bv missionary endeaYOUr. was enormously benefited by Charlemagne and his successorsfrom 779 onward. I t d r e w o n a l l t h e r c s o u r c e so f ' a r t a n d .?2 P R E . Constantinople. In addition they were the The Arc hitectural Ambit It is important to realize in this connexion that the Carolingian Romanesque was an architecture intended for relatively small groups of people. and bv this process a ty'pical monastery would become the garner and the agricultural capital for a considerable surrounding area . Much invective a g a i n s t u s u r p i n g a n d u n s u c c e s s f u la d m i n i s t r a tors has come down to us in the texts. though the architects were relatively more dependent on Mediterranean models. In archit e c t u r e a l s o . liturgy fbr its magnificence. though not on the scale nor with the great assuranceof later times.ooo. is indeed something of Roman grandeur and durability in the Rule which he compiled for his own monastery of Montccassino about 5zg. but scholars hesitate to sav that Romanesque architecture properly so called began in the Caro'f lingian Ren:rissance. and Mediterranean origin. and stability. Medieval London had only about z5. and instructed The groups of men who withdrew fiom the ordinary pursuits of the world to live together under the rule ofan abbot.s Benedict. and new aesthetic lbrms were created which e\'!ntuall)' became 'I'he creation of Carolingian symbols of the age. J'hev have been interpreted in successive styles throughout the centuries. the communities received great gifts of land and endou'ment. The population of the entire Roman Empire in Hadrian's time is believed to have been about 55. f'he monks patiently developed and improved their properties. happily marks a symbolic new beginning. Romanesque in the testtube rather than a well-knit. near Aachen. lbund rich rewards in the spiritual pattern of the monastic liturgies. and this f'act tends to obscure the excellent general record ofthe monasteries as orderly and peacclul islands within a society ruhich was struggling out ofdeep confusion. The cities in the north and west had always been small. The abounding energy and initiative ofthe Emperor himself.

Subsidiarl' buildings of' the same sort would gather. Northern rooI. the unified world view presented by Christianity. and the number of such courts would be the measure of'the household's importance. their architecture became the living and growing architecture of the time. in which the conversion of the invaders. and several schemes of more efficient. more sophisticated tools were used. Wooden frames with vertical sheathing and braced mast construcfion were used by the Norse. r.b 'r. (4) the feudal system. the adze was the builder's prin- . domestic. the mode of design where liamed wooden compartments make up a building is quitc different from that of classic architecture in brick. The exterior materials north of Europe.t]. or concrete. in order to evacuate rain more quickll' and diminish the hazard of snow and icc. so their architecture alwavs was both functional and organic.o. Thus the monasteries did yeoman service in creating all four ofthe baseson which medieval civilization was to rest: (r) economic revival. Northern builders preler austere shapes. and a traditional log-wall construction developed which came to its culmination in the Russian medieval spire churches. (restored). and (later) church construction [4e]. it would be natural to expect Northern year 8oo onwards. L. It may go back as f'ar as the third century a. and more influential than they had ever been in Antiquity.r'cn in the first attempts at strict imitation. thus developing as imposing hnancial. 36. stone. lbr their climate is severe on involved e\terior fbrms. and the Holy Roman Empire.5 The prosperous household among the Germans would have a hall like that at Loista.e adjoined that of the barbarian settlers. woodenSaxonchurch (part). farm. and here one may see how handsome the primitive wooden forms can be. 'Half-timber' construction among the barbarians may also be lairlv ancient. and territorial corporations.34 pRE-ROMANESQUEAND PROTO-ROMANESQUE STYLES THE PREPARATION FOR MEDIEVAL ARCHITECTURE 35 training places for talent in the arts.s arc stecp. the canon law of the Church. The clinker construction of the Scandinavian ships is essentially like weather-boarded construction in building. and a solitary example of their work. which set up new hierarchies of power. the local habits and conditions would inevitably make themselles f'elt. but being rooted and native in the north. ror3. Accumulating evidence shows that halls of the Lojsta type were used all over northern Europe for many centuries in noble. where primeval timber was abundant. It is probable t h a t t h e ' p r o l i f ' e r a t i n g q u a d r a n g l e s 'o 1 ' t h e g r e a t monasteries carry on something of this mode of agglomeration. rooo P R I M I T I V EA N D L O C A L A R C H I T E C T U R AT R E N D S L With the creation of' a central power in the influences in architecture lrom the cipal tool. At Lojsta on the Isle of Gotland a palace ruin ascribed to the period about a. indeed it seems likely that the barbarian builders near the borders ofthe Empire learned something also from the Romans. The great monasteries. but as their compositions sought out the eccentric effects of nature itself. arranged about courtvards. more complex. The situation is well expressed in Charles Rufus Morey's reference to 'the naive effort of the barbarian races themselves to revive the Rome which their fathers had ruined'. Since many of their architectural problems were new. as Strzygowski believed. Lojsta. or a more sophisticated building of similar character. (3) the afterlife of Roman law in the monastic Rule. and his definition of Romanesque art as that'which reflects the gradual sinking of Latin culture below the Celtic and Teutonic surf'ace'. and enabled the monastic orders to extend their influence and their benefits generally. even without the lavish carving and colour which the original work doubtless possessedIr. dated ror3. brick basemodern Palisade wall construction was used by the Saxons. educational. z. it would be bound to have some efl'ect on an-vimported st1. rooo has been restored.ations in the Gallo-Roman area have shown that Roman work in outlying regions must often har.ernacular'or folk architecturewas of Such course f-ar from adequate lbr the nccds of an imperial building programme. In the palace halls there was evidently foinery ofa high order adorned with intricate carving. were lar larger. of which the wagons and sledges found with the Norse grave-ships probably offer us specimens. They may even 'bay be responsible for the introduction of the system' in stone-built Romanesque. lighter construction were worked out. The architecture of these migrant and primitive peoples could hardly have the superb beauty. Essex [zl.Specificallv. palace Original ofr. Greenstead. (z) the fusion of the Latin and the Teutonic peoples. In the West.a In the North-east.le. Excar. still existsin the church at Greenstead. and the refuge of intellectual activity.o. the 'coiling vitalitv' of their works of minor art. and its common mode of thought were fundamental.

b u t t h e l t d i d n o t p o s s e s s h e s o p h i s t i c a t e dt e c h n i q u e s b y which Byzantine works were achieved. Perforce the designers drew on the constructional experience of imperial Roman vaulted architecture. often imperf'ect because of different materials and other conditions. and arresting combinations of architectural forms. Other tvpes of building made static rather than d1'namic contributions.J u s t a s t h e w o o d e n a r c h i t e c t u r e o f the north was the 'background architecture' 'vernacular' there.ernacular' . The tradition of masonrv vaulting on a grand scale was lost in this manner. and neo-classical planning. nevertheless departed little in essential structure. Such effects are achieved almost as a matter of course 6rst in medieval.a n d an apse. had tended to minimize. remained as an ideal. and in consequence ecclesiastical architecture became the premier architecture from the time of C o n s t a n t i n eo n w a r d . Departing from the common and Roman theme. often with a transept and perhaps sacr i s t i e sa d j o i n i n g i t . although it degenerated in the Dark Ages.lrom the augustexemplars in the imperialcity. to about a quarter of the area of the Empire in Diocletian's time). Yet there are obvious differences. Even the shrunken wretched estate of medieval Rome to a fraction ofits ancient size. All other tvpes of building. Ordinarl. The nidespread and sucttss. for individual structures to present imposing effects. It is characteristic that thev sought models in the new East Christian sil'le when thela t t e m p t e da m b i t i o u s l a u l t e d b u i l d i n g s . Romanesque. Buildings with such local savour could be constructed more cheaply and would command the affection of folk in the locality from the very fact of being 'their own'. Later designers. a w o o d e n . Roman civic works were often masked fiom the street or forum b1'enclosing porticoes.{ f t e r t h e P e a c eo f t h e C h u r c h ( 3 r 3 ) . but the manner of their employ would be affected by northern artistic discipline and taste. struggling on new problems without Rome's leadership. architecture. They even gained from such self-imposed limitations. the f'eaturesof great buildings would be Roman. . the Byzantine style was constituted. under the Romans. These incursions. On the contrarv. Apart from commemoratiVe works and garden architecture. surell''. Such Carolingian works acquired a local salour because the builders had to do rvhat thev could on O T H E P E R S I S T E N C EF R O M A N D A R C H I T E C T U R AIL E A SA N D P R A C T I C E The Romanesque which came after the Carolingian period profited by these erperiments.r o o l e d n a v e a n d a i s l e s . The Romanesque contributed greatlv to the development ofhighly articulated. typically they had the classicalhorizontality and self-contained unitv. but bv the beginning ofthe fourth centur]'ofour era it had been built. The Roman manner of building. in the many regional schools of Romanesque architecture. private warfare. in church architecture. it is said. so that the compositions were inward-looking. from the Roman. In contrast the Romanesque. worked on a regional basis. Eastern Christendom was able to continue t h e t r a d i t i o n s o f R o m a n v a u l t e d a r c h i t e c t u r ea s a living stvle. even the most ambitious. and not at all in ideals. Romanesque variety developed out of Roman unity. or to become dynamic elements in the city picture and the landscape. a t r i u m .p i c a l l y ' w i t ha g a t e w a ] ' o 1 ' a p p r o a c ha n . thoup5h under strong oriental influence. During the Carolingian period both Roman and native elements were used increasingly. Provincial approximations. came to be characterized by free. with admir' able inventiyeness. and the grandiose civic and religious organs of the Empire were becomingly housed. Carolingian designers usually had to be satisfied with cheaper buildings basilicas roof'ed in rvood. t h e l ' p u t the imprint of'unmistakable Roman grandeur on the Constantinian basilicas of Old St Peter's in the Vatican [3] and St Paul's outside the \Ualls. and the layout of the cities gave little opportunit]'. Examples of the ancient Roman stvle were built throughout noarly the entire area in which the Romanesque later flourished. Although Rome's primacy in architecture departcd during the fifth cenlur). Baroque. and scourged by malaria. the provincial architects and engineers capitalized on the special variations in materials. we should now call fully monumental. Ancient Rome created no ne\rymonumental types after the Christian Roman basilica.36 PRE-ROMANESQUEAND PROTO-ROMANESQUE STYLES THE PREPARATIONFOR MEDIEVAL ARCHITECTURE 37 which resist the weather well are nearly all either red or gre)'. the architecture of the city of Rome was the model throughout the whole area of the Western Empire.. The churches which had been destroved throuehout the Empire during the persecution of Diocletian (:o: +) were pJenerallyreplaced r v i t h n e w b u i l d i n g s o l t h i s s a m e b a s i l i c a nc h a r a c t e r . though conscious ofits significance.5 . and with that dignity something ofthe lofty ideals ofancient architecture. onlv the Roman temples had a character which T H E T R A N S I T I O N R O MR O M A N F T O E A R L YM E D I E V A LA R C H I T E C T U R E Rome was indeed not built in a dav.o c c a s i o n ed a considerable ellbrt to build fireproofchurches in the ensuing period of revival. e n c o u r a g e dq u i t e g e n e r a l con(brmitv in practice to the architecture and e n g i n e e r i n go f ' t h e c a p i t a l . through bold imagination.t y . The growing centralization ofthe state. this meant that the wonderful system of working co-ordination which had produced these buildings would wither away through disuse. and was never quite lost in practice. so that the colour range is limited. and predisposition which fbrmer conditions.fuluse of Roman types of vaulting as a clntrollins Jeature in design marks a distinction between the newer. Coming in a time of decal'. then in Renaissance. Almost the onlv demand fbr large new buildings came from the Church. every-day. after the middle of the tenth century. and disturbers from did not prevent high-minded popes abroad from maintaining the dignity ofthe ancient traditions of the Church. the constantly increasing property holdings of the Emperor (amounting. l'he elements.'r. with t h e i r b u r n i n g s o f t o w n s a n d c h u r c h e s . architecture continued to be built. A Roman architect and a Roman engineer would easilv have underc stood the uork of their Romanesque ontinuators. Indeed it continued to be built fbr centuries. When the architects began to build masonrv domes in churches. Yet in the Carolingian period the north'vernacular' architecture was obviousll' so ern simple that almost any really monumental new development would be largely dependent on Roman sources. active. with the design of St S o p h i a i n C o n s t a n t i n o p l e . a rich varietv unexampled in the parent imperial st1. and the consequent spread ofuniform control in the des i g n i n g o f b u i l d i n g s . and b1' the dreadful experience of the Viking and Hungarian invasions. It laid the in tbundation ofGothic successes that field. and t h u s i t u n d e r l i e s s t i l l f u r t h e r a c h i e v e m e n t so f Renaissance nd modern date: a notable differa entiation. so the architecture of the old Roman districts was the background architecture of the south. from the first years of our era. The imperial architects achieved brilliant results in the new Earlv Christian architecture. climate. its imposing Early Christian churches remained as an active inspiration while new ideals were developing for the Romanesque. the items. but retained prestige as classic works. For. apart from the fora. skills. and applv them successfullv to the problems of church building. tended to have plain or uninteresting exteriors. irnd the older Carolingian.le. in the time of Justinian (specifically. The result was.1 2 ) . often with l i t t l e c h a n g e b e c a u s ei t w a s w e l l a d a p t e d t o c u r r e n t n e e d s . expressive exterior and interior design.

Such a T-shaped plan resulted in an elevation of bold form which could easily be disting u i s h e d f t o m t h e c i v i c w o r k s o f t h e a g e . and Byzantine architecture was the result. Romanesque. when their turn crme in the Carolingian period and later. admitted of no disguise for the functional interior shapes arising from practical needs. chairs being provided for dignitaries only. were attached to the west fronts. In the West the coming of the barbarians and perdistent local war made them importanr. we may recall that the first of the new elements to appear was the transept. the Imperial mausolet). Increase of numbers meant that this would be a large building. '.and to provide an impressile setting for processionrl liturgies. 'l'o review this process. asedon an organic distribution of functional elements. when they were built. l devoted confraternities. for the pagan crucilbrm buildings were small. to satisfy the extensive requirements for choir space.and singers appear to have had a claim on this desirable interior space. 5oo (the approach. Rome. 'I'his S1'rian churches during the Late Roman period. constricted as the]'were by columnar screens. masonry domes were replacing such towers by a. the episcopia. . Thus.e. in an odd way.l'rIn the East. In Old St Peter's (323 6) [3] its separatecharacter was indicated by its narrow entrances from the aisles. Old St l'eter's.C. could accommod a t e s u c h i n c l u s i v es e r ri c e s n a m e l y . t h e c a t h e dral of'the Saviour (324. The Triclinium is omitted (K.) a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y ' b o l ds h a p e si n t h e m a s so f t h e church buildings. were able to maintain the old Roman practice. . community' which numbered about 5o. so different from the voluminous imperial vaulted works. for better understanding. the nave and atrium hnished a b o u t 4 o o .rilding whereby the whole population could be accommodated on both the communitJ' and the parochial levels.') times.:r . \ N E S Q U EA N D P R O T O .B y t h e filih century the Greek as well as the Latin cross plan (the former with arms of equal length. the latter with a west arm longer than the others) were also accepted.. and consequently the refuge.i-t ": f. d.J. The orderly t h o u g h t w h i c h p r o d u c e d t h e s ec o m p o s i t i o n sr e calls the planning which created the Roman colonial cities.38 P R E . were also brought into church architecture on a practical and f unctional basis. and Gothic times. rebuilt as St John L a t e r a n ) a n d t h e p i l g r i m a g e c h u r c h e so f O l d S t Peter's (323 6. Originally. in the central domes ofByzantine. even when the conventual buildings themselves were veritable cities. and could c o m m a n d t h e n e c e s s a r vr e s o u r c e s b e c a u s e o f t h c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e sw h i c h t h e y i n h e r i t e d f r o m thc Roman liovernment. Rome was exceptional in possessing three churches which. the bishops gained in importance as l e a d e r s . this special purpose of the church was most obvious: the light construction and thin walls. The powerful monasteries. the church of a monasterv invariablv dominated its ensemble. Like the cathedral of a metropolitan centre. Pylons and towers were also established by the sixth centur]' as important but ancillary elements. in this situation.R O M . and that in turn to Gothic. 3.8 With the disintegration of the Roman state in the West. when the chief metropolitan centres became entirelv Christian. and Russian churches.S the basis of their Roman commonplace architecture and the wooden architecture of the North. to the present day. Restoration study. being smaller. each citf in F-arlv Christendom had had only a single church. where almost every structural and decorative line f-eelsthe vertical imoulse. rhe arrrum. Theodosius's basilica was one of the very first to have a truly monumental entrance precedent was probably fbllowed in the f'agadesof the Syrian Early Christian churches. Fullv r5. Their advent marks the beginning of a verticality which became increasingly characteristic as Early Christian and Carolingian design gave way to later Romanesque. The pylons ol thc exrerior proprlrea ol the (never finished) late classical temple ofBaalbek were inherited bv a basilican church erected in Its main courtyard by Theodosius.ooo at the time. r. and the whole communin'expected to meet for services at one building. Roman architectural thought is responsible for the huee bulk of the churches which inefface- ably mark the silhouette of medieval towns.F .-':--. filled in when the episcopia wrre built. i c s p i r i t w a s m o u l d e d b y t h e s e m e n .. From the beginning time even in Constantine's the result was strong articulation in plan. ro i. and not for congregational uses. for the church building was usually the mosr capacious and substantial building in the community. the latter perhaps suggested by svmbolism. Later. -5oo.o. 'Lantern' towers. b but it is an ordered picturesqueness. a n d a e s t h e t i cp o u e r w h i c h w a s g e n e rated in Carolingian. Thc columns flanking the main portals were moved from recessedlateral porticos. T h e asceticaEarly Christiansknown as monai0nt(s. the Early Christian lantern towers live on. No doubt there was a compelling appeal fbr the bishops and architects of the West alike. but their pylons or dwarftowers. ffi Lt^i P'iiI1. Thus.:t' . an ideal of church br. Towers for Fortification were a sign ofthe new 'I'hey were occasionally built beside way.c i r . such inclusive assemblieswere no longer possible. ima g i n a t i o n . e p i s c o p i al a t e r ) a n d S t P a u l ' s o u t s i d e -I'hese were built for a the Walls (386-423). As a matter of course the congregations stood at the services. The vigour ofthe utterly un-Roman sky-line ofthese tolvns is the measure of the local initiatir. The groupings are picturesque. and at once gave an unclassical look to the designs. 323 6. accidentally. who above all others were desirousof building noblv fbr the Christian communities. with windows admitting light above the space in front of the altar. By contrast. with additions. which provided additional capaciq'to one side and ano t h e r o f t h e s a n c t u a r ya n d c h o i r p l a t f o r m s . Yet a traditional feature of church polity maintained the need fbr church buildings on a grand Roman scale. built churches on a comparable scale to house the manl altars.ooo peoplecould crowd into the Ottonian cathedral of N{ainz (987 'I'he phenomenon obviousll' points to ro36). Armenian.R O M A N E S Q U E S T Y I . flanking a porch.but the medieval cities of the West. . All such buildiqgs were easily re- cognizable as Christian.

A low tower is easily built at the crossing. 1323). this new mode of composition was instinctively accepted in the Roman area leavened by Frankish immigration and versed in nonclassicalartistic modes. received the Roman consular insignia in the old church of St Martin at Tours. twelfth century) [zor. St Gallen.O PRE-ROMANESQUE AND PROTO-ROMANESQT]ESTYLES THE PREPARATION FOR MEDIEVAL ARCHITECTURE 4I In the West. w i t h the bell mounted on a roof turret overhead. where intersecting trusswork is awkward to construct and ugly to behold. Rcstoration based on excavations by Boda Cichy (K. as classical compositions are. and inwardlooking. and for a long time the bell-ringer stood in the space bet w e e n t h e s a n c t u a r ya n d t h e m o n k s ' c h o i r .374land Avignon (twelfth century) [r94]. 15FT. this building was clearly. 76]. and thus by the fifth century such lantern towers were much used in the West. and Saint-Benoit-sur-Loire(c. restoration studl The elements are certain. r.ll Becauseall three of'the tower types previously mentioned towers fortification. 73o. Once established. Windows are easily introduced into such a tower without much extra weight or risk. The monks used them in their liturgies.of Early Gothic at The style.r'. rather it was made up of aspiring and intersecting forms. Tours. and belfry 4. proto-medieval [4]. from our point of view. Gernrode(96r-twelfthcentury)[75. the Carolingian Romanesque style was fully constituted. The scheme of the church of St Martin. even in churches without transepts. with the nave and transept roofs stopping against its walls. self-contained. successor church. archaic though it was in medieval terms. Early South German constructions Brenz.). lantern. and de- 4e.12 Aesthetically and symbolically. The use of church bells provided another practical element which distinguished the new Christian style. with its two axial towers. 65o. destroved Gothic cathedralof Cambrai exemplified the theme handsomely. there is a happy historic symbolism in the fact that Clovis. mere constructional expediency might have caused low towers to be built at the crossing of the nave and transept in basilican churches.) O o 5M. appeared in the design ofthe influential monastic (later collegiate) church of St Martin at f'ours. St \{artin. their first great king. ofCentulaor Saint-Riquier(79oasticchurches 8oo) [5]. King of France. alsothe cathedrals of Ely (ro83. wasbaptizedin sucha building. like the church of Saint-Quentin. The flamboyant church at SaintRiquier is. French colonists brought the new theme to the New World. Once it was well assimilated in Charlemagne's dominion. St Louis IX. often above a lantern. Wooden church. but all details are hvpothetical (K J C.J. spite the lact that the original church was replacedin the sixth century. as in 47o. In view ofwhat the Franks and the French achieved with this idea in the development of medieval architecture. Poissl'-sur-Seine. showedits vitality historical and in later works of considerable Among thesewerethe monartisticimportance. The vertical elements had transformed radically and for good the basic Roman basilican theme. r. Small bells were used in Late Roman times to call the faithful to prayer. zo3]. in stone (destroyed) . In St Martin. an example of such a Gothic building being carried fbrward and finished in Renaissance times. this is a matter of great importance. the new dvnamic mode is unmistakable. The composition of St Martin was not horizontal. as is shown by the old church of Saint-Jean-Port-Joli near Quebec (r779). ro8o. on stones and chassis.C.

buildings made up an orderly programme. t h e great patron ordered bases. and it came to full fruition in the North at a later date. Pepin.d in 78. but the chicf altar.CHAPTER 2 THE CAROLINGIANROMANESqUE A N N O R T H E R N R C H I T E C T U RIE . but there are evident examples of Bvzantine and oriental influence. and mouldings to be specially transported from Rome. in the apse. built. and a west end of experimental form. To augment the dignity of this part of the church an apse was projected.t The character of Carolingian Romanesque mav easily be seen in the buildings raised under Charlemagne's own patronage. but t$ o small towers and a porch were ultimatell. r :s e er h e plan. Charlemag.8 r . Next among the important churches built b1.r. Earliest among the churches was a new building at Saint-Denis (later roy'al pantheon). Ret'erence has already been made to its great reforming abbot. . g l a s s . More important still. a lantern tower. T'he work was on a very considerable scale. Nothing remains of the church. The edi{ice may be ultimatelv responsible for the earlv medier. 636?) was replaced. near Abbeville [5]. bv Christ himself.1. a n d w o o d .ne's f'ather. and the labric continues Roman traditions.s t u c c o . there is an originality which achieves often captivating effects both 'I'he in architecture and decoration. during the decade after 7go. came the most characteristically. { G \ E7 ? r . and the building had much direct aid fiom C h a r l e m a g n e i n t h e f b r m o f g e n e r o u sf u n d s a n c l the lurnishing of craftsmen to work in stone. It offered a sumptuous beauty to the sen iceofthe liturgv. beyond the aisle walls. illustration j78. T H E R E I G \ O F C H A R L L M . and it was carried out when Angilbert was abbot.onr. by a new work dedicatedin 775. T h e n e r v c h u r c h l v a sd e d i c a t e dt o t h e S a v i o u r and All Saints. columns. Charlemagne was rhai which uas . reportedlv a magnificent building 'westwork' with a erected on the advice of' Charlemagne. Benedict of Aniane. the reconstruction of the important monastery of Centula or Saint-Riquier.r Benedict's project was indeed lbrward-looking. m o r e o v e r . m a l b l e .Northern and energetic ofthe church designs. Following this. $ a s r c l a t e dt o t h e t o m b o l S t R i u u i e r .s LIe was linked to Charlemagne b1'mutual afl-ection. a n i r s c c t i c who died in 645. according to legend.rr. The themes are in general Roman. the 'Homer' of the Palatine Court and one of its l i v e l i e s t p e r s o n a l i t i e s . a n d p e r h a p s t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i ch a s s o m e thing to do with the remarkably novel and monumental character of his buildings.H e l e a v e st h e i m p r e s s i o n that he was an e\trovert and a rathel show!' m a n . beginning about 75. This earlv church was b a s e do n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l R o m a n b a s i l i c .' this was a wooden-rool-ed columnar basilica with a spacious transept extending slightll. like the political acts of Charlemagne.al flowering of church arts in the region. According to careful studies based on partial excavarion. The old church (built about 475 by-St Genevidve and dedicated. linking the church with the more usual type of Romanesque church f'acade. which would have made the building a 'double-ender' like many notable later Carolingian churches.2 fbr the monasterv of Aniane. was buried at the entrance.

.5 New studies conducted bv the :ruthor indic a t e t h a t t h e m a s o n r J ' c o n s t r u c t i o no l t h e w e s t work extended upward onll' as f'ar as the base of the round drum. or entrance element.. as the engravings show. The growth of medieval feeling since St N{artin in Tours was built is well shorvn by the fact that at Saint-Riquier the entrance element was an entire vertical church. 'u l i ^ r'. composing handsomell.e stood the altar of'the Cross. and a chiefaltar. and the transept as usual had minor altars (fbur at Saint-Riquier). W e h c a r o f a c h u r c h o l ' 7 3 5 .. { s c e n s i o nd c c o r a t e d t h i s p a r t o 1 ' t h e b u i l d i n g . an observer on the pavement at Saint-Riquier would seea most intriguing telescopic efl-ectlrom below. 5 r a n i l n . dedicated to the Saviour. typicallr.n e a r Saint-Riquier. t h e p o r t i c o e so f t h e a t r i u m s u p p o r t e d a n u p p e r passagc giving acccss to a chapel installed in each to\ler the earliest example we know of this interestingarrangement..e a c h w i t h a t o w e r .\ \ ' a n d r i l l c . and bchind that thc tombs of' St Riquicr and his two companions. - scheme ol'framing lbr wooden spires has continued in use down to the present t i m e . Be1'ond this there was an inner vestibule which served as narther or antechurch . the main part of it being marked off by a chancel paraper or screcnas the rcgular choir of the monks.. and thrt thc clclister {f. was flanked by two tall round stair toners. I m m e d i a t c l v e a s t o f t h e c r o s s i n g t h e r e r v a sa sanctuarr bay which contained an altar dedicatedto St Peter.f.a n d a w o o d en roof-. F.tir.44 PRE-ROMANESQUE AND PROTO-ROMANESQUE STYLES THE CAROT-INGIAN RO[. ' .-'.R i q u i e r s p i r e s u p p o r t e d s u c h The scheme wls basilic:rn.arious stages arranged like horizontal wheels on the mast.ilil:. :rnd suggest a crissc r o s so f ' b e a m s a t t h e b a s eo f t h e s o i r e .. i c l i 3 . I o l l 8 . l i) . c n g r a r c d i n t 6 t z ( l e . . b a s i l i c a n . L(e^'-r'r"r. { t S a i n t . H i r r i u l i m a n u s c r . _ q * _ . 9 . the altar ncar the cloister doorwav was more important than the orher minor altars beciruscrelics placcd there were venerated bl each monk as he cntercd.(l . likc the spire above [5]..$ ' a v s . as wls customary. .ices. and composed beautilulll' with a tall rounded staged tower set over the central space asthe Chronicle of Hariull'shows. under the belfry. i p td r a w i n g o f antl skctch restoration as in 3oo (K J C . shadowed western transept rvith its vault carried .lANESQUE. in an arrangement which became tradition:rl.R i q u i e r . Grander in sc:rle and more imaginative still 'westwork'.R i q u i e rl h e c r o s s i n g o u e r w a s l r v i n r ( a t 4 u a l i s lt o t h e d r u m a n d s p i r e o f t h e c h a p e l o f ' the Saviour. The main sanctuilrv extended castward bct*een ancl bevond thc stair towers. h e i g h t o f ' a b o u t I 8 0 f e e t . the monks enteredthe church by the transept lvhen conring lbr services.as at St \{artin in but so imaginatilell' elaborated and so d-vnamic:tllvcomposed as to eridencc Illl maturitv in the Carolingian Romanesque st1le. The placing and bold firrm ofthe chapel were clearh didactic in intent: to emphasize the cult of the Saviour in a rather superstitious period when it tended to be obscured bv devotions to local saints and wonderworkers. and. as is usual in monastic churches. 1'he ba1' seems to have scrved as choir spirce lbr thc a mast. Space to the west was left open lbr congregational use and processions.articulated fagade in church architecture a historical landmark. Beyond the westwork lav the nave of the m a i n c h u r c h . reached a qo feet morc.Rcsurrection. and . while the area farther erst was kcpt pri\ate.t' Possibly the criss-cross ol beams at the b a s eo f t h e S a i n t . rowers. . .. It contained a font and an altar. in which rhe spire was built about a mast. rrylr). and th:rt this drum. In the middle of the nar.w i t h a i s l e s . . l'rvo engraved copies of Hariulf's manuscript show the drum opening up into the spire. f'he monks'choir probably extcndedinto the crossing ol the tlansept. with the supports of the r. r b t l e sa n o r i g i n a l d e v e l o p r n e n t s in medier.. Two slender round stair turrets of stone flanking the outer vestibule furnished access to the upper parts of the westwork..-iir. 'l'his qlt "1il 1. w h i c h w a s t h e e a r l i e s tr e a l l ) ' i m posing and boldll.s I ler} large tri:tnglc liturgies.. 1'he bell-ringer s t o o d b e t l v e e nt h e c h o i r a n d t h e m a i n s a n c t u a r y of the church.: '. Il'the drum and spire lverc open. not radirting chapcls. 45 '.in effect a low. ': cut off from the main nave b]' an arched screen and surrounded on the other three sides byaisles and salleries. The vaults ofthis whole section of the church served as a platfbrm for a chapel ofthe Saliour in the fbrm ofa tall spire-like central altar space. each crowned bv an elaborate tower. Here. surelv the forerunner of the sculptures which gathered about the portals of Romanesque and Gothic churches. with vestibule. he bovs sang t with great effect as an angel choir in thc solenn . i t l v a s d o r .r gipsr) of the Passion..8 7 a t S r i n t .r q r n ' P : o c a o r c E . subsidiarv altar and lbnt below.6 .alcarpentrv. when one or two choirs of men sang in the main church. i t( - on a forest of piers and columns. At the base there was a vaulted outer vestibule which cont a i n ed t h e t o m b o f A n g i l b e r t a n d a r e m a l k a b l e painted stucco relief of the Nativitl' on a gold mosaic ground.a1i1. x ru:'lv'AN D'( soZiil '!. at the platform level. The galleries of the westwork were assigned to a boys'choir during serr. Stucco reliefi (e. S r i n t . +J ' h e a t r i u m h a d a r i a l a n d l a t e r a l e n t r a n c e . Tlvo minor altarswere near the scrcen in front ol'it o r b e s i d ei t ( p e r h a p s i n t h e a i s l e s ) .. The church rvas about 2-5o {'eet long. like its mate. was of wood. uith two arial 'I'ours. and rvith its atrium mcasured about 'I'hc c r o s s i n ga n d t h e m a i n f h g a d e .tc. of the was thc m a i n c h u r c h . . .1rl" .xcarations show that the tower o1'tlrc chapcl ofthe virgin and the Apostles (b\ttom tl'5t) was bascd on a srmbolic dodecagon uith aislcs.

Laon with seven. . I t t e a c h e si n t e r c s t i n g l e s s o n s transfbrmirtions through 85o 1-. where the \lestern torver. the lean-to roofs or. It was designed bv Odo of Metz and begun in 792. the design of Saint-Riquicr had an enduring succcssin Germanl'. s . perhaps. clerics. and servitors. The Sala Regalis.d o u b t l e s sn o r t h - influences in the north. d e d i c a t e di n 8 8 . a n d m o d c l u f r . underwent a l o n g d e v e l o p m e n t . dedicated in 7gg. was at the north. . the lantern t o w e r a t t h c c r o s s i n g . a n d a l s o C .ork. as in so many other wa)'s. and a l e s s e ra l t a r w h e r e t h e m o r r o w m a s s i s s a i d . Santiago Irz3] planned with nine.a t C i o r v e r o n t h c \ \ ' e s e r l z z . including the capitular mass of the day. in the sanctuary area. antl it sccms rvithout question to have becn reprcsented on Hincmar's sarcophagus.. and its arrangement about an oblong courtvard."o5 6. Examples are Saint-B6nigne at Diion Iro8l of nine towers. The westuork of Reims uas the inspiration of that of thc cathedral of Hildesheim (dedicated in 872. Of the c o n v e n t u a l b u i l d i n g s i t i s n o t p o s s i b l et o s p e a k . It v'as a realll' cxciting northern version o1'San \''itlle in Ravenna.o r b i ct h e m o t i l ' r v e n t t o G e r m a n l . offers cloister itself. and by good fortune has come down to us almost entire.e The chapel dedicated to the Ever-Virgin Mother of God and t h e H o l r ' . and thirteen small reliquaries were placed on the beam. I n f l c t . -{achen. The west*ork theme. f. but the chapels appear to be drawn with knorvledge and care.1.R i c l u i e r . dodecagonal with an ambulator. .v. I n this. and echoes of it are perceptible in ecclesiastical architecture fbr centuries. it was dedicated in honour of the Virgin bl Pope Leo III in 8o5. This apse was marked offby a screen of six marble columns brought from Rome. fiom which. rvhich lve hare alreadl' considcred.R o M A N E S Q Us r Y L E s E A .E 1 7 N ol' St Riquier'. through 'l'he centuries. R e i n r s .The area of the palace courtyard also survives. 'trianptular'. 1 f .a n d t h c a p s e w e r e s h o w n i n s o m c d e t a i l . thel''. This chapel. There can be no doubt that similar groups of later date are in debt to the astonishing original.pical. and Chartres with six at least.hapel or llinster at -{achen (AixJaC h a p c l l e ) " ' [ 6 . reported as dilficulties. T H E C A R O L T N G T AR O M A N E S Q U. where its influencc can be traced from gcneration to generation. with an apse added bv Charlemagne fbr the throne. evidentll made a sensation. 'I'he imperial aparrmenrs were dienified and 6e and n. rcgarding Roman antl B1'zantine architectural .estibule and a chapel above this.c h u r c h . The building has alwal'shad cathedrtl rank. and for the assemblv.n o u A N E S Q U E N D P R o r o . l a n .a g r e a t a r l i s t i c centre in the ninth centurv.19] with seven.. n F i r r g u t p ern. a n d t h c t h r e e r c m a r k a b l c s p i r e s . on one o l ' t h e s h o r t s i d e s .er the transept and lateral parts of'the chapel of the Saviour in the m a i n c h r . cathedral of \[ainz comes to '-fhrone There were nine towers in all on Angilbert's m a i n c h u r c h . and thc palatine Chaoel.:. T'he p a l a c eh a s r e t a i n e d i t s o l d a r i s . j i 3 ] . It is easy to divine the general lavout of the group as it was in Charlemagne's time. the m o t i f p a \ s e d t o E n g l a n d .a l l c o n f i r m t h e northern imprint on the architecturc of'SaintRiquier.R e i m s . \Ve pass now to a considerationof the bcst :. the Palamind: the building ot 978 and its successive tine f. Monrstelies usuallv have.:.avemuch llller expression to the vertical impulse than the executed work. sincc rebuilt).ears are mcrelv v a r i a t i o n so n t h e C e n r u l a t h e m e ' [ 7 8 . an altar for the chief'ceremonies. I t i s t h e 6 r s t k n o w n e x a m p l eo f s o l a r g e a g r o u p o f t o w e r s s y s t e m a t i c a l l va r r a n g e d on one church building. 'I'here were quarters lbr officials. The wonderf ul design fbr Angilbert's church. The other chapel (of St Benedict and primitir e or the Holl' Abbots) was a barn church of the 'r'ernacular' t 1 ' p e . This building wasdedicated in 86. All were intended to be much more like Saint-Riquier in external effect.F 6 c a m p i n N o r m a n d y ' h a d an early'west\\. and the westrvork o f ' C o r b i c i n P i c a r d y 'i n s p i r e d t h a t . and containing the altar of St Riquier with a baldacchino or.er it. the nave. Befbre quitting Saint-Riquier we should take note o1'the two chapels in the cloister. though it underwent rcstoration in g81 and r88r. for the School.f u n c t i o n a l l v d i s p o s e d . thc palacc. h r l . l a r g e l v7 q u t ( o . Cluny Ir. like the atrium. I r r o m S a i n t . as the Utrecht Psalter demonstrates. have been omitted from the miniature. n o r t h a n d s o u t h .r o ] . that is the theme of a tower-like lvcst block with an entrance and \. 5 . surrounded bv later buildings which incorporate some vesriges of old work l6e and nl.trr known of' Charlemagne's buildings. and roor-r? with so on to the Early Gothic cathedrals such as Tournai [339] planned with nine. a semicircular apse paved at a level higher than the nave. and has consequential Gothic and Renaissance additions. All these buildings as planned p.t h e c r e s t i n g o f t h e c h u r c h n a v e .{ p o s t l e sw a s o r i g i n a l l y a s p i r e . z 3 l . and have been entirelv replaced 'I'he arrangement of the old on a different plan. built a cathedral in the grcat da!'s of Archbishops Ebbo (8r6 4I) and Hincmar (8+-s8z).w h i l e t h e l o n g s i d e sh a d o t h e r a p a r t m e n t s a n d g a l l e r i e s . r r c h .a6 p n e . Saint-Riquier .

The Emperor could make official appcarances at the tribune in the wcstwork o1'the church. which gave its name to a part of'the establishment. which fbrmed the south end of the ensemble. Therc the visitor finds an annular Palatine Chapel. . lateral view. There wasa monum e n t a l e n t r a n c e w a \ a t t h e r .4 _. directlv over the main portll of the church. Iigade. tion arranged about a tall vaulted octagonal 'I'he westwork connected the Nlinster at the tribune level with the court and the palace. The whole design wrs more elaboratethan that of San Vitale in Ravenna. which rvith its niche recalls the laqade of the Palace ot the Exarchs in Ravenna.rii >E. in the beginning. The church building was the climar ol.enna also a Roman capital are m o s t c l e a r l y 's e e n i n t h e d e s i g n o f t h e C h a p e l . which obviouslv inspired it. Flanking spiral stairwa-vsin cylindrical turrets Eiave accessto the throne room in the tribune of the Minster. R e b u i l d i n g a n d a d d i t i o n s h a v e d e s t r o v e dt h e unity of the Minster gioup. had a noble and easill' understood monumentality. lbllowed by an atrium with g a l l e r i e so n t w o l e v e l s r v h i c h w a s d o m i n a t c d b y the tall westu'ork i'acade of the church. and interior 7 to g. f'he \Iinster itsclf was a compler composicentral space. At the ground level a decp porch led to the interior [gJ. f'here is no doubt that the group \r'as intended to be reminiscent ol'the Lateran Palace in Rome. and continued upward to a chapel rvhich containcd Clrarlemagne's remarkable collection of relicsrr [(r.a vast centralized s)'mmetrical composition m e a s u r i n g a b o u t 3 o o f . . r c s l e r ne r r r e m i t l of the main axis. Aachen.48 PRE-ROMANESQUEAND PROTO-ROMANESQUE STYLES ample.t and al. and suggested the placing of a bronze statue brought from ltaly. 792 8o5. to a sanctu:lrv of its own opposite the tribune. divided from thc octagonal central spaceby columnar screens. The throne was in the tribune... F rom each side of the thronc area the tribune continued as an annular gallerl-. Reminiscences of Rar. l'he courtvard could be crowded if need be with about Tooo people. which.e e to n t h e p r i n c i p a l a n d transverse axes. they included a bath and an audience chanrber.

rs o o r a t o r y o f ( i o d t h e C r e a t o r a n d P r e s e r v e ro f A l l Things existed. Earlv Christian. ramping triangular vaults above the gallery. bishop of Orl6ans. and clever triangular penetrations fill out the vault 'lhese same sides have on the remaining sides. about ror4). These come into the octagon above the screened arches and provide an unyielding support for the clerestory w a l l a n d t h e h i g h v a u l t . lvhich were symmetrically' placed on a cross axis. and that rich materials were scavenged elsewhere. The exterior wall on both levels is ingeniously arranged with sixteen sides. like the gallery.'r Heretofbre we have seen how Carolingian architects used Roman. The net effect produced by the building is not Roman.-des-Pr6s Ir r-r j]. (n fact. Unlike the galleries. on the diaphrxgm arches.\t Germigny-des-Pr6s the tincture is Bvzantine and oriental. however. near S a i n t . the theme of San Vitale was radically simplified.867 76.a charming architectural plavthing. and a huge light crown (given by Frederick Barbarossa in r r68) contributed a superficial Byzantinism. well proportioned with respect to the arches and screensof'the gallery above. but even so its tallness and the persistent senseof compartmentation make it seem 'I'his verv different fi'om an ordinarv church. where the great Gothic axial chapel norv stands. Aachen. the annular aisle opens on the central space through undivided.t h e m i d d l e one of a set of nine vaulted comDartments sustained on four piers in rhe middic of rhe build- t r and I:. 'I'here ts a tower-like square central s p a c e . 'I'here are slisht remains o f t h e p a i n r e dh a l l sa n d t h e r m a e f r h e p a l a c e i. In spite of its resemblance to San Vitale in Ravenna. one to the north and one to the south ofthe main building. all of Roman inspilation. and on the highest level by an octagonal domical (or cloister) vault. to and also provided access twin chapels ofaisled basilican type. m a r b l e c o l umns and bronze parapets brought fiom Italv. We must think if it as enriched rvith several altars and their liturgical furniture. plan antl r icw h'om thc eirst (the mlin apsc orig-inallr had fl:rnking absidiolcs) Io. Palatine Chapel as represcntcd on the Krrlsschrcin . plain arches. the warped and domed Byzantine forms were replaced by tunnel and groin vaults. a Goth from Septimania (Provincia Narbonensis). embraces the octagonal central space. it is more Roman than Byztntine. cute . In the aislesthe cardinal and diagonal sides join the eight arches of the octagon in supporting groin vaults.I Moreorcr. with little change. vaulted and rather dark. Brick and the Bvzantine technique of light terracotta rault construction uere not available.50 pRE-RoMANESQUE AND PROTO-ROMANESQUE STYLES aisle. Linked by date(8o6)and by programme with the Minster at Aachen is the interesting Palatine group at Germignr. now destroved. Rich fittings. unril the nineteenth century. The fact that Roman ruins had to be demolished to obtain the necessary stone. big.ed it basically' as a tomb house. lends colour to the idea that Odo of Nletz conceir. Byzanrine. which. shows what a special effort the Minster was. C)ratorr'. The tall octagonal central sprce has a very special character. and member of the Imperial court circle. Gcrntignv-dcs-l)rds. a splendid pulpit (gift of Emperor Henrl' II. the other eramples are grand in scale Germignv_des_pr6s is minus_ . This annular aisle led to a sanctuary'opposite the entrance and below the upper sanctuarv. eight ramping tunnel vaults are raised. now lost). but the similar and slightl5' earlier dodecagon at SaintRiquier was nevertheless a chapel. . The trianglesthus formed leave the cardinal and diagonal ba1''s the gallery with a square shape. including a mosaic on t h e c e n t r a l v a u l t ( r e s t o r e di n I 8 8 I ) .B e n o i t . and Germanic lbrms. yet there is an assurance and urbanity which make it a worthy successor to the works of Antiquitl'. S m a l l p i l a s t e rb u t t r e s s e s stiffen the exterior corners of'the clerestorv eli-ectively. an organ ofByzantine type (8rz or 856. flo(r rcbuilt . of and here. r 2b u i l t f b r T h e o d u l p h . to be sure.L o i r e .s u r . carried on generous diaphragm arches.

adorned by a great cross. w i t h a p s e s just bevond. o . and the corner compartments \\ ere vaulted with little domes on squinches at a lorver level. 'Gallic where masons' were obvious[v emoloved [24.a rough core ofrubble enclosed by neatll' cut facing-blocks of stubbv rectangular lbrm. r 6 9 . It is doubtful that Notre-Dame-de-la-Basse(Euvre at Beauvais actually dates fiom the lifetime of Charlemagne. the metalwork. Bcauvais. in old Neustria.R O M A N E S Q U E S T Y L E S THE CAROLINGIA\ ROM. r 5 e f o r e a . with finer wall-work than those which we have considered. which was well deserved. where the light plays very pretfily on them. The wall-work is regular and excellent. but we may perhaps suppose that this was a reconstruction resulting i n g . which is the nave. a u l t sa t a n i n t e r m e d i a t el e v e l . on the l'aqade. Notre-Dame-de-la-Basse eighthcenturl( i) or 987-98 sionally used. f i o m a h r e i n t h e t e n t h c e n t u r y . i t h a d r h e m a i n e n t r a n c ec u t t i n g through the western apse. Another building. Yet something must be conceded to the Carolingian architect. Near-by Mtinster in Graubiinden (Grisons). thoup. It is dated about the year 8oo. ' f h e s e were certainly inspired by Visigothic art.T h e o r i e n t a l f l a v o u r o f t h e b u i l d i n g i s d u e a t o h o r s e s h o e r c h e si n p l a n a n d e l e v a t i o n . and t h e p l a n a n d e l e v a t i o no f ' t h e b u i l d i n g m a r a l s o have been inspired b1' old Christian work in Spain. set with wide mortar ioints. has left us rvith an ina c c u r a t e m o d e r n c o u n t e r fe i t o f t h i s i m p o r t a n t Carolingian monument. rcbuilt r867 76. near Trent. r4.the furniture in white and coloured marble. a n d i t a p p e a r si n b t h e c a t h e d r a lo f E t c h m i a d z i n a s r e b u i l t i n 6 2 8 . fbr the oldest drawings seem to show a Romanesquecentral tower. and its effective development took place in Armenia and the Byzantine hnds. but after being accepted as Carolingian.tlo6. There are traces of fresco decoration.' Connected with Germigny-des-Prds by its horseshoearches and their stucco decoration is the little church of San Benedetto at llals or Malles. Exactll'how this was arr. I n a n v c a s et h e tall lantern and belfry is a Germanic scheme. The central space was lbrmerly about tlvelve l'eet higher than it is at present.'where . but the strong oriental flavour makes it clear that the type was not originated in Neustria. u n l i k e t h e m . in Switzerland. r 0 By the tenth centurv it was established in the Eastern Empire as the typical 'lbur-column church'. and the oriental elements were) so to speak.IESQUE 5 But the type is one which we owe to the Roman world. look in upon an open. The chapel at Germigny-des-Pr6s antedates an-v knorvn Bvzantine example. n e s to l ' France.3. 'Gallic The masons' of rhe resion had an established reputation. The corner compartments at the eirst opened on lateral apses flanking the main a p s e . brings up the question of the Gallic masons. point ro a well-established chool s i n r h e n o r t h a n d .enth centuries. g9). box-like central space.rt A brutal and ignorant restoration of r86776. carried out over the protests of the Soci6t6 fi'angaised'Arch6ologie. datable to the tenth and early eler. as seen in the tenth-century works for the monks of Saint-Philibert at Grandlieu and at Tournus. Pattern-work facing often recalls the barbarian r/oisazzy'stvle. O n t h e m a i n a n d t r a n s v e r s ea x e s t h e r e a r e t u n n e l r . and formed a tall lantern and bellry. near D a m a s c u s ) .Gcrnrigni-des-l)r6s. with patternwork in the masonry over the windows. Texts speak of heavv work in larse cut stone blocks more antiquorun which *"r-oaarthe horseshoe (Euvre. Basse-(Euvre was a handsomely proportioned basilica with a plain interior and a sreep roof which gives much characler ro the finc gable. the more regrettably becausethe rich fittings ofthe chapel . Other tragments of such construction. The general arrangement is anticipated in the Roman praetorium at Phaena (Mousmieh. He verv ingeniously and picturesquely placed Carolingian arcaded 'flving screens' under the tower walls. Interesting remains of its fine decoration in stucco lvere destrol'ed or denatured.t h o u g h . interior ranged in Theodulph's time is lar from certain. f'he more usual Gallic wall-work of good character was composed of much smaller materials .R O ] \ T A N E S Q U E A N DP R O T O . it is now assigned to the period of 987 98. three in number.1).h without arches.le It is a fragment of the compound early medieval cathedral establishment of Beauvais. but such masonry was ordinarilv confined to quoining or alternale coursing. Oratorr'. Some fragments of the original were incorporated in the reconsttuction. and all the easterlv parts of Notre-Dame made way tbr the celebrated Gothic building Notre-Dame-de-laIt+].<2 P R E . and the fabrics have all been lost. The rather barn-like nave is a much later addition. He 'double-ender'like laid the church out as a cert a i n o f ' t h e g r e a t C a r o l i n g i a n b a s i l i c a s . is a contemporarv add more monumental example of the same arrangement. The horseshoe arches. arrangedaround and below it. The entire tenth-century church of Saint-Pierre. which is the most important of all the later Bvzantine church types.

R O M A N E S Q U E S T Y L E S THE CAROLINGIAN ROMANF:SQUE 5q everything becomes decoration'. the influx oforiental monks. Behind the ncw apse a large courtyard was arranged.. who was martvred in 754. were reproduced at Fulda. as at Saint-Riquier.aisstands fbr the fine tradition of Gallic mason work. e si n the hear'1'Romanesque of medieval Germany. U \ D E R 1 ' I I FL A T E R C A R O L I N G I A N S Germany The fhmous manuscript plan ol'r. . was obl i o u s l l ' t h e p r o p l ' l a e u m o f ' s i m i l a r d e s i g na t O l d St Peter's in Rome [r].rg but it was f'ar more than that.on the model ofOld St Peter's in Rome.r. I'he direct original of the Lorsch gatewa]. the length of'the degli Abessini (befbre8r5). t o b u i l d J a r r o w " ' I r 5 ] .R O N I A N E S Q U EA N D P R O T O . Jarrow. The relics of St Boniface. at Chartres.w h i l e t h e o n e a t L o r s c h w a s western transept.is close to that ofthe great original. accomplishments ofearll' masons prepared the wal' fbr immense Early Romanesque constructions at Poitiers.vrecorded on this account. The first church there was founded by St Bonil'acc (W. of Einhard himself . Lorsch repeats the g e n e r a ls h a p e . Nor is this transformation at Lorsch out of line. Santa Anastasia (about 8oo). achapel of'about 86o attached to the church. walls of pattern-work. a t r a n s e p t a n d a p s ew e r e b u i l t w e s t ofthe new nave.vnfrith. as at the cathedral of R o m e ( S t J o h n L a t e r a n ) . iust like other parts of'the conventual establishment. Thus. s u b t l e R o m a n e s q u eo f F r a n c e . r5. in fact. and even their bulls-eye windows. for example. The Basse-(Euvre at Beaur. Lorsch. where. 685 gatewa-v. and elsewhere in the Loire country. Another curious combination of Carolingian medievalism and classical revivalism involving Old St Peter's occurrcd at Fulda.and the gateway may have lliled to be speciall. the Lorsch gatewa-vwas built as a threearched open hall. Lorsch. was founded in 744. thus it is a fbrerunner of the acc o m p l i s h e d . furthermore. wall-work.Abbot Richbod is known to have replacedthe wooden monastery build- transformed into a chapel. This f-eatureand the remarkable composite capitals.h en e r a ' w o r ka t F u l d a was proiected in 8oz. fbr the propylaeum of Old St Peter's had an altar of St Mary and could be usedasa church upon occasion . but it was derived from the classicRoman 0Pern(reticulatum. the great English missionarl') in 742. Aachen with its relative simplicitv stands asa northern interpretation ofa Bvzantine theme.t h e c o l u m n s . the transept was at the w e s t . and the gateway stood free near the entrance to it. a n d t h e s u c c e s s i o no f G r e e k and Syrian popcs. in wisdom and in unders l a n d i n ga n d i n k n o w l e d g ea n d i n a l l m a n n e r o f workmanship'. sometimes rvrongll' identified rc the tcclesia xaria. and Santa Prassede ( a b o u t 8 r 7 ) a r e r i g h t l y a d d u c e d a s e x a m p l e so f basilicas in Rome which. and other sophisticated details. interspersed sometimes with degenerate gable and panel decoration in relief. The Carolingian architects turned aside lrom buildings of intermediate date which had resulted from the rise ofByzantine power.at Lorsch seems to be connected somehou (perhaps t h r o u g h V e r d u n a n d N 1 e t z )w i t h t h e i r r v o r k . In front of'the important 'l'he ings in stone. point to it as an interesting Carolingian example ofclassicalrevivalism anacademicdesignsuch as might be expected to issue lrom the court of Charlemagne Ir6]. and the Roman churches stand fbr the will to make Rome live again in a classicalrerival. The latter became part of t h e a b b o t ' s o a l a c e . b e cause of the excellence ol the pattern-work masonr\'.21 however. for such propvlaea were used in the ceremonial monastic liturgies as processional stations. and its greater receptiveness to sophistications than Germany'. .8zo in the monastic librarv ol'St Gallzr lr7] was doubtless preparcd in the ambit of Benedict of'Aniane. a n d t h e windows of the propy'laeum of Old St Peter's. Fulda. and provided with its uestern cloister in 8zz. z5o f-eet. that the man filled with the spirit of God.o. The new idcas set forth in the major buildings have a basic importance for the wholc historv of Romanesque architecture.l .2:Old St Peter's stood for the last glorious moments of the ancient capital.t h e a r c h e s . Finalll'. the monastery. . monaster!'. Einhard. A corresponding three-arched gateway was built at Cluny also. dedicated in 8 r g. Saint-Riquier stands lbr the northern vigour and bravura which transformed Roman architecture. as. 8oo . in the sum. we find in Charlemagne's time an architcctural revival lvhich was archaizi. A comprehensive recent studv convincingly brings out the importance of Old St Perer's in the Carolingian revi'r. like a Roman triumphal arch in its forum.54 p R E . To gir. mittum).al. or 'Beseleel. 'l'he famous three-arched gate\!a!. lirst commissioner of works and director ol the imperial workshops. representinB the old Roman i d e a o l s u b s t a n t i a l s t r u c t u r e w h i c h s u r v i r .c them a prop e r s e t t i n g .one of the great lights ol'northern Europe. Occasionally there are whole sl)icatum. were brought to the monastery. when the emperor \\as received at the \iatican Basilic:r. Santo Stefano CHLIRCH RCHITECTURE A I N ' f I I E N O R T H E R N A R TO F T H E E M P I R E P . where great visiting dignitaries were received. by their imitation of I'eaturesof Old St Peter's. at a time when Charlemagne himself was lamiliarly called Flavius Anicius Caelusbv '\lcuin. r6.in Constantine's golden age ol'Roman tmperial Christianity. Germigny-des-Prds t1'pifiesGaul'ssusceptibilitl' to Byzantine and oriental influences. A small church of 75 r was rebuilt after 7go in the lbrm of a basilican nave with its apse flanked bv tlvo round towers. like a propl'laeum illogically standing unattached.t.T h e e n d c o m p a r t m e n t s o f O l d S t P c t e r ' s . show the tendency to look into Rome's own past for inspiration. eighth-centurl' church o1'the monastery (at Lorsch) there was a large open court. The work of the Gallic builders may be traced to England: Benedict Biscop called for G a l l i c m a s o n sa b o u t 6 8 5 .

for thc towers 1rere attached outside a semicircular portico. Fli I oil iT L frt I F] t IJ --1 I .r5 Earl'r' monasteries ofien showed lights in such towers. terrain to the east of'a monastic group tends to be someuhat private. r! ___ill'i. The importance of'this ke1-point of crrculation is signalized b1 the presence of two cylindrical towers.56 P R E .. P l a nl b r a m o n a s t c r t c .f . In imagination we shall visit this group asit is known from rhe plan. When as tisitors we are surprised to 6nd the western or approach side occupied by an area 45o i'eet wide and r4o f'eet across assigned to the hostel for poor wayf'arers and the quarters for servitors.slightly diminished at the south-lvest becauseof'a wane in the parchment. out was in fact modular (4o-foot squales.ti']rT 7 l. near Aachen. and the fact that the plan was not closely folloq'ed after the oldest parts of the church rvere built (at the east. m e n i a l activities to the south. horses. 83o5) have given the impression that it was merely a diagrammatic lay'out. each with a chapel at the summit. show that the great rectangle was to measure about . this is true at St Gall. 'l'hus we see that the Roman tradition of modular construction was present in Carolingian rvork. perhaps.R O N { A N E S Q U EA N D P R O T O . well-organized monas. which is f'ar from being the case. difl'ers Irom all of the others.el ground.I EE [. o b u i l d i n g s m i t t e d . 8 z o . Only one longitudinal axis luns entireh across the St Gall plan.lI f .1-millimetre 'I'he Carolingian f'eet.1 l 1 CALEFACTARf DC^MIiJ\YI BCr'E ol I ".:. Gall. Some*hat rcsularized small satcllite . From the monks' point of view all the ancillarv buildings were in the background n o t i n t h e f b r e g r o u n d . which indicate scale. He became the personal lriend and adviser of Charlemagne and Louis the Pious.'Ihe the ctlindrical suggestion for towers came ultimatelv from **- ] ! 4 t L ' ''i'^" o I .. and this somewhat imperf-ect copv sent with alternative dim e n s i o n sb .R O I \ t A N E S Q U E S T Y I . who had not attended the council. Various small elementslike beds. and gave entrance on e a c h s i c l eo l t h e a p s e t o a n a i s l e o ( ' t h e c h u r c h .r ' n e t r c ) in more squarcs the church. Aachen. St Basedon a diagramin the ChapterLibrrrr_r.terl'.ra?t q/qEJ IAEif I !r1 rLJ r 7 .l F. and the cloister about roo feet square.vA b b o t H e i t o o f R e i c h e n a u( 8 o 6 . church nave with its lpses was to be about joo feet long. S who came from the monasterv of Fulda shortly after 7go to be a pupil of Alcuin in the Palace School of Aachen. and it was without doubt transmitted to later times. as shorvn on the plan.which might have been built in any prosperous part of the Carolingian realm. It could easily be translated into mo'l'he la1'dern form and built with little change.2 3 ) to Abbot Gozbert of'St Gall (8r6-37). but pairs ol'towers had been built at Fulda./RN E R. g u e s t sa r e l i k c l y t o b e p l a c e dt o t h e n o r t h .G r i d o f ' . fbr the whole scheme is included within a rectangle. The ancillary'buildings fbrmed l a s o r t o f r i n d a b o u t t h e e s s e n t i ak e r n e l o f c h u r c h and cloister.ti1 I F0^ !irrNRy ] IAL^loNRYl CAOPER' i: :i :1 oa I I lrRyrN6l hourE I I tl<fi-l JERf. 'I'hc arrangement fbr St Gall.f(tr z r b . the transept was to be about rzo feet across. T .r ) .] . 1 o . f'he method of drawinp. and larm a n i m a l s ( i n c l u d i n g a p i g g e r . KIT'hEN -l- t:-fl i .-T. 1'he group was intended to be constructed on I'airly ler.i ' l rA (: l:i [:-r o l -]t-F R t rr the stair towers of the narthex <rf'Srrn Vitale in Ravenna. z1lbot sub-module) as Walter Horn has shown. On it an ample walled avenue ertcnds for r6o f'cet from the westerlv outskirts of the monastery to the entrancc svstem of thc main estahlishment. interior to the monastery and centred on the cloister ancl the altar. It is now clear that the layout was drawn up after a council of 8 r 6 at Inden. *'hich looked across a little garden strip towards the western apse.. and service courts to the west in the tradition:rl monastic lavout. and Saint-Riquier before the plan of St Gall was made..2a Hence the plan of St Gall presents an authorized conception ofa large.16o b1 64o 3o. .w e m u s t r e m e m ber that the existence of the monks lbr whom the group was built was a retired existence. was intellectually a classicist. somcwhat looscll appliedelsewherc. a s t h e v a p p e a rt o t h e a p 'I'he proaching visitor. and with its aisles about go l-eetwide. basedon the church axis HOSTEI (?) 2 ts a E E:i [. B^EW er BAKEHOUST tl W.

E a c h o l ' t h e a i s l e sh a d f b u r c h a p e l s . into the western choir. rvhich had a chapel and an Apostles' altar in each arm. in Note 26. the truth seems to be that thev were a familiar part of thc architectural scene in Carolingian times.tANEsQUErYLEs s A THE CAROI-IN(. have been considered fanciful. a n d h o s p i t a l b u i l d i n g s . important e s t a b l i s h m e n ta t S t G a l l w o u l d b e s u r r o u n d e d bv a stockade.w i t h n a v e a n d a i s l e sl i k e t h e r a s t ancient churches designed fbr public assembh'.. One would expect that this vert. and the monks' choir between. and the space in liont of the eastern ( s i n g e r s ' )c h o i r . they abound.q8 pRg-nonANESQUE ND PRoro-Ror. lrom west to east. In some casesthe outer chambers were carried entirelv around the central space. instead of being openr was c u t u p b r p a r a p c t s c r e e n si n t o a s e r i e so l ' c o m partments. a n d . e\-en rhough it was self-centred. 'Opus Dci' is perlbrmed quite without regard to public attendance.above. gir. l i k c F u l c i a . The number of serr. the pavement area. S t was. and so intcr the monastic quarters. t h e C l o i s t e r . have looked somewhat like basilican churches. I n g e l h e i mp a l a c er.itors. with a detailcd commentarv on the monasterl"s life. in rrddition to the necessarv service books. the wide spansbeing trussed and coveretlwith tin or shingles. T h a t to the lefi led to a whole range of residential. once arrived at the crossing.hacl well'l'he rooling was o1'timber. each with an altar. t_v-picall-v'' the rltar).ing accessto the dir. Here were sung at lcstival-time thc o l d e s t o l . What is known of the tvpe of lbbric in all of t h e s e s t r u c t u r e s? T h e c h u r c h c e r t a i n l y ' . and (be-lond a wall) to the menial parts of the 'l'he c h u r c h . the lirst designer sacriliced the imposing axial rista which entering risitors erpect in great 'lhe churches. s c h o o l . set over a crrpt. the m o n L s d e v o le d t h e m s e l l e st o m a n a e i n g i t s o p e r ations. of the lesser buildings were o1'timber or half-timber and roofed with shingles. emp h a s i z i n gt h e f a c t t h a t i t w a s a w o r l d i n i t s e l f . the Chapel of St John Baptist (with a fbnt). 'l'he monks' entrance fi'om the cloister u as b1' wa1'of the south transept. rather than to labouring with their own hands. if not an actual girdle wall. At the right ofthe sanctuarv was the sircristv. and to thc c r v p t . s m a l l l a t c r a l e n t r a n c e si n d i c a t e The monks' that the lunction of the building is diferent. The subsidiary buildings as represented on the plan give us a lively idea of the lost traditional wooden architccture of the North in the Middle Ages a fact of great intercst and sis_ nificance. was bv f'ar the most important individual element. the arrangement came to bc u s e d i n c a t h e d r a l st o o . I t h a d i t s v a r i o u s p o s s e s s i o n sl . and contained the high altar. Thus we find the nar e divided. main axis. Such buildings might be constructed with either framed or masonry rvalls. which can nevcr be more than incidental. { n d t h e c o m f a r t m e n t a t i o nc o n tinued in the transcpt. The sanctuary bav was square.isions there.and artisans w o u l d b e a t l e a s te q u a l t o t h e n u m b c r o f e c c l e s i Gall 'vernacular' t 8 . T'he spccial c h a r a c t e ro f t h e m o n a s t i c r e g i m e a l s o s h o u s i n the interior arrangement. For the western apse. built walls of stone. The old plan shows it with a s i n g l e t r a n s e p t . m a k i n g t r v e l v ec o m p a r t m e n t s i n a l l w i t h i n t h e n a r e a r e a . fbr the medio e v a l l i b r a r i e s r v e r en u m b e r e d i n s c o r e s r a t n o s t a f'ew hundred codices. . Of course. At the left of the sanctuarl' was the scribes'room. It is worth noting that such one-sided buildings are lrequently represented in Carolingian miniatures. h i c h l it received supplies.in the Utrecht Psalter (about 83.IAN ROMANESQUE qq Adjoining the cornersofthe church there were f t r v o v e s t i b u l e sa c c e s s i b l e i o m t h e p o r t i c o . 8 r o . a great monastcr-v did look outw a r d . therefore. as in the Almonrv and the School. while in other cases the Almonrl. insufficiently protected when the Hungarians attacked it earlv in the tenth centur]. a n d h e r d s m e n ' s s h e l t e r sm i g h t b e o f w a t - tle work and thatch. The passageslbr cilculation in the nave u'erc prolonged across the transcpt. while modest structures like stablcs. however. he tbund the main sanctuarl to his leli towards the western apse. NIan1. kitchen is an example . dedicated to St Gall. B e c a u s e f i t s p r e s t i g ci n n l o n o astic architecture. its various ecclesiastical dependencies. w h i c h c o n t i n u e st h e establishment.dedicated to St Peter. l'he altar in the adioining eastern apse (pendant to that of St Peter) was dedicated to St Paul. somewhat liko corridors. On looking at the plan ofst Gall one is strucli with the number of subsidiary buildings which have a central hall with narrow apartments at the side. The great axis of St Gall continued from the church to a small curved courtlard. These cannot be describecl here: thc reader mrrst be reI'erred to tl-re diagram Ir7]. c o m p o s e d b 1 -t h e m o n k Notker the starting-point fbr the historl. w h e r e i t w : r s m u c h l e s s appropriatc. or fbllow the itinerarl-. and which must. and accessiblebv paths. 1 1 00 000 00 00 o000ga00g . T h e v e s t i b u l et o t t h c r i g h t g a v ea c c e s so t h e H o s p i c e . of mcdieval drama and lvric.u Thel' ).a n d a s much of the remainder ls possible. and an annexe where sacramental hosts and chrism were prepared. right and the minor altars stretching off to the -I'he 'doublce n c l e r ' a r r a n g e m e n t i n c r e a s e d t h e s e n s eo f e n c l o s u r e . the chapel o1'the cruplaced at cifix (with a larse crucifir. p e n s .a n d t h u s w a s d e s i r a b l ea n d n a t u r a l i n a m o n a s t i c c h u r c h . T h e s a n c t u a r va t S t G a l l h a d a s p c c i : r lh i s t o r i cal interest. its associarionswith other nrona s t e r i e sa n d i t s c o n n e x i o n sw i t h R o m e .r a i s i n g the number of altars within the church to sevcnteen. lvith thc librarl.e x t a n t t r o p e s . These wals w e r e a l s ou s e d a s p r o c e s s i o np a t h s . w h i c h d o u b t l e s s h a t l a n a l t a r a l s o . o m u .the smaller rooms occur along one side onlr'.above not a large room. lbr instance. w i t h a n a p s e i r t e a c he n d . lvith the restrl.n e w l v c n l a r g e d i n 8 o z r g . Although thc church w a s b a s i l i c a n . Once a monastery was well established.

They were so used in the Sacred Palace in Constantinople as rvell as in the Lateran Palace at Rome during this period. Remus. Hannibal. communicated by gallerieswith the palace church. The reformed orders. ' Z iW o r k s were begun under Charlemagne and finished under Louis the Pious. Phalaris. s k e t c h r e s t o r a t i o na s i n r . Charlemaene. scenes of a more contemporarv history the ibundation of Constantinople. and. in fbct. and might be more. The great hall had paintings from secular historv. In the church were scenes of the Old Testament and. Church forms predominated in this palace. Kitchen 7."i r zo Mittelzell Minster. the festival hall.x r g. Chapelof St Pirminius $'. whose members performed more manual work. Such monumental and lucidlv arranged cycles underlie the didactic schemes developed later b1' Suger at Saint-Denis. and events of the reigns of Theodoric.a s i f ' t h e y w e r e c h a pels. The second court at Ingelheim was semicircular. and Alexander the Great.7{ 0 ^ft( a T Chapelol St Jrnuariusabove 6.O n e i s s t r u c k b v t h e n u m b e l o f c h a m b e r s a u g m e n t e d w i t h a p s e s . n e a r M a i n z I r 8 ] . usually had less to offer the reviving medieval world than the illustrious institutes which stror.6o s pnn-notrANESQUE ND PRoro-RoMANESQUE rYLEs A astical persons. of which the fourth side was bounded by a special axial composition. Ninus. corresponding scenes from the New. these recesseswere com- monly used to give monumental character to important rooms of several kinds.and others.r" Charles Martel. Another ensemble of considerable importance which claims attention here is the palace g r o u p a t I n g e l h e i m . which lay at t h e e a s t . Rangesof various rooms occupied three sides of a vast court. ro.1l3.e to be intellectual and artistic capitals for their respective regions. granted that to serve as agricultural and industrial capital of a region was indeed a great work fbr a monasterv to perform. ilrg. N{ittelzell trlinster. opposite. set broadwise at the fbot of an atrium. which lay between the two courts. We are fortunate in having a description o1' the paintings at Ingelheim in an account br Ermoldus Nigellus. Cloistergarth ll. i:ir$:. Reichenau. belfiv later . r o 5 o ( G r u b c r ) . and . There the great hall. Excavationsshow that t h e p a l a c e w a s l a i d o u t i n t h e c l a s s i c a lm a n n e r and built of masonr\'. however. opposite. Pepin. deeds of ancient kings and heroes. Reichenau. Cyrus. was a trefoil.

:'r Einhard's church largely survives. the Minsfer at Mittelzell. founded in gzz bv a colonv of monks from Corbie in picar. restored under Henry II. Its church architecture is c o n s e r l ' a t i Y e a l m o s t c l a s s i c a l . Like a gentler. -{rchitectural influence came from Saint-Riquier by way of Corbie to corvev. Constance (578). The nave terminlted in a sanctuar]-separated by a screen and provided with an apse. and there are indeed f-ew places where one ma\. A t Corvev the galleried spire church was not car_ ried up to a rounded pinnacle. about r146. near Frankfurton-N{ain (after 8oo. and st George. regularll' aisled. Augsburg (about 6oo).5. more accessible Athos. zol. both miniature and architectural. being Germ a n . Con'e).E a c h a i s l e gave rccess to a crucilbrm crvpt under the corresponding transept.ided with towers and a narthex or at least a narthex only at the west. but has lost character through further rebuilding. Among these are St Justin at Hiichst. St Gall (6r4). Sentimentally and historically great is Reiche'Insula Felix' of nau. otien with passagesand cr1''pt. important in early Carolingian history. i e ra n d l e s s s o p h i s t i c a t e d . but rather to a square tower of the tvpe which the Germans strikingly.R i q u i e r f r o n t i s p i e c e . lateral chapels with apses fbrmed a sort of dwarf transept which c o m m u n i c a t e d o n l y w i t h t h e c h a n c e l .t. Corle. 'the corr.836 and later Ref'erence should be made to the area. Burned in r o2o. where there was alreadf in the eighth century (Z+o-8o) an important basilican church of pilgrimage. and Regensburg (739).ontheWeserIzz.. ro65 in a lateral porch. Oberzell. cill a Halmhaus.cst . it has interesting sculpture of c. set in serene and opulent countrl'side.lr. i s h e a . Strassburg (r. nor fbr from Saint-Riquier.l From the point of view of future develop_ ments. where a westwork was built between 87j and t18. this rvestwork is the best existing repres e n t a r i v eo 1 ' t h e S a i n t . a n d though.ontlre \fcser.ev is New corbie'. enjoy so satisfactory an impression of a Carolingian painted church.T h e r e a r e t h r e e . sites St Peter at Niederzell dating from 7g9. and pror. the middle of' its fagade was carried higher between the old pair ofstair towers. Though this design. The great early shrine ofthe region is St Emmeram at Regensburg. oberzell. which lies to the north of ltaly. (r3 Belbre the break-up of the empire of Louis the Pious an ephemeral prosperity made possible the construction of many churches. 836 (containing later construction also. u. with the aura of the monastic centuries still hanging about the scene. The School of Reichenau is famous fbr its paintings. Oberzell. this westwork at Corvev was less important than the original east end.z3lalsohelpsgreatly to visualize the developments of its period. dedicated in ro48) [rg. E S TlrE cARoLINGtAN RoMANlsqur.6z P R E .:roIt was a frequent stoppingplace on imperial iournevs.cstu'ork. Venerable for age among its bishoprics are Chur (fbunded about 45o). r . St George. and Einhard's own church at Steinbach (8zr). The churches are basilican.R O M A N E S Q U EA N D P R O T O . Basilican churches are regularll'triapsidal with transept. and a more elaborate cruciform crypt lay on the axis between. including a crypt of 985) [zr].he two z:. looLingu. St George. founded in 724. 873 E5.675). zr. The churches have survived with forgivable changes down to the present. has a particularly impressive ensemble of old paintings. 825). the enchanting monastic Lake Constance. -I. and its original form is easily traceable. it has had a profound reliEious influence. enl a r g e d a n d d e d i c a t e d i n l l r g ( w h i c h r v a sl i r t h e r enlarged in the tenth centur]'i and provided with a western apse and tower. or c. It had a p1''lon-like entry with a lateral compartment to each side. and a powerful centre fbr missionarl' effort.R O M A N E S Q U E S T Y t .Rcichcnlu.

and there are two influential examples of it still in existence. and the circulation of a press of pilgrims was difficult. an awkward angular corridor resulted. and the usual three apses. but in other casesthe tombs were below ground. which in turn augmented the need fbr altars and chapels. and in 836 g the monks adapted the priorv church ver.built a priory church in 8r4 rg at D6as.64 THE CAROLINGIAN OMANESQLIE 5 R b L---. This church had a nave with aisles. this was the case at Old St Peter's. The German churches lbr generations kept to simpler schemes fbr these c h a p e l s .-*) ETI' t t^<ri later At Corvey.\.A pilgrimagedeveloped.v cleverly fbr this cult.rr Such corridors followed the interior curve of the apse. Nevertheless this arrangement marked an advance. curving betwcen thern outside the great apse. with a cruciform chapel beyond the apse and on the main axis. The venerable monastery on the Isle of Noirmoutier. The i' it til I 'sil :i l D'OD o$d:n t s0 f I fi I il:ilTTlvestlvork ot E7. there was an increasc in the number of ordained priests among thc monastic and canonical clergy. Beginning probably' with a reconstruction (r. ofOld St Peter's in s p i c u o u sp r e c e d e n t t h a t p l a c e dt h e m a i n a l t a r d i r e c t R o m e( a b o u t 6 o e ) ly above the Apostle's first tomb. In large measure the solution was worked out in the basilican school of western France. if' possible. ever-increasing numbers of pilgrims d e s i r o u so f v i s i t i n g t h e s e t o m b s p u t i n t o l e r a b l c pressure on the narrorv corridors and exiguous crypts. was impossible in a church where great crowds ol pilgrims gathered fbr festival liturgies. arrangement. a n d t h e s e c h a p e l sc o m m u n i c a t e d b v a n a n n u l a r corridor. -I'he island was so situated as to receive the full brunt of' the Norse raids which began at this period and continued through a dreadful century. a crossing with stubby transepts. 'l'his problem assumed importance with the greatly increased interest in pilgJrimages and the . At the same time. and crypts rvith special srstems of access had to be built. c Partitioning oft'the nave..as at St Gall. a n d r a d i a t i n g chapels.cment. From the time of thc construction in Rome of St Paul's outside the Walls. tooo. Saint-Philibert-cle-Grirndlieu. and connected axially with the tomb chamber. but the1.8r4 r. *-1. took the relics of'their sainted patron P h i l i b e r t w i t h t h e m t o D 6 a s . t h e a p s e s of'churches with such relics were often arrangcd rvith narrolv access corridors under the par. Corrcl on thc \\'cscr. In some cases the church sanctuarv was elevlted because the sacred spot was at or near the level of the nave Davement. There is good antique precedent church apse. cult of relics. Here indubitably w e h a v e t h e g e r m o f t h e s c h e m eo f a p s e . a n d r a d i a t i n g c h a p e l sw h i c h i s o n e o f ' t h e finest contributions of the Middle Ages to religious architecture. and where it occurs' no f91 this But the most convery difficult problems arise. or crypt. with c h a p e l sr a d i a t i n g o u t w a r d t r o m i t . sketch restorirtion shoring sanctuarv aisleseach had a chapel at the end. Additional altars could be used for the exhibitiorr o f r e l i q u a r i e s ( t h u s i n c r e a s i n gt h e i n t e r e s t o f t h c p i l g r i m a g e )i l ' s u i t a b l e a c c e s s o u l d b e a r r a n g e d . 24. The monks had to abandon Noirmoutier. near the Lake of Grandlieuir [24-6].. navc lookins east k' srnctuar. lefi undisturbed. under the high 'I'he altar. off the west coast of France near Nantes. 6oo) of thc s a n c t u a r yo f O l d S t P e t e r ' s i n R o m e . If correctly oriented chapels were attached to the access corridors about the tomb chapel.nnc picrs. roof modern Frantt The great architectural achievement of France in the period of Louis the Pious and Charles the Bald is the basic solution of thc dillicult p r o b l e n r o f t h c a p s e . to which we have already referred.T h e i d e a w a s d e v e l o p e d a n d s y s t e m a tized chiefly in the area which we norv call France.EJq . and at Saint-Riquier in the the reliquarr chapels lay belond the crypr. a m b u l a t o r r ' .a m b u l a t o r y .1 8-5. which were built in France during the period which we have under consideration.w h i c h t h u s b e c a m e Saint-Philibert-de-Grandlieu. ii47.enth century the ll b o d i e so f s a i n t s l a i d a w a t i n t o m b s o r s a r c o p h a g i werc. uith plan ofcheret 2-iA rnd B. sanctuaries and chapels were customarilv oriented. The solution lay in a corridor round the apse. Until the eler.

Narrow exterior corridors led to a chamber u n d e r t h i s a p s e . and a square sanctuary bay was built with a new apse beyond it. who prepared St Patrick lbr hi. Felicitous useof rhis idea wts made in t h e R o m a n e s q u es r y l e a t Jumidges a b b e y( r o 3 7 6 8 ) l J 5 7l .G r a n d l i e u ( G r e c n ) . 1 . b u t t h e p r e r c e da p s e w i t h an ambulatory was novel. The sarcophagus hamber and the narrow latec ral passageswere at ground level.\is in the crvpt of thc abbel church ol Saint-Germain at Aurcrre. T h e s e w e r e s o a r r a n g e dt h a t a r a t h e r awkward processionrl path (somewhat like that of Corvey) was provided at the ground level.) original apse was demolished. the rounded apse wall was pierced. vt h e N o r s e . n j i n t h . w e s h a l l p r e s e n t l v s e et h e r e s u h .R O M A N E S Q U E N D P R O T O . 1 7 . St Germain's tomb was below the church pa\ement lerel. It was becomingly inaugurated. because of further Norse forays. 847 are among the oldest murals now existing in France. 8 r . . The apsc !chelon of Saint-Philibcrt-de-Grandlieu \i'as built befbre 847. . anJ u n d e r t h e m a i n a p s e . p i e r c e d a p s e sg o b a c kt o R o m a n r i m c s . r. The clergy of St Martin's then had first-hand experience of this remarkable c r y p t . Auxcrre.vo 1 Romancsque ancl Gothic architecture. It was then decorated with fine paintings. In order to provide additional altars and a better approach to the tomb under the apse. .J. which ambulatorv and chambers under sanctuary. Germain to be installed in the crvpt (859). Here were vencratcd the relics of that great fifih-centurl churchman. running entirely around the apse. whence the nrme of utrseiche lon for this f lc:rture.R O M A N E S Q U ES T Y L E S THE cARoLINGIAN Ro]vTANESQL)E 6? (or a little later) it was included within a little vaulted crypt church possessing a corridor around the tomb chamber. In 85o g an apse !chelon with an angular processional path was ingeniously built around the little crypt church. Saint-Philibert-de-Grandlicu. Irish mission ol 432-6r. consequently the floor of the church apse was raised above the level ofthe nave pavement. r. for the Emperor C h a r l e st h e B a l d h i m s e l l ' c a u s e dt h e r e l i c s o f S t 25. crlpt (skctch rcstoration b1 K. but served the monks onll until 858.1 t o o + It lr at lr ) i I L-. Slint-Germain.d c . I ) e v e l o p m e n t o f ' t h e c h e r e t : t c ( a h o t a) . t h e c o m m u n i t y m o v e d t o C u n a u l t in Anjou. looking west.bo A P R E . because of the renowned pilgrima!ie. It produced interestrng. I n a r e c o n s t r u c t i o no f 8 . the region being overwhelmeci b . 2 6 . so that pilgrims could visit it without dist u r b i n g s e r v i c e si n t h e m a i n p a r t o f t h e c h u r c h . This arrangement of apse 6chelon and rotunda also had an important future in Romanesque and Gothic architecture. r .C.aesthetic effects by uniting the apse lnd the ambulatorysparialt]. which runs through a whole series()l i m p o r t a n t c h u r c h e s d u r i n g t h e e n t i r e h i s t o r . The new chapels were placed 'step-wise' or 'ladder-wise' in plan (t:n ichelon in French) z6a cl. At Chartres Cathedral. the narrow corridors were soon replaced by a series o f c h a p e l s . w h e r e t h e s a r c o p h a g u so l ' S t Philibert was installed b1'839 and still remains. when.8-5o 9. the church was rebuilt af ter a fire of858 with a curved corridor arouncl the a p s ei n t h e c r y p t a great impro\emenr.3a In 872 the relics of St Martin were brought to this crypt from Tours. and extended to join a rotunda at the head ofthe main axis Iz6o]. The path gave access to the sarcophagus chamber from the east.S a i n t .I tr t l rl . giving a good view of the apse liom the a m b u l a t o r ya n d r i c e \ e r s a . C o r h i c s t r l c ar 1\otre-Dame i n p a r i s ( r r6 3 ) . 'I'he o t h e r i m p o r t a n t a p s e6 c h c l o no f t h e n i n t h ccnlur. o (ltclop).l ) h i l i b c r t . l96l turthermore.

'I'hc island of Skellig Nlichael [26. for the raiders (795 ff.) became settlers afrer 834 without losing contact with the mother country. Its contact with Carolingian architecture in thc Rhine Valley produced the splendid Rhenish R o m a n e s q u e . international .r] providcs : rs p e c t a c u l a r i t e f b r a g r o u p o f s m a l l s t o n e . Auxerre.s often have interest in their own right becauseofindependent local conceptions. The aisles were continued at approximately the same level into an ambulatory which c u r v e d r o u n d t h e o u t e r s i d e o f t h e a p s ea n d a l 'St Martin's Rest'.w a l l c o n struction with flat corbelled beehive domes. I t i s p o s s i b l et h a r s u c h s t r u c tures affected Scandinavian building. 'Cogitosus'. cleverly uniting the lessons of Saint-Germain at Auxerre (859) with those of Chartres Cathedral (after 858). and the results less spectacular.o-p. This design rvasa perf-ecttunctional solution. 6 5 5 . the con!iregations would gather within built. the problems simpler. or compartmental. Quite as important. about 8oo. b u t s i n c e their analysis more properly belongs in the volume of the Pelican Histor. are r. and was raised to a towering height'. 9 5 A 1 . really al1'ected the mature Romanesque and Gothic stylcs which later came to these areas from abroad.R O I . and Italy.n. A number of buildings in permanent material IRELAND Ireland was the first of' the pre-Romanesque areasto become creative. hou and around such church buildings. stergy whose spirirual roors reached back to h a v es u r v i v e d f r o m C a r o l i n g i a n t i m e s . 'First Romanesque' style of north Italv carried forward the tradition of Roman vaulting.I t s s y n t h e s i si n t h e R h 6 n e V a l l c l the Carolingian Romanesque basilican st1'le of the west of France (the style of the Basse-(Euvre at Beauvais. t h e r e f o r e . ro n l y b r i e f mention is made of them here.b u i l t s m o n a s t i cb u i l d i n g s . close to the middle of the apse wall. It is known that the royal hall atTart was basilican. it is a landmark on the road to the mature Romanesque sty'le. with St Martin's tornb at the head.68 s p n E ' . and thus developed local b e a r r a n g e dr a t h e r c a s u a l l y . Saint-Riquier. . Commonplace buildings. varieties. many churches among them. tend to be additive. ft2-l I Thc usual girdlc lvall is replaced in large part b1'the cliffancl the precipicc cliff sign of maturity in the experimental French Carolingian Romanesque. tells of St Brigid's church at Kildare. c r u d e . Localism and practical experiments resulted in successful buildings which. ' h o m e . At monastne tnvading Romanesque i n h e r i t e d s o m e t h i n g teries the various conventual structures would from the earlier styles. 3 CHAPTER p R E . Re_ ll 5so. the minor chapels which we have seen obstructing the naves or making awkward corners in the apse 6chelons of older churches were here built as round absidioles. Yet these more remote buildinp. and the skilful use of local materials and methods Celtic in lreland.y oJ' Art which is d e v o t e d t o t h e a r t o f t h e B r i t i s h I s l e s .er. Scandinavia. Germanic in England and Scrndinavia. from abour knor+.w i t h i n a g i r d l e w a l l .o l ' d r y . Its intellectual impor_ tance and ecclesiasticalinfluence..vpt of SaintGermain. like those of the cr. in a new church of St Nlartin at Tours. Buildings of any pretensionat all were built with timber framing. a n d r a d i a t i n g c h a p e l si s a z(rl. m7re Scottorum as the Venerable Bede say's (73r) of a Lindislarne c h u r c h o f r .ell ttoT Imperialcentres and led b1 an ascetic lt'^o_t_. I t i s l o g i c a l . with steep root-sas required bv thatch. and no such sophistication as rounded apses.R o M A N E S Q U E r Y L E s However. but radiating from the outer wall of the ambulator-v as a whole. and a genuine integration of the difficult elements of a pilgrimage sanctuarY in a monastic church. Outside the area of' strong contact with Roman architecture the resourcesavailable for building were smaller. The remainder of the nave contained the canons' choir. ..r. Spain.m a d e . Many of the early structures were undoubtedly of wattle work or palisading. Where preRomanesque buildings have been preserved they are now seen to hare a precious sarour.a m b u l a t o r y . O U T S I D ET H E E M P I R E Northern design as developed in contact with Roman traditions within the Empire showed great vigour and originality. Mature Romanesquc when one ofthese successarchitecture resr-rlted 'I'he lul local stvles coalesced with two others. being admired. 9 5 . These examples shoiv.n o v A N E s Q U E A N DP R o r o . built in go3 r8 after a d i s a s t r o u sh r e l z 6 . Skellig \Iiehael. England. I A N E S q U EA R C H I f ' E C T U R E I N T H E N O R T H . Ireland quite naturally had an unassuming church architecture. Compositional types here in the North. and we are left with these were often multiplied into 'church cluscasual representatives no one of which excited ters' instead of being replaced by larger strucspecial wonderment in the ase in which it was tures. had the shape of simple cottages with steep For this reason they have been replaced at all r o o l ' s . the Carolingian architects went farther than this. lowed the faithful to reach viewing it liom the back through openings in the apse wall. o o Preclplce s ir< 15M 50 Fl s m a l l . which continued eastward to ioin the sanctuarv and apse. Yet the study ofthese early regional works is not really a digression. I n t h e m o n a s t e r i e sa n d a t s e c u l a r s i t e s of the important sites.3n 'l'he creation of such a remarkable feature as t h e a p s e .t o i n t e r r u p t o u r s t u d r of French architecture at this point in order to consider developments of Carolingian date and marked national character in Ireland. though in the glorious days of the full Romanesque development rhey must have seemed L6rins and the Egyptian desert.the dJ'namic group of stvles rvhich underlies Gothic architecture. and sirnilar works) resulted in t h e m a t u r e p h a s eo f F r e n c h R o m a n e s q u ea r c h i tecture . monastic clustcr. 1 1 1:' )\\. a n d o l d . Here the aisles and the larger part ofthe nave were open to the pilgrims who thronged the church. which'occupied a wide area. St with Martin of Tours.f ' a s h i o n e d . hower. ' c l o c h a i n s ' . This achievement marks a stage in our exposition. as well as in pre-Romanesque Spain and Portugal.





22. GallarusOrator]', ncar Dingle, seventh centurYor later more oriental in character (as we should expect -fhe in monastic work) than is usual in Ireland. simple church and the austere cells are irregularly placed on a shelf I 8o feet long and roo f'eet wide, ofold reached by 67o steps along the lace of the rock, which forms a precipice 7oo f'eet high. The group has had its present character since 823, or rather, perhaps,since 86o when it was re-established after Vikine raids.'I'he monks lefi it for the mainland at some its scriptorium, has Columba's House', a shrine-house dating fiom 8o4, or perhaps afier gr8.r The church is rectangular in plan, and elegantly tall in proportion. In section the roof is rather like an A. The outer part is of corbelled construction in stone, with a small pointed chamber at the apex. The space below this (represented bv the area under the cross-bar of the A) is the tunnel vault over the main walls of the 'St Kevin's Kitchen' at Glendalough, chulch. realll'an oratory, is a similar building, of ninth'St

28. Glendalough, Kevin's Kitchen St and round towct, r. rooo by stands the relatively large ruined cathedral of St N{ary, formerly roofed in wood. It is stylistically classified as Primitixe becauseofits great simplicity. Associated with it there is a characteristic round tower, classified,as Transitional (to Romanesque) in stvle, ro3 feet in height, r6 feet in diameter at the base. The round torver tall, delicately tapering, smartly capped by a conical stone roof is the most poetic of the Celtic architectural creations. No towers are more graceful than these upwardpointing stone fingers of lreland. There is no better example of the bravura of basically Northern design. It is likely that the beginnings 8o back to Carolingian date. Watch-towers ancl refuges were needed when the Norse raids began in 795. The tall tower identified the church site liom a distance; it marked the cemetery, a n d s e r r , e da s a b e l l r y a n d l a n t e r n o f t h e d e a d . Yet it was constructed as a practical refuge; the door was set well above the ground and reached by a ladder, and, moreover, a port made it possible to overturn the ladder ofan attacker. Spiral stairs and floors of wood occupied the interior, a n d l o o p h o l e sm a d e i t p o s s i b l et o t h r o w m i s s i l e s from every side. Of one hundred and eighteen such towers which are reported, thirteen still exist in fairly perfect condition - the tallest, rzo feet high, on Scattery Island. Note should be taken also of the Irish high c r o s s e so f w h i c h n e a r l y t h r e e h u n d r e d m e d i e v a l , examples have been traced, and of very remark-

aftcr ro6-1 6.r]. [u 'I'he GallarusOratory near Dingle lzTl ts an century style [28]. It became a nave-and-chaneleganttranslationinto corbelledstone of'the cel church through the addition of a shed-like cruck house('all roof, no wall'). It has been sanctuary, now destroyed. A sacristy at the east centuryto the and a small finger-shaped tower on the ridge variouslydatedfrom the seventh eleventh.Kells, a well-known site, famousfor w e r e o t h e r e a r l y a d d i t i o n s ( a b o u t I o o o ) . N e a r



P R E - R O M A N E S Q U R C H I T E C T U RrE T H E N O R T H . O U T S T D T H E E M P T R E 7 3 N AE E

able cult oblectsin metal' It was through such werewarmworksthat the simplelittle churches ed and embellished:in Prior and Gardner's 'the crafi ofdecorationin Byzantine and phrase, Carolingianbuildings was the setting of precious objects against a backgroundof structure'.r The old Irish churches are indeed widowed now without their furnishings. Norman influencesplay upon this architecture in the twelfth century (asat CormacMac, Carthy'sChapelon the Rock ofCashel c. rr2134 L2gl,which is in the tradition of St Kevin's at Glendalough)but the Cistercianinfluence, was at beginning MellifontAbbeyin I I.+2, more Although suchchurch buildingswere effective. more imposing, they were severe,and earlier Irish austerityof designlives on in them.

NINTH- AND TENTH-CENTURY N A R C H I T E C T U RIE S A X O NE N G L A N D Here again, because ofextended analysis in the volume deloted to medieval architecture in Britain,a only limited mention is given to the architectural works in question. It was a muchdivided country'rvhich struggled towards unity through the labours of Egbert of Wessex (829 39, the first to bear the title of King of England), Alfred the Great (87 r 9oo), Athelstan (924-4o), Edgar (9-59-75),and the great Danish sovereign Cnut (ror6 45), who wrought well as an English king. In the church architecture ofthe period there are many reminiscences of older forms. The nave-and-chancel plan was widely used both in wood and in stone. The compartmented plan, clearly that of Wil(rid's cathedral at York (767 8o), which had thirty altars, survived in smaller buildings. Such a plan existed, Ibr example, at the fabulous pilgrimage shrine of Glastonburv' Excavations show that the letusta Ecclesia,5

originally of late antique date, was augmented by a series of small elements built of stone, with wooden roofing: a nave and plrticus about 7oo, and a narthex, chancel, and lateral porticus before goo. Further, about g5o St Dunstan added twolaterrl porticus and a tower at the east ofthe church, as well as a free-standing tower-chapel xt the west. This brought the length of the group to about 25o feet. The plan was thus cloisonni, and it exemplified the old scheme of two axial towers, which became popular in English pre-Romanesque, Romanesque, and Gothic architecture. Continental relations were strong in the time of King Edgar (959 75), under whom, with St Dunstan, the refbrm of'the Benedictines made salutary progress in England. St Dunstan, who had been abbot o1' Glastonbury, became Primate (96o), and his companion monk, Ethelwold, Bishop of Winchester (963). Both men were artists and loved the arts, and both were well placed to further the cause ofthe fine arts by precept and example. Winchester Cathedral jo. Pembridge, bclfi r' torrcr, lburtccnth ccnturr (traditional lbrm)

[ 3 3 4 ] w a s r e b u i l t b y E t h e l w o l d , a b o u t g i 3 o ,w i t h a lireat five-stage wooden tower. The organ at Winchester has its place in the history of music and the Winchester school of illumination is iustiy renowned in the historl of manuscripts. We knorv from terts that there was in this period a considerable amount ofcathedral buildas a ing, including Canterbury, which was rebuilt 'double-ender' with two lateral plrticus.

These monuments, on a llirly grand scale, have all been destroved. Hence we must fbrm our ideas on the basis of secondarl' monuments, of which about two hundred survive in whole or part. From the viewpoint of this volume the following ought to be mentioned: Elmham Cathedral," Deerhurst,t Wing,n Worth," Breamore,1'' Barton-on-Humber,rl Earls Bartcln (originallv an excellent example of the Saxon 'tower-nave' church),1r and Bradford-onAvon.r3 Parenthetically,Pembridge should be mentioned for its fourteenth-century belfrytower, rvhich closelv approximates r Carolingian rtrrritus aqes [3o).

ofthe Kings. Buildings now roofless zq. Cashel except round towcr and CormacMcCarthl''s Chapel,of t. ttz4-11


" "'" Wfrffi" yw&


.lr. Worth, church, tenth cenfur\(?), looking east qz. I3rcamore, chrrrch, tenth to\\'er

Elmham- a ruin, has a slcnder T-plan, plus an a p s ea n d t h e t t , v o c o m p a r t m e n t s w h i c h f l a n k t h e nave just 'ries t of the transept. Dcerhurst is fb I its staunch western tower, its lateral compartments (three on each side, with the usual rnarrow doors of access), its characinteresting teristic narrorv chancel arch, and its exceptional (destrol'ed) s.=vcn-sided apse. Worth has a round apse, aL so erceptional [3r]. Breamore is i n t e r e s t i n g f b r i t s s t a g e dc r o s s i n gt o r , ' e r[ 3 2 ] a n d the remains , tf' a Saxon carved rood panel. has its substantial towcr, Barton-on-Ht-mbcr ample, squarc, and tall, with bluff cut-stone quoining and work, which strips of cut stone in the wallgive a dccorative suggestion of' tower lbrmed the middle part of
33. Earls Barton, church, tower, tcnth centurv( ?) L,h..nru..

Tth roth


98o 99.t


fiaming. This the Saxon ctsrurch; it was augmentcd bv a smaller cornp;-rtment on thc cast, and a similar

one on the rvsst. The paired lvindorvs, archcd or mitred, arc charactcristicalll' divided b1.iolly 'mid-rvall s haf'ts' with rings. Earls Barton tower ', and is indeed a lavourite Saxon i s g r a n d e r 13 3 m o n u m e n t . I r r a l l o f t h e s et h e m a s o n r f i s r a t h e r

33A. Winchestcr, Saxon cathedral, gg.l rogr lexcavations and studi bv Nlartin Biddle)


p R E - R O M A N E S Q U E A N D p R O T O - R O M A N E S Q U ES T y L E S



and .1.1 35. Bradlbrd-on--{r'on, S t L a w r e n c er,. 9 7 5 ( ? )

Saxon relieli

some of considerable interest

w i t h e a r l y R o m a n e s q u e w o r k i nL a n g u e d o c , B u r gundy, and Fleury (Saint-Benoit-sur-Loire).15

the interior is strikinglv handsome Ir, 36,11. Halls of this sort had been built lbr hundreds of 1'earsbelbre the latest date about rooo which can be assigned to Lojsta. At Onbacken in Sweden there are remains of a double-aisled 'guild h a l l ' . L i k e I - o j s t at h i s b u i l d i n g h a d f r a m e s ' r t i n t e r v a l s t o s u p p o r t t h e r o o f s t l ' u c t u r e .H o w ever, the posts were lbur in numbcr in each fiame. Instead of' drvarf'walls Onbacken had wooden palisaded walls, r'ertical or slightlv inclined, at some distance outsidc the lrames [ 3 6 n 1 .S i m p l c r s t r u c t u r e s , s i m i l a r i n p r i n c i p l e , were grouped in the farm establishments. 'l'he remains of p:rgan temples in the earlv periocl inclicate structures ol-square plan. At G a m l a U p p s a l a , w h i c h r v a sp r o b a b l l ' t h e g r e a t est pagan cult ccntre of'the region, the mcdieval church was built largely'on the site ofthe chief temple. Excirvation has yielded a part of' the stones which supported its timber-work, and the pattern of its plan [3{rc, 348]. In this case there was a square central compartrnent, with corncr timbers or cr z f'eetin diameter and a smaller post between on each side. Whether the central compartment was free-standing in a peribolos measuring about 75 by 85 feet, or surrounded by' aisles reaching to the enclosing wall, is a mattcr fbr debatc. In anl'case the outcr wirll was supported bv light posts,and relativelv low, while the large corner timbers indicate a tower-like proportion lbr the ccntral square. \\'c postulate aisles, r'ith a gabled entrance. T'hus the tcmplc was distinguishcd fiom the residcntial and guild halls prer,iouslv referred to by its r all construct i o n a n d i t s c e n t r a l i z e dp l a n ; i t w a s , h o u e v e r , a relatively late building, not long anterior to its descliption by Adam of'Bremen (about roTo). H e c a l l si t a t r i c l i n i u m , a n d n o t e st h a t i t c o n t a i n e d s t a t u e so f ' T h o r , O d i n , a n d l i r e y a . ' ; At the datc mentioned, Christian building w a s a l r e a d yu e l l a d v a n c e di n S c a n d i n a v i a .F r o m ncighbouring Germanv some influences mar b e t r a c e d o r s u s p e c t e d ,b u t t h e N o r s e c h u r c h r v a ss e t r , r pr o m B r i t a i n , a n d i t s a r c h i t e c t u r l l h i s l

S C A N DN A VI A I T h e f o r a y so f e a r l l ' m e d i e v a l S c a n d i n a v i l n t i ' e e booters are well known, and several of the beautiful ships rvhich were their instrument so lithe in form, so beautilul in decoration have been given back to us bt' archaeological excavationand stud]'. What is not so llidelv k n o w n i s t h e h i s t o r ] ' o f t h e w i d e s p r e a dc o l o n i z a tion and trade which follorved the piratical raicls. In the ninth and tenth centuries S*edish dynasts organized the oriental trade bv rva\. ofthe Russian rivers and built the state which became C h r i s t i a n R u s s i a i n 9 8 9 . 1 6I n t h e W e s t t h e i r colonization of Iceland (847) and Greenland ( 9 8r ) w a s e n d u r i n g , b u t t h e i r c o n t a c t w i t h m a i n land America (q86 ti.) pror,ed ephemeral, likc their hold on considerable territories in the British Isles. -{ll Scandinavian architectural work of this earliest period is lost, and is to be rough and ordin a r l ' w a l l s a r e a b o u t z l l e e t t h i c k ; s p e c i a lw a l l s ma1'be much thickcr. 'liee-hand', but artractive. 'I'he been shown that the lower part of the church probabll'dates back to Aldhelm (c. 7oo); it was reworked lvhen the parts above the belt course s e r e a d d e d . F o r t h i s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n ,o n a c c o u n t ol' its accomplished character, we prefer thc date of'973, in St Dunstan's time.l+ Sir Altied Clapham, in summing up this art, rightlv savs that it 'was a direct offshoot ofthe Carolingian stem, guarding the salient characteristics of its parent stock' but with a sort of bumbling localism. In the mid eleventh centurv it was much in need of the vigorous ne* impulse which camefrom Normandy to Edward the Conf'essor's Westminster Abbey. Enigmatic still is the relationship of the Saxon carvings to the sculptural art of Germanl. and France. The influence of the Winchester illuminations on French sculpture is admitted, but we do not have sufficient links to connect the deduced only from foundations, fragmentan. remains of superstructure, and the trad;tional leatures of conservarive later buildings. Swedenand Gotland provide remains u'hich indicate the character of the earlv palaces xnd d w e l l i n g s ; a t L o i s t a o n G o t l a n d a p a l a c eo f s o m e s i z eh a s b e e n r e b u i l r o n i t s o r i E i n a l f b u n d a r i o n s . I t t a k e st h e l b r m o l a l o n g r e c t a n g u l a r h a l l $ i r h dwarf walls of earth and stones i the entrance is at one end, and the hearth is near the middle. At intervals there are pairs of posts resting on stonesin the earthen lloor, dir,iding the intcrior l n t o a n a v e a n d t r v o a i s l e s .E a c h p a i r o t p o s t s supports a trans\erse liame lbr the roof' of' thatch, which sweeps in an unbroken slope on each side from the dwarf wall to the ridge. A smoke-hole opens over the hearth. The timbcrs are,rough in the reconstruction. rather than c a r v e da n d p a i n t c d a s r h e v d o u b t l c s sw e r e i n t h e o r t g i n a l ,b u t t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a ll i n e s i r r ef i n e . a n d

Among the eristing church buildings, St Lalrre'nce at Bradlbrd-on-Aron is perhaps the most satisfactorv. It is a nave-and-chancel b u i l d i n g , $ e l l c o n s t r u c t e do f c u t s t o n e . I t h a s a charactcristically' narrow chancel arch with interesting rcliels ofangcls (pcrhaps tiom a rood) set in the wrrll above it [34]. There are narrow doorwal's on thc other three sidcs of its minuscule nale (25 (eet long, rj feet 8 inches wide, and verv high - just over 25 leer).The windows a r e , a s u s u a l , f ew , s m a l l , a n d p l a c e d h i g h i n t h e 'I'he wall. lateral doors opened inlo plrticus, of which thc southern onc has been destroyed. Apart fiom this the exterior is verl perfect; it is beautifulll proportioned and decorated with elegant shallorv arcading IrSl. Recentlv it has

P R E . Loista. rooo e.a n d t h e r o o f c o v e r i n g i s s o d r a t h e r than thatch. Its rvall-work was like that of Greenstead church in Esser [z] . This is St Mary Minor at Lund.. t h o u g h r e s e m b l i n g a b a stllca. and -Ihe \i 6imyri.'Guild Hall' c. ofvertical logs f l a t t e n e do n r h r e e s i d e s a n d i o i n e d b 1 ' s p l i n e s . and Greenland in the vear rooo. including parts ol' Scotland. r r g o J ( belur) . Garrisonhall. about 1875. Skagafjdrbur. On the other hand. tooo . the Earldom ofthe Orkneys. Aisles were marked offin the nave by posts which (two by'two) carried the transverse frami n g o f t h e r o o f s t r u c t u r e . St6ri-Nipur. Danish reconstructiDn The chancel. Excavation has revealed the plan of a more ambitious church in Sweden. church. By the year goo the 5sxldinavian population was probablv Christian in the British areas controlled by the Norse . o 5 l l_ 15 ..-vro5oi) [36E]. church. crcavrted at Brattahlid near Gardar [36o and 3gB]. In Iceland and Greenland there are representatives of pioneer and archaic forms. Arnessysla. and the pagan hall. except that it had a squarish plan. z5 feet square. like a temple..i7.linor. and it was established by law fbr Norway. Christianization ofthe North rvas tardier.! Srrpporrs Jorposts a (H"l. or threenavedhalls of'the Lojsta or Brenz tvpe Ir.r. T h e s a n c t u a r y . palace. . Groups of old barns and houses olten seem but little changed in general appearance lrom the prehistoric lirm o a t O ffi\ lBr-1!t. Although about zoo were built. l. which was about 33 feet wide lrom wall to wall. temple fbundations o. the Kingdoms of the Hebrides. roor). Gamla Uppsala. resembled Lojsta.recalls the palace at Loista even more strongly.o p e n ing from the nave. like a simplified Lojsta. Inevitably one is led to suppose that many early tory. N o r c . dated afier rooo (b. Unfortunately it is not possible to follow the sub_ sequent historv ofthe tlmber church in Swcden. the nave-and-chancel church. tl F 'i n F:1 i"'j "J H tl tt l-- I . dinavia have p. Churches werc built in this rvav.i6. had a similar roof construction. O U T S I D ET H E E M P I R E A 79 c o' . b u t r u s t i c s i t e ss t i l l p o s s e s s houses with banked lateral walls and interior 'fhe framing. except that the posts were carried around at the eastend to form a sort ofnarrow ambulatorv. not one is extanti only fragments in museums remain. of Northunlbria.together with the Five Boroughs. Norway and Insular Scan. Vibimyri. with aisles. r. Brattahlid. r. r. Iceland. St N'larr N.""d the elements for this his- vicw ol'church. i tllo t . The old Icelandic sees of Skdlholt and H6lar have lost t h e i r e a r l y b u i l d i n g s . r 8zz [371. Holtilcn.. root s.r . was offset from the nave. Plans o[ errll Scandinavinn buildings A. and a woodcn fagade. r.c h u r c h . Thfodhild's tiny church (r. c h u r c h . and ofEast Anglia. that is. Onbacken. of Dublin.built. T . r r z 5 u. even recentlv (Fhigumyri.was a curious conllation ofthe basilica. faqades a r e o 1 ' w o o d .4aj.5o centurv r. eleventh c . were ofsod. St6ri-Nripur church in Arnessysla [38]. U r n e s . r876 38. h u sS t I l a r y M i n o r .'l'hjodhild's church.r . Lund. but it was well begun by g5o.R O M A N E S Q U E R C H I T E C T U R E I N T I I E N O R T H . rlizz .potheticaL) WoLLs ---------Roof Hips -----" Ritlges Shoft of Tower --- tory probably begins there. model of'framing.omen.l\{ r D oro !r-! l_ 5() r'T Christian buildings on the Scandinavian peninsula were simpie wooden versions of the naveand-chancel type ofchurch which was common in England and Ireland at the time. Thc banks and roofinp.

Dietrichson had traced three hundred and thirtv-two timber churches in all Scandinavia.P R E . r. shortly before his journey to America (roo3). Churches built entirely oItimber represenred an advance on ordinary wooden structures.t -I \ 50 ' ' I ' I N rooM I 39u. they softened the strict geometrical s)'stem [36JJ. and a nunnery. cathedral group. Trelleborg. a perfectly simple little stone-walled building. Other buildings in the cathedral group.. . lbrming square courts. but the cathedral of Gardar (Igaliko). twelfth centurv ) ll excavated at L'Anse aux Meadows. and archaeological remains go back ig\ ( abor'eand hclon. O U T S I D E T H E E M P I R E EI establishmentsof Gotland and elsewhere. of which trventy-fbur werc extant.Brattahlid. : . camp. -'*.. i l_. In r8g3 L. in Denmark) show that the grear Viking military camps were very different from these settlements. roofless. on the tip of Newfoundland.Somewhat the same story is told in Greenland. at Kakortok. . and these courts were reduplicated. . founded in trz4. . An important church (Trondheim. .// // . . mentioned in r3o6. The White Church (stuccoed). Aggersborg. Bowed out in plan and supporting big roofi. 996) is reported in the reign ofOlafTryggvason.]_]_ . r oor (rcstorcd) oJo 3oo FT . It represents the eleventhcentury Norse colonization in Vinland.&" A\\>Sr/. There were ultimately seventeen churches serving about two hundred and eighty households. a monastery.R O M{ N E S Q L L . much simpler. . . . has been identified and N. which was evangelized through a mission entrusted to Leif Ericson.i-^N// *1\ S/ / r* --+4 -- rf i+. Gardar. . W o L . Fyrkat.r8 { -1-1----:[i-]ilL *L' *. Excavations show that it was a small cruciform stone building with a wooden f'agade and roof construction [3ge].- Excavations (Trelleborg. has been destroyed. : l i : Il -if} bank _ 39c. all in Norway. Within an encompassing earthwork (circular at Trelleborg [3gcl). were built like the traditional Icelandic houses just mentioned. The walls were palisaded. q R C H I T h C T U R E I N T H E N O R T H . A related group.Thjodhild's church. serving as residences. . under whom the country became officially Christian. still survives. with passages (each in a quadrant at Trelleborg). impressive garrison halls resembling the guild hall at Onbacken [36n] were arranged in fours.

. The structureof the slanted against the swing ofthe bells.rrr7. somewhat larger than usual.c h a n c ec h u r c h o f r o ( r o rvere built into the north side ofa more elaborate church about r rz5 [36c]. r"-.re-uscd nrtion. r r6o). on account of their beaut. scale of "f ".a n d .m. U r n e s I I . Another possible without elidence. The shallow oblong. is t1'pical Nore church (r. The mitsts. l i n g m a s t . there is nothing like it in conabove leachwith its pinnacle)rise confidentlY tentional basilican construction' At Borgund the arcadedexterior porch' their graceful silin number' with a Iinials and spire. Lomen [3(rH]' and other oftenreplaced tile) are remarkablyeffective by rr8o or c h u r c h e si n t h e \ a l d r e s r e g i o n d a t c d in thenaturalsettingofrough uplandvallels' later have four masts carrying the upper strucNeither Urnes nor Borgund is an irnportant otherwise a nave-and-chancel and onenaturallylookselse. and two interior' p o s t s a l t h e e a s t . and an upper half-mast' on lets. Such a chassis or skid would it is achievedNaveand sanct shipby which ported on stones.are extantexample(about r r5o) [4r]' The the parts is tended parts of the beams powerfully brace niousefect of the many subtly related support the aisles and masted structure and no lessremarkablethan the skilled craftstnanbe supuary porches. the details of which and the whole is circumscribed ingenious A trusses' the proiectingporch on the axis' the diagram [421. and gussets architecturalmotifs.rncs.i.L.the main masts are twelve houettebreakinginto gables. exultantly' r'ivacious. Only'the later churches Th. and consequently scale of the thirin Kungahilla which wasbuilt in r r 27.v the customarr'lbur posts at the outcr corners. mast churches.a n d .1" Holtilen church (r. There are suegestiotr t h a t t h e d c s i g n e r s h a d b : r s i l i c a nc h u r c h e s t ' i stonc in mind.I t h a s t h e t r p i c a l s t o u t p o s t sa t t h e s i r sllient angles of the nave-and-chancel plan. F . g e n e r a t e dt h e t r a d i t i o n o f m t r s t c d s t r u c l u r e ' but no detaileddescriptionoi it has Free-standing four-mastcd and it wasdestroyed r I36. The nave at Urnes II. (#). One is struck. r a t i t e e a r h ' e r a m p l e s o f t h e f o u r . lo-5o I looi norv in the Trondhcim Muscum) [36r] is the oldestertant e s a m p l e .carrings on flank ot'church' r. a n d t h i s is the case at Urnes.Plt "t Gamla are ' at Fiedal beside the palaces. and the Perhaps in .v.e r e n i ()l a s t r u c t u r e o f ' t h e c c n t r a l t . the church in question being that of Garmo (destrovedr88z. t h e m a s t e d s t r u c t u r e i s e s s e n t i a l l yd i f f . and the masts at Borgund. S P R E . when the c h u r c h e s t h e m s e l v e sw e r e d e s t r o y e d . ro(ro. unlike tht Irish rvorks. King's return from a spectacular tvpc a to the Holy Land.tion p h a s i s f r o m t h e p a l a c e si n s u c h g r o u p s I f o r t h e as upperstructure wellasrheir olrrio tr. whcre tl'reir nunrber is augmentedbl two on the axis (omittcd belolr to make the intcrior more spaciou:' \ b o r e t h e a r s l c st h e m a s l s c a r r \ a c l e r e s l o l \ rvall.and at the top the]'are ioined togcther all r o u n d b 1 ' a p l a t e . p.g r o o l e p a l i s a d eo l ' s t a v e ' w a l l c o n struction.euish lorpf. sult in the classiclbrm of the angles..na the Romanesque-looking . rvhere the door and f'agaclc l c a r v i n g so f t h e n a v e . but the earlier Norse panels.igour and beaut-v[4o].wonderful interlaced animal lbrms. combined with various basic Ii' re.". on Irish illumi.hara may be studied in by an extenor Borgund.now for saf'ety flank ofthe nave' (ernphasized cut shingles by Grinaker (r.m a s r e d but surrived. too.ture in what is ecclesiastical place. has walls supported b. most persistent. w h i c h c a r r i e st h e t r u s s e d r o o l and a helliv pinnacle. b1' the small '. in part. they would look like carvings' the early .nra to the aisle walls' Despite its oblong zontal. indeedthe nave with a post at each corner.v p e 'l i k e a g r o u p flag-poles all bound together circumlerentialll I t m u s t h a v e b e c n q u i t e s t r i k i n g t o s e et h e m ' r s t ' ' On tall masted structure was invented to distinsucha churchwasunderconstruction while the churches bv emphatic vertical emthey extendedup into and sup. like enlarged lersions of that is in essence of the tower-like iewel boxes .are well worth attention' as is also the of mastedscheme the naveof Urnes rhe Pairs of supporting Norse tirnber chassis of the building. hrr' Romanesque capitals at mid-height uncler app l r e n t a r c h e s( u h i eh a r e i n f r c t er r c hm ' l d e u p ' ' tlvo adioining lvooden gusset braces) Th! t b r i d g i n g l b o r e t h u a p p a r e n t a r c h e ss u g g e s t s tritbrium.l i L es u p p o r t s ' m a r L i n g o l l ' l a t c r r r l aisles and a returned aisle at both east and \\'csl The masts rest on stones and a chassis.the oldest beams cross at right church.R O M A N E S Q U D S T Y I . (br instance. About ro6o a church of similar form r v a sb u i l t a t U r n e s . an example of the oldest.bestrepresented raised about the central rectangle' The exharmo. thcl alt bracccl all round at mid-height. subtly modelled in flat and bolcl relief classic examples of'tameless r. T h i s c h u r c h .ilp. c l e m e n t sa t L i l l e h a m m e r ) l t n a s a n a r e . The ---These with a ambulatory t-vpesof bridging. Such work must be dependent ultimately.t. The delicatescaleand small memb':ring .R O M A N E S Q U EA N D P R O T O . each wide interra[."'ite palaceswould be larger and predominantly hori-the aisle roof'and the bracesrvhich Ii"r. One thinks inevitablyof King a the scale is larger' SigurdMagnusson's Church of the Holy ('ross Borgund. in prototlpeis the churchwhich wasconstrllcted structures were developed for the belfries ofthe masts alongwith a palacelbr King Sigurd's brother churches.riod (aboutr r25)shows in scale. bracing. contain little except animal fbrrns: it wos later that scrolls of leaf'age. R O M A N E S Q L I EA R C H I T E C T U R E TN THE NORTH' OUTSIDE'THE EMPIRE I'-1 to the reign of St Ola{'(roI5 3o). m a r k s a d e c i s i v es t e l r t o w a r d t h e c l a s s i ct y p e o f f u l l l ' d e v e l o p e d N o r s c timber church. and most numerous t]'pe ofchurch. sanctuarr has two corner posts as usual.indeed.ft. with the Eystenin Bergen. that of Borgund.ribbons. are not and church rvith an apse added These naves of where for the genesis so accomplished much smaller than those of Urnes II and very perfect scheme.after the forecasting the still ampler Strzvgowski belicved that pupilgrirnage tecnth century.u2 P R E .1o. and the small round rents abor'' ( ' W i n d a u g e n ' ) s u g g e s tc l e r c s t o r vw i n d o w s ' a Holrcrer much thc church rcsemhlcs ba:lli c a .. r rgo) [36 tl presents a square that of simple Palace hallsmust haveresembled whole churches manv respects. antl hunran figures were introduced The doors antl doorwats ot timber churches uere olien prtserved. It wasaccounted wo:tder.a n d chancel church in wood. church models (a popular lbrm ol'reliquary) UPPsala' prgrnt.. But $'ithin there are sixteen tall frecs t e n . with rebated sills sustaining an ingenious t o n g u e .r c c a l l i n g t h e e r r a n g e m c n t a t S I \lar1' \'Iinor in Lund. chttrch' generous in the Valdres a nave-and-chancel of Such then is the background ofthe church by is tha sanctuar-Y augmented an rtpse' o. S u p e r b e x a m p l e so f N o r s e carving survive on the wall planks and doorwav of this church .

d 42. e x t e t i o t I ttl t f ' tst t ( I t Jf the Nort secttsn s1d analYttcal .c h u r c h ' . e g i a n ' s t a r e .tt4 pRE-ROMANESQUE AND pROTO-ROMANESQUE STyLES Borgund' r' r I 5o. classic examplc aJ ar.

and they embarkcd on a serious work of conquest which brought them across the P1'reneesinto France '-['hey w e l e o n l l ' h a l t e d b y C h a r l es in 7r 8. In the interiors which have bestsurvived the centuries the wood has largely been lefi unp a i n t e d . but the \loslems continued to alllict southern lirance b1' (bra-vs. The new state was not well organized until the middle of the tenth centur!'. the mast churches became unsatisfact o r v n o t o n l v b e c a u s eo f t h e i r m a r e r i a l . so as to provide space fbr sizable gatherings seatedin pews. R i n g e b u .Oslo. Fli (r. and contributed s o m e t h i n gt o a l l t h e m a t u r e R o m a n e s q u es t y l e s . H e d dal or Hitterdalen in Telemark. Two ofthem are so close to both styles as to merir the name ot proto-Romanesque. Galicia. as in the church ol G a m l a U p p s a l a t " 1 3 4 7 . rzoo). the Spanish Christian state was reconstituted jurid i c a l l f i n 7 I 3 b y t h r : l i n t a s t i c b a n d o 1 'c l e r i c a l . S h a l l o w t r : r n s e p t a lr e c e s s e s n d a a s q u a r e s a n c t u i r r va l l h a v e a p o s t a t e a c h c o r n e r . During the initial period of relative Moorish S weakness.e of their ertcriors. . somewhat more mature structural character. u'ith its characteristic heavy masonrv construction. The ineffectual Visigothic kingdom crumbled before them.elooment.Iartel in 732 in the fbmous battle fought between Tours and Poitiers. f'he earlier buildings in masonrl' were rather primitir. T h e r e s u l t i n g r i c h t o b a c c ob r o w n u i t h d e e p v e l v e t v s h a d o u s i s t e r r ' f i n e . but not essentially different in conception. n'pe flourishes alongside the navc-and-chancel. it took on. B e c a u s et h e m a t e r i a l u a s p e r i s h a b l e . and thus carry an odtl flavour of the First Romanesque which is r. rzoo) and Nes (i. m i l i t a r l . The methods of commonplace Roman building were continued with little change during the Dark Ages in the southern and more settled parts of the Empire area. 'l'he architecture of Asturias. . The whole structure is arranged and braced in stagesaround this mast. and other changes in medier-al buildings. as timc went on. At that time cousins of'the Norse werc alreldv at work on the cathedrals of Norrvich a n d E l 1 ' .e in construction.to say that Roman that is to architecture is proto-Romanesque architecture coming befbre say. r'. T h e S c a n d i n a v i a n sd i d n o t a d o p t t h e I r i s h idea of church clusters. from Fortun. while the cutting away of masts. and fhus not applicable in stone-buiit work or suitable for an1' kind of superficirl imitation. Gol.T h e b r i g h t c o l o u r s o f v e s t m e n t s . . i n 9 7 z . as rvas usual in the N{iddle Ages).{ RC H I T E C l U R E I N S O U T H E R N t r U R O P E It sounds like a plelsantr]. the st1'les of' southern Europe w h i c h c o m e b e t r v e e nR o m a n a n d R o m a n e s q u e might simply be called Romanesque il'our habit ofthought were different.r ' . began to influence Scandinar. r rgo: . S t a v a n g e rC a t h e d r a l w a s b e i n g b u i l t .i o . Norman England. rz4o) have the nave-andchancel plan.n scale. lnd it is indeed pr<lbable that thc architects considered the fbrms of the woodcn b u i l d i n g s a sa n a t u r a l r e s u l t o f t h e i r e n g i n e e r i n g t1'pe. now at B1'gdor-. *ii. Similarly. the gal hues and sober black of peasant costumes appear to great adr. Recent atten)pts to build mast churches on a moder.err. rz5o). It is only rr habit of thought which prevents our calling it simplv Romanesque.s i m p l e a n d a u s t e r e Northern forms which make their aesthetic point through the bold and elegant expression of bulk so much so that modern imitations of French and Italian Romanesque and Gothic the Anglo-Norman 5flAPTER { p R O T O . \t'hen the stone-built Romanesque came ro Scandinaria.86 pnE-nonaANr-seuE ND pRoro-RoMANEseuE sryLEs A middle part of the construction carried on a s i n g l e m a s t . lor whonr Gibraltar is named. and the Borgund ty'pe(Fantoft. a n d g i v e a certain movenent in the half light.h carried on the living s t r e a mo f R o m a n lrchitecture.R O \ { A N ES q U E . T H E A S T L T R I AS T Y L E N Thc \loors came first to Spain in 7r r as a small interventionist fbrce under Tarik. The intcrior carvingsof thc churches are relativell simple. The contrast between the sercnity of the Norse church interiors. occurred in 778. and richer in plastic embellishment. r r 6o 8o . eleerated (777). H e g g e . a Romanesque the authoritative and constituted medieval style. a n d l a y r e l u g e e sw h o h a d b e e n d r i v e n works seem unwelcome and intrusive. But there is a kernel of truth in it.b a s i l i c a nL o n r . and the ceremonies more elaborate. 3 4 8 ] . perlbrmed in a remote region lnd not absorbed into the main current of architectural der. but thel' happill. the 'l'orpu. awaiting the time when a grander architecture should be possible. alter which the Spanish March of Charlernagne (Catalonia and Navarre) was lib'l'he c action at Roncesvalles.. ( q u a s i .'Iher d r o r e o u t t h e m o n k s o f ' X ' l o n t e c a s s i n oi n 8 f i . plus a rounded apse and a central mast. Ilven the vitalitv ofthe timber church tradition had little effect on buildings designecl fbr stone. B i r r c e l o n aw a s c a p t u r e d i n E o r . and the extraordinary r. longcontinucd piracl.' a c c e n t u a t et h e s t r u c t u r a l m e m b e l i n g . their devastations are reported from Switzerhncl in g4o and from northern Spain in 997 8. they captured r \ ' I a y e u l . We have seen that Carolingian Romanesque architecture intellectuallv marked out this future development.I. and b1' their' fierce. T'hc congregations became larger. r 2 o o . near Hiarrdal. r. have been aesthetic f'ailures. i and desolatcd the monastery. from about rrz3 onward.antage in this warm rtmosphere.h l v e b c e nm o s t u n l b r t u n a t e . and therefbre comes to rcsemble thc central mast of'a Carol i n g i a n c h u r c h s p i r e ) o r t h e w o o d c n s t e e p l eo f 'I'his an American Colonial church. . b u t a l s o because ol' their small scale and their limited capacity (eren with the people standing at services.. and therefore.a b b o t o f ' C l u n y . and the Nloorish borders receded.en in the reign of'Sigurd Nlagnusson (rro3 3o). a n d i t s e t so f f the glint of metalwork in the lurnishings and l i t u r g i c a l g e a r . in a reflected Rom a n e s q u es t y l e . is not the least remarkable ol'their mi-tnvartistic Yirtues.ia er.tr-. r z . a n d h e l d h i m fbr ransom.w o o d en churches began to give wav to stone structures as early as ro5o.\rdal. and neighbouring Portugal in the ninth and tenth cenruries was like a hboratory experiment in Romanesque. In the Byzantine Exarchate and Lombardl a similar 'l:irst d e v e l o p m e n tl a i d r h e sroundwork tbi rhe Romanesque' . In the north-western corner ofthe peninsula.err appealing. fbr the samt p u r p o s c . r . eptimaniawasrcconquered(76o 8) by Pepin III. where the old mountainous Asturian realm of V the Sucvi (only subdued b1-'the isigoths about 6zo) had not been o\rerrun b1' the Moors. \. in the \lediterranean. making seventeenfor the whole church. That tcrnr calls up a group o(' styles of somewhat later date. brated in the Song of'Roland. involving !reater numbers of clergt than in earlv times. more importantly characterized by vaulting. r. r z r o .

his rank (maintained even in the twentieth century) of Colonel in the Spanish army. the basilican church of'San Juliin dc l o s P r a d o s . T h e n o r t h transept was elidently contiguous to the palace. + + ] .o r ' S a n t u l l a n o ' [ + 1 . is brought to the eaveslevel ofthe transept b1'an upper chamber (perhaps a refuge). there by the invading Moors. Among the chief monuments was the cathedral of Oviedo. A reliquary chapel. the new Kingdom of the Asturias or of Galicia began to expand southward. the sanctuary and chapels are oblong tunnel-vaulted compartmentsr of which the central one. also reaches merely to the transePteaves.R a m i r o ' s c h u r c h a d i o i n e d . It is providcd with aisles. all in the [Visilgothic wa\'.w h i c h h e d e c o r a t e dw i t h d i v e r s p i c t u r e s . now destroyed. Yet this court chapel gives only a hint of the richness ol Alfbnso the 'everything'. Lourosa l54cl). and higher than the rest of the church. founded in 8oz.'I'here is a plrticus at the south end of the transept. as they were at 'I'oledo in church and palacc alike'. These guite unexpectedly turned out to be a symbolic 'fhirrycSmposition in the pompeian sr1le. ct8ht baldacchino motifs are fiqured. Ireland. Another maior monr'rment. with gold and silver. and to plant Christian colonies in the border zone which had been desolated by the constant raids from both sides. Oviedo his capital. which was an interesting group of buildings by a designernamerl 'I'ioda. Legend has it that the Apostle St James the Greater aided the Galicians in battle. and his association with cockle shells. but Bood and substantial masonrv of the church. was the double cathedral at Santiago de Compostela (8lg-rt6). His supposed tomb. O n e o f t h e m o s t i n t e r e s t i n gA s t u r i a n c h u r c h e s I dateslrom the reign o1'Ramiro I (843 -5o). France. with thc shrine of St James. a western Porch' and a wall belfiy' or espadaia. though the cast end. only. A metropolitanate was e s t a b l i s h e dt h e r e i n 8 I r . which has been excavated in part. painting. r By the end of the eighth century the architects had constituted a national pre-Romanescue stvle of considerable technical interest. they are being maintainecl and cherished. identilied as such in 8r3. Antealtares. roofed in wood. still survives [58]. antl sculpture survive. Under Alfonso the Catholic (Z3q 5Z). a n d t h e ' I ' r v o S i c i l i e s .San Julidn de los Prados. became a national shrine almost immediately.ered the rather rough. diligentll' with arches and columns of marble. At somotime between 8rz and 842 (perhaps about 83o) Tioda built for Alfbnso the Chaste' adjoining his suburban palace in the fields neat' Oviedo. There were a governmental building and a thermal establishment in Oviedo also in these great da1's. was rather more open and elaborate. says C h a s t e ' sb u i l d i n g s a t O v i e d o : 'the King adorned the Monk of Albelda (883). The recent restoration has uncol. The remainder of the building is composed around the transepr in the lamiliar agglomerative Germanic fashion. contended successlully with the Norse raiders of whom wc have heard in previous chapters. and so with the royal p a l a c e . and is known to hare resembled other Galician basilicas (Santullano. The transept is relatively wide. in the reign of 'fhis king made Alfonso the Chaste (7gt-842). and its astonishins interior decorations. they did not get a lbothold in Spain as they did in England. the I'amous Cdmara Santa. likewise wooden-roofed. whence he acquired his name of Nlatamoros. in refcr- ence (it is thought) to the thirty-eight Councils which had thus lirr been held in the Spanish Church. and there are well-preserved examples covering the whole span of the ninth and tenth centuries. These paintings are among the most interesting of their kind. Yet satisfactory represcntatives of the \sturian st1'le of archirecture. incidentally'. for the king's tribune opened into it. The ample nave. from which the kingdom was ruled until gr4.Ie. and led to the foundation of a Benedictine monastery. The oldest remains go back to about 78o.A PROTO-ROMANESQUE RCHITECTUREIN SOUTHERNEUROPE d9 r Oviedo.

ed to be obstinateh' difficult throughout the Romanesque period.. is tbr iJ^tittlll] modear Naranco Cermanic.lc which thins and stiffens the wall. thing in Hispania (Moslem Spain) therc is n e v e r t h e l e sa h a u n t i n g s s e n s et h a t t h e u h o l e b u i l d i n gi s s o m e h o w in debr to onental motles or construction. +61. probablv through \risigothic and Moslem . in the upper part of which we ma\ supposethe altar t o h a v e b e e n p l a c e d( i n 8 4 8 ) . exccptthar rhe Asturian work 'l'he is vaulted with admirable soliditl'.. and balancing the entrance porch l+S.tlufn' Abdin in Vesoporamia). Y e r t h e G e r m a n r c a s p e c t so t t h e lnl Li"* must nor be tbrgotten. lighter and more sophisticated rn construction. There is no doubt as to the position and shape of the missing two-storey compartment.. applicd."1 works as much as e l s e .t-l-t'. but ol excellent quality. the central onc covercLl ( o n d u a r l u a l l s ) h r a h e a r r a n d s l r o n gt u n n ( l r a u l t w i t h t r a n s \ e r s ea r c h e s o l a s h l a r . t h e p a l a c ea n d b a t h s a t N a r a n c o . The cxisting old parts ofthe church have no suitable location fbr an altar.' manic palacc hall. the thronc-place of a layout resembling a Ger'l'he long hall itself would be gathered outside the church. to strcngthcn it in logical place'. 6 n 1 . In point of development Santa N{aria cle N a r a n c o o c c u p i e st h e p o s i t i o n l b r S p a i n w h i c h Germignv-des-Prds has in France. and an extra arch is placed in the middle over the widest arcade arches (fbr the size of these is graduated).l. 'l he mein block ol rhc building hasa crlpt . tts palacehall llttd]nt the effector'making ir into a .. I t w a s d e d i c a t e di n 8 4 8 to Santa N{aria. so rhar it is logically designed to take the thrusts of the tunnel vault above it. to the main chamber in Germanic l'ashion. Pairsol atrachcdcolumns car. i n v a r i a b l v t e n d t o p u s h o u t their supports and sink at the crown. is oraspiring and ll.rransepr :lit lid t o . The vault again has transversearches. . the building was composed.. Under the other transverse arches there is a decorative strapand-medallion inset which srrengthens the wall.v e t the structure was certainly used fbr sacred cercmonial in connexion with the king as fbr instance when he departed fbr war.hi. In fact.. with its approach stairwaysand vaulting complete..portion.0j"* anagglomeratron 'xrtrsecting forms. u r 1p e w h i c h i s o r h e r w i s e k n o u n i n .l in fine barharicsttle carrl an interior arcrt. r t h e f i r s t o f i t s k i n d i n t h e m e d i e r a lc h u r c h a r t h i tecture of the West. and thc pcople. Each of the cr1'pt compartments sustains a conrpartment of the superstructure.. since the ends of the hall were doorways opening on unglazed 'I'he cxterior porches.u. best solution of the difiicultf is to suppose that the altar stood in the destroyed compartment opposite the existing entrance porch. taller in pr. or'apposed'.ES A SantaMaria de Naranco. . cntrance porch and its mate come in iust where thev are structurallv needed to abut the main tunnel vaults lbr such vaults. . opposite the entrance. :Sl.it.9o PRE_RONlANESQUE ND PROTO-ROMANESQUE S'T'YI.I b r t h e m a r e t o t h i s compartment still exists on the opposite side. In Naranco we have an appropriate solution (on a small scale to be sure) of the problem of vaulted church architccture which pror.1 three compartments. ut rhc comb Ill. The architectural lbrm of the upper p a r t s h o w s t h a t i t w a s b u i l t a s a b e h . and Columba's House' in Ireland. The altar would then occupl.urporring unl. basicalll.. The end compartmcnt\ (ol'rrhich onc \\as a bath) are ceiledin uor. It is also rvorthl of'note that the spur buttresses are proportioncd like developcd a sort of'transept lbr magnatcs. The flanksare divided into 'ctt D?YS by slender ashlar spur huttresscs. The masonrv work is somewhat rough.r'c anv c o n s i d e r a b l el e n g t h .]rS lbllowed thc proccedingsthrough openings rn the f'aqadeof the hall. Similarll'. having ashlar. in the manner ofthe Saxonchurch ofBradfbrdon-Avon [:+.. when ther. the populace gathered on the slofc ncar thc inrperial palacc hall at Goslar [. Though ir was rauntetl u.. except for the loss of a two-storcy compartment on one of thc long sides. would hcar the liturgl' through the open end compartments. used with admirable skill.consecrated tl48 45 rnd 46. e d e r e . ha. a p l e a s a n th i l l s i d e p l a c c n e a r O v i e d o . and has come down to us in a perf-ectstate.t+. Aachen in 'St Germanv..

vle beclme under strong N{oorish influence we may infer liom the interesting raulted church of'Santa Maria de N{elque. except that of the tiny entrance way. whcre construction appearsto have been interrupted h r r h e C o n q u e s r . It rvaslaid out as a columnar basilica with a tunnelvaulted nar e and angular sanctuaries. and an ivorv book cover was reproduced.le on each iamb of thc main portal. now incomplete. lbunded in 848. the charming little church of Sanr. e s t o r y . Santa \{aria de \'Ielquc. i t s d e g e n e r a t eR o m a n c a r v i n g s . Romrrnesque-looking g r o u p e dp i e r s c a r r l . like Sanra N1ariade Naranco. d a r c d i n rne tenth centur\.e n d e c ls a n c t u a r ) ' ( o n e o f t h r e e . i n ga t u n n e l r a u l t . There is an odd suggesrion of Earh Gothic tracerv. dated about 9oo [49].dicuted in 893. w i d e l l ' s p a c e d . h o r s e s h o e r c h e si n a t h " e. n o r e l c o m b i n a t i o n s . and therefore we may say that it too gives a hint of future Romanesque fbrms. r. markcd off b1' a verv interesting and fastidiously carvecl barbaric chancel parapet and arcade.thing survives to represent Earlv Christian basilican architccturc as developed b1' the Visigoths except San Juan Bautista at Baios de Cerrato (66r). 9oo Romanesque buttresses and logicalll' disposed.aulted building..s h o r t l r a l i e r '7 r r . and. All the vaults are tunnel vaults. Vaulted architecture is represented by the church of Quintanilla de las \''iias. Entirclv raulted. Santa Cristina has an entrance compartment with a tribune lrom which onc looks up a longitudinal tunnel-vaulted nave to ir platform and sanctuarv compartment.w h i c h l b r n e r h . or at any rate in the reign of Alfonso III. There are interesting capitals and medallions. 9o5 Io de 49 ( risht ) . a s a t N a r a n c o .r (.ristina de Lena [+2. The main vault is abutted b1' chapelJike compartmenrs 'apposed' to the flanks ofthe nave. while not Romanesque. he fbur T terminal bavs ofthe aisles had transverse tunnel vaults at a high ler. it offers a Eood solution ro tlifficult problems. a n c t u a r r a n d t h e c l e r . It is . All the walls are stiffened b1' spur buttresses. rvith its horseshoe a r c h e s . in flat barbaric str. Santa Cristina 47 and 48 Lena. THE \IOZARAtsIC STYLE IN NORTHERN SPAINZ Little if anl. . and large transennae in these transept-like bays (ofwhich t r v o s t i l l e x i s t ) g a r . has endured. t h e c o l u m n b a s e sh a v e c a r v i n g s . The church of San \liguel de Linio. even. The embellishment of Santa Maria de Naranco. San Nliguel has remains of paintings and a brave attempt at architectural sculpture.a n d even minuscule figure sculpture (in the medallions). This church was probablv built shortly after go5.R O M A N L S Q U EA R C H T T E C T U R Ft_ S O L i T H E R NE t r R O p E N 93 (oltposite and belon). near Naranco.r: santa Maria de Naranco. have trans\rerse arches. lil. There remains to be mentioned the engaging _ little tunnel-vaulted basilican church ol Val de d. ea g o o d l i g h t t o t h e w h o l e interior. On a tinl rcirle. a n d i t s s q u a r e . is a curious and ingenious r.w P R O T O . l o o k e d i n t o a w i d e t r a n sept). nevertheless uses deg e n e r a t ec l a s s i cm o t i f s . the Great (866-9ro). in the interesting transennae or pierced stone lvindow screens of San \Iiguel. ft has \loslem-looking Pios. +8] must be included as shorving an interestingl development ol'the Nirranco thcme. and all.el to abut the nave.a n d t r a n s e n n a e b u t a l s oa n a d d e d l a t e r a l porch with prophetic. enlarged. What this Late Roman church st.

5 o ai -:-'. Graceful horsecarries shoearches divide the nave fiom the aisles. both ofthem in angular blocks p of masonrv). prominent eaves-brackets of oriental character. It undoubtedlv contributed a certain spice an( oriental suavitv to Spanish Romanesque. settled man!' of the rellgees. it has a somer. S a n t i a g od e P e n a l b a f 5 r l . S a n t aM a r i a c l c l . with a chapel. c. asainst ir sunk background. there is a heavv tower. a l o b e d v a u l t over each of the tlro apscs (onc of them of norseshoe lan. which was a citv architecture. It is an odd c o m p o s i t i o n o 1 . was built in gz4. torming a sort of transept. but a more rustic building.en out of the \'Ioslem dominions by a rec r u d e s c e n c eo f i n t o l e r a n c e a t t h e e n d o f ' t h e ninth centur. which was once more used lr'hcn a finc side porch was added about 9. Lobetl rosettes. i s a good. at each sidc ol'thc domed bar. The church of San Miguel de la Escalada. with an efl'ectivc use of horseshoc i a r c h e s n t h c i n t e r i o rd e s i g n .v. Santiago Pcialba. Mozarabic architecture under the circumstances $.+ PRE-ROMANESQUE AND PROTO-ROMANESQUE STYLES P R O T O . of still later constructlon. t 4 o f t h e m c o r e r e c lb v a l o b c c ld o m e .hat Romanesquelook. Likc thc Asturian buildings.windorvs have the same prett\' shape. This episode was a catastrophe for the Visigothic style. adioining. and the tin-vclerestorl. the proportions.I N S O U l ' I I L R N L U R O P E I 95 solidly built ofashlar stone on a cruciform plan. n c a r S a n r a n d e r 1521. rvhich rvasthen . f o u n d e d i n g r g . who were called \{ozarabs. but 'chiselt h e c o r n i c e h a s c h a r a c t e r i s t i cN l o o r i s h curl' brackets. rounded back from the ashlar' thce in N{oorish or Saracenic fashion.le.R O M A N E S Q U E A R C T T' I ' L C ' I ' U R [ . San Nliguel de la Escalada. T h e e a s t b a v o f e a c h a i s l ei s v a u l t e d . The visitor linds himself in an austere but surprisinglv sophisticated ensemble. under Asturian influence. e b e i a .Iiguel de Linio. Its influence is probablv to be traced in beautifull1' modelled leafage cut en lltargne or ett riserxe that is. fine churches were destrol. very except for the apses.t r v ob a v s . is the finest and most accessiblc of the N{ozarabic works. which are wooden-rool'ed plan. thc manaeiement of'space and light are all scale.9. a n d a 1: chancel screen of elegant horscshoe arches the line across the nave. lbunded grg newll constructed.as reallv a local variation on Late Roman archi- tecture. and vaulted.the 'I'he church is basilican and lastidious.p a i r s a n a v e o 1 . which was centred at Le6n alier gr4.. The Christian kingdom. gtz r3 r . t 1 . It was part of a monasterv built for refugee monks from C6rdoba in gr2-r3. Simpler lvorks resembling San Juan de Baios and N{elque were built by-refugeeswho were drir.r . o n e de 5r. Each apsc opens through a horscshoe a r c h . and the similar buildings in Christian territories to the north suffered in the great raids of'Almanzor at the end of the tenth centur)-.1o. Thc architectural membering. near Le6n. it resemblesSan \. In the interior of Lebcia therc 5o. three in line rvithin a fiorseshoe-shapedin blocky mass of masonrt' at the east end of the church. 3 . near Le6n [5o]. representing the end ofan old tradition. C b r a r r u b i a s . and horseshoe arches were transmitted to Romanesque by the Mozarabic st1. ' l ' o u eo l l ) o n a L r r i r c a .ed in the \loslem dominions. a pair of'lateral compartments.

I t h a s b e c n e s t a b l i s h e db y S e i o r Gudiol Ricart that the building took its general character at this time. Count .. a n d a d e e p o b l o n g s a n c t u a r v e x t e n d e d e a s t r v a r do n t h e m a i n a x i s . dated about ro28. Surviving decorativc elements 01'this building have unmisrakable Ntlozarabic character. . I t i s h e a v i l y b u i l t of Nloorish-looking ashlar. craved the myster]. above which is an apse with an ambulator]'. and it may be that there was an upper level as well.a n d a r a u l t e d c \ t e n s i o n r o t h e the coast near Gerona. San Nlichel de Cura. and the emergenceof a Catalan nationality in the time of' quite fiir the great Abbot Oliba of Ripoll. A text ascribes the interesting chevet to Tassi. who held it staunchll. the bold horseshoe arches give Santa Maria an unmistakably N. Its 'fiftv monks.and platIormt the quatrefoil chapel ol rhe Trinitr uas built on the axis. Investigations at the church show. 955-74 of planand southelevation church F-4trdl ru mPi iitil I totl cr. in 977 a vaulted church with fir'c apses was consecrated there. and it builds tellingll of it that up rather prettily in stages. San \{ichel de Cuxa. Oliba's fbmily was connected with the construction of San Pere de Roda.6 a castlemonastery which stands up splendidly above Br.and altars were installed in it. towards France and Italy.L t W u a and e.e been drawn on in the tenthcentury revival of vaulting f'arther north. a n d m u e h c n l a r g t . and Cluniac in- Moorish tradition. though it was not built b1. The upper part (nolr denatured through rebuilding) is cntered through a horseshoe-shaped arch at this ler. and brood'. as has the nave ofthe church.90 PRE-ROMANESQUEAND PROTO-ROMANESQUE STYLES P R O T O . In Oliba's rebuilding at Cuxa (roog 4o). In Catalonia.against the -N{oors. with its polyfbil nucleus. Charlieu (r. Two large rowcrs of Lombardic character were added.' tlanking a i s l e s . .but the temper of the whole church goes backto Oliba's time. l e a r i n e a n a t r i u m r n i r hl a r e r a l :ntrances (as at Parcnzo. c u r v e d . extensive lands.v of Ripoll. a n d obtained ro]'al French and papal diplomas for it before his death in 958. 5p (npposite) and eleventhcentur)'. l t h e C a t a l a nh o r i z o n . hle hundred shcep. and is empty to half-height. where it is tunnel-r'aulted. As at Cuxa.erv Romanesque. where there had been a stairu. influenceslrom abroad are fused with the abiding east) has long been known. is well known. and onc hundrcd other large horned animals' were put under the protection ofNIiron. . twentv servants. . Iire donkevs.of enclosed s p a c e sw h e r e l i g h t f ' a l l s s t i l l 1 . with a strongly battered prolile . was installed at Cuxa in 962. It i hasbeen partl) rebuilt in the recent restoraron.ision. surlaccs bound the r. lbrty pigs. like contemporarv Ripoll. like Cuxa. with Peninsular cir. It had a plain. Another abbel ofimportance. Thc was a vaulted hurch c o l ' r h c c e n r r a lr r p e w i t h I i a n k i n g of which rhe cireular crlpr (also $irh l'l:. Abbot . with a y-earat Nlontecassino.al. but were nevertheless in contact.and parallel over the sanctuaries. arrangement is r.. which became the dynastic pantheon. ' iA C l u n i a c a b b o t . twent\ oxen. as septimania had been.ilization and the N. The ruins of'the main storev. Within a centurv ol these beginnings the abbe]'rvas powerful antl had built an important church (955 71) [51] Parts of this structure which still survive shol that it was sty'listically \'Iozarabic.+ was founded in 878. for instance.mares. like the from this time. The oldest work is a crypt with an ambulatory. under the Counts of Barcelona. fifiy. and. The marble cloister of Cuxa. .aults have a diaphragm in the nave to permit a clereslorl. Catalonia entered upon a flourishing epoch at this time. the intcresting horseshoc-arched portico of San Feliri de Guixols has been preserved. and suggest that Peninsular skill may har. 5 6 ] . It is to state that a national architectural style was adumbrated ifnot rcalized in the churches built under the auspices of Oliba and his family.zantine. one thinks of Chartres (858).r't'nr ru rEl O O to s IO A1 30FT of Conflent and Cerdagne. stoutly constructed wooden-roof'ed nave and two shortc:' aisles all opening on an extendcd transept. East of the old sanctuarv an angular ambulatory with three eastern chapels was built. 95o). -N1uch history centres in the abbe. However. Thev are lransrerse in 'I'his the aisles. A rare example of civic architecture of the period is the Tower of Doia Urraca at Covarr u b i a s .ery good statically. In this period Count Oliba (-abrcto made rt long risit to Itall'. West of the church o1' Cuxa.R O M A N E S Q U EA R C H I T E C T U R E r N S O U T I I E R N E U R O P E g? are square piers with addossed columns which look r.el. he multiplicd Benedictine mona s t e r i c si n h i s d o m i n i o n s . thirtv-volume librarl'. The ambulatory has an upper gallery with windows which light the apsc. there was later building strongly influenced from Lombardl--. have recently been uncovered. The tunnel r.Ioslems. G u a r i n . long. fluence is traceable in Catalonia Cuxa actually represents the reorientation of Cttalonta. tlro horses. clearlv there is a relationship to French examples in the tradition of SaintPhiliberrde-Grandlieu. \ pair of absidioles opened through horscshoc a r c h e si n t o e a c ht r a n s c p t a r m . sd a t e d a b o u t 9 5 o [ 5 3 ] . Returning. r e f u g e e s[ 7 r ] . a n d .Ioorish atmosphere. or at an Ottonian sitc) rn tront of'the 'l'rinitv main cloors. that some of the N{ozarabic horseshoearches were modified in Oliba's rebuilding. \'Iiss King said 'the Spanish remper. A consecration is rep o r t e d i n r o z z . it hasgrand scale and marked local feeling. who relbrmed t h c m o n a s t e r yo f S a n P e r e d e R o d a [ 5 5 .

T Further study of the monuments and svstematic presentation would help greatly. . alches whichwasbuilt by Theodulph. who camefrom this region' sanctuary SanPerede Roda hasa trapezoidal and bay. a capacious nave with striking T-shaped piers. all vaulted. One final Mozarabic monument.c e n t u r p a i n t i t r g s . . is very different.. Dijon (roor euarin(962).with an arch spanning betweeneach opposite pair nave of piers. mav be introduced. lorT). \\ihile we have followed the convention in calling this Catalan work Mozarabic and Lombard..8 . r c l r v e n t he e n t u r \ ' u i t h t u c l f r h . The plan is like that of a Norse single-masted church with an oblong sanctuary.a transeptwith absidioles.. p a r i s h c h u r c h .. near Gcrona.San Baudeliode Berlanga. in Castile.This higher and more elaborate to is believed be the result of a changeof plan in the eleventhcentury.L o u r o s a . n .an examole noted for its earlv sculpluls 1156.. Quadrant vaults with transverse coverthe tall narrow aisles. 55 and 56 ( abue und right ). Sefror Gudiol Ricart is nearer the truth in classifying it as a voung national style. LrY'.The appliedcolumns. As a kind of swan song of the style in the eleventh century we have the extraordinary hermitage of San Baudelio de Berlanga.l . g r z a n d l a t e r and Saint-B6nigne.tr-. and the horseshoe the shapeof the voussoirs. san Pere de Roda. A central cylindrical pier rises to sustain a set ofeight radiating horseshoe diaphragm arches.the naveand arches are transept coveredwith tunnel vaulting. but the superstructure.W<--1 1. near Burgos [57]. the latter haveapplied shaftswith a varietJ'of beautiful half-Moorishcapitalsrelatedto thoseof MozarabicCuxa.R O M A N E S Q U EA R C H I T E C T U R E I N S O U T H E R N E U R O p E gg S 4 t : . finishcd latcr . Excellent ashlarstone was used for the 4chitecturalmembering. Its very blockl'and austere exterior conceals an interior of fantastic architectonic richness. consecratcd rozz. The resulting design probablyinfluencedthe nave of the eleventhin century church of Saint-Andr6-de-Sordde French Catalonia . which carry a domical vault with a very ingenious little shrine arranged in 57 ( helon). like the Asturian. in an odd way recallGermigny-des-Pr6s.-.P R O T O .

The building has a groinvaulted nave and a sanctuary with three parallel tunnel vaults carried in an unstructural fashion upon columns. with the progress of reconquest.r. Saracenic elements are. 58. and we o ffia!- .IOO PRE-ROMANESQUEAND PROTO-ROMANESQUI STYLES the masonrv above the pier. Formerly Conversely. T h e twellth-century rebuilding of the Cdmara Santa in Oviedo [58] shows this clearly. from the year rooo onward. As the eleventh century progressed. c.{ . the capital was moved to Le6n.O Cirnara Santa. horseshoe arches carry the platform. in consequence./' THE LOMBARD INGDOM K The strange Tempietto of Santa Maria in Vallc at Cividale'r [59. like the Asturian and Mozarabic churches. technicians. the interior was decorated by an extraordinary series of frescoes.d The strong tide of influence lrom the Moorish South of Spain in the tenth century. also prevented the expansion and further development of the Asturian proto-Romanesque style. really an oratory. A raised choir. There are no horseshoe arches at Cividale. knowledge of Moorish architecture increased greatly. is sustained prettily on a forest of slender shafts placed in quadrille (oriental f'ashion). the kingdom was much more open to outside influences than distant Asturias and Galicia had been. among lay folk. l 5. the exrerior is very plain and the interior is very rich. ancl churchmen who had contacts with Spain. OviedoCathedral. however. a component of the mature Roman_ esquestvle. The nalc somcwhar rebuilt.762 76(?) .SantaMaria in Valle. Such knowledge was widespread in areas where Romanesque architecture was being formed ar the time. $ (oplosite)and 6o. which we have been considering. As is the case with San Baudelio de Berlanga. which symbolize the reorientation of the area. toward France. the "Iempictto'. and embellished with sculpturein the twellih ccnturt t I .la Q6z 76) atwhich time the Lombards had south Italian connexions. When. Cividale. irresistible artistic influences came from France with political reorientation and the reform of the church which was effected bv C l u n i a c m o n a s l i c c l e r g _ vf r o m F r a n c e . possibly Moslem influence lrom south Italy is responsible for this. dated about rr5o. 6o] is perhaps most easily explicable as a proto-Romanesque work Roman architecture surviving in a local variation under Saracenic influence. for the style is quite Romanesque. Santa Maria is traditionalh idenrified with a building built by peltru. goz.

King Rotharis's of the near-by Exarchate and explain the character of the Venice would charter of 643 ref'ers to the builders as magistri commacini or comacini.naster-clmpanions of the sco. it became a proto-Romanesque style. the first of their kings to issue laws in his own name. about 7 r 4. What is most remarkable at Cividale is the perfect preservation of a frieze ol six beautiful standing figures in stucco. and indeed this occurred in the ninth century. and for that reason the French have called the style tmperi. pho gave it to the Roman pontiffs (7-5. In the end it made an architectural reconquest ofa large part of the area of the West-Roman empire. their capital. There is clearly some outside influence in the decorative stucco mouldings and bands of the interior of Santa Maria.lr Whatever the meaning. had been a great centre in classical times. Thus. registered the privileges of the builders in 643.it was freed from their rule by Pepin III. Ravenna. Its roots and its stem are Roman. After the conquest (774) the Franks utilized these cadres. and rnacina in Italian may mean a frame or' scaffold. aggressorsagainst Rome and Montecassino. built in the decade or two before 45o. Yet there are two established facts which give the Lombards a place in the history of protoRomanesque architecture. looks towards Romanesque architecture through its perfectly straightlbrward brick exterior. machina in Latin. by pre-Romanesque and Romanesque sculptors in both France and Germany. magistri comacini has been interpreted . and compensation does not admit of doubt. pope. The word comacinr dropped out of use in the early Middle Ages. King Liutprand issued a diplomr with respect to a price scale for architectural and structural work. Because pryX. the region cam!into el en closer relationships with its neighbours. The Lombards. who first clearly discerned the significance of this fact. The Byzantine Exarchate. If the Comacine rdgime was observed ovcr a wide area. its branches are authentically the First Romanesque style. which our exposition takes up merely in their proto-Romanesque aspect. aptly so named by Josep Puig i Cadafalch. which mean: contriver or designing architect. Rotharis. That there was a guild organization of some sort. even the Byzantinism sculptures. Tomb of Galla Placidia. are generally thought of as destroyers. Lombardic.lo Milan. which is that of St Ambrose. Yet Milan was flourishing in the period. and came to be so again. with its continued Eastern connexions. as lambardos came to mean masons. One would expect an architectural revival to begin there. the centre of administration fbr Italy was moved to Milan (in Diocletian's time) and then to Ravenna (4oz). The abounding fertility of the l)o V a l l e y k e p t M i l a n p r o s p e r o u se v e n d u r i n g t h c unhappy rule of the Lombards. and b o l d l y m o d e l l c d l i k e f i n e R o m a n e s q u ec a r v i n g s . its grett bishop (374-97).lr No other early medieval stvle had so august a lineage. Perhaps a refugee from the Byzantine iconoclastic controversy was the artist. maintained an architecture which was at one and the same time a living continuation of Late Roman architecture and an active outpost of the newly-constituted Byzantine style.r. involving establishcd ideas of responsibility. thc name may be connected with some obscure Greek word . without a break.tl. but the life of the Empire at that time was most vivid in the East. the metropolis of Lombardy. The Erarchate has several important Byzantine monuments. the style was first used and spread by the Lombards. On the other hand comacini is an obscure word. Outside the Exarchate. 45o 6r. T H E B Y Z A N T I N EE X A R C H A T E After Rome's glorious period. gracefully posed. Again. Stucco work was practised with rare art by the Saracens and Byzantines. and when thrt was terminated (774). the Ravennate style was simplified until it could successfully be put at the service of the struggling barbarian kingdoms. or Ju Bas-EnPire. they had a fairly well organized state. and it cannot be shown to have a connexion with Como. the Exarchate. especially after the conquest of Lombardy by the Franks under Charlemagne (774\. This latter iurisdicRome and set up by the East-Roman Emperor tion was ylaurice about 6oo' was conquered by the Lombecause they threatened the bards in 7<2.IO2 PRE-ROMANESQUEAND PROTO-ROMANESQUE STYLES A PROTO_ROMANESQTJE RCHITECTURE IN SOUTHtrRN EUROPE r03 should not expect them here at this time.16).avi in Greek.ffold. and thev aided in the task of setting up Charlemagne's empire. even in Spain. However. lbr they spread only after being assimilated into the Nloorish art of Spain. who baptized St Augusttne there in 384. They were applied as integral plaques to the wall. Galla Placidia's 1'amous tomb 16rl. training. comacini may have come to mean simply builders. nor can Como be shown to have had a central'masonic' guild organization of wide importance. with simple corbels and decorative arcading of the sort which becomes the most ('amiliar adornment of the First Romanesquestyle. Because the tradition of architecture was better maintained in the Greek Exarchate than in Lombardy. and we owe Lombardic architecture to the creative work of thesc guildsmen. I{owever. with administrative cadres at Pavia. which iustifies its older name. also more often than we are likely to remember. As Ravenna paled in turn. and. the comacini wrought well in preparing the architectural revival in Lombardy. and thus had something to do with the organization and revival of architecture in the region. papal . and on this basis it has been supposed that there was a guild at Como which created and spread Lombardic architecture.or e\en p4xayrrd6.

had a pair of beltiies on . Even round tower' recordedin the plan ofSt top ofa far as we know in Gall. and chapcl of the Sar iour. 'l'hrough Abbot Odo of Clunv and his successors. is the fact that thel. flanking the main door. . San Vitale has three types oftower the pylons ju:r mentioned. S a n t ' A p o l l i n a r e i n C l a s s e( S : : + 9 ) .are not s]'stematic in their location with regard to rhechurches. the nrme campanile being doubtfully connected withCampania.r v h e r e r . an actual building. D a l matia. In I'act. the belfrv of Pisa Carhedral (the famous leaning tower). vet Benedictines built some of the carliest known belfry towers. Lorenzo in Milan (t. was never represented as The square belfry tower.e rt i s l b u n d . wh<l 62. -I'he round stair tower continued in use.c a l l e d P a l a c eo f t h c E x a r c h s r t [ 6 j 1 .r04 PRE-ROMANESQUE ANDpROTO_ROMANESQUE STyLES P R O T O . are orgatotg) and nized in Blzantine fashion. s e e nn i the early church architccture ol'the West.s.l cylindrical belfrv aftcr the Benedictines took o v e r t h e c h u r c h i n g r o . built up integrally from the ground at Ravenna. alter the 1.B o t h t h e n a r t h c x o l ' t i n o p l e . taking medieval form there.52647 San Vitale (Sz6-+l) [62] has a number ofinteresting f-eatures. vl i k e t h e maturc Romanesque of Lombardl l'et in f unction like thc gu:rrd quarters of'thc (-halki at thc A bell large enough to be heard at a distance could not properly and decorously be rung from the crossing space ofa church becluse ofits verv the exterior belfr5' $eat inertia.al in 1brm than thoseof the mausoleum of Galla placidia and are hencc to be counted in the prehistory ol'thc First Romanesquc style. This is true of the westwork of Saint-Riquier also. France. when the 9 4 8 o r q 5 5 a n d t 1 8 r . but it ma1'be carlier. San Pier NIaggiore has a contemporary square belfr-v. the flanking stair towers ol' SainrB 6 n i g n e . The same applies to the fiontispiece of the s o . at anl rate it is an addition. and a group ol Soanish church in and near Rarennai but the round liut. instead of being a wooden turritus uqet.Its plan suggested that ofthe Palatine Chapel at Aachen. r tS a n t ' A p o l l i n a r c also has an archaic example of the ambulatorv crvpt like that ot Olcl St Peter's. centred at \Iontecassino. was built as an oblong 'I'his tower of somewhat Lombard character' living process is a perl'ect case of a Roman idea on in the Exarchate. became almost universal. one importanr Giovanni (Benedictine in 89J).h. carll' adoptcd bclls Nothing certain remains at \'lontecassino. with the protcctive palace wall. It is sometimes dated as earll as 8oo. and Ger'I'his part of the Baptisterv wall is olien many.D i j o n ( r e a l l y L o m b a r d F i r s t R o m a n c s q u e ) . partly dependent on the narthex of San Vitale.ptete by Lomblrtls bt'gln to c\lend thcir poucr. t h e a d i o i n i n g d w a r f tower with its mate (now destroyed) made a ' p a i r o f ' p y l o n s l t t h e f b g a d e . clid not have a long history there. 'l'here were exceptions like the Irish round towers. the belfry tower. Saint-Philibert at 'I'ournus (rlatcd about t. Switzerland. adumbrated at San supposedly with the one added in 754 started rapidlv to the east front ofOld St Peter's. The exterior of San Vitale has decorative arcading and pilaster strips which are bolder and more medier. m i n o r t o w e r s o f c e r t a i n G e r m a n c h u r c h es (like Trier Cathedral). h a s a n a r c a d e da x i a l p o r c h . g u a r d r o o m r v i t h d o r m i t o r ' 1 . At Cluny the crossing beltry. possessingan undlted but earll' example of the pilaster strip with arched corbel-table between. he observes. Romanesque the west f'agade. after being systematized by monastic practice.L 3 P y l o n s . though difi'erentlv proportioned.1o courtl'ard. o . were developed.R O M A N E S Q U EA R C H I T E C T U R E I N S O U T H E R N E U R O P E IO5 (Fr6mista). 'I'he entrance-tower-and-reliquary chapel at Aachen with its stairwavs is. a round stair tower attached to the narthex. according to Corrado Ricci.l: Most important is thc fact that the squirre belfry was adoptccl early in Lombardy'.car rooo. where the columnar screens are simplifications of its pierced apses. in l'act square belfries veritable Roman .<. . Zlil. T h e p o r c h . Spain. and its mate. Ravenna.and were probablv that of the second church ar Clunr..r u r . ascribed to the eighth centurv. Earliest is that of San temporar\. carried up to form . apse and thc lateral chapels at the east end build up in boldly articulated forms which lbrecast the vigorous handling of masses -I'he bold west front in medieval architecture. and probablv ol'the ninth centurl'.t plays a distinctly minor role in church tower the engaging idea ofa chapel at the design. and. Svrian architecture. Flanking the apse at San Vitale there are two pylons somewhat resembling those of'the con_ x n e w L o m b a r d l w e l l . which is to be the hallmark of the First Romani e s q u e s t 1 ' l c . ra The Benedictines. t h o u g h t h e l ' a r e o c c a s i o n a l l y . and spread thence to Burgundl'. through the First style. which is in Canrpania. spread to Lombardy and thencc. Also interesting fbr our purpose is the upper part ofthe Baptistery'ofNeon in ltavenna. built betwecn built. where it appcared oetore the end of tho renth centurv. is also important lrom the point of view of incipient medi'l'he evalism.v wall (bell-cote or wall belfrl') and. t h c s q u : r r eb e l fr v b e c a m e m a i n e n t r a n c c o f t h e S a c r c d P a l a c ei n C . A sign of'carly date in the various belfiies ofRavenna. o n s t a n tamiliarin n o r t h e r n E u r o D e . usually on a small scalc. l . Thus inevitabl. for grcater height. t h o u g h a fine basilica ol'the ancient type. H e r e w e h a v e a b u i l d i n g w h i c h i s c x t r a o r d i n a r i l . i n I t a l y . San Vitale. being spread to Lombardy and thence to great areasof Western Christendom.arra.

qn. All was surely built befbre the f'all of the Exarchate in 752.a r c h i t e c tu r e ' the current building In the Dark Ages there was littlc 63.ROMANESQUE AND PROTO-ROMANESQUE STYLES PARI TWO STYLES THE EARLIER ROMANE. to Burgundy. struction lould huilcl successful building operations are conducted 'idea man' gar'e them only a or the l1ryXavffi6E This aspect of the art can be traced tiom Ra- .rrchitect W4avi being the worcl for an intrl-. oiano. T h e o b a l d . developed by the Gallic masons' but no tradiabhas e rx 6. the vlulting. the decorarivc arcading. with a particular skill in vaulting' the Greek dpVtircrrr. Palace ofthe Exarchs. writing befbre 85o. Corrado Ricci believed that Romanesque terracotta insets as lbr example at Pomposa [3or] in the porch and campanile built in thc eler. O t h e r f ' c a t u r e so f t h c citv's architecture were also widely known ancl c o p i e d .. style. and' itppr trctrov r e'-c. the incoming Lomtlttstrutlautes tlignun tlii'ino cultui tentplunt building methods into bardic style pushed local patron Under medieral conditions the xerunt'. Gangs would hale their forcmen important which produce a building are more somc would actuall-v come as iarg. conThe magistri in charge ol thc practtcal participation in the intricate teamwork b1'which a rcrl building' even it. to the Rhine work' and even to Hungary' Late Carolingian a strong' satisfictor]' as we shall see. Nlaginardo moved on a rvell-trarellerl road.t'' would direct like ihe In this we recognize Rome's ancient skill in coand work master masons ordination.after7rz 7r2. D i i o n . formed with and consistent style in the west of'France' imposing monuments (now lost) to its credit' into venna to the comacine masters' and thence o f R o m a n c s q u r .IOO PRE. and is described as old by Agnello. the paired openings.B 6 n i g n e. Yet the wall-work ofbig bricks. proje.enth century by Abbot Guido ol'Ravenna a r e o f R a v e n n a t e o r i g i n . but there rvas probably ruhen such nren rvere unavailable' a timc -l'he was man who drew the plan of St Gall the Greek namc tor an like a Greek p4XatrroE'. Its ramifications to southern France and spread to Dalmatia. Abbot Lombardy. but a living and efrfrcacious builder' bably the abbot's dclegate' l'he master of building.identical with Lombard Romanesque work produced in the four following centuries. T'he practical. western France maintained its own to manage his 'First Romanwould generally have a delegate traditions unaffected by the might insirle of ihe builtling opcration' which esque'. s p e a k s0 1 'Nlaginardo arte architectonica optime erudit.lT which calted lbr the scrvicesofhighl!'instructed never prol'essionalmen. and than literary-minded critics suspect' and can o n l y b e a p p r e c i a t c d t o t h e f u l l b y p e r s o n a l t e a m st o t h c s i t e. and transport o1'materials' Leo of 'style' in the literary sense clucle supply It was no mere rebuilding Ostia.SQUE CHAPTER 5 THE.FIRST ROMANESqUE' LOMBARDY year 8oo in LomThe style created about the became the first reallv intern:rttonirl bardy were earllRornan. ot cate device ol some sort' The d'p4rccrctav somewh'rt indethe Greeks rvas a responsible. b i s h o p o f A r e z z o . u'ho carefullv described the which was transmitted from the Exarchate to Desidenus' was pros-Ystem of \[ontecassino b1.2 discard. countrv' Catalonia.arious groups of on a gangs.r ndu s "' tion for vaulting on a large scaleor at high ler els' 1*1Xav ipsum rtpustbctond0' tnsuet mugistrttscondttcentlo In the other regions named. 'clerk of the works''1 William of Volpendent lvall constructlon It had an excellent s-vstemof was both a b b o t o f ' S a i n t . and the buttressing ale practicall]. to a I'amous source of architectural knowledge. Ravenna.t. working s-vstcms r.i whom he sent to study in Ravenna in the vear Ioz6.

b e c a u s ee x p e r i e n c e .eloped from this was called zrpr.. on the exteriors it vanishcs vears' about two hunclred \-aults werc huik. but in Gothic timcs their function is far too well recognizcd ancl too spccialized to be of recent 'l'he creation. One might call the First Romanesquestrlc the st. q'hich from the earll"tenth century onwards becanre i n c r e a s i n g l vt h e i n s t r u m e n t o f p a p a l p o l i c v a n d implcmented the first stages of the pontific. represent sionallv ruled with tblse ioints to a Ilut stucco..r i.Milan.. It is worth noting also that a large portion of the work was clone lbr the monasteries. who had l French name.'into :l'l^:.The masonsmerely split small [rtut""".r. o f a s t o n ew a l l u a s the bed poritio..".alde nnbis necessarii sunt)' .1: horizontalcourses [*.. the more-than-half-Latin Lombard builders were onlv doing for the revir. mattcr o{'the craftsmen sf our buildings whiqS we arc commencing. t o c a l l c r a f i s m e n f r o m v a r i o u s r c g i o n s a n d c o n s i d e r a b l ec l i s t a n c e s . properly applied' has ashlar..'I'he dimensioneddescription o 1 ' t h c a b b c . r'hvthmically decorated and pleasanr to look at. fbr we reall-v nce4 them Q.1'.bl trusses and poles formed lbrm' but \4as and iroro. fbr a longer period.n. From the abbey of F6camp in Normandy. n o w t h a t r e i e r l n t d o c u m e n t a r v e v i d e n c cl b r t h e buildings has bcen discorercd and studied. The magistri nmacini1 had more than thc a n c i e n t r ep u t a t i o n o f ' I t a l i a n b u i l d c r s t o r e c o m 'l'hey mend them. as we know from the obserrcd fact that many-of the dimensions include a room or corridor width plus one wall. a s t h e R o m a n s d i d Such comacine walls wcre called opus ronra'fhc rrrrs. Evidcncc lbr thern in the earll' period is shadowl'. o r ..^ ^ h"iclr-like shaoe.ed once again in the Renaissance. inriat t facing earth was heaped on the tbrms lnd with somecare' vault was a roughrubble laid "'inJun.t n o t p u d d l e di n s u p p o r t i .tim.. rO.r what their forebears had done for the Romrn Empire.s t u c c o w o r k e r s . ^_. dictated the sizc and matcrial of the walls.vleofthis Italian architectural reconqucsr.'l. a A.. he received the plea: 'In 16.. With incrcasing size and complication in buildings.o^ninr rsrr by the tntt was doubtlesssuggested iio. and mosaicists. anclthe vaults solid and stlong which was occawere ofien covcred \\ ith stucco.centurr" he hearting lrtn Short little boards held in "". On the skillin findingexcellent laid in mortar' and the haunches ol invariablyof good qualitv' wcre *nl. i n g . revir. without fbrm work. which lvas pracrical and proved irs t u s cu l n e s so v e r t h e r v h o l e l v i c l ea r e ao 1 ' t h e F i r s r f Romanesque stvle. It hastoo often been in {iom interiors. rather 'So-. had a new type of wall construction. lt': ::1.n atelier thus assembled might become rooted. and fiIn' master masons. i n t h a t a g e o f c o n vcntional and even habitual procedurcs. but the First Romanesque wallwork which der. bri. Lomhardus bccame the word for mason at an early pcriod. onlv a f'erv miles from medieval Paris.. ancient Romans had used facing stoncs also. as well as thc spans and the intcrior proportions.vo f C l u n v o f 1 o .' U n t i l t h e t o r v n s a n d t h e m o n a s t e r i e sb e c a m c large. e\. it would gir. wh116 William ruled.tu."Tf.ri stones . the masons neccssarilv worked as travelling bands.ed Empir. San Vincenzoin PrJto' The walls ing.i. liom the south-east eleventhccnturv' in tradition of church 64.vf-b r m s .m a k e r s .in a regiol which was slowly recovering from the devasrrtions and (afier g r o) the new immigration of the Norsemen. where the Sieometrvof the fbrm' roughll-' shapcd stones thc for materials therrmor. worl' and herringbone or spt(d.k"':'9i'i1 fi.. Bernardo.tn .en where conditions wer( p r i m i t i v e . begun in roor. It makesthe wall-work of r llr4 33. Y c t A b b o r Suger lt Saint-Denis.IOI' EARI-IER OMANESQUSTYLES R E THE.I ilL . g l a s s .. instcaclof maki n g p u d d l c d c o n c r e t ew a l l s l a c e d w i t h t r i a n g u l a r t a i l i n g b r i c k h e l d b . was no better oll. were crrlled b1' bishop Diego Pcldez to work (trom ro7-q onwards) at thc rcmore Galician c a t h e d r a lo f S a n t i a g o d e C o m p o s t e h . When his grclt church rvasundertaken (about rr1.e training to local talent. like Romln raults' orcr . l r e s c o p a i n t e r s .' of the FirstRomrnesqut irliounat in buildings a great 'l centering or f-alse-work u'hich provided the elevcnth.'. a s h e s a \ s .ncrsand clerks of the works came into being the magistri par excellence. Clearlr. myth o1'thc dc\'oted f'aithful spont a n e o u s l vr a i s i n g m c d i c v a l s h r i n e si s d i s s o l r . a more numerous group o(' proii'ssional desig.. T h e v a d o p t c d t h e B 1 ' z a n t i n et y p c 0 l oblong brick (rvhich. abbel church in Dijon.il conqucst of Europe which Gregory VII and Bonilhce VIII achieved. g m o u l d . Rome.Tll"-".5) he r v a so b l i g e d . T'hat is how the plan of St Gall could satisiyan early medieval master. we beseech that you \ill hastcn to send them to us.ft is almost work ln vault were brought up with hearting endur"t. It was the samewith bell-fbunders. ^ j .t ll: I*" II:.difficult. made another anrl more lamiliar architectural reconquest.ii. *h"r"u. and used them toub'"J s or rounded rircr t!"i"iiio'" ck-rish bri a.t ::Tl'::ot :ilt'l. and in time become a centre lrom rvhich craftsmen coulcl he sent elservhere. a n d i t i s b e l i e v e dt h a t t h e i ' w o r k e d o n h i s .ke. found. manv of thcm indubitablv French..5 For a considerable area this process o{'crlli dilfusion started in Lombardv. has come dorvn to us) and built whole walls ol it as we do. stripped beautyol its own.FIRS'TROMANESQUE I09 linear diagram with the chief' dimensions as g u i d e .. credit is giventhesemen lbr their moulded. because of thc mapistrr. illiam o{'VolW piano brought crafismen lrom his native Lomb a r c l r .lll] iik. 1 3 a s m a d c f r o m a w similar linear diagram.

r. San Pietro at Civate. Its exterior is u'ell composed lnd gracclulll' dccorated lvith pilaster strips and arched corbel tables. m e n t i o n should be made ol screral interesting monuments which show continuing Brzantine influence in Lombardl'. except for Renaissance additions. In lvork which can surelv be traced to Lombards.erv cautiouslv. is dated irbout ro4o. 'lhe lirst of these buildings is the bantisterv of Biella.or during thc Frankish occupation (8tz'76) i') latest befbre 9. the Lombard capital.chevet. are characteristic. parts with the and a comparison of the oldest will show how easil-v twelfth-centurY campanile gre\l' oLlt theaccomplished mature Romanesque passing' the of the more primitive stvle ln baptistery should be mentioned as a companlon example of a building of the central n'pe (about goo).i Its only vaulting is in the thrct parallel apses. Yugoslavia. has lost its Carqr lingian and First Romanesque buildings. however. a perlect Byzantine four-column church. dated a b o u t r o 4 3 . rvhere there are three arches rusting on columns. lacking onh' the greater finish of execution and perhaps the sculptural embellishment which are lbund in the Sccond Romanesque style. These have. The third monument.b-v two absidiolcs {bcing east lvithin the mass of the western apse' 'l'hese three elements open upon a woodenroof'ed nave through three arches beneath a tvmpanum fiescoed rvith the Victorl o'r'erElil' 'fhe altar of San Pietro hls a rcmarkable old baldacchinoresembling that of Sant'Ambrogio in NIilan. Second-hand c o l u m n a r c a p i t a l sa n d s h a f t s w e r e b 1 t h i s t i m e almost unobtainable. near Como and Lecco. well rcpr e s e n t sw o r k o f t h e d a t e f o r m e r l t ' a t t r i b u t e d r o i t .and flanking sanctuaries was built' Three monuments near the borders of Lombardy show the First Romanesque stvle on the threshold of maturity. i s l e s . near Norara. 65. f'he apses' the cr\pt. rhough now assigned to the eleventh century. I DALMATA and The f urther spread of the Lombard st1--le' in the round church tvpc. Substantitl p i e r s o f ' l o g i c a l l y 'g r o u p e d e l e m e n t s s u s t a i n t h c 'l'his was r. choir apse. fh. near Milan. Agliate.I. Opposire lhese t-rprnings a r e t h e t h r e e a p s e s . a brick structure so conser\. p5roinvaults were f r e e l y u s e d . the upper one opening on the main apse through an arched colonnade.or. built . a cen- tralized edifice clated about to4o. and r.aulting and the high clerestorv wall' tYPeof building xt the time' a ler-v acccptablc about rozo 4o. with typical arched recessesunder the ea.t h o u g h rough in construction. Sant'Ambrogio has mosaics dating from about 94o. Ivrea Cathcdral (be(bre rooz) has the w r e c ko f a s i m i l a r c o n s t r u c l i o n . has a cr1'pt and an apse. of San Pietro at Agliate. a good representative in the simple columnar basilica of San Vincenzo in Prato [64]. used at high levels. ""a under this plat(brm' crypt *ith lirteral entrances level ol' the church as at at the pavement San Pietro at Agliate Sant'Apollinare in Classe' ofcrude but attractive wall-work' is stone-built. 87s Milan. Santo Stefano in Verona. A CATALONIA ND ANDORRA Westwarclexpansion of the First Romanesque Lombardv stvle across thc south of Frirnce fiom . The Lombardic crypts. and are widelv used within the areaof the style.style ofr. . mu. ' B e f o r e l e a l i n g t h e s ee a r l v b u i l d i n g s . with sophistic a t e d u s e o f s q u i n c h e s a n d b u t t r e s s e s . 1'his part ofSan Vincenzo has the tell-tale First Romanesque pilaster srrips and arched corbel tables..r.IIO EARLIER ROJ\TANESQUE STYLES tHn'nlnst RoMANESQUF." {est of Genoa in Liguria.. It is a double-ender' uith the entrance passageflanked prettill. b a 1s ' b u t t h e a p s e sw e r e p i c r c c d u i r h lrn.. henceforth characteristic of this type ofbuilding. tunnel vaulting is little. when it was describccl at of This building has an interestinganticipation the ambulatory with radiating chapels An annular aisle surrounds the central space' irnd exo p e n s o n i t t h r o u g h a r c h e s .ativel\ rebuilt in the eleventh century that it was accepted (except certain details) as the church of r. 8 7 5 [ 6 S ' ] . San Satiro at \Iilan (ti76) is.u s e d of r t t a s a n c l u a r \ h l v s a n d a p s e sa ( t h c h e a d ^*r did nol rentttre l'he buildcrs ile composirion under the tunnel raulting ol the i'.19. Nlore conventional is the stone-built basilica of San Paregorio at Noli.San Pietro.ur. By the tenth centurv architectural membering of ashlar was again in use.aultsthe Lombards used a derivative ol'the Roman domical or octagonal cloister vault. rather than the Byzantine dome. are both exemplificd San Donato N Zad^r (Zara).tt less plattbrm is raised at San lg.w h i c h a r e s i n g l e cept at the east. i s o n e o f t h e e a r l i e s to f t h e c h a r a c 'lhe apse of teristic Lombartl square toners.er a quadrille ofcolumns. 8r4 j3. a n d tunnel vaults were also common. groin-vaulted or.each of'which is supplied with an ambulatorv.pt. and the aisles are vaulted. The practice ofmaking big blocks especiallv for their places brought about a p r o g r e s s i re i m p r o \ e m c n t i n t h e m a s o n r r ' . a p s e sw e r e r e g u l a r l y v a u l t e d . when the present svstem of cr1. For crossing r.I t h a s a b a s i l i c a n n a v e a n d r u o columns' with a \ault .r'es the main apse.c a r r i e d o n r e .C o n t i n u i n g f r o m t h e a p s e s ( t o e a c h s i d e ) t h e e n c l o s i n g w a l l h : r s a s e r i c so f niche recesses. the First Romanesque style. r s u s u a l 'l b r t h e t h r u s t o l a s e m i d o m c nindo*t than that of tunnel or groin vaulti. Its tower. . sanctuarv there is a spacious groin-\'aulted pi-atro. rebuilt about 99o.

rut. t h o u g h w o r k o f F i r s t R o m a n e s q u ec h a r acter survives in the cathedral of Vence.orrtion nccessar-v trda " the work was well and lovingly . came into a region which built successlirl p e r h a p s P r o v e n q a l ex a m p l e s .tn tiiat dates in Gudiol..n.rulted work is more properlt callrcl Lombardo-Catalan Iiirst Romanesque. the structures setting. and Sanra Cccilia de Montserrat [66] an interestinq church. with thlee p a r a l l e lt u n n e l v a u l t s ) .rl It must be noted that the stvle. e (rrstorccl). -fhe interest ofthe stvle residcsin its ex|111 v a u l t i n g a t a n e a r l ) ' d a t e .]il ratherthan buildings' '*"Tur.with a look of naturalobiects . . a n d s t i l l s u r vir.r: above Prades . Thc stvle sureh camc to (. rvhen the Countl' of'Barcelona was flourishing.rstating effccts of' later prosperity.renees in Rousillon and the eastern part of the Sprnish N{arch of Charlemagne. but a witness' ion. 'I'hese buildings had thcir slopinpt stone roots \{arir filling abore the web ol 61i directly . The new modc at first coalesccd with and then supplanted a stronglv Nlozarabic architectural st\1e.rr.. fiom the east tem. Senvor Puig i (.tut. the year rooo a notableexampleof "fr.atlrrl h l c h b e l i e v e s h a t r a u l t e d c o n s t r u c t i o nt a n l r q t traccd back to the middle ol the tenth cenrur\. \Iontserrat. perhaps the one dedicated in 957.r111 'l'he resultrnq tunnel-\.giT or latcr."t. s o a l s o S a n t a at Amer. werc in a lbrtunate period.h Catalonia' about sixt-v-five .tlbblt is practicalin southernbut ^iiif. norv in French Catalonia (aisled.o that the building standsirs to the in complete its inspiring original setting' agc [67-q]' ('haracarchitectrr.t Lonbardo-Catalirnstvlc was built this vaulted spur of the hugc mounsn 1 pi.. dedicated in 949.que calleclthe Canigou.h.' .W i 5 n roor z0 6r rnd 68..tttt are ver] happilyrelated l"r. ..Ricart particular) of Senor later' Low and unassomewhat )iJ.. SantaCecilia. tunnel vaults related to Roman. \Ioslern.nur. uhich oprnlon climalesConserrartre lnt in not.atalonia bv land and by'.THE.. I ' h e C a t a l a n s .m o n u m e n t s . a b o u t 9 5 o . In that 1'ear St Stephen at Baiiolas rvas rebuilt in t h e s a m ew a v a f t er b e i n g b u r n e d b v N o r s e m e n .ri" rn"* Long-continued neglect in Fr. He datcs thc church ol' L'Ecluse (La Clu:rr1. s e a .t h e n a s n o w l i v i n g o n b o t h slopes of' the Pr. r. of that remotc to St teristicallyit is a monasterl-(dedicated lro m i'i I \ l[[l ilq W. N { a n v g o o c le x a m p l e s x e r e b u i l t . Saint-\'lartin-du-(-anigou. The result is that the Irirst R o m a n e s q u es t y l e i s b e t t e r r e p r c s e n t e di n C a t a lonia than anywhere elsc.FIRST ROMANI]SQUE rl3 II2 E A R L I E R O M A N E S Q US T Y L E S R E i s c e r t a i n b u t n o t w e l l m a r k e d b y e a r l y .. intcrior and analltical perspcctir .r o o l i d churches were also built.e almost unchanged in back-countrv places lvhich have cscapcd thc der'.t h o u g h w o o d e n . "go. rvith its characteristic masonrv rvork and decorative sys66.

C a n i g o u . 6 9 .roor to roog (for a preliminary consecration) and Ioz6.but. to*r. \ 4 a r t i n .ement. the lateral recesses (including a chapel with a quadrant vault). The three long tunnel vaults which cover the nave have only ten interior two sets of four supports columnar shafts with simply-can'ed capitals. Saint-Martin-du-Canigou is an excellent piece of architecture: the more so because it is of earl-v date .a f t e ra p r e liminary regime under Oliba. Clearly. separated bl two grouped piers supporting arches which greatly strengthen the middle part of the building. The church interior is lighted only from the ends.I o o r 2 ( )( r c s t o r c d ) . view from the south Martin) with the austere. For its period. Also. in f-act. a p p a r e n t l y . The church is on two levels. the superstructure of the church is a remarkable achier. except at the head. solidly built church and conventual quarters arranged about a small cloister. where a tunnel vault is most likely to collapse.d u . The tower. ilnd consequently the three church apsesextend beyond the crypt rpr. many of the monastic services take place at night. The monk Sclua. and the monastery buildings abut the high vault so well that only a fraction of it collapsed during a century's neglect of the rooling surface after the secularization and abandonment of the site in r785.Beyond the west end ofthe church crypr there is another. it is contiguous to the church on the north-east. Awinding approach road leads to and through a splendid big tower. which might seem to be a defect in the building . The rooms command lovely views. which supports a platform in front ofthe church proper.rr . The latter is as long as the two crypts together.. This tower composes beautifully with the rocky masses and with the building group. and therefore natural light was not so important.ds the east. became t h e f i r s t a b b o t i n r o I 4 . who superintended the building. abbot of Ripoll and Cuxa. Its crypt has tunnel vaulting with transverse arches carried on two frlesofgrouped piers. it was usual for the monks to know large parts of their liturgy by-heart.S a i n t . strategically placed and crowned with Moorish stepped battlements which break its substantial mass against the skv as happily as the characteristic pilaster strips and arched corbel tables model its ample surfaces. where there are two oblong piers and two columns carrying a set of nine groin vaults iust in front ofthe three apses. later bishop of Vich (Ausona)' whom we have already mentioned.r.

which is usual in the stvle. Its magnificent plan was unmistakably inspired by Old St Peter's in Rome. connected iconr ographically wirh manuscripts created in thr scriptorium which flourished from about g5o.tenth or clerenrh centurr . but it must be remembered that the church had extensive fres- coes. and mathematics. and the vaulting as unmistakabll.le. and Vich is not remarkablcl but at Ripoll there are still in existence a lcrv interesting pieces which show the influence of fine Moorish workmanshipr(. Ripoll was one of the lights of its age. Ripoll.by Roman imperial works.i n t e r i o r( n a r ev a u l tm o d e r n ) . transept. astronomv. and dedicated to the Virgin on r January ro3z)l [7o-3]. obstructile piers (which made the modern tunnel vault possible) give a sombre character. r. The chief strr_ viving embellishment of the building is a carlg6 doorway ofthe twelfth century. Afier many vicissitudes the building was restored (imperf'ectly. and ui"* lrom thc south-cast ilan 7o and 7r. the great abbot of Fleurv. [7r]. and it5 school was illustrious for works of historr. a iewelled altar. but parts ofthe transept vault are old. With good (restored Santa\4aria' r ' ro2o-. Santa Maria de Ripoll was without doubt one of the grandest works in the First Romanesque sty. and seven apses was begun about rozo (possiblv incorporating some older work). Santa\'Iaria. romantically. n d a capitalin N{crorish stvle. and too radically). rozo 3z (restolerl r 8 8 6 g 3 ) .12 rz and73 -Ripoll. between r886 and r893. and a mosaic pavemenr with animals and sea monsters. and the heavy. T h e r a n g e o f O l i b a ' s o w n a c t i v i r i e si s i n d i c a t c d by his personal friendships with Pope Beneclict VIII. ft had a large library (246 volumes in ro46). with Gaucelin. and (it is said) with Hugh of Semur who became abbot of Cluny shortly after Oliba's death. poetry. The rough stone.L. music.. 'I'he stone sculpture at Saint-Martin-cluCanigou. The nave vault is modern. A spacious cruciform church with double aisles.I16 E A R L I D R R O M A N E S Q U ES T Y L E S f'he architecture of the period came to a high point at the monastery of Ripoll under Oliba. Cuxa.

r'q same marble was also used for cloister capitals. signed in f'frri ls tt . cledicated in 98o) [77l manv outside cont:rcts through its church hatl Lombardic vcr-r {hmous atelicr o|enamcllers (szq q8)' . apse: and. with Christ in gloly.b e c a u s eo f t h e r e s e m b l a n c e thc second church olclestparts ofthe building to Io5. but showing details of Nlrsl e m o r i g i n . i'o'JJ.cr. Coblenz' as oi the \Iore doubtful is example cnd of the tenth centurl A striking at c i t e d i s t h e f a q a d et o r v e r o f t h e c h u r c h often Rcichenau'htrt this -\littclzcll on lhe lsle of monks. a marble lintel dated rozo-r. and hardlt glyptic in style: it looks like a cop-v of stucco-lvork or metal repouss6 [74].toil upp. 'l'ournus and the regions around Clun. r s The marble employed is local.. Iater a Cluniac prior.*0f.ll a b o r a t e d i n t h e s p r e a da n d d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h i s sculpture for cloisters and portals. 'l'het'occur b e t w e e n9 7 5 a n d r o 8 o i n B u r g u n t l l . had priories at Saint-Beat. a n d s i x o f ' t h e a p o s t l e s . buildings One ot the oldest conspicuous German tersion of the Lombardic sholving a be St pilastcr strips and arcading appears to under Otto the Pantaleon in Colognc (begun This Great.nnaorrr.a n d b l o c k c a p i t a l s ' G o o c l f'accd with ercellent ashlar' r.".. altar lrontals.1. (rog5) and Toulouse (ro96).turning for another that thc foreign influences lntro*a try t"t about rhe \car looo . \ n d o r r a ' t h i c h i s ( i n a w a ) ) b u t (oloma' " " lre.h f-. tower: gire much rn.oI Saint-Genis-des-Fontaines.i. doctrinal use of figure sculpture on church exteriors . 955 8I) [ro4' GERNIANY radiating abSt M:rry.tT Such enlarged use ofrrpocah'ptic iconography was the more natural in view of thc special interest which northern Spain and southern France had in the subject. and Arles-sur-Tech. as Lombarcl pilaster strips':rrched German c o r b e l t a b l e s .v. Saxon England. the circular chapel with the Feste Nlarienburg..*.. In f'act.' c o u .fr-i. style' Later works in the maturer many beautif'ully finished *fti. resulting lrom imaginatively illustrated and widely circulated manuscripts of the Commentary on the Apocalypse 'Ihe church of. the use of ligural decoration on the arcades of cloisters inaugurated one of its most poetic cpisodes.gi"n' F i r s t R o m a n e s q t r ew e r e s l i l l p r o . btrt the-ycannot (at an-vrate for the present) be con- T H EK I N G D o M o t ' A R r . Saint-Andr6-de-Sordde (inspired churclr. Saint-Pons-de-Thomidres (ro13o).r".aa inro thc architccture the marurc Romanesquc to ]u"ntutltl brought meanwhile mant tardr exhut .a n d t h e g r a n d t r a d i t i o n o f C a r o l i n g i a n than an]'monumentllitv was more imposing t h c l t a l i a n s c o u l d b r i n g t o t l .fr.r'allconstruction.a noveltJ' in Western Christendom.THF- (FIRST ROMAN[.rlier q66. has a handsome Catalonia produced .u. to the countrvsidc This is particu""i.ryt. and because the milieu was intellectual. l r s We have alreaclvsccn the expirnsion of the Lomb a r d F i r s t R o m a n r s q u es l \ l c i n l o L i g u r i r : i t moved up the Rh6nc Valle-v to Switzcrland and Germanv in the tenth centurv.' at Clunv (948 or r.lintel. who engaged to work on lanbudtts' The dral with four compani on ofthc church they built is an excellent example mature Lombard Romanesquc st-vle[233']' when This old st-vlewas not cntirely givcn up reached Catalonia' Verv the Gothic eventuall.thc use of apocalyptic themes carved in relief on church portals was initiated in early eleventh-century Catalonia.".T h e f i g u r e c a r v i n g i s obviously archaic. and with it one of the most brilliant episodes in the historv of sculpture. vet their vaulting technique and to adopt improve . it may be supposed that some members of Oliba's circle suggested the serious.. of rn. at Wiirzburg' sidioleson but tts has been claimed as a monument of 7o6. by half-Moslem San Pere de Roda.SQUE' II9 IItJ E E A R L I E RR O M A N E S Q U S T Y I . Romanesquc was superior to Lombard First o o o r k .E S stonc-carvers becoming available in Catalonia. we becamc Cluniac in gz9' Romainm6tier. who used Resurrection iconographl in their liturgical processions. 7-1. as Serior Gudiol Ricart says) has a similar lintel.v and Diion (whither the st-vlewas brought about 9tl7 follow it to or roor by William o{'Volpiano)..". i n .rsr. it is certain that thel. t l . i n u a t i o n o f C a t a l o n i a S a n t a t i nt tower of round . O n t h e f a g a d eo f t h e c h u r c h o f A r l c s sur-Tech. The intellectual and art-loving Cluniac purposefula sysrem i so conr incing and nj e"c ue id ni .io beautiful museum at Barcelonaincludes rc-mounted ficscoes. It has bccn used since antiquity. Of this more will be said later.r.rr which and later For the existing church.ntu. datable to ro46. baldacchinos. Concurrently. Leaving asidc .v often the sun-baked sober brown bulk of a thirteenth-centur-y cathcdral or a fburtccnthcenturv tower will be esscntiallv Romanesque' The church paintings long retained a Roman'I'he esque imprint. more 61 less contemporary. is a cr.. lrter BurgundJ 'momcnt to Catalonia' R. explanation of the contract p c r i o d ) b c t r v e e nt h e l r 7 5 ( r e a l l yi n t h e G o t h i c Raimundus Chapter of the Seo de Urgel and the catheLambardus. ro-:. carlv rlso in Wimpf'en St Castor. Saint-Genis-des-Fontaines has the oldest preserved architectural example. Well-carved altars wcre made of it and exported. the date 996 ofthe i s a c c e p t a b l e .u.. t f rt as can lhese doctlina] dctelopment and French Catalonia' Languedoc' llrir ". two angels. bv Beatus of Li6bana (78o). a better contact with ccrtain spiritu:rl aspects ol Romanesque art ma]' be attained.l. and its Lombardic identification is not certain There was featurcs appear to be of later date'12 penetration of Germany b-v Italian a continuing onrvards' inllucncc from Charlemagne's time with'First Romanesque' but eristing examples less like the f'eatures look to the practiscd e1'e than lrorks of Italian architectural missionarics trained in the likc the achicvements o('Germatrs rvilling to tradition of Carolingian building. with Christ in glory and the s 1m b o l s o f t h e l b u r e v a n g e l i s t s . .r eN o r t h l a n d thing at th(j tlme. and Byzantium. German. In the architectural constructions of the earlier period there are man) scrltered examples of sculptural ernbellishment. and many other obiects 'I'here is no place rvhere associaterl with the culr. lbr example at Cuxa in French Catalonia and at Toulouse.tf.ft in its turn was much cherished' . late examples turn up 'l'his in Clun1.i t.

ura .ra of Germany near the end of the heart of the people was in the church .n ..i:7 35). commandingskill in the composltronoI E m p i r e a t c r i t i c a l medieval Germanf it was still unavoidIn their varied elements. were spread far and wide.vnasty. a reminiscence surlived the change ei orientation which made Serbia a Bvzantinr state.I2O R S EARLTER OMANESQUETYLES work. Goslar).t. who reigned fell to troyecl the Western Empire.:l o CflAPTEn ARCHITECTUREIN GERNIANY ROMANESqUE (936-1125) S A X O N A N D F R A N C O N I A NE N { P E R O R S U N D E RT H E 1flE OTTONIANSI RoN'tANESQUE THE OTTONIAN queathed to us by the Early Romanesque flowconever. but the principal architectural centreof gravitf in Germany' and tained anct becomingly act as court figures' Produced influencedchurch designswhich could more or important go\iernmental are among the most impressiveof those be.ooo) were ibrtified an attractivedecorative *nL architec". the Papacy of the long process putting the governmentln which came to the nadir.under Sincethe Carolingianage the country ruler.ceives in his monastery.ign of Otto I. must be assigned to ro482rIzo]. and easily reached neighbouring Hungary and Moravia."tur. called the sheltering power had of the communitl. rimes (ro7fr' r z5o)' tlew. from Ravennato Old Russiacameas nearfollowed by German castles (ultimately numbering bringing some technicalimprove. and refusing to its The great monks he is r e s c u eo f t h e R o m a n C h u r c h Characteristically buy off the barbarians. resulted developed't tanturbancentres subsequently a fbtal loss ti.Werla the unqualified and this conceptlon' whereimpor. It was monasticism order . with in schism applied to the Papacv. the Great unity of the Chrisarchitec. and where the churches are (936 73)' The inde.at Studenitsa (r. Zhicha (rzoz-zo). and counts for something in the beautl o1 churches like that of Manasija. of grandeur the aspect the Church was cherished as the spiritual Ottonian.. Rascia (naissant Yugoslavia) borrowed Lombardic motifs from early Dalmatian work.r<'lin Byzantium (as in England still)' secondimperial Renaissance' -any.y.. greatly iniured the The Saxon ecclesiastical goYernment' internecine feuds' *. once integrated into German architecture. probably from Germany. by ilynasty was inaugurated King Henrv I' the but desDuring the confusion which had all from 9rg to 936 He began Fowler.because the d.rn Church (ro54.rahit..thel' came to have .theystill breathe the massive and pendence greatpowerof German Traditionally in Gerof the tian Imperial communitl.reobedience which at of fortification. (near and Quedlinburg. and perhaps also from Norman-Apulian buildings acrossthe Adriatic. the renewal brought about notable 'Ihere was' tor struction over a wide area' of militart which we have i n s t a n c e . as Louis Grodecki's to rely on churc. preserved' ture.as well as from dynasttc Vikings. rrt1. Conflict with the Popes' wars with the Slavs'the of an anointecl terribly from suffered international who were developing an eftbctive the Magyars.pi.assuringthe frontier. Ett. to reformed the Papacl uere accustomed rememberecl architectural historv for works u h o in an abbot. rz45) and are' churchdesigns in the Whilethe Orlonian of the Western ls th. and Empire. I'he imprint of Lombardv was strong at first in Yugoslavia .ra themselvesan external sign u. Thev also much later reached Russia in a modified form.especiallv Merseburg.agglomerative. . German and Slavonic. according to recent studies. and contributed superficially to the elegant beauty of the twelfthcentury churches in and about Vladimir. The Lombardic themes. of bishops importance. Thus the rhythm of the Late Roman pilaster strips and the ripplc ot their connecting arches lived on to appear in the architecture of the medieval empires.oa.hmen ancl monograph L"lrchiterrure otlttnicnne(Paris' able lbr the rulcrs servlces church organization fbr many essentlal I958)admirabl)proves.rkn.. at this time' Yet the to system the lv ro.ere a of authorit-v bv the gol'ernment Carolingian tra<lition. and Visoki Dechani (r. a g e n e r a l d e r e l o p m e n t st-'-'le The First Romanesque m a n l o f t h e s i t e sw h i c h a r e g r a c e d architecture. resupport' The ranking abbots becamethe and for fiscal Saxony. contemporirr\ with the Turkish conquest.

Of thc work bcglrn afier 966.ne exampl.t l v o m o r e .r e ri t i s c c . l e .. which in 967 became the c a t h c d r a l . r r c c n t l . . each of these featurcs would scem to have occupied a square about r2o f'ect on a side.G e r n r o d e S t C l r i a k u s . founded in 96r b1' l{arerave Gero. should be recalled here as a work of the reigns of Otto the Great and Otto II.i o b u i l d i n g s t h e c a t h e d r a l so f N { a i n z . of bold Ottonian agglomerative comPosition' S t P a n t a l e o ni n C o l o g n e . . directh' toward the cathedral.w i t h a n a t r i u m a n d b a p r i s r e r l ..r.a l o n g l r i t h c o p i o u sl . i. \ \ i l l i g i s ' s c a t h e d r a l r v a sb u r n t o n i t s d c d i c a t i o n d i r v i n r o o r . built with a sLrbsidy from the bishop. h 7 r . C e r o ' s c h u r c h .r. The flanking round stair t u r r e t s o f ' t h e c a s t l h g a d e .. d e p r i v e d u s o f t h e s e e x a m p l e sa l s o . o l \ I a g d e b u r g ' so l d c a r h e c l r a C c r r r r . t a i n that the layout resembledthat o1'thecarheclral o l ' P a r e n z o . f a g a d co f \ I a i n z C a t h e d r a l h i r d a c c n t r a l a p s e .:rtcran. qqt) Jtis saidthat qrve funds to complete the work. through a propi.. U n d e r t h e s ec i r c u m s t a n c e s the construction of a number of'r. t w o r o w e r s .. r Except lirr the atldctl \restcrn .. I t i s s u p p o s e d t h a t there rvas alreadv in Willigis's time a western transept about 6o f'eet rvide and zoo I'eet long rvith a single apsc. . en(l \ orms among rhem. r / r i ..erv imposing.. finished and dedicated in g8o. granite.. r t i n e r h r t h m i c l r .r.. and c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e r e v e r s eo r i e n t a t i o n o l ' O l d St Peter's. u n c l e a r .. the Empress Theophano (d. u e l l c o n s t r u c t e di n c r c e l l e n t u s h l a r m a s o r r r .1. H c f b u n d e c la c h u r c h h e r c .v etcrmincd by Willigis's building.csenlcd in middle Cernrrnr br rhe lbrnrcr. which is a f. Herc there would be an analogv lvith St John f. a l r e a d l m e n t i o n e d .I r.. The exterior is a graceful interpretation though without the lanterns.r r c s. Yet Otto thc Great's period is well repr.lr n di n r t . . .r. .rr e s t ( ) r e ds t i l l e x i s t . . were strong in the design. I r i s a b o u r h a l l r h e r r z . 'I'hrough t h i s a n d n r o r e o \ ' o rt h r o u g h m a n l s u b sequent building episodes notablv in to6o . most unchangcd. \ new 'I'he new east tledication took place in roj6.. s e r r .It was fbrmerll'approachcd.I22 E A R L I E R O M A N E S Q US T Y L E S R E f. of Saint-Riquier.1r. ancl the nar. e w a s a v a s t w o o d e n _ r o o f t d bastlic a n s t r u c t u r e v r . thc crrthedral of Rome. fbr thc majcstic lines of the verr ellborate existing cathcclral uere largel.and influence from Old St Peter's in Romc.inherited perhaps lrom Willigis's building.un. e db v B e n e d i c t i n c s 'l'rier from (955)..._ r.ebuilding 1.a n d w a s r e c o n s t r u c t e d i n s i m i l a r f b r m ( t h o u g h p e r h a p sw i t h a t r c l b i l w e s t s a n c t u a r yr v h i c h i n c r e a s e dt h e c o m p o s i t e l e n g t h to about 6oo fcet) bv Archbishop Llardo. r i c n l i o m t h c s o u l h . t h c n a \ . r i u r w es t . \ l a n _ vt l c t a i l sa r . A u g s b L r r s . c a t h e d r a lb u i l d i n g s i n O t t o n i a n a n d I i r a n c o n i a n times needsno f urther explanation. and that a church of the central t]'pe. r v i t h t r v o a i s l e s . 'doubleand the building \ras consequentlv a ender' like Fuldrr. Otto the Great (9j6 Z3). developecl Magcleburg as G e r m l n r ' s g r e a t b a s t i o na g a i n s rr h e S l a r s . which in_ corporates columns of porphr. like the latter building. a t the a . c s { ) u r c e s an(l c o n s i d e r a b l ep o l v e r .Cologne. perhaps thc Constantinian cathedral.. bur r. 7 . a n c lt h a t t h e c a t h c d r a l w a s t b r t i f i c ./c/i. are and the y94ical. r .ies t .Grouns of b u i l d i n g s l r e a s s o c i a r e tw i r h c c r t a i n h i s h o n s . Bruno. are now ascribed to Bardo's roconstruction. d Its red sandstone bulk is sharplv cletached against a long woodcd ridge.v. here. T h e b u i l d i n g r v a ss o m e u h a t s m a l l e r than the cxisting Gothic structure.. begun under Archbishop \\rilligis in 97tl.. r r a g a i nrs re S l a r s .en church of St Cvriakus at Gernrode t h S. nt the east end.. . . It is handsomclv austerc in t h c i n t er i o r . w h r : r er h e r e i s . lav bevond. In the reign of Otto II (97j 8t) the major church enterprise was the ncw and greatcr crrthedral of \'Iainz. t a i n a l s o t h a t r h e e a s t e r na p \ c \ a s f l a n k c t l 6. a r_ ofcolumns undcr arches with substantial ladon piers. ancl marble brought fiom Italv fbr the original build_ i n g . r l .. Pantaleon. and thc grand scalcol'the building is perceptible to-da]'. which is thus risible for many' miles down the vallel'.r. i n a l l c a s e sm a r k e d b r c l e m c n r a ls t r e n F l hr n d s u p e r b g r l n t l c u r . l a n d r e l l e c r r h e i r ( a s l e . onlv the wcstwork with three towers retains its original character[771 St 966-8o..1 g a l l e r i e sa n d e x t c r i o ra r c a d i n ga b o r e t h e .-laeum-chapel of St N1arl' and an atrium. At \'lainz.e.r v o r k ..r (-arolingian influence. The cxisrinqcalhcdrxl hus rcrerse oricnlation. i -l'hc chrrrch inaugurateda ser..1. 5 n d 7 ( r . porch modcrn 77. who rcnewed rhe Imperial office in 96z. who was Otto the Great's son.r O'TTONIANROMANESQUE I23 \ a t t r i h u t i o n s . t . rirl.a n d s o m e r v a l l .l. and it stands on a lorv shelf above the Rhinc close to the con'Ihis latter riler llows flucnce of' the N{:rin. . l. . i t hc o l u m n a r s u p p o r t s i t i s crr_ .2The crossing is stronglv narked' mrsonry proportions.q 6 r a n d l a r c r .

however. 3o9] and Roucn Cathedral).- rowers un was u.-lr A i i"ri.(....a . but a connexion cannot be traced. n 1p a r m a ( ."*.Iaximinin 1-rier. Italian and French eramDles o f t h e d i s p o s i r i o na r e w e l l k n o u .lllll..3j.c s t o r n l r o r r r r t l r n o l t a g a d e . to the Cluniac monks. -:. bishoy ofPaderborn. rhc Suchatria Li. countr). Augs_ burg Cathedral is probablr in thc linerec of s u c ht o w e r .a s t h c t r a i n i n g g r o u n d of Benno ofOsn:b r i i c k ( r .*. h a s a n a p s eo n t h c a x i s . bcini a t t a c h e d l i r c c t l r t o t h e e h t r r c hp r n p a r .t". i r i t h c l e r u s r o r i r . ..ra squarefagade gonal rower set between.rcxcararion).:iifi ".iol'JatH". large and in 994 building. o f i i c co l r r o r l s f b r H e n r r l l l a r r .S t r l s s b u r g i s i m p o n a n r t o o ..il .. asis rhecase parenzo r-r.l. The list incluclcs th.S t r a s s b u rC a t h e d r a lr.. abour ror5. i r n d t h u s it was an influential dcsig.. a s n c w l v f i n i s h c c l a: C l u n r .[j tin"e old monasterv of St X.n (ro. a start $. at thc east or en_ $snce faQade. \ l l s e r c b a s i l i c a nn t b r m . and is said to have visiter tllalUcf in companl.which..r24 o rTON tAN RONt NLsQr E 4 o li.il" I r a 1 1 . arer. t.er:_ tuallv prer-ailedover rhc triparrite Saint_Riq uie: t h e m c .onstanc. I'Iinstcr at Essen. resemblinga {iaction in a dcep rccess. r t i e( .ears roo2 12. rvas responsib: for this work.en age is recalledin the i.r. G IE iit on the scale of' the eristinp. t h e o saintedEmperor Henry Il (rooz 24) of happ...c l a t i n g f i o m t h e t w e l f t h cer_ t u r t . and came to be widell used. qurt]-atrheopening of i. Characteristicallr.thc ncw cathedral of'Ar-rgsburg. . tolver behinclrhem..jt ine nrs ruror Gerbertof napnsr. n Il [fl il monumental church construction u.w i t h p o r c : a h e t $ c c n .iun.^. i t h a t..u.I. laqade rhe raarea tor. s i r h Reicl( j n a u .b l H u n g a l . Undcr Henrr II..l3iff ffI ffi."_ wa_r. : i ar:nooden roofing. the t1'pical carhedral frontispiece. j The tower arrangement is handsome. and rva. i n r o r 5 .-t:. Henry II was interested in church relbrm: hc grouped a congregation often abbeys about thc Carolingian cacher has beenmain_ .{bbor Odilo ol Clunr ar Ronte in ror+. b u i l t c a r r l e s{ o r t h c I a t t e r . 'fhc Strassburg tagacle cheme wls aclonte_ s i n a l a i r n u m h r .ieu. which ras startctl g 7 9 . p r e s e n t c dh i m n i r h thc. u .tagdebursand . \ ' l a r m o r .fierr.E x c a r a t c c l f b u n d a t i o n s s e e m to in_ dicatc thar this building u. a n d g e n e r o u s l l p r o p o r t i o n e d s q u a r ea x i a l bell-. as in the other Ottonian m c e t h e d r a l s e n t i o n e d . II and Otto III is thc original church of Wimpf. lvhich er. It.a d. H e c r e a t e da n e N c c n t r c o l .v memory.ts. H c n r v I I ' s g r c a t c t . ::-?l:"r'.iu--. thc bold arch Chapel. Abor. r o f b u i l t l i n g si n n c a r _ b r . In \.t" SharedberweenOtto tarned [78. was built hcre ^the as a a gallcrr at westcrn ". c o r o n a t i u n .i'.|.tou. a spcciali_pu.Charlemagne's Ruhr a hexagonai 9.. perial crown and orb. a great deal of.. choir. rs srmplerrhan that i::i]f' n"..9 _.5or)+). Aurillac. Tri (9. e r so f s t r a s s b u r g ..the abbelsof Einsiedcln rorr ( o. of the f]ct tha. r e r r . i'.1"^t"_*u (. r o z 8 8 .\{ainz.: l:. and their interestin an'rii n t h e O r r o n i a n . r u n .X.t:lr. s e l l c .'i lr fCrrr. i:t. a carhedral and residence were built in the r.. Burchard..i'.'':: Pa. . howeler. i m o c r i e l p o w e r a lB a m b e r gi n t h e e a s r . o1 Palatine.l:U. . Ort: III (983-rooz)i.ffl.. .. scrrccl its olcl character throughout long_co:_ t i n u e c lr e b r r i l d i n g .ti:2. S t r a s s b u r g . (to(r989). which b.of.:. na|e respecti\ ell IZq]..rrtLtlt brillianceof..programme ruct otto III (e83rooz).p.as planncd ro har.ent forward during his reign.Sr \trrclius. and the remains which har. of the newmillennium.s. in ror5. T#::1 . is sented _l:isn:f )_.r v h o u a s i n c h a r s c of tl.:'.. s c ( d i r ..n. a s i m i l a r n a r t h e x f a q a d eu . N c r v c o n s t r u c t i o n r v a si n i t i a t e c lu n d e r Hen. h Hirs..a.:. t p..p a i r s i n n e a r .. T h c p a i r c d \ y e s t e r nt o u .hich has largclr pr. (Kaurzschl it jl.w h c r t . .. t h e l a t r e r f a q a d e . lH e n n I\. frr...s. and still existn.o totyers-.l. me: . with Meinwerk. rhan merelv enrrance not *.1 ) .Th" d"o. b-t'the western buildine ba choir and . II at \\iorms (.31. ( l o r t i 7 r ) .igs-roo3)._const lon.n l i o n t o l t h c a i s l c sa n . rh. made r_rn great Earl\ Romanescluc a cathedral a. .e come down to us nobly exemplif'v the tempcr o f t h e t i m e .s i n l o r 5 a fl..n. Henrr. a n c ' I . m a v w e s u s p e c td i r e c t i n f l u e n c e.1iti1:il. simple in plan :rnd austere r: their architectural lines. "ri"ii'.. It had a pair of' square inportant towers set flanking the aisles. cathedrals of Basel (ror9). a sh i s c o u s i n ..had in architecture.* . h a s ( ) c t a l l o n a lc o r n e r t u r r e t s . bishop ol \\iornrs. fiiendll.:il:'":A.:i: .. made. i a r i o n s . of Aachen. l"p. \ I a r r r s m i r n s t c r r .. in N{entionshould be processional Iitureies.. a i h e dral [3o8.-: it known rhat thel.r1go1 with galleries.rheEmperor anct '. ancl (.. Sch:rH lust.athedral. it simple oct. e c t l ri.e sr . n o b l e s q u a r e r o w e r s a t t h c t b g a d e . im. rhe cornersrlse two ". T h e s u c c e s s o r f O t t o I I I s .. a n du j r h r a r .

r r o z u . IIc hacl oeen at Mainz as subdeacon during the con'I'herc crossir..o r T . P a d c r b o r nC h a p e l f s t B a r t h o l o m e wr. p r o r c d b r t h c c o n s t r r r c t i o n . e r v u n _ mistakablv Germanic in fceling. St Nlichael now shows everv indication of its original arrangemcnt. is interesting as rhc firsr example in north Ger_ man\'ro be built on Cluniac lincs. the peninsula in C)tto III's srritc who went to the ' in roor This subject inevitablr calls up anothcr northBishop Bcrnu-ard's cherishcd German church a t H i l d c s h e i m " [ 8 2 .iourat Sr. o r 7 .tirgade. crlpt is reached by a semi-subterr a n c r n p a s s a g eb u i l t o u t s i c l et h c s a n c t u a n a n d cnclosing it. navebefirrcreconstruction ral.cn without thc tall steep spire. Reconstruction ofthc church after screre war damapJe has given us back the original clesign. \ . The westcrn part has a transept terminatetl at each end b1-galleries and a slc'nder ext e r i o r s t a i r t o $ e r I b r c o m m u n i c a l i o n . with a square lantern at the 8o. Thc eastcrn part of the building . begun about IooI. Its compositionis tvpical. and skillul. o 8z Hildesheim. by Io33 St N{ichael was complete. remarkable for their plasril 'l'his an itgclrhen fhe sfonec:l[\ er \\Js \ er\' v i g o u ri n t h e b . . e r t u lt a rrlinian fbrm. 'I'he cclectic spirit of' Meinwerk is fr.h a s a M o s l e m c a s t t o i t w h i c h m a l e c u s s u s p c c tt h a t t h e G r e e k s c a m e l r o m t h c s o u l l of ltalv. arranged the penetration of-Cluniac monks into Germanv. are irlso a spacious silnctuar\' b a 1 ' a n d a n i r p s e . lvhich is alsothe date ofits celebratedbronze doors. Uaf.b e n e a t h w h i c h l i e s t h e c r 1 ' p to f 'l'he rorS..tp corniceof torvcr roog to 8 r . f'he columns har..i n s e r .'.t. Riquier. . r St N{ichael. rupof domed compartments carried on two ljles o f ' c o l u m n s .. bold. s t a i r r u r r e r sr e c a l l . chapeI of'St Bartholomew near the cathedrrl t1i 'Greek' workmen.s rvas unusual. though the latter church showed considerablevariations on the theme. r.rg. S o m e G e r m a n i r r t h i s t o r i a n sa r e i n c l i n e d to bclicve that Willigis's church of 978 roog underlies St Nlichael. f'he church.{bdinghof'at paderborn as a Cluniac priory in ror6. a n d he served as bishop of Hildeshcim lrom gg3 t<.. r6:. t 11.e quite exceptional carved capitals. Beginning in roor.ina r e P o u s s cw o r k e r I d I l ' 3pdthe is the connerion with Italv of' Important too builder-bishop Bernward ol' Hildesheim..c o m l ) o s ing handsomell. which is of larer date Igol.r0 'I'he aisled irrt.1. rvhich is qedibly ascribed ro Bcrnrvarcl himself. Bishop \Ieinu.i n .+ 1 . e r c n d p o r .1.' I2O E A R L I E R O M A N E S Q US T Y L E S R E oTT0\1. nrri. now installed in the cathed- s t n t c t i o n o l \ \ i i l l i g i s ' s h r r g ec a t h e d r a lt h e r e .rrthe. together with Odilo of Cluny. lvhich in some \r'al.T h e b u i l d St Michael ing.erk also built a cathedral in Paclerborn with the western c h o i r i n a t r e m e n c l o u ss q u a r e t o w e r .roor . Paderborn Cathcdral.rio. Henrv imposing louer and ils accompxn1ln.{N RO\r{NLS()t E r27 II and Bishop \4einrverk. r o n z cc a s t e r ' t h e i r o r r c a r r c r ' fr. fbr the bishop refounded . er. cledicatecl ro36 in and partly replaced in ro58 78 aftcr a fire. the chapel of the Sar. had a detlicationof thc crypt in IoI5.

c o u st r l d e n a l t a r f i o n t a l p r e s c n t c c l g br the Emperor I lenrr ll ro thc crrhcdral.rldbe suitablc.e m e n itn c l e t l . poses roblemsrlso.St llichael.g i r c n b l O r t o I I I ( q 8 . 'I'hc g ^ o r p .i -r o o . latter church still posscsses I pair of' fifth-ccnturt carr-cd rvooden (loors rvhich perhaps sugisestedhe norks at Ilildest heim. c d l t e d b et u e e n r o o 2 i r n c lr o . h i s s u c c e s s o ra n a d m i r a b l c a c h i c r .' l ' h c s o u t h a i s l e servcd as a sort of intcrior narthex.I2d E A R I .mmetrical terminations strctches the b a s i l i c a n n a v e * i t h i t s : r i s l e s . C ) n cr c c a l l s t h e b r o n z e E a s t e r c o l u l n n madc fbr Bishop Bernrvard bcfbre ro2z. and he lived fbr a tinre in the \oung cmperor's palaceon the Aventinc. p e r h a p s . w a r d i s i t e c lR o m c i n r o o r r rvith Otto III. and the splcndid pulpitthere gilen bvI{enn | [. 'I'he ercr-memorablc bronzc doors in the cathcdrrrl \. The loss of' monuments of rhis kind through fire.\bbot Gaucelin's bronze tnu/rt11llr at Saint-Benoit-sur-Loirc (about roz6) also thc altar of'thc ])alirtine C h a p c l i n . lr is Q u l t ep o s s i b l e t h a t t h e r o g r . A s a l r c a t l v r c _ p o r t e d . St ch untlerstandIng and skill as thcse monumenrs show presupposea tradition ofbasic cralismanship transmitted from gencralion ro gcnerirlio. of bulk and his wax bronze-uorkcr's sensc model. no\\ in Hildesheim Cathedral. t s i s h o p f l e r . pillage. h d o c u m e n l sB u t l i o m t h e r i g o u r o l r h c H i l d e s . and werc callcd upon to producc ligure sculpture for special positions rvherc onlr stone rvor. :) . It is dated about rozo. aislebefbrereconstruction andsketch restoration in roor I i as has never had a crvpt. It was a flourishing pcriod lbr church art ol t h i s s o r t .a s I h c m o n k s 'l'his did. heim doors antl thc pcrtlition ot' rhe Bascl rrontal a conviction emsrses that these cannot b e c a s u a lo r s p o r a d i c *ork. rhe reDoussdworker's hammer and drill. ancl p obviouslv represents a cliflerent stream of'artis_ tic development as well as a difl'ercnt method (repouss6)and a tlill-ercnt material.SantaSabina. This situation u'ould account equalll' for the carvings on the (destroved) sarcophagus of' Abbot Hincmar of Reims (d 8zz)rr and the f i g u r c ss e t o r e r t h c o u t e r d o o r s o f ' t h e g r e a t a b b e v church of st Ilmmcram at Rcgensburg shortllafter ro4g. . l e v i g 5x n f l r c m e l r i n gi s o n l r t o o u e l l a t t c s t e d 1 . r r(rz. Hildesheim. I E R R O M A N E S Q U ES T Y L E S o I toNtAN RoMANF. ancl . r eo f .s 'I'hc had firrmcd cores of wood or mastic.vercreirllv madc fbr the latcral main c n t r a n c e so f S t \ l i c h a e l l l l q l . . rr e n i n t e r e s t i n g . a n t l i s r e c h n i c a l l ..p r e c i o u s a l t a r trontals ancl other ecclesirstical Iurniture rvith ngure sculpture clclavcd the rcnaissance of figure sculpturc in stone hr ahsorbing nrost ol' the 6ne talent available firr g'ork ol'that scale and charactcr. t st h e s u n t c as thar of'thc westcrn part_Betwecn thcsc t\\o nearh' s\. Sculpture in stone rcceired an occasional i m p u l s e . nclr 'I'his . and its sanctuarr bav lvas s h o r t e r . i n t h c C l u n y N { u s e u m i n P a r i s . since the t w o m a l n e n t r a n c c sa r e t h e r e ..1 B a s e la n d n o r .1.f i o m m c n * h o w e r c a l s o a b l c to work in somc othcr mcdium. NIetal-shcathed statuarl' and relicf'.SQUI r29 83and8. b u f o t h c r u i s c t h c t l c s i c n r r . curious contrldiction of' the basic b a s i l i c r r np l a n w a s l o g i c a l i n a m o n a s r i c c h u r c h w h i c h f i r l l o r v c dt h e t h e m c o f ' S a i n t _ R i q u i c r a n d S t G a l l . z + . V i s i t o r s t h e r e l b r c c n t e r e t l t h c c h u r c h ' b r o a d r v i s e ' . roor 33.{ : r c h e n .. n .

h o w e r e r . b o t h r e a c hi n t o t h e r e i g n o f H e n r l . 8 6 ] . Io3o antl later .oler a bold and simple plan. begun. abbel. 1 r M o r e i m p o r t a n t . un an older scheme temper of the building is unmistakabll'German 87.I I I ( r o 3 9 5 6 ) . and a cathedral related building. had it built near the Stammburg of the Franconians' It inspired many other such structures. better than thel have done..Speyer Cathedral. It was the d. I037. and grand dimensions. and tinted on the even the manuscript and fiesco aft. but the ti. the Salian of Strassburg went forward.cr)pt. to carrv connccting arches and nine bays ofheavy groin vaulting.]I worker's chisel and fini:hing proccss' 1 6 ei v o r y t h e d e s i g n sw e r e p a i n t e di n c l c r a t i o n a n d( s i n c e blocks belbre being ctrt. was The reforming Abbot Poppo of Stablo. like that of Hersf'eld (fiom a b o u t r o j 7 . { NO R it has been Kaisardome . 'l'he whole area under the transept was marked o f f b y p i e r s i n t o t h r e e s p a c i o u sc o m p a r t m e n t s ' each with four stout columns. 1 \ \ o r k u a s s t a r t e do n t h e e r i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e uncler Conrad II abor'rt ro-3o.FRANCONIAN GERMANY I. and the remarkable crypt [87] dates liom the initial period. it has presened. renewal in its monumental.13 under Cluniac influence. Cluniac influence is perhapsultimatell'responsible fbr the western tower pair and the tower at the crossing.rwttd) gcneral p a i n t e r s ' c r a f tw c r e a p r e p a r a t i o nf o r t h e o f f i g u r e s c u lp t u r e i n s t o n e . -I'he church is a ruin. o n a n o l d e r s c h e m e )[ 8 5 . the simple and assured grandeur which marks the finest buildings of the German Earlr Romanesque 87 qrl. .vnastic pantheon of the Franconian house. i s t h e c a t h e d r a lo f ' Speyer..church.5and 86. and though like the othcr E FRANCONIAN NIPERORS T H E S A L I .Mainz and Worms much rebuilt. . the magnificent abbe-vchurch of Limburg an der Haardt (roz5-45). fastidious austeritl'. (Ioz4 39)' the Under Conrad II. Hersfeld.

Iil I " l o s etd * .C. 3 : ' 6 r m e t r e s ) from thc pavcment.. a u l to f a n a r e a under the sanctuarv bav of the church./. thc basic mcastlte- {t q 8l ' -. o ertends the hr'rgenave. and it provided support originalll-.) N i n e s i m i l a r u n i t s c o m p o s et h e r . higher than an]' other Romanesque navc lault. with intere :t_ ine lariations. under I{enry' III (Io39-56).. Comparison of thc two uill strikingly show the overrvhelming stout simplicin' ofthe German design [891... Cam^. as was probablv intendcd liom the 'l'he u l t i m a t e r e s u l t .( itlo..u p .. The stairwal's waysin detachthemselves as flanking towers at an upper <) #'' f level. l v t o b e s e e ni n t h i s c r y p t .continue upward as the s u p p o r t so f a t a l l b l a n k a r c a d em e a s u r i n g a b o u t 85 feet to the soffits. with from the crossing groin-vaulted aisle on each side. W e s t w a r d ..\..: il r' l-F .rcstoration rs in ro6r(K. Its height is approximateh' twics this dimension... i f:o . which Cathedral.i. loqo-nincteenth centurr'. The r spacious thick.1 Z7-l r I ur. .athedral.. -. u n r i b b e d g r o i n v a u l t i n g s c p a r i r t e db v t r a n s v e r s e a r c h c s .e (or block) capitals of'rvhich the origin is Byzantine or Lombard. but on account of the olerwhelming scaleit must be visited to be apprcciated [9r1.r.plan .! /o.t [88[ ihur. . which.:. SpeverCathedral. . and t h e r e r v a sa d e d i c a t i o n i n r o ( r r . A new period of construction (rollz rro6) starting under Flcnrl I\' finally sru the nave r.j.. Construction wcnt forward on the nave from about ro4o. j a . but a peculi. perhaps when the great church in its woodcnroofed phase had been brought morc or less to completion. . in German Romanesquearclri'I'he simplc and ample powcr ol rhe m a t u r e G e r m a n R o m a n e s q u ei s a l r e a d v p a t c n t tccture. it includes a westernwall is about zo f'eet portal and two spiral stirirdeepdouble-splayed this enormous thickness. with rall t4aa%a%fs %&%&*&s* **{ffr*-t 88..widest of the High Gothic churches. .tr :i i .rofnorth flank as in ro6r (K.aulted. which is close to that of thc cathedral of Beauvais. tl : i.and to the west of them a large open porch (with tribune and a great octagonal tower) was laid out. t h u s t h e c r 1 . 'l'he c r o w n s a r c a b o u t r o 7 f ' e e t( .on the nave side. f i t t e d i n t o t h e a p s i t l a lh e m i o c l e .j-.r it ..... at a level over ninety feet from the pa\emcnt. about 235 feet. ttt I. r. 'ror. /r{j (.'. The length of the nave proper. I-othair II (rr37). @7 | i J | | N !1 J lJd | ! 'IJ @/ .\lternatc piers of'the original nare werc strengthened with s h a f t s a n d c l o s s e r e t ss o t h a t t h e ] ' n o w m c a s u r e . cont i n u i n g e a s t w a r d i n t o a s e r i e so f s i x m o r e ..C. tll td2t1-. fbr a rast timber roof [go]. in order to sustain six i m m e n s c d o u b l e b a 1 ' so f ' d o m e d .. t t i u s t w e s t o f t h e a p s c .. and ranks with the grandest and largest achicvements of both Romanesqueand Gothic. rcstoration stud.tt. SpeverC.. Spci''er stud] of intertor Cathedral.rr. adital 3t:t4 -:i * .l I ll9.I'RANCONIAN GERMANY I'I3 I F. of'course.. 'f he nave piers at Speyer measure about 6 by 8 feet plus engaged shafis.. . This arcade cncloses the aisle and a series of large clerestorl' windorvs. the form was widely used.) . The nave at Spever has a span ol about 45 feet.tt.-\ll the columns 'cubical' har. the The vault the transcpt and sanctuar\ of thc nlatform of 'Ihese mcmbers are cnptop..r r_.h by a massire precipiceof wall. is verl impressivc.I. nearly' tcn f'eet across. I of the crypt forms. though the model was probably nearer the exterior elevation of the Basilicaat Trier. ...is about fir'e times its width. r.tI. p tu n d e r t h e s a n c t u a r va r m o f t h e c h u r c h i s l a i d o u t w i t h two files of lbur columns each..rr weightiness here makes them seem Germrnl indeed.tt. a c h i ev c c l u n t l c r bcginning. This brought the total lcngth to about is almost exactly that of Chartrcs 435 feet..tri. go. The walls o1'the nave bearan obvious resemblance in design and scale to a Roman aqueduct.

Y parisonsfor Spel'er are III (ro88-rr3o). interior (bcfore modern additionsand embellishments) ."a i. of trefoil plan. pilastcr strips.3 3 4 1a n d W o r m s [ 3 3 r ] t h e o t h e r Kaiserdome were likewise the object of considerable works during this period. though the new work is dry.and tll'elfih-centurl' altcrationsat SpeJrerwerc carried out in a stvle which ts very close to thc maturs Lombard Romanes9ue .. high and the maior crossing about r19 better still. cnough. rgtin o. Speyer is not subtle. i n t h r e e s t a g e s . was. The late eler. decorative arcading.t. arc all close to Lombard originals. though not teleit is powert"t Saint-Riquier' as indecd does s c o p i c .d vertical elcment.o. upper clcrestorl'.a ' thc loliiest Romancsquc rault in ii*f. brought close bf impcrial politics.r e c a l l s stairtowers near thearrangcmenof lso slendcr r towers' eachofthe great octagonal vaults Gothic Beauvais and Milan havc nave to about I-58 feet lrom thc pavement' reaching tower at and the highest tault ol thc crussing was about 44o fcet from the palement' Beauvais But these Gothic designs werc built in a st-vle which was engineered specilicallv to permit 'l'he lair combreath-taking eft'ects of'height.-!r. St Mary in Capitol.1'he crossinghas a rault hall'as . So also was 'lrier the cathedral of [33o]. The abbel' church of Maria f'ect example of the mature Gcrman Romanesque.rgonal torrer carried on squinches' . lbunded Io93. Nlorev believcs that. coalesced.t. height rzo I'eet) fbr Spever is aftcr all basicallrand solidlv Roman in conceptron. was huilr in its first form beginningabout ro4o [.t h e y e a r s r o 3 9 6 b s a w a handsome west lront built. but the building was built slowly. M a i n z 1 3 3 3 .tt a Roman monument translbrmed into a German cathedral af ter r o r q . founded in ro93. gz.abbcl'church.FRANCONIAN GERMANY I35 w ol narc'lrrol'ing cst' r . r8zo and later) gave it back its original scheme. span83 feet.tt'but further rebuilding in the Romanesque revival period (r.the eavesgallerl'. but anyone who understands masonry will love the tremendous clifl--like massesof its walls and the heav-vover-arching testudo ofits vaulting.. whcre the nave was 98 f'eet or.. \'Iaria Laach. I ' At Spe.in. in their architecture at this timc. dcdicatedrI56.attar oa poln. with Romanesque Clun.''rljo-o'and ^rcltth eenturr t'cet (-14 was prohahlr roo Carolingiiln ment a little lcss)hetucen l$o undcler. though the dedic a t i o n t o o k P l a c ei n I r 5 6 . .. and an eastward ex'I'he f'amous church tension was built still later...ri w i t h t u o s ta g e so f a r c h e d w i n d o u s ' p . to be sure. Germany and Lombardv.335' Laach. b a r d yh a v e s i g n e d C e r m a n n a m e s . 3ro ff.ulptorc ol rhe da1 uorking in Lomlint. in a st1'le quite unaltected by Gothic impulses. Cologne. In fbct. a per3371. with the Basilica Nova of Nlaxentius clear and Constantine in Rome (e. corbel tablcs.enth. Speyer has something of that serene largencss which is the common possession of all things well inspired f rom Rome.ver afier the ruin of 1689 there was much Baroque re building at the west end of the cathedral (r772 8). logicalll.t h c a r t i s t i c oevelopments of Germanv in the eleventh century were actuallr transmitred to Italr and oroughtabouta s r e n a i s s a n c e u lc u l p l u r e r h e r c .q n e v e C a t h c d r r l 'i n l c r i r r r 9i.

It oughi ro be mentionecl at this point thrrt the pfhlz at Goslar [g4.:::.ecentll.i:ii (.. Gothic. l o t .. ...t a semidome... bcfbre considering the Romanesque ol' austeritv \ormandv lnd rhc il..Goslar..:i. l to i" use. while thc Rumanesqrrc f Germanr o t n e m a fu r e r C c r m a n R o m r n e ) q u ( s l \ l e c o n _ .3zg 94.ifi':ij expressionof the power which rhe sanctuaryhas a similar . "r.oo.n. i..vres l tirsci_ o architecruren i Ccrman_v are shoun h nating local stvles which remaincd Roman_ some.rp..a c l u m b r a t c d t h c G o t h i c rnentsofa g l o r i o u s h i s t o r i c a lp e r i o t l .' .rcstoration x{aria Laach Isz' glr is beautifulry set in verdure near the Laacher See.'s .1.l cathedrar) ri". :Jjrfi.q.-1. Resia tui..ol tbrm. rollo."u.. and it is rhe culmination tmagrnative autr. France..5o was which c. i n gi t ..:ff.... jzgl rs beriercd to ^rrc been built in somewhat it.i" i. studl.. 9oi. p.nt torm rr\ Henrl' III..-.*U. .tll:"t and the Empire posscssed in Hen.r*.r....n. ...ro.. aateds[6111y lrrtb..:::.r_ Luy a..s traditional planning The aspect e'en of fhe late buildings harmonizes with the order work....r)(l dcr cloped.".influence o l i r s b o l t l n e s s ..?:llti::11^i1r-'o. .. o| ".. 'I'his scheme was tn poser of'the Enpire. build_ and it is a pitv that it had ro bc demolishecl to ings of grear interest were built.t r"i . buirding among rhese earrier work."'l.. and Or. l n d c e c l rhe s t r .:. Within."un..'i. whole was un group ..r. ro..rbot_ortr. r r g e rn r c d i e r a l c o n s r r u c r i o n s ..the Pl'alz..n in switzerrand.3.:ffi'."'.rl..innnrur.0. small -{ at. rhc arcls one poinr ot vieq ir woulcl bc logicnl ro where the stvle was actrrallv transfbrnred into u^ l no *n u e o l tl " our analrsis ol German Romanesuut.. *.u.oag.. r h e no n c h a s a d _ s t u d r of the Frcnch works which.re u. u... dominates . dcdicatcdr r 56..::. serenitfis the essential reasonfbr placingthe 'I'he fllHT"..r.". excaiatJ." 1_ .as in r.rlllarer \ d r i o u s r e F i o n so l r h e E m p i r c .gn.. or the intcrior arc austele. decorations and rurniture havesomewhat diminished the serenityof this fine a. .n. $..r.::..U I j r r ' i d el a n d s o f c e n t r a l E u r o p e .il.Oi* Lombard_influenced version of St Mi.yrt"j::.ry ..n a \c c h a p e l a r rh e h c a .] 0".b". s.r-.h.... tIi. n . . 93 (oppostte t\laria Lairch...".mentation of'the court bevond of the great renewal of architecture within thc t h e a p s eo t t h e L a r e r a n B a s i l i c r .n.fi:|. l. church. r n d esque. I t i s c a r r t o l . ..".. se.r"O". little known bccause so r.-dc'elopcd Germanmedievarmonastery. l l o w e l e r . group. o r g i r et h e s e q u e n c e .'#::t'J .l H'desheim.. l er h i r r .ium berow ries the wesrern apse.r30 E A R L T E RR O M A N E S Q U E STYLES 1.rr i.abbc1.1z7.. a t r i a p s i t l a lo p r .. Bevondthe apse ofthe churchl.i i..ba-v.-o exrenslons have givcn a rwelfih_ccnrrrrr on^. i'h.. w i r h t h c i r '(.rrr 1.rn *r_rnarqu..quitein. represents thc full potnts of the lozenge.. architectu.o u r p l a n o f c x p o s i t i o n n o w c a l l s f b r \rermans thcir a c o n s c r r a t i s r n .u.'."a oi uitte.tuttt ttlilo.rsa(c as avoid too great a departure fiom l :l"t chronological t n e:t1 i r r c e n t h h c c n t u r \ .rn. whose livourite residence ir '.forth"g..i r I Romanesquemonuments ot twelfih_ and thira quatrefbil chapel occupied each of the lateral teenth-centurl' Germant.oup. n n n .rs a*ork Hen'v 't:r. l ' o r t h e s p l e n d i d c l u s r e r of..'.'.apella Rccirr a court in the fornr o1'an extendcd lozengc.....'.. Alrerheirigen...ith a r c h i t c c r u r ea r o n c c .i"r..of Gernr. r .i.. asthe Roman_ rnired and understood thcse splcndicl monu_ e s q u e s t y l c d e v e l o p e d . w i t h o u t a c h i c r .. -l hcrelore.. l em o r e a n d m o r e . j11'":-::]. T h e n a t t t s t i cl e m p e r of the Cermans uas so wcll ir u i1l bc lppropriarc to r isir rhe manl and etpressed i n t h i s R o m l n r s q u c s t r .h.ran.. . I iov fiom thc norrh_wesr foundedro9-3. is sturdily_ tru II.t..T.e also.rhough nor exclusireh. quite lovely picture of ther'e.onr. *us bcing creatr. especiallv in t*: * r t f o r l .d i g n i r r ....

Tours.i bl the Gothic fbundations of r r94 li. and it brought to fruition the dcvelopment alreadyref'erred to in our chapter on Carolingian archit e c t u r e i n F r a n c e . rvhich arc in turn encbsc. when the treaty gs.olved pattern of church buildins. eleventh. often competent rather than inspired. ancl also to a scries of round chapels attached to the peripheral wall ol'the corridor'. [i-5ll of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte laid the foundations ol' the great Norman duchy. 8 9 . 3 )r h a r tlt n. and thirreenth centuries.apscand ambulatorvol' latcr construction with superincumbent crvpt. In this architecturc we seehow an attractil'e. . it was actuallv durine the last effective Carol i n g i a nr e i g n ( t h a r o i ( . revived the Roman manner of planning. and so arrangetlas to gire Jcces\fo the tomb of Sr Nlartiri ('Sr 1\l:rlrin's Rcsr'). The buildings are ordinarily cogent and practical. amhulatorv. The apsc. and l-elt the fbrce ofa living stream of influence from Antiquity as the Lombardic First Romanesque spread.ct located at the head of thc apsc. h a r l e s I I I . As already indicated in a prcvior. that active skill in composition which had created the silhouette of Saint-Riquier. H.n Aquitaine. -t lte church ly was dedicated in 9 r 8 u ith a ner. and ar the micldle of thc eleventhcentury stood ready for its great age.r built annular aisle or corridor cnclosins thc sanquar). Before long there were signs ofan intellectual. fairly uniform stt'le resulted when the builders turned to ancient Roman monuments fbr inspiration. plan 01'crvpr (H. and rrtliating chapcls of8-58 are encbsed trithin the cheiet ol the cathcdral lbundations ol rozo 1o. 'I'hen during half a centurl it absorbed the lessons of the First Romancsque style into this more highly er. 9 2 . Hilberrl'). and architectural revival in the northwest.CHAPTER7 F R A N C E :9 0 0 1 0 5 0 T H EA M B U L A T O R Y We have iust passed in revicw the relatively conservativeEarly Romanesque st)'les of Lombardy and Germanv. renth. In France it was different.* architectural u epoch r. . q-5e.r'as shercd in hv the reconsrruction ol st Martin at Tours lq5l. B e c a u s e< r f ' t h ec h i c a n d s k i l l 96. This was the first ambulatorl with radiating chapels irrranged in what was basicallv the dcfinitive fbrm.athedral. turned for a centurv to the morc difficult problems of plan and articulation in the maior churches.rschaptcr. exca\ations of'chcr.St Nlartin. That tradi itional inventive flair. spiritual. and in Burgundy.chartres cathcdral. Delivered at last from the'Norman fury' in gr r. (not shown) . Chartresf. France could rebuild.

r cleric who was also skilled in the arts of soi(ls m i t h i n g u n d s c u l p r u r e .a r r d that each of the attached elements was in eflect a little oblong church two storeys high. d Worth noring is rhe fact that at St Nlarrrn only the apsesof Saint-Germain. early contacts by way of the Rh6ne with the Lombard First Romanesque st)'le.t.al archiRomanesque a fully developed Ferrand and a bcauti. Thc tinuedto be used. as alreadl noted. ambu. plus r a d i a t i n g a b s i d i o l e s .r40 EARLTER OMANE. O t h e r t r a c e so f a n e a r l y s t a g ei n t h e d e v c l o n _ ment of the ambulatory and radiating chaptl.rurirul architectural disposition.t h e P h i l i b e r tine monks went (q45 g) to Saint-Pourgain-surSioule in Auvergnc. S was early made towards the RomanProgTess esqueideal in Burgundy because ofthe unique coniunction there: easy contact by wav of the Loire with the active school of western France. there was an active monastic detive of Aldaume's ambulatorl' still exists [98 rozJ. u n i t e d b o r h r h e a m b u l a r o r va n d t h e absidiolesvisually with rhe sanctuarl. an urr- . onlv the oblong bars. rA l l w e r e u n d e r r v a vw h e n t h e H u n usual garians visited the region with fire and sword in shurches' that is characteristic the ambulatorlcon. strong contact by way of the Sa6ne with the Empirc.a n d a r c h e s like those of Chartres.I What existed(most probably by 9rg. in R o m a n e s q u e a r c h i l e c t u r e . priorl ghurgh. .Saint-Philibert. who. were undoubtedly of mature form and proporrions. with an altlr a b o v e i t s c r y p t . when the ambulator. r . reliquarv s(atue of rhe Virgin ro be . pr. This very b. w e l l . Obviousir' mont-Ferrand.erv completelyvaulted churches. at Clermont-Ferrand. The work rirs greatly praised for its beauty.{\CE: goo r o-5o r+l of'this solution it may be considered the beein_ ning ol specifically French derelonmenr. were once more d r i v e n o u t i n 8 5 8 a n d u l t i m a t e l y .important fbr the historv of medier.r 8 perhaps it r as .4. drir. with the apse wall carried on .. admit_ tedll' by ror4) was like the crypr and ambula_ torv built at Charrrcs after g5g [95. like the main sanctuary. a s D r C a r l Hersel-. g5o r I 20 and latcr. the art of religious building r r r I 3( )]. . and the name ol its author is known Al6aume (Adelelmus). 'St to featurewhich passed other Auvergnat \ / e l o p m e n t . connexion with more and more r e s u l t i n g d e v e l o p m e n t s i n p l a n a n d s t r u c t u r e form. was a capital conlribution Lr. Vignorl'. light columnar arcade. 1he generous size of thc absidioles attache<l to the outside of the ambulatory shows clearly that the c o r r i d o r i t s e l f u a s n o t m e a n l y p r o p o r .er . ' l h e r em a y h a v e b e e nw i n d o * s i n t h e an:.openeon lhe sanctrr.. critics follow Louis Br6hier in suppos_ i n g t h a t t h e a m b u l a t o r y w a s o n t w o l e v e l s ..v of 98. but possibll ir was dark. and.o_ vided. 1s5e Martin's Rest'.pr. . and in At Clermont. Aliaume's design. omitting rhe rotunda. i i o n e d .tecture. has obserred. D u r i n g a s c h i s m i n t h e m o n a s t e r v . and perhaps elsewherc x.l t opened towards the sanctuary on the axis...D E V E L O P N 4 E N T ..make the Burgundian churches of'the time r.n t h e f o r m o t a vaulted rectangular crypt enclosed by a half.Tournus. While the form of the superstructure is not certain. This exnlairn (he cven number of radiatingchapels. r n the apse of' St Martin of 9o3. air r icw f rom the south-wcst thc upperambulatorr.n r column behind the high altar. A B U R G U N D I I .enui_ neering s(ructure. wcr! reproduced. T h u s i t w a s m o r e e l a b o r a t et h .g 3 7 a n d 9 5 5 a n d s t i r r e d t h e B u r g u n d i a n s t o It in increasingly'sophisticated undertake fireproof' vaulted construction.H e m a d e a o r e c i .. The m o n a s t e r vs u l l e r e d f r o m t h e H u n g a r i a n s i n 9 3 7 . a carelirl student of'the problem.t Vignory (dated about ro5o) [97]. better integrated and more open. and dedicared in ror4. In addition there was a cult of rclics.SQUEYLES ST FR._ oval corridor with four angular radiating chapels attached to its periphery. exist in the excavations ofthe cathedral o1-C_lcr_ where masonrv of a building d e d i c a t e d i n 9 4 6 5 u 1 1 . htory replaced At St Philibert's Abbcf in'I'ournus a derivaful Gothic chevetreplacedthat in turn.c : t m ew i t h t h e rclics of St Philibert to Tournus in 875. rhe high lelel of the ground water prevented this arrangement lrom beine a crypt: 'St Nlartin's Resr' was only slightly below the pavement level. The ambulatory and radiatine c h a p c l s t h e r e f o r c b e c a m ep c r f o r c e a b o l d l v a r t i _ c u l a t e d e x t e r i o r a d j u n c t t o t h e a p s e . more important. resemblingth.3 Each of the chapcls was arranged as a crypt-shrine or conftssio. T'he ambulatory and radiating chapels of St Martin nq rebuilr after the fire of gg7.. In g4g this abbel was at the end of the l o n g p e r i p a t e t i c so f t h e m o n k s o f N o i r m o u t i e r . 96]. pierced in the aose at S t \ l a r r i n .B u t a t T o u r s . and seen wirh wonderment fiom the ambulatorv. at 97. . .i y s s i.en in 836 from that island to thcir mainland priory of D6as or Saint-Philibert-deGrandlicu.. Auxerre. so acceptable from the point of view both of symbolism and ol.r.

Saint-Philibert'fiom the south-east \ m b L r l a t o r r( ) .1- .l o \ \ ( r r l 2 0 r' rooo Saint-Philibert.: $ i-i .narthex' roo. ( r r o r { ) .porite1'I'ournus.I42 E A R L I E R R O M A N E S Q U ES T Y L E S gg ( t.Tournus' &j .

begun about centur) and linished of the elercnth in.'Ihe vaults.foting who was honoured in the monastery Val6rien. hirs interesting quadrant vaults in the aisles. and there is tenth-century work abo\e it.n. 9io I r 20 . l( contains crlpt underthc high "iour the relicsol Sr Philibert and a plirceolii^. ir . a s u ' e s h a l ls e cp r e s c n t l y ' ror lnd ro2.tro. was repeated at the levcl of'the main church.outt. r.uoutty q5o' was raulted in l]'ioutnu. with primitive sculptures. Saint-Philibert..1. except in the Chapel of St Michael. while the nave has a clercstory above with a tunnel vault with transverse arches. wirh irs fir'e radiating chapcls of' oblong plan. the high vault o1'the where the Lombard characterlstlcs are strong' Pilaster strips and arched corbel tables decoratc thc exterior therel the original bclfrics (now augmentcd br a twelfih-cenlury to\1er iIt thc north) are Lombard First Romanesque in st1'le The quadrant vaults of the Chapel of St Michael may be related to those of the trilbrium galler-v of Saint-B6nigne' Diion. c t h e c e n t r a lr a d i a t i n g h a p e lo f ' a n t o n o u ri n ambulatory fbr the tomb of St . fr. or perhaps later).'.FRA\CE:9oo lo5o 1. alier a fire of roo7 or Ioo8 (dedication r o r g ) .'. whcre Lombards were a t w o r k l i o m l o o l . extending past the transept to the massive threebay narthex..5 was still a ol'Clermont-Ferrand thecathedral ''l'he new church new structure lo-nrpi. with intercsting parallel transverse tunnel vaults on diaphragm arches. ambulatory. Thc Chapel of St Michael above the narthex.. Tournus. howevcr. cameIrozl' the Philibertines atTournusbefore nave. i n t h e s a n c t u a r ya n d a t the crossing. analvtical pcrspectivc and ( appositt) cross section ancl longitudinal section. There is a strong imprint of the west of Francc on the plan and structure. 'I'he crvot was cledicated in 979. arc latcr in tht uppe. and the tie-beams still in position (about ro2o. about r r 20.. after ro66.ii: iirii:i!i fi.r' This plan. J:.".

An interestingcrypt ambulatorv with radiatiln chapels at Saint-Pierrc-le-Vit.t . and theil church (Cluny I. rcstoration studl of the monastcr\ liom the east. i Nlartin thro ugh Odo's having'reformed' S'. who came 'I'hc (iom St Martin at Tours.._.g.EA5T YARD F CHEF il abbel church.. rs in ro43 (K J-C. T h e s o p h i s t i c a t i o no f ' l a t e r b u i l d e r s l o s t s o m e thing of the simple nobility which is always evident in sincere early works of architecture. Clunl'.-.* -3 . priorv church of Charlieu (fbunded 872) ap' pears to have been rebuilt about seventy years later as a vaulted building with an ambulatorY arcade and eastern absidiole. Cluny. t h e m o n a s t e r \ si n I o 5 o J ' C ) ro5'"'*-' Chape I SOUTH. '. In passinpl. dedicated in gz7).rn1Pierre-le-Vif in 938. perhaps at the suggestion of Abbot Odo of Cluny. Construction {rfr larger church was undertaken about 955 by (K a r r ' n v . perhaps alter a lilse start on a round ambulator-v corridor in 94S.. . itself new problems of plan rrs1s u n d e r t a k e n i n a r e b u i l d i n g w h i c h s t r e t c h e do r e r nearlv a centurv after 955..b At (. t o r o ( K . Sens. has also been connected with 5.-.:: ro. second a s i n r . lt may be said briefly (fbr we shall return to the Cluniacs) that the Frankish vilia wherc the monks installed themselves in qro..1 about g2o 4o.&J. _t. fr:gt*& .reference should be made to in'lhe teresting work in the ambient of Cluny.) . il..*q. which was Abbot Odo's special lbr'11.^- . J . provecl insufficient within a generation. p a r t l vh v p o t h c t i c a l ) i?oF i Lilabfr COURT 1i i .1s.. longitudinalsection ro3.I4O EARLIER ROMANESQUE STYLES The memory which goes deepest at Tournus is that ofthe monks working tenaciously through a c e n t u r y a n d a h a l f t o b u i l d a n a d v : r n c e dt y p e of church while conditions were still primitive. tunnel vault of the nave doubtless improved the acoustics fbr chanting. C .lunv..

but worthy of notice. throughout thc u hole group of associatedhouses. lowed a consistent plan to accommodate a66u.yr"*is' accomnrodat tt armarium he northwalk of the cloister'with the The q8.. his godmotherwas.r.l of The most spectacular the Burgundtanacbl him in personal styte' to ott *. a r a g o z ai\n d i c a t e sl r o o j : r h c g r o u p s h e l t e r e da b o u t 4 o o i n a l l ..ndy' fluentialcoin. At Clun-v some ranges of the buildings.n. Montecassino 7o. extended by a narthex.l b o l J n d 35o-(bot dimensions occur. t ions' tltth cenurv ii""i"g *.I.*ura. with vaults of stone. f'he narthex was arranged to receive the Sunday procession. . .. and anothcr. with thc halfor.. accessible from both corridors.exercising Cluny'sspecial to Clunv in lege. After a term as pnor at Saint-Saturnin for the library closeto the transeptdoor' of re{brm the historic monasterl' large it". no$' so common. near Rome. Recurrence ofeven dins.T h e b u i l d i n g s w e r e w e l l b t ' i l r 1 1 j 'l'1. t h e h o * f i c c could take in about roo wayfarers.it paused fbr a Galilee station 'l'here were two before returning to the church.ty) in theprogress ofchurch architecture the tenth foundations this influNor-"n in Dijon lt wasthe -rna. The Cluniacs pref'erred tunnel vaulting... in ltalv. in durg. \las a novelty in the tenth century. received him' ancl took him . however. r ' ap r o r i . Each ofthe corridors was flanked by a so-called ' c r 1 p t '( r e a l l l v a u l ( e d a s e c r e t a r i u m ap a v e m e n l t level). monasterics held complishments the Earll'Romanesque in (pertraps He reformed monastic houses a veryinstructireexampleuhich summedup union. s i o n s m a k e s i t c l e a r t h a t t h e r e c o n s f r u c t i o l l1 0 1 .and a systematic rebuilding of the monastery began when the new church (Cluny II) had been dedicated (98 r ). s o t h a t j 2 5 . A thread for work' of ir".r. which passed round the cloister. Small.. is the elemcnr " i n d i c a t e d a sa g o l d s m i t h s ' a n d e n a m e l l e r 5 ' s h o p s I t i s n o t c e r t a i n t h a t a s p e c i a lr o o m r . had a certain warm austerity of design.u. or."-. Abbot Odilo built extensively throughout the Cluniac group of monasteries. Typical Romanesque roofing. roo monks. Paul Henry 'It Ling writes: was this music which embodied the Romanesque religious ideal.. which folbwed Cluniac customs. 'l'his is important because.t or.launching the Lombardic of variouserandccs the Empire.pr. finally achieved about ro45 lvhsn.. over the crossing.r z l b r t h e a h h c r pauleri or poor pensioners. f eet in width.a n d s o m e o u t s i d e . of He had pcrsonal abilities as .l"n. the musical effects of the linear Gregorian chant and the massive organum.ers.al main apse between. Burgundy... belfries above the fagade of the narthex. to librrry at Cluny contained a relatively with..rig. wasSaint-B6nigne into England' where Clunv itselt' . but some of AbbotMayeul. having vowed himself'to the Virgin and empha- sized her cult. This rrrrangement. ol tall proportions.. Space for it was availabie in or near the capital San Luna(Zarag'ozal' Gil' carvcd ro6. and presumably admired.. and provided with three altals side bv side which were used in sequence for the morrow mass. It differs lrom the St Gall plan in having a chapter-house (an important novelty) with a Lady Chapel beyond. 40 places were provided for men ancl 30 l b r w o m e n g u e s t si n t h e g u e s th o u s e .57oin the twelith century' of from Clunv' and rn and group of chosen monks at a time when Durham reported 546 Wilwith Cluniac customs Abbot i. in principlc. about roo for Jutllillt forming the devoted service corps of the ntrtnastery. have made it possible to reconstitute the plan of tenth. poetic cloister with marble columns was finished by Abbot Odilo (q94-ro48). a square sanctuary with flanking corridors for processions.. were roofed in wood.. without which the art of these centuries presents mere samples of architecture. 1'he monastery layout was based on a square 3oo feet (of 34o millimctres) on a side. which gives most felicitous acoustical results."ion. the wolk' tcchnicalll privi. thus the architecture ofthe mother house was knoun..d p.. frequently visited in liturgical proces'I'his probably resulted from Abbot Odo's sion. accolllmodated perhaps as the delightful capital frttrn S a n G i l a l L u n a ( T . Cluny.ocentury.u.u. including Norioo . were laid out inside the basic aoo-Ibot s q u a r e . z. Lorhe and it seems to be certain that raine. .a eft-ectivell. The ancillarv buildings prorided 3z places for sick and rttired '' m o n k s .A i" Abbot William's architectural the Emoress Adelaide.t1-1.and eleventh-century Clunr' Iro5]. it had.FRANCE:gOo I48 EARLIER ROMANESQUE STYLES ro5o r49 Mayeul. rvife successively for his action tn more important Lothair I andOtto thc Creati he uasa relatire but he is much il First Romanesque with in. F. together with excavations at Cluny by the Mediaeval Academy of America.. and finally tunnelvaulted (about roro) [to: 5].. and Normandl perhaps also carand San Michele de Loceclia' near Vcrcelli' but brought Italian masons.to*i achievement Willian-roi Volpiano of "r.. all Cluniac monks were professed at Clunl-. over a wicle area. remarkably enhances the beauty oImusical ellects in particular. and it is important to know something about his accomplishment.. thcse Cluniac customs still turther' li"a . William uas a monk at . or literature.8 The Cluny plan also difleq. l eJ fbr the scriptorium in early eleventh-centtrrJ. 3 o o r m o r e f o r n o r i c e s .rn is a goode'tample of Cluniac influence ma-v be ofthe nobleecclesiastic. and the fundamental irnportance ofchanting in the services made it worth while to build tunnel r auhing in spite ofthe grare engineering problems which were encountered. (at Lewes) from to77 w a s r e p r e s e n t e dd i r c c t l l (near He Ivrcaand N or ara).1 from St Gall in placing the novitiate soLr15 " t h e r e f e c t o r v .to Diion . Saint-B6nigne. which he did number volumes. sculpture.' The chevet ofCluny II was based on the apse 6chelon scheme. while at the head ol'each corridor there rlas a horseshoe-shaped chapel.. Attentive study of a dimensional description (ro43) of a monastery in the Consuetudinary' of Far('a.. coadtutor (abbot 963 94) .

dcdicated in Ior6 or IorT' was a highly elaborated basilica.. o u n c i e n t a p o s t l co f B u r g u n d r ' ."n. dedicated in ror8. SLrn.rqu. ro7to rog. and this building *rr r to"f 'uhite mantle ol churchcs' of the ir. the l o n g .1. r pr. and widely travelled abbot himself' 'zl diximus. c h u r c h h a d a n o t a b l e p i l g r i m a g e t o ou. We cannot be in error if we attribute its design to the favoured. n .n . _ I i rzthcenturJ Romanesque additions .nrrnt building\.J C ' 1965 ( lb some extent h!pothetical and depcndent on analo8r) s Ll \l. m. (K ( . i n aoi f..rur. I t u a s a of what had thus fbr been created tofite.n..1r thereat the time.estor.FRANCE:9OO-rO5O r5t r e p r e s c n t sl o c a l m a s o n s B e t w c e n Burgundian' r aulted church . alert. as built (a funerary basilica) about the year 6oo. \\ crhci ' K J C ) "nt in church architecture.t tn his lamous phrase' the world then " i t ..^silmmi roor tll.V produced an entirclv ]r. et praesto est Raoul Glaber writes cernere. was a highll' elaborated rotunda.b c g i n n i n g .> r"ifJfi Plan at principrl loel Longituclinrl sccri{)n . f n . brilliant.dplan ( \' S.t. Geneva. i v p t ( t e b u i h r 8 5 d ) ': k c t c hr e s l o r i r l i o n J ) ' . totius Galliae basilicismirabiliorem atque propria.tt' rcal architectural epim a s o n sb u i l t i t .l. the eastward portion.\' r s::t'lliH i'ifl:i. positione incomparabilem perfcere dis'l'he main What elements appeared here? church.:l:: .the scheme was that of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem and consequently a bequest from Early Christian times' The intermediate monument appears to have been Saint-Pierre. t o m b o i rh . .fi. n LJ Knosn rhr. its size and iapo. b u t l . oor ) | ro7-o l Raoul Claber lli.t the first l ear ol. Saint-B6nigne was o o 5 20 z5\! 80 IrT prtnchal'.rlanJ \\crhtt. Saint-Bdnigne. so that. n"$ r mu\tunr ro:n lt't Trans\erse scctnn ol nr\r looking east ilhbcHrlinrrJ.nniu. and the lact rhat twu kinds ol oi. Dijon... in essence.uglrttudits ht t9+6' Dr \1i. rvirh rerisitns b1 K.tl. for much more than *r.

and there was a gencral declication in r ro7. r. he made the church of Saint-B6nigne nirubiliorent basilicistotius Galliae. Saint-B6nigne produced a f'erl architectural echoes. The small vaulted bavs on cvlindrical columns of the lower stages of ih. flanking rhc sanctuarv brrr. ultimately inspired from Scns and Diion. Basicalll'.f. ancla vast columnar crrpt extended under the navc.a n n u l a r p a s s a g e sa n d a g r o u p o f ' c h a p e l sb e 1 . But the building was not a mature design. the ruined tomb in the apsidal space. a lbrest of stubby columns (some with extraordinarily energetic Early Romanesquc capitals) and the easternchapel were cleirred and restored in the nineteenthcentury.ontinued t h e r e l i o n r t h c t w o s u b s t a n t i a lr o t r n d l. more obviouslv derived from Willianr of Dijon's dcsign. rather riotous. and lhe sanctuary just beyond. Work continued on the church and adjacent monastic buildings. but we owe much ofour detailed knowledge of the building to a more recenr investigation which makes it possible to describe t h e b u i l d i n g a si f i t s t i l l e x i s t e d .Lombardic. and.. only the structural a d r a n c es i g n a l i z e db l S .kind of crown'(the upper vaulting?). which is Roman. Of this strange and wonderlul ensemble onlv the nethermost parts of the eastern half have survived. but it was built like a Roman stadium or circus. but all the same. it had nine towers and turrets. q 111.rin v a u l t s . thc transept.rl absidiole was represcntedby the rotunda (ll:0 on threc ler. .o*. which is Carolingian.. though not of the first importance. r 2 The entrancewav at the west of the basilican church was a porch with flanking stair towers.lo recallcd f'amiliar Lom- bardic crypts and Moslem vaulted constructions. and that to a clerestory wall l Io.' l ' h c ambulatorv was rcduccd to a curving arcacletl corridor ol' gracelul proportions. Clearly then Abbot William had his rvish. that wondcrful inter-regional group of d e s i g n sw h i c h i s t h e f i r s t i n t e r n a t i o n a lm a n i f c s r a t i o n o f t h e m a t u r e R o m a n e s q u e .r.S a i n t . the rotunda went back to the Pantheon in Rome. was inspired b1. a n d t h e r o t u n d a .d iutr littlc church with a towcr oltim. there were nlne towers on the church. fhe transept was vaultcd. A tower rosc xp the crossing.B d n i g n cw a st ' f g e n a i c r a l s i g n i f c a n c ei n R . well-buttressed quadrant-r'aulted chambers lt the gallery level.-trvo sltpports ofnave and aisles area.. thc anrb u l a t o r v . o n d . r rto with a wall passage.t. here was an entirelv vaulted building rising to the challenge of mcdievrl fbrm in church architecture as conceived br the designcrs of SaintRiquier.. and its dome arrangied rbout a phenomenal arcaded cy'lindrical well opento the sky through an oculus.rt each side of'the entrancc. with its t w o s t a g e s f d o u b l e a n n u l a r a i s l e ss u p p o l t e d o n o a forest of columns.r52 E A R L I [ . There were twentv-fbur piers about sir bv six feet or largcr in thc basilican part of thc church. 'Ihe rri_ lbrium piers at Southwell somewhat rccall thosr at Saint-B6nigne.ar the principal lercl. is the church of' Charroux.r. The quadrant or cove vaulting of the upper stage came to bc most important in Romanesque architecture ?rs its dcvelopment continued. French churchcs of the time which also had .vb l o c k i n g u p a l a r g c p a r t o f t h e i n t c r i o r 'lhe thirty. the architectural cletail lvas mostl). n t h r s . A Gothic reconstruction and Revolutionarv vandalism have destroved the building almost complerely.rulting et the cost ols er i o u s l . PACIOLIS OODEN-ROOFF-T) W S BASILICAS 'lhe high and ample nirve of Saint-Philibcrt at Tournus wasfor a timc (about Ior9-66) covered 'l'here were other elaborate by a wooden roof. a Rotwelfth ccntury : manesque reconstruction o1-the h t e r a G o t h i c c h u r c h r c p l a c e dA b b o t W i l l i a m ' s of the crossing basilica. thus bringing the number ot'fhe n rt .H[. nave. The apse 6chelon of thc basilica. like the greatesr Early Christian basilicas. Between the clerestorl. the basilica was impossibly ponderous. a Germanic motif . Crown' at the rotunda at Diion.s i x f e e t . and in the Romanesquestyle. ot turrets on thc-basilica to 6re . Southwell NIinstcr. The aisles flanking thc sanctuarv had gr.and wooden rxq11_ ing. I n s p i t e o f r o u n c l p i e r s . . 'l'he rorunda was well studied by Dom Plancher and presented in his Histoire glndrale et lalticuliire de la Bourgogne (r739). Its stairways connectcd it with Saint-Riquicr. nelr the main west door. occupicd about one-tellth of the floor area west an intolerable proportion llhich was apparentl]' not remedied b1.oiu. The openwork arcaded well ocldly recalled thc telescopic oPen-work spires of Saint-Riquicr. out the uppcr cornicc ol the rotunda had (though peri.. A touer r'ras o svstem f that to thc (as1 ol thc rotunda' but oiann. into the rottrnda' and raas Jrsrrg.ly built as a own perched illogicalll'on thc apse' Later ofits in thc tower svstem) there were other changes it is diflrcult to makc out the original so thxt prominent censcheme but. . the same mav be said of the rotunda o[' Trondheim Cathedralin Norway. the nave arcadesresembled aqueducts. However. . For access to the tomb of Sr Bdnigne there was a dcscending stairwav.B 6 n i g n c thus makes the connexion between the Lonrbardo-Burgundian international Ifirst Romrnesque stylc and grcat later projccts which trrr s u r p a s si t .riUt. W u l f r i c ' s C ) c t a g o no f r o 5 o . s p r i n g . joincd bv a . RR O j \ l A N E S Q US T Y L E S E FRANCE:gOO rOSO I5-l vaulted.. part ol thc design..els) and the rotunda itself'hacl rrn apse echclon in the shape of a central squareended projecting chapel rvirh a small apsc . r i n t . reaching a height 0i t b r t y . above all. which were designed Moslem f'ashion with columnar shafts at the corncr5. which tbrmed the communication lri.o'*. gallery. It had a remarkably strong and bold silhouette. i o i n i n g t w o m u c h older Saxon buildings at the venerable abbev of St Augustine in Canterbury. The nave was double-aisled.t. and the clcreslorr passagecontinued round it into two remarkable.ps nol in rorS) \4oorish lobcrl soffitpanels and chisel-curl brackets.e r t r a s h a f t s i n 1 6 . r m l t t e s q u e r c h i l e c l t t r t .a n d w e l l : r h u t t e d b y r h e s r a t l i r r r x like construction stepping upward towards j1. tluadrangulatim stutute. o n t h r c e l e v e l s . t h e a p s ea t t h e c a s t h a d a r c a d i n g . which thus u:rs nrlde fireprool br r. the nave of Southwell Minster [rrol rrsembles that which existed at Dijon. On cach side the inner ofthe two vaulted aisles stepped up to a virulted gallery. passage of thc nalc comThe clerestory wirh rhc rool b1 t$o stair turrcls nunicated apsc. a tunnel vault was turned..r|Becket's C-anterbury Cathedral is essentiallv a Gothic rotunda. I very intcresting part of the work we havc the germ of thc great churches of the Pilgrinrrrgc Roads. ifone counts the tralwell ofthe rotunda. the centr. The systcm of apses at Saint-Bdnigne wit5 . Nearer home.different stonework. remarkable combination of the 6chelon. It is possible to obtain onll a hint of how curious thc rotuncla was.

ireplaced an older building which had a woo(len lool'. . and radiating chaIels which have survived. T h r o u g h t h i s a s s o c i a t i o nt h e cafhedral of Reims became the French coronation church.ges.. In roo5 thc monastery undcrr r r . The latter building was burnt in rozo. For the north of France. the wooden roof.. a n d r a d i a r i n gc h a p e l sn e u l l e x e m p l i l r e J 'l'ours ( g g 7 r o r 4 1 .Gothic shaliing. Clearlv. but all ofthem have now been destroyed. somewhat curtailed from tl. r r z .ved be visitedb1'the flames A lire of ro-1o the dedication of Fulbert's cathedral until repairs were completed in Io37. Fulbert's church sufi-ered again from iire in I r37.the wooden-rool'ed basilica has had an equally sinister historv. The issue ti'om the situation presented bv cumSaint-B6nigne (fireproof' but impossibly bersome) ancl Chartres (seemly' but vulnerable to lire) was fbund ab<lut ro5o in improved C . and an apss 6chclon. carried on a handsome arcaded false triforium. Ibr they were built into the strh' the present Gothic cathedraloi structuresof ' ' rrg4-r 260 much th. ruined in the Second World War. but norv restored. Collapse due to enlbrced neglect. A handsome [arh Gothic apse. Saint-Remi at Reims had as its titular the ancient churchman who brrptized Clovis the F r a n k i s h k i n g .rhich has been mentiorr. A u x e r r e a t h c d r a lc r r P t " ro3o .moreover. we havc wesgiven up to suppot'ts but Saint-B6nigne in Diion was fireProol" with its woodenroof. h e o t h r c c c r y p l c h a p e l s f r o z o s t i l l e x i s tu i r h t l r e i r a m b u l a t o r y a n d a l o n g c o r r i d o r o f a c c e s s{ ) n each side [96].t*ort"nd probably axis.B6ranger. a n d t h e w h o l e o l ' t h e s u p e r s t r u c f u r eu a s r u i n e d 'wondcrful and in a memorable disaster' the miserable fire' of r rg-1' !-r'en the stone-\'aulted n e w G o t h i c c a t h e d r a ll o s t i t s o u l e r u o o d e n r o o f in r836. at Salntonetwenty-fifth of this area.somewhat as in the PilgrimLrgc churches. In thc new ([x1111.r5 In later times a Gothic vault \\as built over the navc [rrr]. a n d a l s o i n t h e c r y p t . in more than a thousand 1'ears its of successive fires. while St Remi was honoured in an abbey near by. * h e te 'l i t e n v e l o p e d t h e o l d a m b u l a t o r y o 1 '8 5 8 . w a s d e d i c a t e d i n r o 4 g b y l ) o p c Leo IX.r"by "o5l'eet. early Ronrirnesque building.rin r.whereas seen'one-tenthof the area as B6nigne.Saint-Remi. the church of NIontier-en-Derr{ (q6o gz) deserves mention fbr its tall nave with a high clerestory.b e g u n i n r o z o [ 9 5 e ] . and was replaced b1' Fulbert's church' also a wooden-roofed structurc.r5+ E A R L T E R O M A N E S Q US T Y L E S E FRA\CL: 9Oo t O5o r5\ wooden roofing. fbr all has becn discredited at Chartres' advantages. and a pretty gallcrl enriched by arches paired under a serics <-rt'cnclosing arches. an interesting construction with bundltd piers decorated in stucco. indeed it is diflicult to present a clear idea of these important were influential in their period. At many other sitcs .U-out t""t squarein an area 7 occupiedabout The supports .d llooden-rooled previously. and i'ault (prc-19r7 photograph) designs. . continuedto Chartres. dela. but unusuallJ imposing and spacious.r hurttrt whcn he died (ro5o). a transept. upper arcade. a hre of'858 in the church of 74i ncccssitated the Carolingian reconstruction ag.and the clearnare span 6f j45 teeron thc for size'rnd il was of i+ f.nrin church ol lo2o was not than thc existingcathedral lt had a emaller a ridgebelfrl lts length *. which took what was intended to be the largest churclr in Gaul a vast basilica originally planned 16 have double aisles. It so happens that tte know the architect's name .rbul a t o r r .l.a n d a p p l i e di t h a n d s o n r u l l it o n t h e c h u r c h l e v e l . hls cost us most of the originnl navc. rrl ro2o Bdranger took the theme of apse.1 !T h e t r a d i t i o n at Chartres was basilican. he 'I'hc transept had returned aisles. u hile the church was near the fiont line in the f"irst World War. The tall clerestory wall above tire 'l gallery had semicircular exterior buttresses. whonr the cathedral chapter ref'erred to as arIda.t' made ir notable 'Ihe nave and aisles Uofafy constructed' nrty interior supports toglthet had only eighteen measuringabout .St Martin at'fours among them .re s c h e m eo f r o o 5 . ambulatory. 'fhe nert reallv conspicuous great woodcnroof'ed basilica was Bishop Fulbert's cathcdral o f C h a r t r e s . The sanctuar) rvas replaced by'a finc Gothic chevet in the Middle. and the nave has been ucll restored.I oo5 "+9. Reims. an. The church of 7-1. now terminate the building on the east.

r'reorgiana Goddard King. Rome.ailable. t h e i r w e a l t h a n d t h e i r s i n s a t t h e f ' e e to f t h e . . its abounding life. en route. 'l'he and bv the middlc of the centurv the French ertraordinarv result achieved uithin b u i l d e r s w s r e a s f u l l v s o p h i s t i c a t e da n d c o m _ t h r e e g e n e r a t i o n si s o u r b e s t w i t n e s s t r .and better PART THREE THE MATURE. 16.for it verv well: 'Wherever we look we behold thrt c a t h e d r a l sa n d m o n a s t e r i e sa l i k e.. t o o k o v e r t h e d e s t i n i e so f t h e g r e a t Ilu"o f t h e e l e v e n t hc e n t u r v s a w t h e l e v e l o 1 ' t e c h n i c a l g u n d i a n monasterv at a time when it was gy_ a c c o m p l i s h m e n tr i s e t h e c r v p t o l ' t h e c a r h e d r a l panding activelv and needed to rene\\ its o1' Auxerre (aboLrt ro3o) [r rz] shows this buildings everywhere. but still lbrcefulll living at Santiago. to Canterburl S r n g . W i t h 'the real insight hc recognized and expressed inncr vitalitv. and manl' \.and unquenchably bcautiful there'. better stcreotomi-. so much so rhat pror. of' course..IAGE RO {DS G E N E R AC O N S I D E R A T I O N S L Thanlongen Jblh to gottoil pilerinurs And Tulnars. but tlclicious kilo'the m)riad human metres' in f'ellowship with beings who trudgcd unending leagues to la1' Porter called t h c i r g r a t i t u d e a n d t h c ' i t 'r c m o r s c . Increasing prosperitv and better Early Romanesque. ing pilgrimage ro.fitr sttkrnstraunli strotld(s Io Piety and the open road wrought well lbr architecture in the second half of the eleventh ccntury.I'HE PI I-GRIX.e sscs cir. berter fbunclltions. which lends this period a trulr.fine churches and conventual establisfiments on the Pilgrimage Road.. \m.santirgo prrrricledrhr oc(. Jesfs Calro Garcia hale u'rittcn about its poetrv. arisro_ slon and the resources fbr the construction of cratic majcsty .il order made greater resources ar. The pilgrimages indeed appear ro us as an attracti\e social phenomenon ol the time. Fidel Fita. rvhich is heard of :ts 'Ilre . equalled bl an inner forcc .r56 E A R L T E RR O N T A N E S Q U S T Y L E S E man1. o L f l o l t ) n g e . \rrhur Kingsler' torter' Luis \ azqucz de Parga.{ p o s t l c ' . Abbot Hugn ii handling of vaulting problems. i ' h e a r t l c a p s r e s p o n s i v e l yt o w h a t K i n g s l e r ' 'those long. Jrran Uria Riu.r n g c w r s . Jose Maria Lacarra. bctter understanding o1'stresses. . pctent as their colleagues of the K(iserdoilte on excellence o1'the preparatory labours of tftg the Rhine. and its beautilul -I'he thought makes one envy architecture. e l o n _ g r a L ^ i t d sa l e g a c v f r o m R o m e ' s m o s t g l o r i o u s .r Chaucer's squire. There were many collections of relics in western Europe by that time. we do not know) as t h c t o m b o f ' S t J a m es t h t ' s o n o f Z e b e d e c s o o n attracted ir local pilgrimage. . In ro4g onc n{ the great builders of all time. wherc the palmers were so numerous that a sense ol fellowship der eloped. Paul Henry Ldng expr.cnerated burial places in the length and breadth of thoselands.ty Picaud.ision came to be made in hosoices and monastcries along the road most particularlv along the road to Santiago.rimes. m a s o n r t ' t c c h n i q u e t h e i n c r e a s e du s e o f a s h l a r stonc. whether postic or spiritual I know nor. Joscph Bcdier. its cnchanting legend. and Santiago de Compostela drew tides of devotecl pilgrims trom far and wide.a l r h c t h r he I I c w i r sr s f i e s s h er si s t h c m o n e t ho 1\ l r r . But Jerusalem.r The ancicnt monument which was recognized in 8 r -j (on what basis. f'he first half C l u n v . T h e d e r .ROMANESqUE AS INTER-REGIONAL A N D I N T E R N A T I O N A L A R C HI T E C T U R E CHAPTER 8 THE GREAT CHURCHES OF . .

:'. the twelfih-centur1. a n d S a i n t .. it remains to be said that the beffer M' Elie Lambert't have shown researchesof that Orders other than the Cluniac very well numbers of priories on the haj considerable 'l'he whole ensembleof estabPilgrimageRoads. " . or ecclesiasticel personages.al. 'l h e a u r h o r . r + f'=aa +i qt* t! *. As earlv as 8g3 provision lbr a hospice is reported.ilrr +r. . and individual doers of good. one of whose q u e e n s( C o n s t a n c e )w a s a n i e c e o f A b b o t H u g h . 'l'he phrase cannot have been written at Cluny.f ++""i.ed ofthis onus. and even more the Spanish crusade for the reconquest of the peninsuh. . There was sufficient place fbr evervone . despite local war in the Christian lands.S e r n i n a t T o u louse on the Arles Jaca road. 81' 86o the festival of Santiago. Italv.anto develop. bishop o1'Le Puy'.r\ r*::::::::: Er+++++++ +. Comparali\e plans ot thc firc grcat ehurchcs l['I . S:intc-l ot i.+ tr +r ilrt. in r r 3z Abbot Perer the Venerable had rectifiecl Cluniac obserr. Augustinians. as e a r l y ' a sg 7 9 . and the houses described as Cluniac in Spain were for the most part mercll associated with the Burgundian abbey through foundation.'fhe1 all show askill in a . but it mav.received' in Rome. refbrm.. a. Sainte-Foi at Conques on the L e P u y . . w a s s t v l e d ' B i s h o p o f t h e A p o s t o l i c See'."'{' +f1r\" .that is.s disobliging Apologia to William of Saint-Thierry had stig_ matized the monks of Clunv ( r r z4) . made thc pilgrimage from France.rasa great church of the peculiar Pilgrimage t1''pc. 'fhe Cluniacs were touch)' at this time. in Spain anrl Pilgrtmas' tt Rc ii"1he (HerseY) . In 9g7 Sanriago was the object of an and damaging raid by the great Moorish warrior Almanzor. The attributions are f'alse.r.r :. St Martin Sainr-Martial(Roussirc) l' t. customs. 'lhere relier. the Miracles of'St James (attributed to Pope Calixtus II). conf raternities. t. is a phrase in Chap_ ter xrrr of Book rv to the effect that in x comparison between regular clergy. i g n u i a a n a s s u r a n c en c o m p o s i t i o n i . have been 'written in various places Rome.1r : : Hlo**.had vert similar architectural form. Frisia. The buildings embody an accomplished formula fbr ample. (K ComPostela J C ) l. | .fours.' +nii+ l*l + + r -1r .nl . A 1 m e r 1 P i c a u di n d i c a r e s r h e r e s r a b l i s h o ments in a number of placeswhere Clunv had priories. .v was rationall--v lishments setalong the routes. -fhe pilgrimage persisted and grew in spite of such dangers lrom the south. as is the statement that it was first .. such as there is to-day among the principal suppliers of the roadsidecommodities of our own times. borrowed great names to gir.". S.. imputing superiority to the canons over Cluniac and other Benedictine monks...M o i s s a cr o a d .t. because ecclesiasticscame fiom all over the Empire and from England to Metz in order to studv at the great school of' Roman chant which had been established there. each of the Pilgrimage Roadswould naturally have developed a shrine of some importance..of course.* "..rd _ljgsrrrrrrrg1 t' { .. the Chronicle of the Lif'e and Translation of St James.Cluniacs.3 This is a most rmportant f'act.. pseudo-Callistine codex.+ f .nritgode role in the Pilgrimage With the Cluniac understood.. I'hcre is a thrill in seeing and handling the classic manuscript of thc pilgrimage. l t c o n t a i n sf i a u d u l e n rl e r r e r s o lC a l i x t u s II and one of Innocent II which datesit r r rg.. .l The roads of pilgrimage were necessarilv thc grand routes of communication. as the colophon says. Unfortunatelv the colophon has led to rhs quite general supposition that the pilgrimass was dereloped b1 rhe abbel of Clunr..with the ttnestofthe group at the goal ofthe pilgrimage. I ri :l . 'I'hus an intcrnational pilgrimage to Santiago soon beg.'+r o r.r?. and the Chronicle of the Expedition of Charlemagne to Spain (attributed to Arch_ bishop'furpin). Cluny itself was not located on an1one of the Roads. Saint-Martial at Limoges on the V6zela-v P6rigueux road. showing all fivel. o'.. c h .<) .. + e + . and especiallv at C l u n r ' .black.e a show of authenticity to his work. ofering hospitalit.ances.lrog. Hospitallers. . St Martin at Tours on the Paris-Bordeaux road.t 14aara I roor f . fFt::::::: flr T {r o\ r . u h o s a r s h i m s e l fl b o o k r . and piratical raids on the coast bv Moslems and Northmen alike.ii? . .. tbr ii.. These churches transcend the localism of their period Irr3. conqu"t' salnt-5ernrn ] Toulouse. At this time the little Kingdom of Le6n as_ pired to empire. The international and inter-regional character of the Pilgrimage is emphasized by the f'act that the most notable shrines one on each road .. at intervals of some twenty a comfbrtable day's iourneying' miles apart One supposes an instinctivc or tacit understanding regarding this matter. rn Santiago itself.. moreor cr. and lovers of the old Burgundral monasterv will be glad to learn that it is nori.Yet Clunv unquestionably favoured the Pilgrimage. In g5r Godescalc. M u c h B u r g u n d i a n c h i r alry took part in this reconquest Portugal both. was listed in the martvrologv of the cathedral of Mctz. --aa.taa ..\ +( ..\ !lrtJ +. -+ 'lr'i/ T'|.I58 INTER-REGIoNALAND INTERNATIoNAL ARcHITEcTURE T H E G R E A T C H U R C H E SO F T H E P I L G R I M A G E R O A D S r59 earlv as 8++.l. the last-named melioremsnnctlrum sectem tcil(. accompanied by nearlv zoo monks. Jerusalem. each r.. z5 Julv. In that devoted age.. I f3J'. and the bishop of Santiago. Ibr it ras not manv vears since St Bernard. own profit.. containing Avmerv Picaud's Pilgrim's Guide (Book V) fbllowing a scries of books on the Offices of the church at Compostela. Bf'' that time a Benedictine monaster]' alread]'existed at Compostela. x r r r .' rrtrr f+? aa ' ' ' ' ' ' r t ' ' | ' t"r **tt: I o o 3o\l roofT ror i l+* frr*{ '| l -. though not in actual competition with Rome. as the Christian statesoriented themselves towards rhe Latin centrcs ofcivilization while pushing their b o u n d a r i e ss o u t h w a r d .' and fraud abound in lmportant the road of the saints'. Germany'.. and would in any case have had monasteries and hosoices on t h e m .'" } a|. monks and abbots and 'white' canons regular. Cluny had influential fiiends in Spain chicf' among them King Alfonso VI. Gaul. ".+ +ttl+tt . 'all that kinds of iniquitl. ' . spacious churches of firenroof construction suitable for southern lighring and climare.. Clunv supplied great churchmen for the refornr and cxpansion of the Church in Spain..t .

Santiago alone has a fully developed circuit o('aislesand galleries about the building. after eight hundred years. Saint-Nlartial was planned with two Iarge touers and two or more turretsi SainlcIroi was planned with a large crossing towcr and a snraller stair tower. r el i e f sculpture.t up the la(c ol lhe nare Jinn arch on the ground floor two olLl. gallerv. fulll-' vaulted. in the middle.b u i l t t h e l e a d i n g o r through later rebuilding it departcd from the type which it had helped to crcate. in thc galfttt.ory windows ofthe apse the openis no clerestory. still among thc n o b l e s tc h u r c h e s o[ l.tunnel vaulting carris6 in the caseof'Santiago. s S a i n t e . Light reaches the nave.By the eleventh or twelfth century it was customary to enclose thesc choirs with walls which obstructed the view liom the lower part ofthe nave to the altar.a very prett!'arrangement.1 in scale.rrri.l r o ih a s t h e m o s t p i c t u r e s q u c u r r o u n d ings.r s i x t y . all covcred b!.rnru. for all of thc typical buildings. beneath the aose.. a diaphragm arch l. Santilgo has the most commanding situation . had almost masked between 1658 and r75o by Baroquc (though without spoiling the r r-1.. Santiirgo de Compostcla. it has lost its suburban sctting and its group of conventual structures. St Nlartin was planned with five towers' all large.r. Santiago alone rvas planned tbr the full complement o('nine towers. with zo interior supports in the lbrm of piers. 'I'hcsc vaults harc rr1n. Santiago has lost its canons' choir. moreover. a widc transept.tt. The nave of Saint86nigne. under an enclosingarch which corresponds to the aisle arch .*o Uryr of thrust of'the high vault' In principle absorbth" galleries surround the entire the aisles and ambulatory about the building. quadrant vaulting so placed as to . and the embellishment. and apsc directly lrom windows in the end walls and r lantern lower o\er lhe c r o s s i n g . particularly with charactcr.S e r n i n w e r c l b r t i fied. for comparison with thc church of Saint-B6nigne at Diion. This means an small gallerv above it.tt c a r r ) l h e i r s h a r c o f t h c a r c h c sw h i c h A.tt aisle bals' and rhe lburth frrr.. Since the churches were for canons or fbr monastic purposes' the naves were blocked at the head by the choir fbr thc clergy. on slender columns. For rhe chant the acoustics of' thesechurches are unexceDtionable. and it has sufiercd both fionr mcdieval additions and modern restorations. and thr original Romanesquc exterior was construction building). statical problcms were well understood. rrdioining arch betuqcn thc groin raults ol the . Santiago. Saint-Sernin. On the practical side. and the qestruction of rhe others (Sainr-\4arrial at Llhoges and Sr Martin ar Tours) is grcatty regretted. r o7-5 r 2 r r . in view of the pilgrim thrones. It has a long nare rvith aislesan1 . piers of the gallery were ings between the typically divided by pairccl archcs resting.tt.rnceand Spain. we should note that the nave proper of the cathedral of Santiago and its aisles.r rtt. and at the sides on the lateral shafts of the piers..o. on the transept. and Sainte-Foi have notable ligure sculpture. to a unifbrm height sustained' 1\pically' on '19 1tt v e r s ea r c h c s lour ittached shafts' onc of rvith ]"urr. .rt wall to currr ttt. The corresponding shali which separates "irf. The wide transepts were designedto compensare for this.. SaintScrnin was nevcr quitc linishecl. two werc of mcdium size.ry. was increasingly Iine in quality and 'l'1picall1' the 'Pilgrimage church' is g'ran. emphasized b1' their bold towers and turrets. are. anahticll isomctric pcrspcctirc (Braunwald) . To enrich the design.t h o u g h u s u a l . forward-looking as St Martin at ' p i l o t ' d e s i g n .. though dift'erently shaped. SaintMartial nt Limoges had not so spaclous a transept as thc others. and a spacioussanltuarv arm.l. Santiagoand Saint-Martial were built of g r a n i t e : S : r n t i a g oa n d S a i n t .transept. gave them a finc silhouette 'l'hose and a handsome which remain presence. measure about 64 feet in rvidth and r43 feet in length. rcalizing the Carolingian ideal (three wcre large. each melsuring about l5 squxrc feet in rrea' This relationship would hold. pi. roughly.and a Elsewhcre therc . 'fours. .i t a l s o f i l t c r s i n t i o m t h c w i n d o w s o l ' the aislesand galleries.r.e i g h t f ' e e tI r r 4 ] .IOO INTER-REGIONALAND INTERNATIONAL ARCIIITECTURE ROADS THE GREAT CHURCHESOF TH[' PILGRIMAGE IOI which rvould have becn impossible previous to 'l'he ro5o for structurcs of this classification.rrri. and four were corncr turrets). T h e g e n e r o u s l i n e s a n d c o n s i d e r a b l eh e i g h t of these buildings. Beautifullv sct' Sainte-Foi at Conques is the smallest and most rustic Ir r[l]' Saint-Sernin at Toulouse is exceptional among the group in being partly brick-built.

Iartin. i l l a g e n e a r . when the transept was rebuilt. i n r o o t r 7 .a n d h i s r o m b i s wt against certain older portions of the church.both internal and external . to Cluny.small.ing.rr is a most remarliable carr. 'I'ours. a lantern *ls built at the crossing.A t C n n q u e r . it was sold (in ro6z) bv the Count of Limoges..M a r r i a li n L i m o g e s . . ST MARTINAT TOUR56 The early tenth-century church of St Martin which we have discussed was consumed bv fire 'fhe in gg7.F o ir. a n d t h e b o l d n e s so f c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e apse . but plans werc changetl af'ter a Iire of rtz3. and radiating chapels but it was wooden-roofed. S A I N T E .F o lA T c o N e u E s r l T h e c h a n tt r a n s p o r t su s s p i r i r u a l l r t o t h e M i d d l e A g e s . a little differentlv. T h e n a v e . St \. The unfortunate western towers date from the nineteenth century.4N ? ' . N church of the Pilgrimage type. a capa_ cious rransept. suffered from fire in 1167 and evenrually had a Gothic vault. and beautifullv proportioned. ro-5o (Hcrsev) Il. r o 5 o ( ? )r .. This tvoical S . have seen at Ripoll in near-by Catashorn we .w h i c h tooks uch m asir did in olden times. Heavy tower porches were builr at the transept ends (in the trrrdition of'the Lrgrrlc tower of' 466 7o at St Martin).The presenr church. r o 5 o ) "'*rarhn ar Tours ( "i-jI07) l r r j ( 3 ) 1 . r r r .onk . new construction afrerwartls hacl thc ideal Pilgrimage plan a long nave. Io fple contacts Saint-Martial had become Cluniac at the career (between 936 and closeof Abbot Odo's but had seceded from the Congregation.. Before that time a plain front terminating in a double slope (like a Lombardic fagade) served as a backgJroundfor the entrance portalIrr6].1 The reconstructcd transept of St Martin rr:rs built according to the Pilgrimagc formula. dated about r rz4. but the bellry'over the crossing is clearly ofthe twellih c e n t u r y . The newchurch was nearing completion when it was dedicatedin rog5.rnrbulatory of'g97 ror4. and eventually A monumental pair of towers at the lvest encl. for Cluny was not arbitrary or conformist in architecture. A r t h e h i g h c s rl e v e l there was a ribbed tunnel vault. buit. g4z) After the abbey had suffered from a disastrous firein ro53. slouly and progres.also in one way or another by the mullonia of the Pilgrimage Road. at Saint_ B e n i g n e .r.r62 INTER-REGIONALAND INTERNATIONAL ARCHITECTURE T H E G R E A T C H U R C H E SO F T H E P I L G R I M A G E R O A D S r63 "Lai!:5'* 30 FT at Saint-\lartial was enriched fiom velopment cG Gra le a n d b y t h e i m p u l s e w h i c h c a m e f r o m t e bl n of Aurillac' later Pope Sllvester II. This west portal at Conques. groin vaulting was usedin the aislcs and quadrant vaulting in the gallcries. we are taken back visually Ir r6 r8]. and it thus became Cluniac again under Abbot Hugh. 'Ihe .D i j o n ..w a s r e p l a c e db y a n E a r l y G o t h i c a m b u l r r r o r J after a fire ol' rzoz. Cluny gave the monks of Saint-Martial a new but opinion is unanimous that the church must have been finished about rrjo. though the nave. b u i l d i n g l a t e i n t h e e i g h t e e n t hc e n r u r v . .beautiful plan pur into erecution bv Abbot --*urrrc bout a l o 5 o .ault. ambularorl. who did not own it.tt In happier years which lbllowed. the old communitv and the Cluniacs were obliged to resort resisted. according ) oYr t : . When the new monks came." replaceolder construction. rcstorationstudv oftransept as rebuilr . 3z piers aggrc_ gating 8ro square feet were needed to sustain the r. About ro5o. a circumstance which gives us the rare privilege ofseeing this composition of the Last Judgement as the r r5. which we would so ghdll s c e . bur without the inncr paired arches o1'the gallcri bays Irr5l. *u. The tall proportions do not indicate tardy date. cultir rrred O n c m a 1 f a i r l _ v u r n r i s et h a r r h e m u s i e r l J c s . Two gcnerations of'technical progress account fbr the difference: thc piers ofthe nave of Santiago occupy onlr. r r 6 .and ths first typically arrangcd apse. Pilgrimage vaulting system might havc bcen extended to the nave. has bold proportions ( r :zj) 'orresponding t o t h o s e i n t h e r r a n s e p t( r . evidently still covered at least in part by wood. C o n q u e sS a i n t e .h nr"r. to force before they could establish themselves (ro63). as had becn done.A . but that tbllowcd thc orhcrs in the ruin and demolition *hi. 3oo square fect. 1 music rvhich rvas most ellectirch. facade befbrcrcstoration the same area as that of Santiago .h. elegant in Iinc. { A R T I AA T L I N T O G E S ' ) I L { t S : r i n t .. i r w a s t h t . r r 3 o . i n a n d abour Sainre-Foi. which still (owing to the characteristic arched hood) retains traces of its medieval polychromy. littlc more than one-third of the area which was re_ quired at Saint-B6nigne. \ b b o t B 6 g o n * b u i h r h e c l o i s r e r . w h i c h a p p e a r st o uc-the oldest parl.belongs to a design of the period about ro8o. Sainte-Foi is very happily situated on a rugged slope in a remote valley with a p r * r y r .

it was an Augustinian houselrhen the church was being built. i n r c r i o r l o o k i n g c a s t a n c l v i e w f r o m r h r e l l l Middle Ages saw it. on thc northern ( s h a d e d )s i d c . or ro8z-3. It rightll'' stands fbr a great moment in thc civilization ol'Languedoc. SainteF o i a t C o n qu e s n e r e r h a d c l o s cc o n n e r i o n s w i t h Cluny. when Bishop Isarne of Toulouse tnstalledCluniac monks at Saint-Sernin.the beginnings of Saint-Sernin wcre ascribedto the ro6os. alive and warm with vivacious movement. grimage group of churches. Conservatire opinion now preftrs ro77. G R I M A G [ .T H E G R E A T C I I U R C H E SO F T H E P I I . because sAtNT-sERNrN AT TouLorrsr. s a i n t c . A N DP I L c R I M A c E scLrLpruRE Saint-Sernin at Toulouser+ is by filr the most ta&iliar and the most ofien visited of the Pil- . Except fbr a short intcrludc.l i o i . and much more popular in appeal rhun rhe apocallptic vtstonwhich was evoked f'or the morr intellectual devotion of the monks of Clunv. B e f b r e t h e d a t e o f t h e r e b u i l d i n g of Conques was suspectcd. arranged about a cloister. rvhich had its capital in Toulouse. r r j o . r o . r . At the t i m e i t l a 1 ' o n t h e o u t s k i r t s o l t h c c i t l ' . R O A D S r65 IITand e I r t l ( o p p r t s i t) ( i o n q u e s . The influence of'the pilgrimage throngs may be felt in the choice and trcatment of the subject more picturesque. a n d h a c la considerable group of conventual structures. whcn the chapter of canons regular was institutcd.5 o ( ? )r .

otherrvise unfbrtunate also. cheret (with later additions)' and ambulatorv (looking west)' c' Iofio the canons.166 INTER-REGIoNAL AND INTERNATIoNAL ARcHITEcTURE -. was complete when the later archi_ tect of the building. the four crossing piers have been much enlarged. trrz) and to the wonderful P o r t a l f M o i s s a c( r . still exist . Saint-Sernin. Tours. At the crossing there is a marble altar slab bordercd b!' exquisite small ligures which is believed to be the high altar slab dedicated by Pope Urban II i n r o 9 6 . claiming exemption. Le6n.dating from r855 and the lbllowing r. ro8o 96) have been lost. A gift fbr rhe nave is reported in ro95.orr. While Saint-Sernin is most importanr as an accomplished example of Pilgrimage archirecture. Toulousc.nd the carvings of San Facundo. rozo r. are datable to ro96 or earlier [rzr]. r r r o s). putative aurhor of the famous pilgrim codex. Regensburg. \'et the precious wreckage of o l t l e rs c u l p t u r e s sho* s that monumenfal sculpt u r ei n s t o n ed i d n o r r e a l l v c e a s ew i r h A n t i q u i t v .T h e p l a q u e s a n d t h e a l t a r . Raymond Gayrard. Sahagrin. Arlessur-Tech. its carvings figure prominently in the hist o r y o f R o m a n e s q u e s c u l p t u r e . dedicated an alrar (or perhaps the uncompleted building) on rg July r r rg. ro46) bv wa1 of the ambulatory figuresand altar ( r oo6) to the Ascension on rhc P o r t ed e M i d g e v i l l e a t S a i n t .. refused him obedience.S e r n i n( c .b u t n o t v a u l t e d . figure sculprure dated abour roo5 at St Emmiram.eers. other important e n s e m b l e s( t h e t o m b o f S t F r o n t .c r e a t i o no l m o n u m e n r a l sculptute in stone. r2r.rn Conservxtive rench ivriters F claim a primacy .e the lantern.r. The picturesque medielal fortifications and the old patina ol'the building were lost in a restoration. took over about rog8.. ar sr Martin. He will find a charning city of rain-washed granite which has changed very little since the eighteenth century' . bringing the exterior length of'the church to a total of 359 feet. SANTIAGO E COMPOSTELA. w h i c h a r e i n Pyrenean marble. A re-study ofthe material will show that Cluniac spirituality and love ofthe arts did a great deal to give increasing cogency to the sculptural themes in the late eleventh century. a. make it easy ro trace the sculptural development from French Catalonia (Saint-Genis-des-Fontaines. ro77. the splendid doubleaisled western arm of the church had been carried up to include the height ofthe windows o f t h e g a l l e r y . lare Saxon rer r c l si n England. which means that the transeDt uas well adrancedbr rhen. P 6 r i g u e u x . The west front has been finished off simph.u*f (restored in the nineteenth centttr-v). p o p e C a l i x t u s I I . D G O A LO F T H E P I L G R I M A G E '-lhe modern pilgrim may come up the Via Francigena ('Frenchmen's WaJ'') to Santiago de Compostela as his predecessorshave done for a thousand years and more. of tvpical fbrm. In order to support the staged belfry (largely of Gothic date) abor. The chevet of Saint-sernin [rrg zr]. Meanwhile the high altar had been consecratedon z4 N4ay r og6 by the Cluniac pope Urban II in the presence offifteen French and Spanish bishops. but the exciting exterior silhouette. and in r r r8 when Raymond Gayrard died. as seen lrom the east. r^heAnglian ancl Irish . is a partial compensation. with resulting strangulation of the interior perspectives. l s A s e r i e s0 f m a r b l e p l a q u e si n a h e a v y s t y l e h a v e b e e n b u i l t 'I'hel' into the ambulatory wall of Saint-Sernin.tto *i. and at the Pante6n de los Reyes ofSan Isidoro.. and remains an awk- ward bulk. r r r o ) a n d so to Cluny (c. lor Toulouse i n l h e r e .

rozg and later .J-L) becausethe provincial government was long agoinstalled at busv La Coruia.5). as it h a sf r o m t h e v e r l b e e i n n i n e . f l r n t . the nucleus of all Santiago. stud-\u1ol lillnll s(ncmc' r!storaaion ut flYingbuttrcsscs rPsc Small ( b a t t l e m c n trs l ( l ( d : l l l c r I I | 7 4rd . tOj5.a' SantiaFo r23. the r.l . k .) "g". rr.T H E G R E A T C H U R C H E SO F T H E P I L G R I M A G T R O A D S r69 dc ('omqoltel. d u 1 .. T h e l v h o l e great f'agade. and indifl'erent communications have tliscouraged modern det velopmentsat Santiago.1. is located within the building about twentv-five feet above thc levcl of the plaza.t h e p r r l r r c e f t h e l r c h _ o b i s h o po n the north nn. . I t w a s n o t e n t i r e l v finishedrrntil rhe cnj ot the eighteenr h .. t. L The splendid old cathedralr* frr3(. rr.v from the fact that the supposed tomb of' St James.n. Santiago de Conrpostela. Churrigueresquc one for the bells. and engulfbd in an atnro- rzz. . r db e e n disguisedon the exterior and partlv on rhe int e r i o r . Once past the door. also. 524 feet in width. cloisler cdihce on tlt . a hcar'-v tower of defence adioining the transept $'as augmented in a similar wav. rhe uanking s t r u c r u r e sn r . I Ioo' etc ll!. the other lbr the carlacaor Easterrattle to a height ofzjz feet.f o r harmonv wirh rhe grrn. \{'ith tvpical Spanish rrr. and provided with a clock.the fbqade were carried up in masterly. p . The unfinished to$ers ol. by which rime i t s m e t l i e r a l l b r m s h .outh. r c l a t i r e l r s i m p l e i n order to give full tulue to the extraordinarilv e l a b o r a t ef r o n t i s p i c c e o f t h e c h u r c h . tzz-61 still dominates the whole ofthe city.lilr. so that a high basement storcv was necessarv bencath the western raneie of buildings.1. :pirir ot' 'fh. that gorgeous western faqacle (of the 'obradoiro. is a magnifcent design in Churrigueresque.isitor is surrounded by Romanesque w'ork.h. gains greatl. A Renaissance stairwav and platform give acccss to the church from the western plaza. pucrta tle las platcrias.

r a n s l i g u r a t i o n s h o w i n g S t J a m e s o f ' c o u r s e c a r v e d i n r e l i e f. bishop of Santiago. N c v e r t h e l e s s . and the vista is liamed b1' two splendid Baroque organs at the head ofthe nave.and so it was rcplaced tn . Works were still in progress at the west end of the church when Aymery Picaud v i s i t e di t i n r r 3 r ( o r r r z o ? ) . l O N A t . but (as r e m a r k e c i )i t s t i l l h a s i t s p a i r e d e n t r a n c e d o o r wa1's and prcserves its medieval name.n.A N D I N T E R N A I l O N A L A R C l t l r E c T r . This old scheme has been presclved at the transept portals. which sustains the main vestibule ancl uith it the triple P6rtico de l a G l o r i a . Archbishop Gelmircz recommcnded thc cons(ruclion of. in arrangement. and fortifying the existing parts of thc cathedral involved a considerable eflbrt for hinr a f t e r t r r 7 . Thercfbre at Santiago we have essentially the old Carolingian rvestwork augmcnted b1 the portal sculpfures. bishop (rtoo' r ror). is marked b1 cusped and mitrcd archcs which savour of' Moorish influence. though not in subject. On the Puerta de las Platerias the ceremonial beginning or the juridical fbundation of the church is lccallcd bv a bold inscription of unusual form. shown in prayer on the base of thc mediln iamb. and archivolts all touched with colour. and bJ the monumental tower pair.rl.vaulting. lengthened b-vthe clock tower to 2qg f'eet.i R E s p h e r ef u l l o f ' w a r m t h a n d d i g n i t r ' .a master namcd Xlatthcw. were dedic a t e d i n r r o 5 . the Bctween these I-agades.nt" de Iz4. the sculptured great tympanum. as we know from the Pilgrim's Guide by Aymery Picaud.I t i s a late and beautilul florvcring of I']ilgrimage sculpture.. It was douhtlcss 'rl thc usual Romanesque tvpe. Era r r r6 ( r r Jtrlr ro78). is The south fiagade still largely mediev:rl. alrtl latcr. giving thc date V Ides ofJuly. . togethcr with thosc of the ambulatory.T h e n o r t h l a g a d eo f ' t h e t r a n s e p t w r s entirel]' rebuilt between ry57 and r77o. the adfoining Plaza de la Azabacheria still recalls the pilgrim souvenirs of jet (a:ahacha) which used to be sold there. accused of complicity in a plot to invite Williant 'n lhe disturlrcJ ol \ormandl's intervenlion politics ol'the Kingdom. emitting great clouds of this at testival x r o m a r i c s m o k c a s i t d e s c r i b e sa l s o . An enormous censcr' insidc the Botafumeiro.R E ( ... and there were two archcs corresponding to the nave. is swung tiom a support time. The visitor entering the nave lrom Master Matthew's \estibule through the P6rtico dc la Gloria seesthe entire length ofthe nave' crossing. were seen trom the plazain the cavernous shadow ofthe vestibule. o l d w o r k w a s c l e a r e do u t o l ' i t 1 1 r r rz.r cloister. with a clear interior length of' u r. tt*. all bright with gilding. nevertheless the interior is dominated by the old Romanesque work in brown granitc the proeven rhythm ofthe nave bays. Repairing.erch with iamb figures. and the thrce great cloorwavs.5. r l e u p p o r t sa t r i b u n e which is carried up as thc central motif of the laqrde. gazing towards the high altar which has been -l'he the focus of pilgrim devotion for so long' altar and its surroundings have been enriched by Baroque httings. the Puerta Francigena. It is a ereat moment for the lover of the Middle Ag. as he says. rather small irt scale. r as resiorationitudyol lagade rernodelled r6ll rzI t . and thc sanctuary too. s T h e v a u l t i n g o f t h c r e s t i b r . preliminary work had bccn donc by rc77. Its altars (in chapels at the east). one fine relief liom the The fricze and jamb reliefs are somewhat disrebuilt ordcred.f o o l a r c is but above the hea<lsof the multitude' This extraordinarily rich liturgical one feature ofthe present tradition of Santiago. and it is certain that the portal has bccn once probably after a serious tonn insurrection and cathedral fire of rr17. north tower finished later (K. Bishop Diego Pelfez was deposed in ro8S. which dates in its -I'he popular aspects fbrm from Baroque times.the elegant portions of the aisle arches. the sophistication of the gallery arches with thcir rounded tympana and slencler paired shafis' A flood oflight marks the crossing tower. i t p r o m i s e d t o b c very handsome.. r631. 1'he s p a n d r e l so f t h e s e a r c h e sh a d a ' l .stretches magnificent z4o-(bot transept. Diego Gelmirez tt.L o\rer as administrator (rog3).J C ) century. being 365 feet.i n r t z 4 o r r t z 8 .an open axial vista of 25o feet. silver. where they are appreciatively d e s c r i b e d . when the west ancl north portals $crc remade. including the present approach stairway. T h e w e s t e n d has an interesting crypt. r i c h l l ' e m b e l l i s h e d b y ' c a r v i n g s . i s a b e a u t i l u l s t a t u eo 1 ' S tJ a m es w h i c h w a s g i r c n b y A l f b n s o V I ( d . the total extcrior length of the cathedral. t h c 'greater part' of the church having then becn built. Santiago ComPostela. It was carved and installcd (rr68 tlS) b1. The scheme for the new cathedral was workcrl out shortlv aftcr roTr by Diego Pcliez. All of this work. and sanctuary without interruption . Many carvings have the -I'here general character ofsculptures of r ogo. 'I'he original scheme for the front called lbr thesc same elements. and it was finished soon after. and archbishop(r rzo). r r o g ) t o e i e t h e rw i t h a t l e r s t 'I'ransfiguration Port. and it is named after the silversmiths' sltops(platerias) which are even now in the old location near bv.17r r70 t N T l . but a good deal of the cxisting rvork on the portal is later. when the propcrtv lines involved at tirc cast end of the church were scttled.s. and that ilt thc south now contains carvings from the west portal and the north portal. Formerll' the outer archrvay-srvcre open. but the carvings of the portal were on the exterior wall.i I'eet one of the finest of all Romanesque interiors. and colour. when he finds himself within thc soft light and shadou of that harmonious nare. lieely inspired fiom the EircatCluniac poltal at V6zelay Ir24.R .

The opening up of the nave at Santiago has permitted excavations which are revealing the old church of 879 96 built by Alfonso III in the Asturian style. however. . he gave immense subsidies which paid fbr about one-hall' of the abbel'' church of Clun)'.s h o u i n gr h c traditionalmonastic . . 1'he Romanesque ambulatorl. who organized the canons.the of the festival also the fireworks. It was he who.c e n t u r y Benedictine church. ri-^. as agreed in the negotiations of ro77.Santiago de Compostela. R a i s c d . This monastic feature was introduced by Diego Gelmirez. to the number ofsercntv-two (including seven with the privileged title of cardinals) as a community under the Augustinian regime. Santiago was apparently the first cathedral to have such a coro. and set the fashion in Spain.fles. Pilgrim crypt Irjgl openedrvideon nale steppedfor visibiliti' (destrolcd r8oz) . under Cluniac influence (ro7z). and radiating c h a p e l st o o k o v e r t h e s i t e o f t h e n i n t h .5 . two of great high mass of St James's sanctuary after the and the general outpouring of devotion day. man-v Burgundian knights and Cluniac ecclesiasticsaided in settling and organizing new territories. Archbishop Diego Gelmirez in the heroic agle wished to make the see pri- l. l o 7 5 | r 5 o .o. n a v ef r o m t h e u c s r .o 8 r 9 6 . was unfortunate fbr Santiago. which do a darice in the cathedral t. the proccssion with giganfiesta. "I'his conjuncture. io* tlesrror cd r z . . The charming and verv exceptional central chapel has the inscription Regnante Adelimso tempore Didaci in the time of Bishop Diego Peldez(who undertook the building) and Alfbnso VI the King (who was gcnerous to Santiago but even more so towards Clunv.tt' The raised area in the sanctuary rests in part on the foundations of the tomb which the hermit Pelayo brought to notice in 8ri. as the Kingdom advanced southward. to whose prayers he believed he owed his life during the preceding murderous dynastic struggle).E u t r o p cr. (25 iv'lay ro85).T H E G R E A T C } J U R C H E SO F T H E P I L G R T M A G L R O A D S 173 possessgreat interest . under him.Jl L ul t25 Qert). as-$'c shall later see. choir fbr monasticscrvices lr38l.o. of which the church of Lourosa in Portugal is perhaps the best existing representative [54c]. tS a i n t e sS a i n t . From the early twelfth century'until quitc 'coro' at the east recently there was a walled-in end of the nave IIz5]. As a thank-olfering for the capture of the old Visigothic capital o1'the 'foledo peninsula. outlawed the N{ozarabic liturgv in Spain. rnd spirits all are sweet with time and memories.

nsequenceof the dramatic town uprising in r r r 7. An interesting old liitchen and stairs connect with two handsome halls in the u.s l tbrtified towers on thc east sidc ol' hand.. and death rvhen the pilgrims encountered those misfbrtunes in their pious journcvrng. Before leaving the Pilgrimage. transept remained to be constructed.s[ to be heard there Irz6].ulptrr. roro (Antoiana). at 'l'ours. s p e c i a lc h a p e l sh a d divine serlice. the Pilgrimage Roads ran through the area of six or seven regional schools of architecture to which we shall ref'cr in much more detail.un o'f command at Compostela.rr Abbeys and priories on thc road normallv received pilgrims in their hospices or their guesr houscs according ro the travellers' condition.T h e g u a r d hall and school were towards the plaza de la Azaba_ cheria. Actualll. r'arying from region to region and from building to building.8 8 6 .destitution. nhiii also bristled with crenellations.. i t s l a t e m e d i e r . spl. No other buildings presented the full Pilgrimage formula. When the magnificent old battler of a bishop died. his palace ancl the cloister were probablv complete.I74 INTER-REGIONALAND INTERNATIONAL ARCHITECTURE THE GREAT CHURCHESOF T}IE PILGRIMAGE ROADS t75 matial. from an early period. hospices which were built with the pilgrims especially in mind. bllt at rclder the P6rtico de la Gloria.est range. added in . de . archbishop of Toledo rrlier the recapture. T. and ir looked as if he might be successful. The lower one has two lines of groin vaulting supported by a median range ofslenql. n e a r S a n t i a g o . there are remains of the palace which DieEo Gelmirez built.. a lu r u t t . north of rhe cathedral. n o _ ing from corbels ornamented by r..he uppermost panl of the palace have been rebuilt.a n d t w o g r i m b u t o6fi. after fbrty_odd y. In general large opcn halls wcre p r o v i d e c lf o r s l e e p i n g I r o 6 ] . and eleglnt piers.no ". it ought to be remarkedthat the great churches which we have seen served as sources for the design of many churcheson a smaller scale. hut the Cluniac Bernardo. " o p e n f e s t i r a l h a l l ./u Irs plan is in rhc shape of ai with the cross-bar a west rangiecontinuing the l i n e o t t h e c a r h e d r a l l a g a d e .s i. and connected by a bridg. rz6' Santiago compostera. Nlention should also be made of the accommodations rvhich were provided lbr pilgrims. with the upper works of the cathedrrl. and thc enchantmenr of the Pilgrimage continue to be felt. in rr3g or rr4o. Romanesque churchesso much resemble the Pilgrimage ty-pe that older historians. and afie r this the1.. r o5z (Nijera).. the vitality of the spirit which created it. the upper room i. become numerous.{rchbishop'sparacc Festi'ar . Within the present extensive residence of the archbishop of Santiago.n.o*. bur excerpts from that formula. and special charities took care of the needs o1'sickness. he was a personal friend of Calixtus II. are seenin much interesting twellth-century work. the Through all these and subsequent changes. the musicians and the instruments which r. the upper that time o t h e w c s t e r n f o w e t ' s . p r . kepr the ancient primarial c l i g n i r l l b r t h e o l d c a p i t a lc i r y . to hat'e been fortified. not aware ofthe significant role of Saint-Bdnigne at Diion and St \Iartin Several conspicuous Aulergnat supposed that the Pilgrimagc rype originated in Auvergne. rargell. thc beauty of the original building.i.lburteenrh cenrurr complete enough bv Ir5z for thc surdral was of certain contingent revenucs. there were also. o t h e r s a r e mentioned in go5 (Tufron). Uut trn. The earliest hospice certainlv mentioned i s t h a t o f O r e n s e . and the carhe_ Ha.

It is the noblest building in the Auvergnat district of Velay. nearly'zoo monks. including Nloslem Spain.itug. largch twelfih ccnturl r z 8 . Lc Puv Clathcdral. in 95r.black and red. Bishop Godescalc o1' Le Puy brought rhc first large rccordccl group of pilgrims there. ofwhich to build it' 'l'he church. Coins of Moslem tenor minted at Le Pu1' and lbund in the peninsula are proof.h. twelfth ccntur\' (rcstored) Moorish influence is strong.d by' striking cusped t|ttt in arches and doorwavs. w h i c h b e i n g r o l c a n i ch a s p r o r i d c d a s p e c t a c u l a r situation lbr the cathedral.rf'.n. One of the two southern PilgrimaBe Roads ran through Le Puy and N{oissac. liom above. \t the headof t h e a x i s s t a n d s a h a n d s o m e s t a g e dt o w e r o f t h e T h e c a t h e c l r a lo f L c P u y ' [r27.\ Spanish But it most not bc fbrgotten that most of the pilgrims and artisans rcturned home. rz8l is thc rnost notable French monumcnt in which . and it has a long recordofsignificant contacts with more southcrly regions.h. ILGRIX{AGE REFLEX ot the fire grcat churchcs olThe architecture interPilg. if there was a genuine florl' of'Pilgrimage architccture and sculpture. a counterflow should also be discoverable. Moslem influen. Roads uas intcr-regional' . has a rather simplc crucitbrm plan. cloister and tower. It was continuously an important citv.o. rz7. and a fine but rathcr grim granite. concerned with a great and nation"l in st1'le. as we have seen. appears in both Places.2 Le Puy presents a special case. begun in the eleventh centurv. fr.a g a d c .. Le Puv was earlv awarc of Santiago de Compostela.r...s of a livell' and continuing exchange. L e l ) u i ( . He sensedthat a veritable tide of influence fiom Moslem Spain in particular from thc mosque of C6rdoba flowed along the Pilgrimage Roadsinto Francc.t that French master masons buildings' sculptors worked on man. Spain' Nlention has alreadl-' rou"a..' Emile Mile was discerning in the matter.a t h c d r a lf.CHAPTER 9 P FRo\{ THF'. and added spice to numberless Romanesque designs on or near these routes. towards macle in thc preceding chapter of archibeen the wa1' which arc detectural designs along P i l g r i m a g ct \ p c o f c h u r c h ' a n d pendenon thc t and of .

el of these arches.I7U I N T E R .ogue also foil windows and trilbrium arches had rhrir Saint-Etienne at Nevcrs. like zebra stripings in the coursed ashlar and the voussoirs.ht about the construction of transrrrsc tunnel vaults which ma1' ha'r. L o b e d s o l l i t p a n e l sl i k e m i n i a t u r e _ \ l r o r ish lobed domes appear. though the crossing has a lantern with octagonal vaulting.a n d S a i n t e .T h e z e b r a .salso. In the twelfth century the nave was extended out over sort of crypt the slope.rt Tournus Iror.R E G I O N A I -A N D I \ T E R N A T I O N A I .c Itur. This is also true of thc south porch of the church. h a v e c u s p e d a r c h e sa t t h e p o r t r l : L a S o u t e r r a i n e .h domes were built at about the samc timc ncrtr the entranceofSaint-Front at Pdrigucur l::il \ c o r r e s p o n d i n gp r o c c s su l t r l n s l o r r r r r t l i l l ) procluced an cvcn more remarkable conslrllc'l he tion at Saint-Hilaire.rtls. and were seen formcrlr in S a i n t . the cus1. The crvpt porch. Waltcr Coorland the Norman llci. and an eleplant omc orer d niche-head squinches rescmbling those ot [. and wall belfries recall Santiago. T h i s i s a v e r v h a n d s o m e design. ARCIIITECTURE Limousin type. There are corbel tables on the flank at the ler.ol England. t e a c h e ro f S t \ { a r t i n . pattern-work masonrv panels. nave . Thc transfbrmation of' Saint-Philibcrt . and to a lesser degree of the cloister.e. gable. rvere used.g a t e .lunt' are wcll knorvn. r.rd t h e t r . l u n i a c c s i g n c r . ) a n d o f ' t h e m a i n p o r t a l ( r r o ( r r ^ :r x 1 C. ofthe nave. t c t e c la p i l g r i m a g e . decorative with Cufic inscriptions. with arches.a n d P r o r e n c c vcrv Romln. and gables like those at Saint-Nlartial in Limoges the chapel of'Saint-\. a n d ( i r n z M g o b i c b e i n g i m p o r t a n t C l u n i a c e x a m p l c s .1 d o u b t l e s s i t s s u c c e s s l u lu s e a t L c P u v e n c l 1 r a g c d i m i t a t i o n e l s c w h e i e . Poitiersr Irzg. and flatlv-carved wooden doors 'l'his lagade is clearlv a I t S + . p i c a lc h u r c h e s o f B u r g u n d r . The sanctuarv a n d t r a n s e p t so f L e P u v a r e c o m p a r a t i v e l v p l a i n . whcre partic o l o u r e d m a s o n r v a p p e a r sa l s o . The portal hacl tlli _ s. and divided from one another bt dia- phragm arches. cusped archcs.N . and nichc-head squinches which graccfully make the transition to an octagon. It is reached bv stairs from the ascending slope below the church. a n d C l u n y . I o o r i s h i h 1 1 6 m o r c i t 1 .aults on squinches. There are unmistakable N{oslem rcminiscences hcre.s o r k appears in the transr.erse arches o1' \'-dzelav I r 4 o ] . t o m b o f ' S t H i l a i r e . By contrast thc rather rough basilicas of the north seem \:crv Germanic. the Pilgrimage Ro. I n g e n e r a ls u c h f ' e a t u r e s gave warmth and spice to thc stvle whererrr thel. o n t b r o n . 1n. granitic hardness o1'the material has gaincd suavity lrom its Romancsque and oricntal ambient without losing the r. forming an imposing opcn porch a which presents three cavernous portals beneath the end wall of'thc nave and a i s l e so f ' t h e c h u r c h .Iichel de I'Aiguilhc. earlr in the tuellih centur\.e consists of two plain bays. I n a l l t h e r e a r e nearll. c h e s in the vicinitv of'Le Puy-. a n d a b o u t r o z 5 a v a s t c h L r f c h . togerhcr with chi:clcurl eaves brackets. b o r d e r c d s p a n d r e l p a n e l sl i k e a N . A s u r p r i s i n g n u m b e r o f c h u r . in which Queen Emnrrr. with octagonal domical r.igour of'fbrm appropriate to a carhcdral design on such a picturesque sitc. arches. I o i s s a c . .a hundred carved capitals of'Nloslem 'I'he type at Le Puv.r [ ) o l r . an intermediate stage has columns. but the detail has manv Moorish features. and other churches ofthe region. abor.C r o i x a t L a C h a r i t d . at Notre-Damc-du-l)ort in Clermont-l'errand.rr. rrol.e a \Ioslcnr or Asturian connexion. r 5 5 1 .s u r L o i r c b e i n g C l u n i a c e x a m p l e s .d arches o1' the trifbrium of the great chLr1.B 6 n i g n ea t D i j o n . r'aulted later (twelfih and nineteenth centurics) .C . on which an octagonal domical vault is set. l t t t . Poitiers.. whether seen from a distance or at the head of the stcep slope as one approachcs from the west. (.lLru. ro2-5 . pointed arches. setbacks. Sainr-Hilaire. 'l'hc decorative cusped arches and zebra work are represcnted in Le Puv itself at thc portal of I29. rozl into a fireproof buiJtling broug. ls g _ d r came intcrestcd in these motif'. was undertaken. l so .r.111 ( t o 8 8 l t .lg. The old part of the nar.tr.rr- twelfth-century conception likc the wesr parts -I'he nave bays are stubbv oblongs in plan.

was dedicated in thq ) e a r r o + 9 . . some$'lut like the vault of San Baudelio de Berlanga in Spain [57|. I t s c o l o s s a lo p e n i n t e r i o r s p a c c . t ' cinltion. as at Le Puv. thor. bay by bay. lor these are ofdoublc width. has a strange Moorislt clchct. Mihrab of the mosque of C6rdoba' Moslem rihbed and lobed rirult' c16t . About rr3o 68 the church was rebuilt antl v a u l t e d i n a s t r a n g ew a y . The nave piers. h a s e x e r c i s e dm u c h 1 . of'equal height. lrrs quite Roman in its ample grandeur.rgh achieved $ith Romanesque detail. aisle. t w o f i l e s o f p i e r s u e r c contrived to divide the nave longitudinalll inro three parts. leaving the midtllt bays square in plan. also vaulted after it t'r. Poiticrs. and perhaps Bishop Fulbert of Chartrrr were concerned. and the lateral bays icn narrow. It uas imitared in Snanish G. and reminds onc oi the groping soltttir-rnsof the Mozarabic architects two centurits earlier. Hele.rrhic I3I.qed scheme which incr.c e n t u r ) c o n s t r u c t i o ni. Although the new nave ancl aisles in their first state had only recently brcn bcgun on an enlar. rhe building.r60 r3o.r \ ' f minating in a hemicvcle about the altar. yet strong enough to sustain a series ofoctagonal domical r aults on diaphragm archcs a n d s q u i n c h e sw h i c h c o v e r e d t h e c e n t r a l p a r l o f the nave. 'l i h c l \ l o s l e m t l p e o f r a u l t w h i c h a p p e a r ' >r r perfectcd fbrm at the mihrab of the mosqrtcoi C 6 r d o b a ( 9 6 r ) [ r 3 r ] .Saint-IIilaire. t a spacious transept. the schemehas oriental even afier a nineteenth-centurr rebuilding necessitated b-v a partial demolition undertones in the Revolutionary era. r r l ' a p s e w i t h a m b u l a t o r y a n d r a d i a t i n g c h a p e l s .rporated the fine old free-standing tower.ts f i r s t b u i l t . were kept very slender ancl unobstructive. by a tree-like central column and trumpet^ The efl'ect. strengthened by charniing intcrior buttresses in the fbrm of littlc arched bridges. Oriental undertoncs are f'elt in the aisles also. vaultedlater (twclfih and nincteenthccnturics) tect. wooden-roof'ed. I O 2 54 9 . .r t l l o l -t u e l f t h . { t t h c h e a do l t h e n a r c i u s t d e s c r i b c d h c r t r . . with a pecr. a n d b e l o n d t h a l a h a n d s o m ed .rlirr compound groin vault supported. and vaulted.

The odd destroved church of of Saint-Pi-de-Bigorre" had such a vault in a tall stagedtorver decorated rvith cusped arches.rathcr than decorative.eries ontinue c to appear cvcn in Earh. T'he tide of structural influcnce engineering. and it the Pilgrimrge. Gothic times. por. r h . the church ol'thc Hol. 3 z ( u p f t ^ i t ( )a n d r 3 .. d o m i c a l v a u l t s o t t o w e r s l i k e t h e R o m a n e s u u e like almost all the refler architecture of.I o r r c s d e l R i o . . j t l c x o f \ l o s l e n r Ile-de-France. fbr the ribs support the middle of Ncar Easr is a part ol'the prehistory of IrT lh. nn. r c. r g hS p a i n by way ol'thc Pilgrimage are.. the vaulting panels in the \. shapr for tunncl raulting clmc liom rhc \.' r .l"l poinred arch and thc approxinrate catenrr\ RioT[r32. r .Ioorish f'ashion. Normandy.a n t l a esque work. ancl as such will be ana_ t h e a n g l e s .. N{oorish_looking interlaccd ribs and lobed vaulting ser. tY]. Pilgrinrrrgc rhesc Ncar Eastern morif .R E F I . 6ore thc stor\.arre.Being structLrral . 3 . and one of'the lagadc rowers ofBaveux we shall see in Burgundv. h . howevcr. ( a b o u tr o T o )d o n o r r e p r e s e n ta r . l _S c p r r l c h r n c l l i h c c n r u r r . but not in monu_ ments of importance. O r i e n t a l c o n n e x i o n s t h r o r .t ih.r Sepulchre in Torrc* . the church of L'H6pital-Saint-Blaise near bv a l s oh a s s u c h a r a u l t u h i c h s r i l l e x i s r s . onlv a Dart of perfecf erample is to be found in Nar. North -{lrica and Sicily had their in the conventional but handsome octaRonal e l l e c t o n R o m a n e s q u c architecturc also. p i c a l R o m a n _ lysed in a later chapter. H r .* . f l t a n dc \ t c r l o r \: e .rcr_ transcptal lower ol sr Marrin at Tours the fullr transfbrmed Romanesque architecture. . :\ltlult_ .'i*j . O . the belfryo[the cathedral of Or iedo (abour r roo). not Gothic architecture.E xF R o M T H E p t L G n t r u r a c r rgl '#.i comes into the reflex architecture vaults.ar I t i s a n o p e n q u e s t i o n a l s o w h e t h e r t h e s q u a r e F.ast. as [rr5J.a s i n R o m a n a r r d r r .

+ 2 ) . Fronr the time of Cloris onward it tendcd to graritate to$'ards lirancc. { r r h c r n d o l a .u-" to Clunv thev fbund a rural villa of the Romrrn trpe u.sicle was dotted. i n o r i c .en to-day. a n d its prir.r . and a possessionof the family of Charlemagne. B u t h i s s u c c e s s o r d o ( g z Z . ancl living quarters rcquired br.a.rarelv disordered. and soon 19r5-27?)the first monastic church. t h e e v c r .e x c c p l l h a l t h e i r l r t u n ( l ( r a m o n i l s l i cr e g i n r ew a s probablv morc fbrtunate than under lar controlA rcmarkable fbundation charter had been i s s u e d i n s o l e m n c o n c l a l e a t B o u r g i e s . began to bring monasterics under thc rule of the abbot ol Clun1. the countrr. This was a noveltv among the B e n e d i c t i n c s .CFAPTER I O THE ROLEOF CLUNY IN THE Hrs1'oR\-oli Ro\IANESQUE ARCHITEC-r'URE T H E E A R L YA B B O T S . w a sb u i l t j u s t ro thr norrhol ir.NNE' THE Clunyl lies in southern Burgundv. in a region which was relativeh less disturbed during the invasions and local wars than most of France. most important fbr the 'l'he monas- t c r v a c q u i r e d t h e r i g h t o f ' s a n c t u a r yi n 9 9 4 . C l u n v w a s e n a b l e d t o b e c o m e b 1 ' 'f i r t h e most important of the carlier excmpt monas'l'he terics.'l hcrewcrc rrlso. irs befbrc. In the tenth cenrur\. .J o h nX ( q r . B e r n o (gro z7). abbot of Baume ancl Gienr. L i t t l c c h a n g c r v a s m a d e i n t h c i r e x i s t e n c c . in the F r a n c h e . nearlv due w e s tf r o m G e n e r a a n d a b o u t s i x n n r i l e s n o r t h of Lyon.. i g o r r .s i n c e t h e R u l c e n v i s a g c ds e p a r a t e and independent houses. and can be recognizecl er. the agricultural exploitation.illa uas temporarily used as the monastcrv. which continuetl under thc new iuspices uith servants. and in the perennial faults o1'large-scalc c e n t r a l i z e da d m i n i s t r a t i o n .e a c h o n e i n d e p c n d e n t . o n r r S e p t l ember gro) rvhich in laving the groundrvork lbr the new institution placed it under tlitrute to the Holv Sce. It had eas1. the various barns. and maintained close lelationships there. .t h e e c c l c s i a s t i c am e t r o p o l i s o f A q u i t a i n e .i n c r e a s i n ge x e m p t i n s t i tution.' o f h i s d o m i n i o n s . ' sf i r s t a b b o t . br. communications in both directions.rtother'erempt' rviscit uas l i ' o m a n r e c c l c s i a s t i c ao r l lar interf'erence. This part of the r. said to be a Rom:tn station. . lying near the north-eastcrn extrcmit\. radirionalll t posscssing court u ith a a master!s dwelling. . anct serf-s. Clzniacun. The Pope might intcrrene if'the housc becamc p. ot course.+ z 8 ) . r . r h a r a retormed monasterv misht be established. was a villa under the Franks.ileges were further supplemented bv Gregorl \' (997or ggii)and bv John XI\ ( ro. u n quiet life.C o m t ed e B o u r g o g n e . howo c r .and a chapei. u. When the -onk.z4): I t s o h a p p e n e dt h a t C l u n 1 .hich haclpcrsistedin the region. was at the sametimc abbot of-scveral o t h e r m o n a s t e r i c s . and r e s i s t a n c et o . P o p e .vrri.ith such cstabrlshments. but for a long time it was on the borders ol'the Empire. Clunv I. peasants. d i s a d v l n t a g e so f t h c C l u n i a c s v s t e m lav in understandable local jealousy of. Becauseof it. shops. its immediate dependencies. he gave the domain to the noble Berno. ] ' v i r t u e o 1 ' ap a p a l O b privilege issued bl John XI in g3I. rhough spitrsch.\t the beginning of the t e n t hc e n t u r y i t w a s t h c l l r o u r i t c h u n t i n g l o d g c of William Duke of Aquitaine and \'Iarquis of Gothia. The chartcr was conlirmed with this provision future b r . (6coLECLUNISI[.

r . He ruled a constantlv expanding Congregation and O r d e r o f C l u n r l b r s i x t l 1 e a t .a n d b y . and their tributaries. cxpansion took place in the regions of the Seine. . u n . .25 luniac establishments.l b r t h e l a r o u r .18). local variation was lcss likely to occur. 96j). Thesc constrLrctions..Houses of the Ordcr multiplied l i t h i n i t s o l d a r e a si n t h e r e g i o n o f t h e S a 6 n e . and of great warmth and personal charm. h i c h h .cr und(. fbrgottcn. antl has p u b l i s h e d t h e m a s s u c h .arquat. There can be no doubt that the Congregation and Order of Clunv constituted a cultural unit within thc bountlaricsof Wcstern churchmanship. e s p e c i a l h . a n d came with a group of'serious monks to Clunv.ontrruction. Ir35].^ rhe buildings which were constructed bv the (. . r651. musician.D u c w a s a c c u s e do f i n r c n r i n E 'l'he an eittle clunisienne. 5I t w a s a m a t t e r o l s u r priseeven to her that aficr all that hashappcncd i n 8 o o r . ' l ' h e . . j s n o tltole clunisienne. a u l t e d . Garonne.i n r .of which about 2oo had some importance.q. some with quadrant vaults over the aisles. and decoration. we lbllow rhe Frcnch alrthors.e s p e c i a l l rw i t h r e g : r r . w e l l . hardl-v help us to judge Hugh's true abilitiesand accomplishment'What he did r v a st o b u i l d a r e a l m o n a s t i c e m p i r e w h i c h f i t t e d admirablf into the f'eudal p:rttern of-the age a consolidated. and prcceptor in music he was a lovcr of the arts. l u n i . V i o l l e t . The third group is relatcd to Sainte-Madeleine. somerimes closel).ancl princes alike.vgrand prior of the mother housc.I n r o .t churches o1'subbegan to appear church"t . capitals carved rvith leafage ancl vaults with transverse Lo. centralized intelnationalmonastic 'exempt' houscs organism.-organized i n s t i t u t i o n s l i k e t h e C i s t e r c i a na n d l a t e r O r d e r s ..i .it. rvriting more than a centurv a g o .breathe the same warm but austere spirit. o r i e s .rThere was an increasinp.itself . The examples witll a p s e6 c h e l o n i n c l u d e C h a r l i e u I I ( r . and thell/l to rhe great church there. thel. a f t e r r o 4 o . 9 9 5 Io4. 'groups' just menIn addition to the two t i o n e d . and the group was lirrther extendcd b1' the fbundation of new 'I-he Cluniac priories. some of' which became depcndent on Clunv. The Cluniacs were more zealous fbr uniformity in customs. r ..Palerne and various parish churches near Clun.. f b r m a g n i l i c e n c e . d u r i n g t h e a b b a c v o f H u g h o f Semur and later. the Somme. J l so to speak. In thc churches.grotrps'.t h e r e a r e . Jo c h r r r t .5)[ro3-5]. b c c a u s el a t c r F r e n c h a r t h i s t o r i a n s h a r e c o r n g to use the term ltole fbr such groups as tarh C i s t e r c i a nm o n a s t i ca r c h i r e c t u r e .a m b u l a t o r v . This process continuod.a t the death ot Abbot Odilo. and rel'er to these builclings as .. He left his position as prccentor for the canons of St lVlartin at T o u r s t o s c e k a m o r c a u s t e r el i l c a t B a u m e . which varied from region to region.v. rvhich led him to Cluny in ro4r.luny. T ' h e 1 ' h a da n a t u r a l tendenc]. e n d u r i n g f a b r i c . a t a t i m e w h e n m a n . Loire.I86 I N T E R _ R E G I O N A LA I ' D I N l ' E R N A T I O N A L A R C H I T E C T U R F C L U N \ ' I N T H E H I S T O R Y O F R O M A N E S Q U EA R C I I I T E C T U R E Id7 Odo's abbacy was decisive in this matter. r o o o ) a n d t h e a d j o i n i n g m o n a s t e r . colour..C l u n i a c p r a c l i c c * a s o f c u u r .t. resembling t h a t o f a n ' O r d e r ' i n t h e m o d e r n s e n s c . Hugh's famc' as a builder echocs in the Cluniac antiphon lbr z9 April. At its zenith Cluny controllecl about r45o houses. the p r e d i s p o s i t i o no l ' t h e C l u n i a c s w a s . to*. Hc was a saintly man.pi. the Jb ur t h to thc new chapel of St Ntary near the Infirmarv at Clun]. .$ith. t h e e x a m p l e sw i t h a p s e .l phrase was ill_1irrcl. r .. wcrc not \.B v t h e i r c o n _ s t a n t r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e s t a t e m e n tt h a t t h c r t . As a poet. 'I'hereforc in addition to the 'series designs' noted above thcre are other specialgroups representati\re of'the local architecture.built fbr divine worship.T h e l ' h a d a c o m m o n i d c a l o f h a n d s o m ep h n n i n g . t o 3 o 9 4 ) (r' ro4o r roo) lt$. lighting. visited. First of all rhere was a widclv diliused group based on the church called Clunv II (r. a i s l e s . ecclesiastics. three other groups which ma1' be distinguished. large degree the variations in gcneral form. l i m c . substantial bitious examples' grouped piers.irir'f "tft as doesthe actual form ol'the monl" tftir f. and so produced a spreading nctwork of monasterics which is propcrly called the Congregation of Clunv. and wherever the)'are preserved. Under him the abiding spiritual li1-e of (. Itall'.u s u a l l y a l o w c l e r e s t o r \ ' s o m e t i m e s a gallery.T h e y transepts' ambulatories with iid.group-consciousncss. which har. rl. and Spain.luniac psalmodl'. the f-actthat their achievements camc into architectural history without being recognized as Cluniac. ancl all the areaswhere the Order did its work. l r t r t I r a p p e a r sr h a r t h c r e u a s a n a r c h i r r o l p l . gb| 94. early in ro49 hc was elected abbot. . ' . . under the rule of Aymard (942 c. In principle. he was alread. was most beautiful whcn sung in r . all monks were prof'essedat (. epresenrirre C r nearlv a quarter of the whole number.b e c a n r c . in l-rancc betwcen 9oo and ro5o. . paradignrs o l r h e m o n a s t e r ya t C l u n y p r e s e r r e d description Con suetudinarr of r o43 wit nesses .vpe also some without clerestor-vin the naYe. r g e d s e r e n t e e n . wonderful Cluniac chant went with them evcrvwhere. Thence.simple and una s s u m i n gt h o u g h ..1. r t p y . t h c r e a r e s t i l l r e r n a i n s( g r c a t e r o r l e s s i n c r r c n t ) ol . . r r i . and decorative arcading. V6zelay. i n r o r c l i b e r a l .5 . s o n r c l i n r e so o s e l vl i r l l o n e d .1 8 .t. whcrc he became novice master. Mayeul (t. . Such structures among the Cluniacs of the Romanesque period were woodenroofed and almost uniformlr.l e . these writers have obscuretl thc lact that unified groups do exist among. discipline .e a r ss i n c e t h c f u l l f l o w e r i n g o f ( . l w a remarkable inter-regional unity during the lirst c e n t u r y o f t h a t O r d e r ' s e x i s t e n c e . It necds to be reiteratcd that the f. .tly tft. 164. ideally made up of like Cluny itst:lf-.i m o d i f i c t l . Cistercians wcre sent out with pazrrl. nj C l u n 1 .tyof 'ro3o t second'grotrp'of Cluniac iho. and liturgy than tn architecture.'. to unitv bccausc of thc unifbrmitl' ot' the Customs. 'l'o avoid confusion. 1 3 .u n i i l h i s d e a t hi n r rog. He had an earlv and deep location to the monastic life. e x a c tr e l a t i o n s h i p si n \iiollet-le-Duc. .Over thc reers s h e h r s c a r e l u l l l i d e n r i f i e d . .a generous use ol' irnrirt were planncd with aisled nares' a s h l a r .. elchitectural hisrorr. his annirersary and .. of master plans which could not 6. M o n a s t i cc h r o n i c l e r s . . s o l i d . silhouette. e s p e c i a l l vt u n n e l . . 'l'here u'ere and radiating chapels come later. In the conventual structures which the monks built for their own habitation. and in thc Germanic lands. at the age of twentl.er which their m e d i e v a l b u i l c t i n g c a m p a i g n s c x t e n c l e d . that is.w i t h r h ei r a c c o u n l so l ' puerile miracles. and Odilo (994 ro.rr{l s t r r c d h i s b e l i c lt h a r t h e C l u n i a cm o n l . and to a lesserextent in England.-fir'e. u s c l u l .S t H u g h (ro49 rrog) had a strong centralizing policv which preparcd the way' for strictll. livc in number.\ ' a u l t e d c h u r c h e s . v( r . The distinguished career of thc Cluniacs as b u i l d e r s h a s b e e n o b s c u r e db y t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e (rnore than two centuries) or.e becn relirrcd to in our chaptcr orr BurgundranDerclopmcnr. His triendll' dignitl' gained the affection of the people. with the great cxpansion of thc Clunirc m o n a s t e r i c s ( s u b j c c t a n d a s s o c i a t e d ) . .d chapels (or apse 6chelonsl in less amradiating three apses).luny was so greirtlv cnriched that it became possible to send colonies of Cluniac monks to reform other monasteries..lun i a e sd u r i n g t h e t w o R o m a n e s q u e e n tu r i e s c The situation has been clarified b1' thc dcvoted labours of'DrJoan Evans. t+4.\t(. Cluniac works ofarchitecture. l i l . stout tunnel at the highest level. SS' Peterand Paular Hirsau' . a n d 'l'his unitl'transcends to a of masonry vaulting. admired and imitated throughout westcrn Europe. l . a generrl stimulus fbr vaulting H ABBO'T UGH OF SENlUR Abbot Hugh was onc ofthe great buildcrs ofall time. b 1 ' c o n t r a s t . lost. It would be easicrto recognizc this if its art had not not becn scattered. groin vaults over the irch". . . . various reductions of this general t. . often portal carvings of some interest. open-hearted.b u i l t .o r p e l h a p s i n r o .

l s t r o n g e s ti i n a d d i t i o n l a r g c n u m b e r s . c s t e r n Europe. Of'smrrllqIxrches around Clunr-a st]'le related to (_lunr. .{llcrhciligen). Schaflhusen \'linster (. This lact rn turn had a fivourable ef1'ecton the buildine i n d r r s t r r i n g e n e r a lo r e r a l a r g e a r e a o f r . l u n \ Il' arclrequentlv br a llat wall at t he t. lr . Unlike Clun1.. w h e n C l u n i a c i n l l . l u n i a c ) .'.rer Schulc'.cd (personallv or bv direc_ t i r e s )t h e p l a n sl b r s o m e r h o u s a n c l s t ' i n c l i v i c l u a l o b u i l d i n g s .-itteilti)lunl sdttilunt D"nin. . Abbor llugh himsclf nust ha\e approt. . .oured good building..IIITI INTER-REGIoNAL AND INTERNATIoNAL ARCHITECTURE E C L U N Y I \ ] T H E I I I S T O R Y O F R O N . was carried forward with tunnel vaulting r. It Cluny II came to be Romainmirtier near bv.where the life and the liturgv rvere closely m o d e l l e do n t h a t o f C l u n y . where monastic architecture still ranked highest in ordcr ofimportancc. T test da u ght cr ol' Cl u n 1 Ii-rrire-tut-l-oire''eld built'' ro5q t ro7' " i.t This period saw considerable influence in Switzerland of the sister Congregation of Hirsau. Excavations indicate three recessesin the cast wall o1the sanctuar-vfbr the thrce matutinal altars of the Cluniac use which stood side by side. and lar..rtofsimilarplan. e x t e n r b v n o r a b l e C l u n i a c d e s i g n sb u i l t i n their vicinitv. .. more finished in its t'abric. as time of Abbot Hugh. Bv that time the important abbev church of SS.l cast. Peter and Paul at Hirsau had been built by' Abbot William.a t t h e f o r m e r p r i o r l .". had transmitted the customs to Hirsau. .es which hc himself had built." T h e r e i s a l w a y sa m a r k e d G e r m a n c a c h e t e v e n at Hirsau itsell.t h en c w r e g i m c . . a good example of the First Rom:lnesque str. o w n e d b r t h c O r d e r ) w o u l d b e a f f e c t e . r o T l la n d l l t c r I .Uor. n^. I A N E S Q UA R C H I T E C T U R I rttg f'estilal dav Quomodo umplifitt'tttusillum. where the olan is closer to that of Cluny II than orr.. The rool-..5 o i r n t u c j l i h c c n t u r t . at Cluny II.1 came in latcr' {t La *tt ir. though much later in date (ro8z gr). Io5o and later) [r34].r'altu.nas near La Charit6' thc choel. i . o f ' l l l a n o t (r. in somcwhat Cluniac form. and rightlv or rvrongly they go by the name of 'Hirsar.. and Ulrich of Zcll for those at Rueggisberg and elseuhere. ro8o. Even wherc the (. almost cnlirel\ from thc r o + ot o is tunnel-raultcd.luniac monks rcformcd a monrsterr.s. C h u r c h d c s i g n sb a s e do n C l u n y I I c o n r i n u c d to mulripll'uncler -{bbot Hugh. formerly Abbot Hugh's secretarv. as in t the round apseof Cluny II. uhich was srrng in m:rnr maiestic nar.isit_ a t i o n s . 1C .ll a p p e a r sm o d e s t l r . . n.like the 'I'he 'cr!'pts' atrium. e. l O . rvhich reteined or regaincd its indepenclenc. priorr. h e m u s t h a \ .) [r-i6] at Schaffhausen. church. somcwhirt increasing its rcsemblancc in plan to Clunv II. paired towers. Columnar shafts of slightly conical rather than cylindrlcal form and block capitals are used. Ir15] Otlilo strrrAt Payerne but the church as wc nos' have it ted to rebuild.i .. . for example.nould expect from the mere fact of similar Customs. n . a n d t h i s l a c t m a v be traced to a certain extent in architecture. Apparently. Ulrich.1. a r e w o o d e ni the corridors flanking thc sanctuurr. It was closcr to the pattern of Clunl II. ."1 o l . During three-score vears ofiourneving on r.r s i r l ( . li-chrrpuou*. n a \ C r36. thc old church of St Aurclius at Hirsau (ro5g 7r) was made over about r r zo. and the basilican narthex the appear also. and (ordinarill) simplo ornament characterize their buildings. r ob e b u i l t a r r h ... though opening inward t h r o u g h a r c a d e s . l)avcrne. he church had two such recesses in cach of the r .f r o m f h e c l s t d r-j-5. Abbot Wiltiam of Hirsau is cloubtless responsible for certain resemblances bcnveen Cluny I I and Allerheiligen (ro78 I{. b u i l d i n g sw e r e l i k e l r . . h a p a i z c h u r c h( n o t C . qui in diehus sttis uedifitai:it domum e/ t. r o .urrtt 9 " i 1 t ' l " l . Buildings of the Hirsau Congregation have a certain unity ofcharacter. C r o6o'closell. b " .lc on a plan resembling that of Clrtnl' II. that is. Substantial masonry' heavy mouldings. e s e e nn e a r l v a l l t h e l a m o u s structures some of them Roman tlren exist_ ing in wesrern Europc. fbr examplc. (r. the axial length being 3zo feet over all.. Among the relatcd buildings of consequencc a t a d i s t a n c ef i o m C l u n y a r e G i g n v ( l a t cc l c r en t h centurv) and Baume (probably twelfth ccntLrn.) from which monasreries erno and his fbllowers B to colonizeCltrnr in qlo' Cign\ r o d q o n ef b r t h "*ittti" the Order when the handsome new 1. ro5o) or more importantly at Chapaizc. in Switzerland. and larger in scale.l O/ .u"t tstical works (some ol' them parish clrrrr.r-iirr.iur.. I I O O . .. a so r i g i n a l t yi n t h e n a r c o f C l u n 1 I I . 1 ' h e i r h i g h q u a l i n ' c a n l e a rc n o d o u b r ttrat -{bbot Hugh had an intclligent inrerest in building.hn. ( v e r yw e l t r e s t o r e d 'a n d s u r e l v t h c f i n c s t R o n r i t n S w i t z e r l l n d ) t l a t e st i o m a h o u t c esque hurch in r loo.recalls lun-r I I' irrra.1".t.

for deriirttive lbrms appear in the remarkable crypt at SaintGilles (after rrlo) [1891. Chitel-N{ontagne (. N d j e r a ( r o 5 6 ) . t . Levre. z .lr Sixtythree possessionsin north Italy were confirmed to Clunv by Pope Ulban II in rog5.1j .5a n d r r z o . The atrium was built and rebuilt b e t r v e e n r o g . rogo) of the south of France. ro96' and cr1'pt' rotlr q6 <leclicatcd . as in Spain and Italy. upper part ofchoir' Saint-L'utrope' r38and r39. A s u g g e s t i o no f ' C l u n y .z)the church . San Pons de Corbeira also remains.It is impossible now to study the crpni sion of Cluniac architecture in Spain bccaq5o the major abbev churches hare been derrr. I l o u e r e r . prettv niches in the interior ofits apse mar have b e e n s u g g e s t e df r o m S o u v i g n v . S'. as historv recorrls. most unlbrtunately. and most of such monasteries were r37. rogo_ qq). finished in ro85.dedicatcdro57.E u r r o p ea t S a i n t e s ( r o 8 r . leaving little beyond one o f t h e w e s t e r n t o r v c r s( t h e E u l c n t u r m ) a n d l i n e s of old wall-work to represent the Romanesque cra.r 3 9 l a n d I l o n t i e r n e u f .lt C a n o s s ai n r o 7 7 . likc that ofClunv Il. the latter opened on the sanctuary through three arches and this was as at Cluny. to AbborHugh and to the ahlrot's godson. This is true e\en at the prineipal house.O f r a ( r o 3 3 ) . the infirmarl'. r . thc national pantheon of Aragon. . rroo) of the Auvergne. S a n S a l ra d o r a t L c y r e r e m a i n .r" Celtain other mona s t e i e sf b l l o w e d t h e C l u n i a c r u l e . at Clunl I r371. jealous of their indepenclence. at thc rime when the Lombard rib-vaulting was being rlcleloped. The church and monastery were ruined in r69z.. rs. l { . b u t t h e S p a n r iards were then. r r W c m u s t s u p p o s et h a t t h e C l u n i a c a r c l i i r e c ture of Lombardy was local in type. b y . where the monastcry was relbrmed by Clunv as exrly as ror4 (or ro. Layr'ac (ro7z. b e i n g r e d o l e n t o f t h e P i l g r i m a g ea n d of the west of France. reconstructions he\e all but obliterated the Cluniac buildings in Lombardv..-1.l u r r r a c rather than submitte d . She was hostess to them all when thev met. a hanclsomg building in the Lombardo-Catalan m a n e s q u es t v l e ( t h o u g h d a t e d a b o u t r o 8 o ) . the phcnomenon ol locaiism appears in Cluniac archit e c t u r e S a i n t . and perhaps in the e\en more remarkable west tower. Obviouslv the Cluniac order musl have had something to do with the spread ol ribvrrulting westrvard from Italy. of Moissac. San Sallador. as nolv.w h i c h t i m e i t h a d been covercd or. anclCarrion de los Condes (ro7b.er to form a narthex fronted bJ' two western towers with doorways between.1. dated about rr3o Ir6ll].rintes. d it is a Spanish version of the Lady Chape I ngn. 1 6 ) l r . n !x r C l u n r .IOO INTER-REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL ARCHITECTURE lateral conrpartments.. t h e n a r ev a u l tG o t h i c .z.n o t ( .n Clun-r-.. n e a r P o i l i ( r ' : ( r o 7 6 9 6 ) .. S a h a g i r n( r . with upper chamber. . San Benedetto Po. Firsr Ro'fhe associated with.8-5) . In France. Emperor Henry IV. But.rrrc1 Nloirar (i. a .. .I I i s a l s o f o u n d a t S a n Juan cle l:r Peia. being dedicated in rog. where we would be h a p p y t o s e et h e b u i l d i n g s r a i s e d b y i t s i a m o u s patroness the Countess Matilda friend t() l)ope Gregorr \'l l.

1. r_ne archrtectur.e and aisles ".a n d a i t . .. The design ma-v ilerire Cluny' in the creation of the mature . Compostela.n.. r4oand r4r. windowscorneunderramping lateral .srh ei n r c r n a r i o n a l t G.1.. betwccn (r r zo).1":rl is r. i u l t i m a r e llre a < J. role of _ the with transverse archcs. The church s. or'rhe Cluniac priorv pilgrimage church of'the N{adeleinc lll.'.er.ii. -{s hisroricalstuclies accumulate. . An altar was conrn character. on Autun.t:zclat rnd was replaced before thc dedication (t.ff arc a laterchapter. r 4 r .rlf...e ll:. "t :::::. from the o. r 6 r J .lder portions. tr. secratedin a new east end (r ro_1). For.... (luniac regime ( I o96.r.:1. Romanesque "i archire*urc becumes .izcla1._ pdrigueux the head of the Limoges road to Burgundian . It was builr during an cphemeral tne. i s r e r c i a n u h i c h U.nz1 Je_ f r 4 o .on. W e s t e r ne x t e n s i o n \ i l s s t a r t c d : t h e n t h c oltl n e n e t r a l .l. o f r h e( . . t r o l 3 2 .aults dir.:. Sainte_\Iadeleine.t h e n n a r e . dependenr Saint_lIartin.1: the famous cnurctrol Charlieuor lronr that ol .na\. covered by groin r. r 6 z . .half-_Gorhic.mural. of V6zelar. r a u l to { . r i e l r ..CLUNY IN THE HISTORY OF RONTANESQUE RCHI A ^ u n r r Ll L EL l K t rI R E ' t CTL I93 Norable fbr its local Burgundian character is ccnrur\.32. h..ided ba-v b_v bal.. I o c a t e da t *ytzelay Duc.rou. intcrior o f n a v er . handsome. Carolingian church burned out..r r j7).al ol.tlcscenl Iine lrom \.. r 5 8 . i o in s t h e g r o i n . clatctl near the end of.l. wirs the lirst one built on u g.rJ'in scalein France where the nar. Thereis no triforium thegenerous .{bout r r I q a clerestorl.

$ i !". dcdicatedro94. to serveas the municipal theatre of modern Cluny. Iotl8 9o . only in the monks'own part ofthe buildings fbr agriconvent..i""Dt}'}..? ? o ' . t Church designs for the priories of SaintFortunat at Charlieu.' ? e i ( l J f o oI .. r. the dormitory above it had an impressiveunobstructedinterior space3r feet high from the floorto the eaves.argeness conception iedly theseworks' of scalecharacterize nobility betweenearly Romanesque The difference scaleis at once apRomanesque and mature of in Abbot Hugh's enlargement the Darent at Clunv. and Saint-Etienne at Nevers also show the increasing scale of Cluniac architecture..P ' I i a " ." :i. the monasterv plan in r r57 (K. z6 feet in height to the eaves.'"J i {$ El proiectswhich Abbot Hugh undoubverious and of held dear. English 6easure.Another or indication grand scaleat Cluny comesabout of the year ro8o. 48 feetto the ridge. Clunl'.Saint-Fortunat.C. when the refector]'ofthe monks wastrebled in size and decorated with an imrnense frescopainting of the Last Judgement.?H'i. o aooo aaoo ooaQ oooa oooo ooao Porra .ls A part of the hospicebuilt by Abbot Hugh.. inner r43. .) "=-+-++-_ {-Y{: : t. It+1. The faqade.-${h.. portal ofnarthex (main door ofnave).. At Charlieu.st] l nl i cLorsrER oo90 oo4o q.fi. and planned from the beginning for heavy tunnel vaulting over a clerestory. the fagade at Charlieu was designed by one of the architects who worked on the new abbey church begun in ro88 at Clunyl.'..andlateron in Clunv monkr'quttt".J.i. at the death of Abbot Hugh. substantially but plainly built.f f i v .+2.it had a stableat leastroo feetlong.r j o f e e tl o n g nas been mentioned. being substantially built with generous use ofashlar stone.The capacious l l t * L t d y C h a p e o f r o 8 i 5 . especially thosefor visitors. elegant proportions.C L U N Y I N T H E H I S T O R Y O F R O M A N E S Q U EA R C H I T E C T U R E I95 r..?ry-[ \.li.{: .d '[::.the infirmarl was also considerablv (Dimensions herearein enlarqed.. Charlieu. To iudge by its handsome lines. in the great forecourt of the monastery' still The upper storeyofit is largeenough survives.".er.a t f. and other similarities. o o .s monastery all III. Hower..p Great o o #t N A R T H E XI I I o o (tl sm A PPROACH COU RT . t4+l. the definitivechurch ofthe to an impressivegeneralplan Ir4z]' according ln ro4z there were about seventy professed monksat Cluny. When further augmentedby Abbot Peter the Venerablein the twelfthcentury.under way bv the time of the dedication (rog4). Saint-Pierre at Souvigny. was embellished by a fine portal.for menial in and services. a fairlv usual number. Originally it was 49 feet wide and ryg feet long. Vast new constructionswere therefore not needed..l6 the little tenth-century church was replaced after ro3o more or less on the lines of Cluny.II. It remaineda plain room.under Abbot Hugh the monks' dormitory was extendedby one-third in area. for storage..F. it surpassed its prototype. furthermore. o . in ro77-g..but in accessory cultural exploitation.it measured and 34by zzo f'eet. but underAbbot Hugh the number had increased to 2ooby ro85." h.=. . I. and there wasa further increase to about 3oo in rrog.ilri .

.. but the galler. After the monasticofliceshad bcen re- ro63 built. Elegant arcaded screensstrengthen the transept near the crossinpJtower. was carried up in a superstructurt of fine ashlar masonry.r arches do not hat. disposed ternof Cluny II. which made it possible to diminish the bulk of the interior supports and carr]' the naYeto a considerable height.pp. dedicated ro94.ticnnc.l t"' P i l g r i m a g e . Saint-F. a n d r a d i a t i n g c h a p e l s . Neversl" [r45. are a clear siqn that Romanesque architecture had indeed achieved maturitv. section o{-nar e and elevation of original f'agadc(Sunderland) tq5 (bclon. 'l'he ancl resemblesworks crf near-b]' Aurergnc.Saint-Etienne Cluniacin became ro68. thus the lnd churchlost the airy silhouettewhich it had had for 7ooyears. with rrrcmarkable ribbed semicircular tunnel vault trrcr a clerestory. \oers. tn sectionalso the nave is like that ofa Pilgrirrrge h t h u r c h i n t h i r t t h c g a l l e r i e s i r r cq u a t l r l n t i r t L t l t ing. largel1. n rhe other han. tl i' iq (' 5 roil ffi---T1. 'J d. and it is reunder the stimulus thc time p o r t e d a s c o m p l e t eu i t h i t s l o w e r s a l o f i t s d e d i c a t i o n( r 5 D e c e m b e r I o q T ) ' an Earll' A Roman Imperial architect and would both respect this builChristian architect which either dine. casl r icw. At the Revolution the three handsome towers after the patofsaint-Etienne. a p s e .a m b u l a t o r y . r 8 The works at the Cluniac priory o1' Sli11Etienne. In plan. 146]. Ioll-1 97. the church is a reduction of'the Pilgrimagetr pc. Charlieu... Nelers. tl'' p r e t l ] p a i r c d c o l u m n s w h i c h g r a c et h c l ' i l r : r r O mlge churclr gallcries. and nave gracclullv disposed. Thc new one. The old church of'92o.397. the cl^urch was taken in hand about of large gifis. dcdicated complete in lo6-i. ambulatorl'' and radiating chapels. w a s I 2 0 f e e t l o n g a n d z o f ' e e tr v i d e . i m p o s i n g a s t h e v \ r e r t ' under the high did not venture a clerestory' vault. was 27o f'eetlong j and f rom I oqo onu ard this was inthe imposing definitivc crcased to about 3 ro f-ect. with the towers rcstorcd according to an old drawing church possesseda double-aisled nave 8o tegl rvide overall. and o{'corr15. Ibr it has all the advantages . same incrcasing scale is exemplificcl in the succcssile churches at the important prior]' of Souvignv. lt largel1r.t 1 ' p en a v e s . Saint-Etienne. rofi..sit. rgil7. nare |+6 t. Saint-Fortunat. rebuilt a b o u t r o 3 4 .Iq6 INTER-REGIONAL AND INTERNA'I'IONALARCHITECTURE ROMANESQUE ARCHITF-CTLIRE CLUNY IN THE HISTORY OF r9'7 r44. weredemolished. transept. double transepts.. The beautifullv articulated plal of Saint-Etienne. with apse.

because they have merited to go into that Galilee' savs Abbot Hugh's bio- . Cluny III.J. .r98 INTER-REGIONALAND INTERNATIONAL ARCHITECTURE C L U N Y I N T H E H I S T O R Y O F R O M A N E S Q U EA R C H I T E C T U R E r99 Roman or Earlv Christian architecture could give to church construction. Saint-Etiennc at Nevers provided a complete 'statement' of mature Romanesque architecture. whom Abbot Hugh saw in Burgos at Eastertide ro9o. as a devotion of the whole Order.a mature new sty'le worthy to take its place on a par with the older styles. r r r are pleasing to rhem'. .p l a c e so t r h i s . no new crew had to be fbrmed. a t i v e o f t h e c e l e s t i a lJ e r u s a l e m . There is no trace of archaism here.22 Preparations for the building of Cluny III probably'began in that year or in ro86. It was planned as early as ro85. if it coultl b" b e l i e r e d t h a t h u m a n a b i d i n g . all of which reappear in Cluny III (see below. confidence. the monks. ' rT h e focus must be understood in these terms. nor any new arrangements improvised for rnaterials and transport. a p l a c e r r [ s 1 u the dwellers on high would tread. ciae decrtra. drawn in on a contemporarV air'iew t18 (o|?ositc).of r for. becausethe 34o-millimetre foot of Abbot Odilo s time was then given up in favour of the zg5millimetre Roman fbot. When rhe grear ncw church and its monastery were fully shaped 11d walled. ment in building it could have held the entire memberActually of the Cluniac Order. pp. rcstoration ofthe abbel church as in r798. It made a great sensation when it was built. more was required at Cluny itself.ureu. of Cluny. As the monastery had been building almost continuously fbr decades. 'indeed they celebrate as if at Easter every day. the group with its cluster of fifteen towers on and about the church aouallv looked like medieral symbolic drawings ot rhe Holy City. r" ^i^ r47. majestv a hundred times' you are i 1 6 y o us e ei t s on each occasion' the classic overwhelmed lct + 7 5 2 . At the same time the designer showed perfect command of what the Carolingian age had created. and exceptionally exact setting-out. One suspects a new direction in the works from about ro75 onward. it was an earthly represent- Though The Ecclesia N1afor.) as ^.(. (ilunr'. greatchurch O r d e r e v e r b e e n a s s e m b l c d . standing. To the monks whose devotion centred there. He brought all these elements to a new and self-consistent canon of expression and proportion which is lull of energv.it"tion. and logicalfor the ly a more splendid building than any which Abbot Hugh had seen in fbrty years ofiourneying throughout western Europe.pat/ia laclea. r _ ) + lr 5 5 ' r 5 7 ' r 6 7 l ' Romanesqu C l u n y l l l r e p r e s e n t e dt h e m o n a s t i c a c h i e v e better than any other edifice. . Even at a late period one aeoh61r. restoration studr: bird's-eveview from rhe sourh-east in rr57 (K.lunl Abbel'.20 was the hearth of the whole spiritual household ol the Cluniac Order. One thinks of Bernard de Morlaas..:'. and serenity . had thc ship. The 295-millimetre fbot is basic there.'1 . a strict mathematical layout. and no problem posed by the d e s i g n e rr e m a i n s u n s o l v e d . Influence from Desiderius's N'{ontecassino (ro66-75) is practically certain. and its 6rst great patron was Alfonso VI of Spain. Even before rogo Alfonso had sent Abbot Hugh ten thousand 'talents' as a thank-ofl'ering for the capture of 'l'oledo on z5 Ntay ro85.il "d.r ti' . 302 3).. after rr8o. along with unusual pointed arches and vaults.C. because the church building there had a rraDscendent role to play.Mabillon r+ ites( I 682): rt ir i. who gained here his vision of Jcru_ salem the Golden L'rhs Sion il.

. a retired abbot of Baume and a musician Qpsalnista ptaecipuus). archbishop ofVienne. The gencral dedication ot the churclr . r50.datio of the church dates from 3o September ro88."as . 6 (centre to chord of the apse). still at Clunt.). driven ftom Rome by partisans of the Emperor Henrr' \'. consecrated the chapel of St Gabriel in the existing stair tower attached to thc great transept. 3oo. hrd taken refuge in Cluny ( r r rg).1 o . Relationships of this kind are well known in medieval churches. Thc trvo transepts had been finished by 14 March r roo. 2 5 . in this sense. repeated in building up the design. distinguishes the church {rom all others on rhe globe'.r 5 ) b e f b r e t h e a d j o i n i n g i n t er i o r bays. Five altars in t h e c h e v e t w e r e d e d i c a t e do n z q O c t o b e r r o g 5 . and zq-foot sections.rr but the inlbrmation which we have in vincing becauseofcopious exact measurements taken in the excavations. bishop ofPamplona and one ol' the active French reforming clergr in Spain. The official Jim. forward with unusual speed. He died there' and the six cardinals of his suite. was portioned offin 'perfect numbers'. 25o. V i t r u v i a n s y m m e r r i ap u s tulates a minor unit. N{eanwhile Pope Gelasius II. [Ie probably settled the general scheme. . rI25. extending to the western foundation bench).tt expressive Ir49]. was on his way to Le Puy and ClermontFerrand to preach the First Crusade. had modules T o f 5 .2OO INTER-REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL ARCHITECTURE Careful study of the existing remains above and below the surface has revealed a rather strict mathematical layout and a modular system in the design of Cluny III. Through Lewes Priory after rotyo t[. r rz3) is reported as a mathematician. The great design exemplilies both the prll)ortio and the symmetria of Vitruvius. according to the original scheme of Abbot Hugh's architects. was quicklv rcpaired. r 5 j f e e t ) . 50. plus z8 (the sanctuar-v bay). In the great church a partial firll of vaulting in the nave. a refugee f rom the activities of the antipope Clement III in Rome. once begun. 6 2 . Proportio plstulates a principal dimensiouin orderly relotionship nith its components. I n t h e s u p e r s t r u c t u r et h e 6oo-foot length was so divided that the various parts made up 4oo. and Viollet-le-Duc has a good deal to say about them. was slstematically related to the interior impost levels (at 8o. roo. This arrangement made it possible to transfer the choir (iom Clun-r'' II as early as Io98.Gunzo.a n d 3 t f e e t . and thr:reafter. and to accommodate. double transept passed to England. a n d t h e v a s t n e w m o n a s t i c g r o u p w . Chny IIl. but these were complete and vaulted b1 r r zr.-' 'l'he bold massing of Cluny III . 3 r . cast view ofnrodel . near the high altar. as Peter the Venerable savs. Simple fractions of 496 determined the projection of all salient elements in the plan (248. His gifted collaborator H6zelon (d. Chapels rnd stepped fornrs respect to Cluny III is unusually clear and con- I49 Cluny. The west front of the main nave f r 57] w a s b u i l t ( r r 0 7 . \['e hate herltl of him before: the Pilgrimage Codex of C:rlirtus was ascribed to him. After an interval he rcturned ro Cluny. The architect was a monk of Cluny . r sp e r f o r n r e l by Pope Innocent II on z5 October rr3o. when Pedro de Roda. H6zelon probably managed the building enterprise.a n d z 5 f e e t ) . Again. r. n c11 'an admirable 'which plan'. where he canonized Abbot Hugh in r rzo. rogT ff. had met and chosen Guy de Bourgogne. whose De Architectura was in the Abbey library. the great a s s e m b l i e s o f t h eC h a p t e r sG e n e r a l ( r z r z m o n l o in r r3z). third abbcy church. roo feet to the point. when the Cluniac Pope Urban II. to be GelasiusII's successor.on Construction ofthe church. He took the name of (. to English Gothic. with Canterbury (c. 2 a o l e r ances never exceed lbur inches. 2oo. 8 J . and 496 (the choral and processional part ofthe church. t z 4 .alixtus II. The plan of Cluny III was the first to have full-scale double transepts in the chevet. 6 6 ' i . and as 'labouring long'to achieve the work. the high vault of the nave. 7 ( s y m b o l i c ) . 53 r feet long. Cluny III the fundamental stem At of the church.

in the main church. stud-vof transversesectionol' restoration ba. :. was very light . . l i k e a n e n o r _ m o u s l la u g m e n t e d G e r built up.orh.C L U N Y I N T H E H I S T O R Y O F R O M A N E S Q U TA R C H I T E C T U R E 203 :. . vaulting..:: :). The piers. e i t e r i o o f e r t a n t s o u t ha r m o l g r e a ll r r n s ( P l ' r . usetl lbr processions' gate a narthex horizontal to thc comremendous contrasting the massive position.rI o o ---l J. . s t i l le x i s t sa n d a p p e a r sn i l l u s t r a t i o n 5 o . ' i. of which there were sixt1.t. the double-transept t y p c . .t h i r d a b b e l ' c h u r c hr o f S {rl ' I I z r .t.. 'I'he scheme was thus a combi- nation of the central t-ype. however. r o g 5 . r 5 r . 'l'he measured about eight f'eet on the axis. .v (K."rr :. C l u n y .the cells r..).. I n d e s i g n the building brought together the grandeur of Roman work.Thc three-arched at the right nave r i .. and the nave clerestory wall (pierced by many windows) eight feet Ir5r].' *' r 5 o ( u p p l s i t cC l u n r ' t h i r d a b h c rc h u r c h ' ). in the minor transept: lour 6igny-des-Pres' four lowers ga\t \ erticalmo\ ement c l a p a t rt n a | These aspiringforms .. the outer wall of thc nave aislcs was six f'eet.J.] . 'r:r . gt. Curved and screen walls in various parts of the design wcrc ncarly lbur f'eet in thickness. The masonry walls at Cluny have substantial dimcnsions. a n d t h e b a s i l i c a nt v p e o f c h u r c h . beyond.C. and a dynamic quality which makes it an authentic fbrerunner of Gothic architecture in certain particulars.nsept I 50l c l u s t e r e di n t h e p a r t o f t h e b u i l d i n g w h i c h were 'l'he nare' with thc q .. a sd e v o t e d d o p r a l e r .. thc abounding vigour of Carolingian work.t . I .:' . which brought up at western towers.

r r o o : ( t r ) ( ' l u n r I I I ' a n a l r t i c l l s e c t x ) n . ture. and divine prarse lbrmed a beautiful semicircle about thc tlrr chief altars. The apse was tall. Thus it was possible lbr the architect to \enture a nave vault with its crown liom roo to ncarly' r03 Roman feet above the pavement o\er a spanof thirtr -fir c. Cllun\.T h e s u b i e c t i n v e s t e d t h e n a v e w i t h a g r r t e i dignitl'which we may sensen the contemporrlr\ fresco of the monks' chapel at Berz6-la-\'ille I r 53e]. These altars themselves were included lvith thc capitals in another allegory. as Mabillon says.I n t e r c s l ing small sculptures of the Vices and Psrchomachia on the outer wall contrasted with larger motifi on the column capitals.td miraculum su.p a i r e d r n t l t e 1 5 3 ( ' c B c r z d . as is the ingenious inward corbelling of the walls undcr the high vault (mentioned below). but it is known to harq produced the rvonderful acoustical effects which were dcsired. where Abbot Hugh loved to go for reposc at the end of his life. Fir q elcgant r:rdiating chap!ls looked in upon thc a m b u l a t o r y . ) (K .l a .r. and the Sacrifice of Abrahanr (prefiguring the eucharistic sacrilice) at thc right. The Fall was represented to thc leli. capitals and shafis li'orl the sanctuar\ (as placed in the fbrmer abbel granarr). and slender in proportion. 'I'hc .l ( shoring altars ot thc sanctuarr rnd all thr tlcrcu rbsidiolus of the eheret being from thirteen to eighteen inclres in thickness. l i k c t h e mosaic figures at Celalir and \lonreale l. third abbel church. w a s t h e b o l d e s t .\ ' i l l c .zn The ends of the apse arcaderested on tuo capitals which were placed to the left and right. where an allegolr o1'the monastic lif'e. Incense rose. s-vmbolicalll.20+ r52. r 538. . which cleverl v i n c r e a s e d t h e r v a l l ' s r e s i s t a n c et o v a u l t i n g thrusts. and most beautilul part ofthe church Ir5r. This enclosing arcade had eight tiee-standing columns.rrs past the allegorical carvings o[ the arcade to a rast liesco of Christ in glorl with the cclesti. This functional application is a step to$irrds Gothic vaulting.v I I I focus of all head. Iotl-5 windowed clerestory. r . o l n 1 tn 0 l t r t n s c l ) t . the proportion is ver. rtn open length of 425 Roman or 4II'3 English I ' e e t . and above a many'- ) . T h i s p a i n t i n g . fiom the alt'. dcsign of the tvpical interior bars oecurteJ s i n g l v i n t h e a d j o i n i n g s a n c t u a r \ ' . r 54].:. a p s i c l a lf i e s c o .fulta.-vpinched or pointed in shape. like oriental vaults. respectivel!'. w h i c h h a d c l e r e s t o r yw i n d o w s o n the outer side to correspond with the tall gracrf u l a r c h e so p e n i n g i n t o t h e s a n c t u a r v .. T h e a p s c w h i c h h a s j u s t b e e n d e s c r i b e ds t t s remarkably light and ingenious in constructtorr. centrq. r. not quite as high as the main vault.rL c h o i r s o n t h e a p s ev a u l t . at this great height. and slightl. with dimensions about one'l'he tunnel vault rvas inclecd a vensixth less. of the two altars in the sanctuilr\. as a means of diminishing thcir thrust Ir5r]. virtues. dominated the rvhole nave of the church.r closc to the pcrfect Gothic proportion ol the cathedral of Reims.m o s t i n t c r e s t i n q . T h e s i r n c t u a r l 'o f C l u n . rq2.

t h i r d a b b e l c h u r c h . . r. almost enobviously tirely to the allegorical ensembles in the apse and at the west Portals. However. nnge t o i u d g e b y t h e s c v e n t y . Figure sculpture was rnd very few confined. which still exist. ro(. reduced in the upper storey ofthe nave (through ingenious wall corbelling) to a single engaged shaft under the vaulting arch. a. including the monas- l-. Another indication of oriental influence was the decorative use of horseshoe lobes on the arches ofthe triforium Ir55].f i r ' ee x The capitals. it is believed.)-5roo r 1-' teries.. were beneficent to all. syndicates. but they are alreadv of Gothic proportions. . d-$ the two transepts' and in a noblc choir between of eleven bays in the great nave Ir541.w i t h grotesques. Clunl'.i. under oriental influence transmitted through Montecassino.i llt r-54. i n l c r i u ro l ' ( \ l r n l s u u l ha r m u l g r c a tl r J n s c p t .r11i\.e intellectual activity to the urban centres to cathedral schools and incipient universities tended to leave the abbeys in a backwater wherethcy'could prosper quietly to be sure. third abbei'church. Autun Cathedral (rlzo and later) II6r].CLL'NY IN THE HISTORY OF ROMANESeUE ARCHITECTURE 2o7 \1 I 'ti. ro$tl i r3o . but where henccfbrth thcv had only a minor or conservativc role to olav in the creation of the . with profitable f'airs. The pilasters of the trifbrium and the arcade of the clerestory (resting on pretty paired colonnettes) aided in inching the wall outward to receive the thrusts ofthe vaults. and aPProachthe Gothic aestheric. .n til jll . 167].11". The pointed arch facilitated vault construction in the aisles. the remedying of precarious economic conclitlons' the improvement of communications. Throughout the church the picrs weregrouped piers. r55. Rcstriction ol' local war. La Charit6-sur-Loire (about r rz5) [r66]. and presenting the pointed arch for the first time in large numbers in a Western church design [r54.C l u n 1 . by programme. r 5 5 .\r .:" The conditions which caused Gothic archit e c t u r el o d c r c l o p w e r e a l r e a d y p r e s e n t a 1 t h c closeof Abbor HuEh's career. and exchanges. dated roughly about rrro). and the transf-er of eflictir. r I *\{* r\ ll \r L-. The beautiful efi'ectofthis interior design led to its being reproduced with greater or less fidelity at Parar'-le-Nlonial Ir561 (a 'pocket edition' of Clunv. were almosl all Corinamples hardly any figure sculpture t h i a n e s q u e . the granting o1' civic charters which I'avoured organizt:d urban progrcss. increasing competence in the aclministrative cadres of the great f'eudal oflicers. The aisle bays had pointed arches. the gencral development of trade.. and Beaune (about rr5o).strictlv archaeological rcstorationol'navc interior. here used.1 F !. f.1 lr I'l . All these inreriors are strictly Romanesquc in its classic phase.I.j L. togcthcr with the growth in urban population and civic consciousnesseverywhere.

and was required to pass only a single day in thc novitiate when hc cntered Cluny monastery. intrusive return to his litnct i o n s . The ttetit matbre.i"po. r631. was much larger' . third abbeychdrch. Thou*h . the flat. Th. deeply embrasured.! t later medieval Europe.. Perrecy-les-Forges. G. Between them. t t i l e achievcment of the older men ga\. of r. and beyond the lateral A B B O TP O N S .llt sork comcsonll ten rearsalter the alltg. t h r e e i n l i n e .. and Bellenaves suggest what the great composition was like.. lrom the south-west Paray-le-Monial. and its tiny round sanctuary proiected like an oriel into the main nave Ir671. r' r roo.andAutun t . .tn more imposing than the o.Iclgucil. Above the chapel were big windows which lighted the nave until the narthex was built.rttit to completion about r r r3 [r57]. ^ tor its indicared date makes ir rhc firsr ot the allegorical porrals on a reallt grand scale.rr n J disgrace (rrzz).Iartial.2O8 INTER-REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL ARCHITECTURE 209 $6 priorv church.r.:. Linoges.. r r07 r 5. he was forced out b)'relorm s e n t i m e n t i n t h e m o n a s t e r y .lunl a g l i t t e r i n g m o m e n l b e l b r e t h e a h d i c : r t i o r . \ l a r eu l .. (upplsite).. as the building advanced westward. who had attractcd the abbot. almost to the dimensions of a delightful architectural tor. and a Moorish alfizborder about the recessedarches. p a s s e da w a v w i t h i n a g c n c r a t i o n o f A b b o t Hugh.Ir06-08 ro)inspiredthegreatworksatVdzelay. to harder stone. . Pons de N.r.e (.h.r:. I'he Europc which dependcd on the monasteries. b e l o n g t o t h e s p i r i t u a l l i n e o f O d o .O R P O N T I U S ID E M L L G U E I L T h e s u c c c s s o ro f A b b o t H u g h i n r r o g w a s a flashing young Provengal. and was prior at Saint-I. the carving was more mature in character much bolder in composition. ?il". . and though rrt lerst one ofthe sculptors worked in both places. Portal at Cluny is a capital loss. rrz6) of -\bltot Pons. and had a monastic i d e a l . t l t : r r l l t f . almost stucco-like calligraphic modelling of'the figural sculpture there. most cleverly constructed (like the main apse). Thc portal. . the portals of V6zelay 1158. stronger relief. and the accompanying classical acanthus gave way. had nook shafts.rreitt capitals o1'the sanctuary. and hore medieval leaf'aEe. H e c a r r i c d t h e m a g n i f i c e n tp o r l a l s a t ( l t r n r 'l'her st.a n d d c a t h ( l r o m R o m a n l c t c r . 'l'hough hc was a postulant at rhe old Cluniac house of' Saint-Pons-de-Thomidrcs. with very slen<lerfigures nearly free-standing in relief. of the Chapel of thc Saviour at Saint-Riquier. a soft mortled limestone used in the eastern parts of the building. warder of doors. excommunicate and in prison. l b r t r I c c l $ r ( l r and sixty-two fcet high.Y e t t h e c u m u l .. indccd the deep embrasuring made the portal itself project outward from the f'aqadc like a flat oblong chapcl. In the thickness of the wall at the top of the Great Portal there was lodged a charming little chapel of St Michael. d e f i a n c e . Odilo. a n e a r r c l a t i v e o f P o p e P a s c h a lI I w i t h o t h e r l i n e connexions. Cluny.latcr masked... b u t t h c c e n t r a lo n e .rt study of the f'agade the main nave. he does not . and Hugh.Moissac. It was the reduction.restoration ((.

latcr (rrzz) abbot ofClunv. Sainte-\latlcleinc. As already' reported.cl all the world. main portal. and gar.ers wcnt from ttr mitting his redeeming grace and the er.'I'hese are in the stvle of Clunv.when the two major sculpr urnl e n s e m b l e sa t C l u n \ . In conof the medieval sites Cluny.ang. The ponderous Romanesque groin r. St John the Baptist on the mechin jamb and the Apostles set above the lrtcr. ligure sculptures. the church received its nave largely after Pontius's abbacy. \'czelar.to V6zelal. It brings us again to one ofthe most beloved and beautiful V6zelav.x g r e a l l r r r q l of'the arts. cume near the end of Pontius's abbacy. In design. A r t h i s time (rrr5 zo) the 'ordo' of Vdzelar.rl columns. h a d b e e n f i n i s h e d . qa n d u .have a popular appeal which is fitting in a church of pilgrimage. r 6 3 ] r e p r e s e n t sB u r g u n d i a n localism in the time of Abbot Hugh. though perf-ectly Romanesque. set on its hill above a wonderful panorama of opulent Burgundian countrvside. the church I r 4 o .uls 1n c h a r g eo l ' P i e r r e d c \ l o n r b o i s s i c r . T'hey are to be dated a litrle befbre the fire of r rzo. The flowering o1'sculpture was general within the Order ofCluny-under Abbot Pons.e much trouble. girc . The manv picturesque capitals in the nar c at V6zelal. Thrce door_ wavs give entrance lrom the narthex to thc nar e a n d a i s l e s . r 5 8 . and consequenth.aults over the new naye were not well built or well abutted. being carried forward after a fire of r rzo to completion and dedication in ri3z. r t tR .2IO INTER-REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL ARCHITECTURE portals wcre buttresses built in rat-tail so that the narthex walls might later be firmly joined. The west portals are more rheological. r 4 r . r 6 2 .t I 5 8 ...T h e c e n t r a l p o r t a l I r 5 8 ] i s a d o r n c d w i t h o n e o f t h e g r e a t e s tm a s t e r p i e c e so f m c d i eval relief' sculpture a singularly arresrins conception of the role of the Sar.iour in trans- t r a s t w i t h C l u n v t h e c a p i t a l si n t h e n a v e o f ' t h e church are enriched br. and it is consiclered certain that designers and carr.

.i:.( rcstoration ...-i4.'. with intended nortrr tower.a Provensal affiir with three parallel tunnel vaults.". beginning at Chartres and within half a gencration.i r'i i . The change is adumbrated in the for designed La Charit6-sur-Loire about fagade rr3o-5 [166].-ap*-a. The work was completed during the abbacy of'Peter the \renerable of Clunr.*ri4!d*e6ffie. flank.. . ti l: i . the gentle-spirited and beloved successor of the r. and he was the last d'.1...T:rt. to place it at the front of the olcl nirve built b1' Abbot Hugh (ro63) . and it comesin the still half: portals of Saint-Denis built lor Romanesque A b b o t S u g e r{ r o m a b o u t r r 3 5 t o r r 4 o [ r 5 9 ] . ruled from rr22 to r156.tt I . a of Meanwhile wholeseries the twelveApostles (an 'apostolado') had been created as pier lbr ofthe cathedsculptures the chapter-house (aboutr r r7).yryo{irlli**tiiili..-..-.'t. At that time the great carvings were located on the flank of the porch with some lateral arcading and minor reliefs added.. o l l' ' ii" 4t :i..+:ii {. rrr5 30andlater At first (about r rr5 zo?) the inrention was.. before the death of Abbot Roeer of Moissac.1q ((. A B B O TP E T E RT H E V E N E R A B L E Pierre de Nlontboissier.CTURF zr3 . r r1-5 . now replaced.. .CLUNY IN THE HISTORY OF ROMANESQUE ARCHI'I'T. priorl'church.#t'i i .rnfortunate Pontius..' !.. ..in the P6rtico de la (rr68-88) Gloria of Santiagode Compostela a derivtive of this portal which was infrz4f.re{F.$ . 16oMoissac.". wirhportal. Saint-Denis We have alreadv seen.**:r*lt:*i*'.. tended (as Cluny and V6zelay were not) to participatein the external articulation of the building. abbel church.'. . ralofSaint-Etienne Toulouse at More important still." {r{ .* lj . t59 Saint-l)enis. perhaps.. Almost immediatelv (about rrzo 3o) an interesting rib-\'aulted porch with an upper ch:rpel was built in front of the church an interpretation of the Saint-Riquier motif..&.l *g -:n &i i- jamb figureswill assume hint of the role which in Gothic times.... the memorableportal at the priorv of MoissacIr6o] had beenbuilt.:.. r.u?-: r." stud'offagade.

but with an interior elevation derived fiom Cluny III.Y6. r6r. w a s r c b u i l t b c g i n n i n g a b o u t t r r 20 on a simple plan. rr35(?) C.ia V6zelav to Autun. of-St Xlichael(narthex). about Irz5 jo).and rcvision).with apsewindows redrawnin hi'pothetical original fbrm (detailssubjectto rc-studr. also a cloister). at Saint-Gilles. The latter is by Gislebertus. Saint-Pons.rn Rich and beautiful work was done in Bur- gundl' also.hapel Sainte-N{adclcine. and it dates lrom about r r35.tt. The strange exaggerat i o n s a n d p o p u l a r a p p e a lo f t h i s w o r k .who can be traced from Clunl' r. make it a notable example of' Baroque tendencies in the R o m a n e s q u ep c r i o d . and at Ganagobie where there are a portal and considerable conventual remains (r.zelay. l'he cathedral of Autun3' [16I]. ' I ' h e b u i l d i n g h a ss c u l p tures of' quite exceptional importance and beautf in the capitals of the nave and the west portal. Other notable works in the Ntidi are series of'capitals at La Daurade in Toulouse. c 0 n i u n .a competition' and the general shift of Cistercian which diminished the rolc of monasthe times under him the Order vet served ticism. The first dedic a t i o no c c u r r e di n I r 3 o . But sculPture well' architecture and of great beaut. the imabout rr4o onward).reat abbot of Cluny . r88]. at Beaulieu and (liom Qrennac (about r r 3o . fiz. Autun Cathedral. and Mozac. lrin.CLUNY IN THE HISTORY OF ROMANESQUEARCHITECTURE 215 \\ ith dilicultl he main.r. Order against intcrnal disaffcction. rrro 5o). t Lo f ' C l u n v .r. 'l'he ruin which fell in later times on Cluniac architecture may be secn equally at La Daurade. r r20 3o . a s w e l l a s its dramatic placing above a flight of steps in an open narthex (of r I78 and later). and at Ganagobie. thc imposing one of the triple portal hnished about rrTo works which the late Romanesque has noblest bequeathed to us [r87. at the lagade of portant church of Saint-Gilles.v wcrc carried out in his Works France portals at time in middle and southern (in the Corrdze.

b1.l h a r l i e u . Dilon. The highly elaboratc tletail and involved composition here and in other late portals indi_ cate very clearlv that the Burgundian Roman_ csque arr had run througSh:r complete stl. a i n r . T h i s f ' a q a d e c h e m ew i t h Iive sculpturcd portals in line Ir66] beneath paired torvcrs was the fbrerunner of the huge Gothic f rontispiece of Bourges. still shows the same resrlcss spirit. I r r8) of'narthex e t 6 q ( a h t z ' ) a n d r 6 . \tzelay . most of the irreaof the antechurch remained open. on the verge ar-chirecture.5(. and the . e c to f r e b u i l d i n g begunabout r rz5.si. classicat Cluny. with rhe lntention of ttr*tbrl.aulting.leli). and then. Avallon. calledthe eldest daughter ol'Cluny'. extcrlorportal (u.i2'Ihe narthex had an ex_ terior portal (replaced by a modern one) [r63]. The lmportance o t t h e p r i o r y l e t l r o a g r a n d i o s ep r o . and the search fbr piquant patterns of light.r{' However.r. we find that the main church at Vdzelav was f i n i s h e d .rl the portal of' about rr.. rnd a great f'agadewas begun. O n l l ' o n e o f t h e f ' a g a d eo r v e r sa t L a C h a r i t d t was built. each with a spire.ith modern carvings) and intcrior portal (r. the Order ol'(.l5 r. as a sort of atrium.iorv nf Charlieu" also a narrhex was buih in fr. half light. r r40 or r r50. Sainte-Nladeleinc. I r.n of Clunv Itl lncorporating the monumental nc* fa. flanking a largcr portal on s t h e a x i s o f t h e c h u r c h .5o (partly rebuilt) even afier much damage to the figure sculpture. At Saint_ Lazare.. as has been rernarked) into a motliFed re.ing the oldcr church (an enriched version of Cluiv II.luny wasnorv liltcri n g . The great priory of La Charitd-sur-Loire.r.a n d a n a r r h e x a d d e d r 6 z I rh c r e w a sa I ] dedication in rr3z. each with two sculptured portals.F o r r u n r r . and two towers were planned.\t the n. had a large f i l i a t i o no f p r i o r i e s o f " i r so w n . with its bay ofrib-r. r65]. to of Cothic t63 ( uhou. If it had been completed it would have had two breathtaking towers.a fine big antcchurch was undertaken. a n l i c i p a t i n g s o m e of the features of'the Cistcrcian filiations.listic cycle from primitive at Saint-B6nigne..2It} INTER-REGIONAL AND INTERNATIoNAL ARcHITECTURE A CLL]NY IN THE HISTORY OF RON{ANESQUE RCHITECTURE 2r7 Turning once more to the monasteries.The main architectural lines of the narthex at Charlieu show Baroque tendencies in their rathcr wilful asymmetries. In consequence the older chevet of 6chelon-type was rebuilt with a handsome a m b u l a t o r y a n d f i v e r a d i a t i n g c h a p e l s .nr ol Abbot Hugh's church f'aq:rde and adorned with a remarkable lateral portal dated about r r35 which is unsurpassed as an example of the Baroque spirit in Romanesque art Ir64.. S outer portalof narthcr and narthcx from thc wesa.le s c h c m eo f p a i r e d t o w e r s a n d r i c h e x t e r i o r s c u l p tured portirls. it is an interesting Burgundian contemporary of Saint-Denis.t h e n : r v e was lengthened. so that. ro a style which depended on exaggeration and movement for its effectiveness. and shadow..

1 2 4a n d r 4 . a n d a n o r h e r c e n t u r y p a s s e db e f o r e t o t h .rib vaults with tresses.CTURE 2r9 n o r t h a i s l eo f t h e a n t e c h u r c h .ifa. l . 7 ) .) t67 ( fulon) . lighter vault. projectctlfrar.rr.c. By that time the new Gothic vaulting had shown that it needed butEessing even more than the older and heavier Romanesque vaults. beginning abour r r 22b u t t h e r e s t d r a g g e d o n f o r a c e n t u r y ( t or 2 2 0 5). 1 6 8 ] a n d t h e c r l p r o t s a i n t . W n i t e a s r a u l r s r h c \ a r e e s c a p a b l et h a t t h e r i b s a t N { o i s s a c a n d S a i n t - .w h e r e t h e a d m i r a b l y o r g a n i ca n d a r t i c u well placed lbr conracts with I-ombardy. J . and Amiens but that he pref-erred the relatively early in date. r c r t o r .at the cathedrais ol Chartres. o r w h e n in the vaulting.*--T=-! architect was aware of the gorgeous new High Gothic which was being createdin rhe ile_de_ France . and they warped the vaulting stressesdown to the wall and spur buttresses between the windows of successive bays. T h e c r v p t o l ' S a i n t _srructions are in the south. These ribs made it easier to build neat.are not progressiye lessevolved local Burgundian version ofGothic.j e r.r e r e a d c l e d a t t h .leIr49.and of narther. Th. r l f t h c c n r u r i c sK . . scoop-shaped lateral penetrations .storltion studv of longitudinalsectiono1 ucst cntl ol nave.tir Vdzelay it was the same rhe west lront of the church was never finished. Altcr rhc oddll Gilles-du-Gard (r r r6 7o) has a logical succescrypt of Sainr-Eurrope.r.r r r a s h e w o r k o l A b b o t r porch we find a somcwhat Lombardic-looking nugh. built about rr25.was much used in Early Gothic architecture. rfr7]. like very hear r fli. but the effect was still rather Romanesque. church. well-shaped cells or individual vaulting arcas. built vaults orer two easternbays ofthe narthex. . . servcd as narthex and parish chtryci' Partial ruin in thc re ligious wars and long n"gie. without flying butThe type ofthese vaults .d. until about trouble developed when the vault of Sens Cathedral was rhe time built.r^eyonitorv which mav be related to contemporarl' rib::":j 96) [r3el.third abbe1.. Soissons. Iard l r 8 g l . Cllunv. . most famous Cluniac rrb-rauhed conc q u a l l v F ' r e n c hi n i t s f ! b r i c . have occurred as early as r r3o. II55 on. o f P e t e rt h e \ e n e r a b l e .u .ing carly premonitionsofthe Gothicsty.i:l+ and r34z).n.2r8 INTER-REGIONALAND INTERNATIONAL ARCHIT[. scctionof wcsterntowcr. r r-to-5 (Flilberrl.. It is This may t o n o t e t h a t f l 1 i n g b u t t r e s s e sw e r e interesting q u i t eg e n e r a l l yu s e di n a s p e c i a lm a n n e r . Peter the Venerable. At Cluny ... t h e o n l y o n c t. lr. rherc lbllow thc ro$er porch vaulting in Lombarcl-v.The conclusion is inls r ltlto ts . ofthc narthex were built. t ti.G r 6 o .ri have been the lot of this splendid Ur. 1 . Details of the west fiont show rhar rhe r6li. At Cluny the narthex was completed with such vaults about r22o. e l o c n t h a n d m .3o with trvelve heavy ribs. . Whar role prcnrac stone masonryt whilc in the chapel above lft c t s e l yC l u n y played in the crcrrion ol the new there is a rather Moorish-looking radiate vault s t Y l es d i m c u l r i ro decide. ramping. western towers were completed (between r. NIoissac. . Sainres sion o1'heavv groin vaults on substantial ribs 1. r t-lo r66 ( lLli) . possibly as early as rIjz. r5r. the thirteenth-century windows were larger and fly'ing buttresses were added. the1. bu built. i n g h u t t r e s s e sr. ( . . ) ( I-r !r'-i!:ii it4affi : r-qr::n j::. priorv church. but the interesting buildings datc trom rib vault carried out about r r2o 5 in iine Clut i m . re. they made it possible easily to build a thinner.1 .. even then one was rcbuilt anJ x painted wooden porch was placeclbetwccn tlrcq a c e n t u r y l a t e r s t i l l ( b e t w e e n r . After the f'all of a part of the navc vault in r ruj. Reims. Abbot Peter the Venerable's work on the great church is interesting as shou.rT The expansion of Clunv inro the ile-deMoissac had possessions in Spain and was F r a n c e . in the l a t e dG o t h i c s t y l e a r o s e .. high. from t. I-a (lhariri-sur-Loirc. in conception. massive picrced buttresses.rcle fbr priorv nirrrhcx.

G i l l e s ' a n d i n oflhe rib-tault t h e f o r m s c o n l e s st h e r e g i o n s ii. but the nave is opcn.D e n i s . The vaults at the east end of the narthex at Cluny probablv owe something to a knowledge of Moslem ribbcd and lobed vaulting.w h i c h w a s c o n c e i r e da s a C u t i r i e and intended to have novcl lirrlts (about r r35 to r r44).t.h in Cluniac architecture' ln their use ir.istercian churches in Burgundl' vast and noble constructionswhich began to take delinitir c lbrm near the end of'the period . H e made a sober version of it the standard archit e c t u r c l b r C i s t e r c i a n m o n a s t e r i e sa l l o v e r E u rope. like that of \bbot Hugh's Lad. Burgundians. ARCHITECTUF. t x t Clunv.h. Paris. . monls did nor dcsireto hurc But the Cluniac of novel Gothic form. The axial absidiole at Saint-N. r. Among therc rhere are the churches of several Cluniac priories: Airaines (Somme). The Burgundian half--Gothic attrlcted the attcntion of Bernard o1' Clairvaux (himsell' a Burgundian. and wooden-roofed. w h c r e t h e s u a v eB u r g u n d i a n a r c h i t e c t u r e brought b1' the C-istercians stands.v Chapel.n in a curious wa1' b1-the architecture: thc church p l a n ( r r 3 z ) i s a n i n g e n i o u s r e d u c t i o n b a s c t lo n various elements of the church and chapcls at Clunv. h t h e i d c a c a m e i n t o t h c a r c h i t c c tu r e i.-d. dominated b1-Bernard ol (.introduced fbr cxtra bulk and strcngth .r' inte rested in ribvaulting. l u n i a c buildings the Norman chevron ornamenr otien a clear sign of influence lront the reg.lartin-desChamps is a trelbil.or.Saint-NIartin-des-Champs. and liossan o v a . like thosc in the aislesat Cluny.E 221 Gilles were Romanesque in conception . a s t o t h e i r R h e n i s h cousins. r r-124o numbered r r 7 o . Gothic vaulting ofknow they never 'f he-vnever built a building. like the convincingly Gothic vaults of the north at the time (r rzo 4o). partl]' from temperament. Linkirping. tt5r) and Peter the Venerablc ol Clunl'(d. N { a r o l l e s . Saint-Leu-d'Esserent.Iartin is normal for the region about thc middle of the centurl'.R E ( .r r z 5 o r a l i t t l e l a t e r .Iartin (a prior.i.B r i e .not. AlcobaEa. The test probably comes in Saint-N{artin_ des-Champs.22O I N T E R . rathcr like t h o s eo f t h e e a s t e r nb a y so f t h e n a r t h e x a t C . Its vault is a scriesof ramping scoop-shaped cells on ribs.rcs h a t l r e a l l r s o l v e dt h c i r o w n a r c h i t e c t u r a p r ' . Tne ribbed apsc vault at Saint-I. about r r zo 35 .ion which prepared the rib vault lbr thc ile_ de-France. Poblet. In this part of the building therc arc peaked groin vaults without ribs. l u n r . which except lbr thc new would really show that thev cared for some idea. and from ttnc another as Beirut. to lacilitate a light.om a n d a l s o .t did an1. had a rooted preference for their grand old monastic Romanesque. single. S a i n t Martin-des-Champs.It gained bv the aesthetic el{'ccts which were worked out in the ile-dc-Francc without giving up the substantial mural values p l e a s i n gt o t h e B u r g u n d i a n s . This inr olr cd pushing their developed pattern 01' a q' cttt Romanesque church far towards the gcncrll form which the great Gothic churches \1cre to takc.is shor. Otd.The'half'-Gothic' which we have seenin several ofthe Cluniac buildings was also usedelsewhere. articulated constructlon. of which the lateral apscs sug!iesta minor transept. . It will be impossible to do iustice t<r Burgundian architecture until Citeaur and Clairvaux arc lullv known. Fountains. An ambulatorl'' with radiating chapels leatls ro a projection resembling a second transept. interior. tr56) cry' aloud lbr such a studv as hirs bcen possiblc fbr the N{ediaeval Academv o1' America at Clunl'. i n t oG o t h i c a r c h i t e c t u r e of . r r3z 4o (nave later) lr69J.-Ft"nce. Paris. and as fir as we . No6l-Saint-\. u i n general terms) it would appear that the Clun i. dated about rr5o to r69. Citcaux lrTrl and Clairvaux themsclves. given by Philip I of lir. . it. In Cluniac e]'es the Gothic was time merely a local and regional st1''lclike an1' other.ance to Cluny in ro7g. warm and at home in places as I'ar fiom Burgundl.v attached to Saint-Martin-des-Champs). and not in the progressive buildings of hrs contemporarics in the Ile-de-France. appears made Cothic possible u crc pedients whic. a t N l o i s s a c . his building instead o1' Saint-Denis might have been the hrst o1'all recognizablv Gothic churches. I O N A LA N D I N T E R N A T I O N A L A R C H I T E C T U R E CLUNY IN THE HISTORY OF ROMANESQU[. If the architect of' Saint-\{artin-desChamps had been reall. Paris. born within sight of Diion) bec a u s eo f i t s a u s t e r e a n d p r a c t i c a l c h a r a c t e r . perhaps Saint-Leu-d'Esscrent. where there was a s e r i e so f c o n s t r u c t i o n s b e t w e e n r r o o a n d r r 5 o . at Cluny (ro8-5) [r4z].hur.h. Nlaulbronn. but it is not certain that this was transmitted by Cluniac contacts. beautifulll' cxemplilied. Bellapais. the lost major (. * h i .e n .lairvaux (d. Yet the lover o1' Burgund-v f'eels suddenly. Notre-Dame-tleI'Infirmerie. SrintMartin-des-Champs was under construction at the ver\ same time as Suger's new lvork at S a i n t . 3 8O n t h i s E a r l v G o t h i c s e r i e so f ( . It is usual in the earlv Gothic works of the ile-dc-France. 1 ' l lem b1' the earlv trvellth centur]''. in obr i o u s r e m i n i s c e n c eo l ' t h e m a i o r t r a n s ( t . Its lovaltl'to Clunr. which seems to show that the designer'5 heart was at the mother house. crucial importance.S a i n t .3e O n t h e t h c eo f t h i s s h o n i n g ( t o s p e a kn . and consequently' the structural crbuilding.

hc clie<l r r r r. Therc. he fared forth with twenty-onc devoted companions. Evcn while Abbot Stephen Harding ruled Citeaux. including several ol' his r e l a t i v e s ..I n r r r 5 h e b e c a m ef b u n d e r a n d a b b o t o f C l a i r v a u x . Abbot Stephen Hardine. This schcme of there wcre fbur chicf control proved superior to the Cluniac system of centring all rcsponsibilitv for the wholo Order' . offered himsell'and thirty companions.Molcsme in ro98. They established themselr es about filteen miles south of Dijon at Citeaux.1. Pope Calixtus II confirmed the constitution ol' Chnrtu Caritatis Monustcrii s C i sterciensi rn t t t 11. and thus accelerated the decline of the eltler Order. the first c i r n o n i c a la b b o t . I A N SA N D T H E I R A R C H I T E C T U R E The years which sarv the growth of the Pilgrimage to Santiago and the development of the Order of Clun. though the papal legate had given him permission to leave Molesme. Thc oeginnings were \ery tlitficulr. the fclrccful character ot Bernard of' Clairvaux projected thc latter into ecclesiastical and international politics. but rhe protectton of the Holy See (l roo) and generosityon the part ofthe Burgundian ducal houseenrrbled the monks to continue. w h o tormed its spiritual temper. in ro7-5I 'I'he Carthusiln both founders were canonized.bbot Stephen (t t34). in rog8. Molesme by its first abbot. Each Cistercian house was dependent on thc onc which founded it. l Undcr Bernard's influence the Cistercian Orcler became unilormitarian. and so lost the other-worldly atmospherewhich its founder abbot desired. a rvooded swamp! solitude given by' Renaud.CHAPTER II T H E C I S ' I ' E R C .-Both men wcre in thc original group which uent ro Citeaux. w i t h a t i g h t o r g a n i z a t i o na n d t r e q u e n t inspcctorial visits. h t e r o u s ea b o u t h fiftl'-five miles northcrly from Dijon. FonteOrder was vrault by Robert d'-\rbrissel in ro96. and 694 by the year r2ool including many monasteries which associated themselves by accepting utter submission in the n e w O r d e r . Robert. Scvcral other orders of importance werc fbunded at the time Grandmont b. at the age of sevent1. to return to Ntolesme. after reforming the monastery. l+. and greatly aided the growth of the Cistercian Order. r'iscounr of Beaune. o u t s i d e c o n t a c t sa n d became the centre of a group of about sixtlpriories. In r r rz or r r r3 Bernard. while it 'against' was not founded Cluny. and 'I'he Citeaux by Robert of. in terms which he could hardll refuse. founded bv St Bruno in Io84. drew the rnore austerelydcvoted spirits. I t h a d m a n l . a ver-vreligiouslv inclined youth of twentv-two. was requested. Molesme. led by Albdric.v witnessed a general spiritual revival in the monastic world.v Etienne de Muret in ro7. in From rogg to r rog the'New Monasterv' was . T h e t o t a l r e a c h e d7 4 2 a t o n e t i m e . and 'filiations'. which. and linketl with the Cistercians. There were -lo Cistercian monasteriesat the death ol {.1 at the death ot Bernard of Clairvaux (rr53). a C i s t e r c i a nd a u g . founded by St Norbert. N l o r i mond (rrr5) completed the original group of daughter houses. Nlcanwhile other Cisterciirn houses had been tbunded a t L a F e r t 6 ( r r r r ) a n d P o n t i g n y -( r r r 4 ) . though indepenclent. In rogg Abbot Robert. Afier Albdric it was led for a quarrcr of a centurl. (r rog 34) b1 a saintly Englishman ot great spirirual poucr. Premonstratensians followed in rrzo. Therefore. lbllowed the r u l e o f C l u n y . with all details of cxistcncc rigidh prescribed in so far as was p o s s i b l e .

The for the public thrt women and children were never adfact enclosures led to the mitted to the monasterv of a chapel and accommodations fbr orovision guests at thc gate. $ere sltortcned or rc-schcduled for this purpose . b a s i cp a t t e r n o f t h e p l a n w a s t h a r o f St Gall and Cluny.*r f*{F r:: f*r+ . the later ones(befbre thc High Gothic). lrcrc of great size..stem lbr the sale of f)rm produce and animals which aided in the commercial d e v e l o p m e n to 1 ' t h ea g e . . uniformly dedicated to thc Virgin) had no crr ptr or towers.221 INTER-REGIONALAND INTERNATIONAL ARCIIITECTURE THE CTSTERCTANS ND THETR ARCHITECTURE A 225 in the one abbot o1' Clunl itself'. brother of St Ber'l'hcir nard. w i t h t h e c s t a b l i s h e dn o r m s w a s required in the Cistercian buildings of'the great epoch. I n d u m e n t i r r i a . Cistercian sitcs werc invariablv secluded.. u rth t h e n i g h t s t a i r r o r h c t l o r n r i r o r vs r a r t i n gi n t l r ( to the church.t h o u g h v i s i t o r s o f ' m a r k l v e r c c l r e c l The Cistercian monastic groups were otien long under construction' At llrst the monks w o u l d l i r e i n s t r u c t u r e so f t e m p o r a r v c h i r a c t e r .r. In manv regions the international Cistercian half-Gothic prepared the wa1' lbr Gothic architecture somewhat as the pervading Lombardic Irirst Romanesque had done in fbrmer times fbr the Second or Great Romanesque st1. through Bernard's pref'erence. a n d i n m a n l c t s e sr e m o v e d b y o r d e r . a n c l P a l e s t i n e b u t i n a s o m e l v h a ti m m o b i l i z c d fbrm which pcrsistoduntil the High Gothic of' thc ile-dc-Irance was adopted in its stead. but according to the characrrr of'the terrain.*h.l i k e a t m o s p h e r e o 1 's i m plicitl..le. b u t a l s o p f t re N { a m m o n his opportunitl.t r . ryo].n nee<ls. well watercd.j . wcre not laid adiacent transcpt. .l r o n r c n r r \ h b o . *" t *""' "' * oI fr** 'EE VN A E:J 2:. 1'hc church uas placed 'I'he on the highest ground. quite gener a l l y t h e l ' h a v e a l i l y .p c r i o t l o f ' C i s t e r c i a n b u i l d i n g w a s i n d e e d s c v e r e . even when they.l i k c f b u n t a i n h o u s e sc o v e r e d t h c l a r r r b o s i n t h e c l o i s t e r s .ear also it was decided to omit illuminltions from the manus c r i p t s . improved methods were widely'propagatcd through the Order. other srructures.. In consequence thc stllc spread radiallv. 1 7 out arbitrarilv. i 9 . C o n f o r m i t y . J . (open to thc sk\ ) 'l'heir lbr the lal brcthren ('conversi').istercian world would f'eelhimself entirelv at homc within h a l l a n h o u r a t a C i s t e r c i a nh o t .much like all the rest. r n d a r d i z e t la n d r e p c t i t i o u s c h a r a c t e ro f e a r l y C i s t e r c i i r nl r c h i t e c t u r e i s immediately evident evervuhere. Poland.r l c i r i n s t e a d o i ' p a r a l l e l . . other monastic architecture from Revolutionarv demolitions. organized s]. ccntrill Europe. ( .it I rf { \ f * * fi+ * fi*'* fi *' +' f + * *'. orderll planning and their austere interpretation ol' the Burgundian half'-Gothic.2tz-tLW r:ft. Numerous lav brethren (up to 3oo in large monasteries) were rccruited for larm and shop work. Stone towers rvere forbiddcn in r r 57 on the churchcs. 'fhe C i s t e r c i a n m o n a s t e r i e sw e r e s i t u a t e d i n rernote places. Scandinavia. Professed monks were not allowed to entcr thcrt' quarters..1-1 [ry.11 and for other Cistercians did not relish intrusions in the carlv fbr. but certain details difierrd 'l'he Cistcrcian churchcs (afier r r. O u t side builders were emploved. T h e e a r l i c s t c h t t r c l t c s\ \ c r e \ e r \ p l l i n . which occupied the traditional pl'rc.In II8z it was directed t h a t a n ! ' e x i s t i n g u i n d o w s o 1 ' c o l o u r e dg l a s si n Cistcrcian churchcs should be removed within three y'cars. Close contact with the soil madc the Cistercians cxcellent farmers. . and so set that the waters could bc impounded above the area chosen lbr the convcntual buildings.r o e r i o d . much lengthencd since Charlet magneJsime. I'hese overriding principles r\_ plain irregular orientation in the churches antl the lrequent occurrence of' cloistcrs in 111" 'I'he north. N o v i c e s w e r c r e g u l a tl r lodged at the end ol the east rangc ofthc cloistcr'. a n d though the cll'ects are rather hea\']. Ibcria' Ital1. The strong confbrmism of the Cistercian houses made it easv to allow them considerable autonomy. Thc choir hours. B u t a l l t h e m o n a s t e r i e sl v e r e c r c e l l e n t l y b u i l t . NIuch of' t h e a c t u a l d e s i g n i n g a n d b u i l d i n g r v a sd o n e i n the communitics themselves. with the Chapter Gcneral at Citeaux legislating for the entire Ordcr.h. and it is still possible to grin a f i i r l v c o m p l e t c i d e a o f w h a t a C i s t e r c i a nm o n a s t c r \ ' $ a s l i k e . "n. a .T h e r e w e r e s e v e r a le x c e l l e n t r r c h i t e c t s i n the Order during its fbrmative pcriod Gcoflroi . so that lr'hen the \lendicant Orders began to drirrv manl of'the most devotional vocations in the thirtccnth centur!. traditional public court ir(ljoining the west rangc of'the cloister buildirr3s was reduccd to a p. $hich at most had small functional belfiy-pinnacles. devcloped an d'Ainail Achardl Gdrard. r 1 r R . became. thc Cistercian monastcries came to be verl.ularly vaultctl. showed their derivation fiom the simple prototypes and did not use an1 dcvices conceivcd fbr picturesque or dramatic appeal. The aim rvas to h a v et h e c o m m u n i t ) ' a b l e b 1 ' c r a ft s m a n s h i p a n d husbandry to suppll' all its or. They sufl'ered theretbre less than t 7 o . e l s e .a n d l i t u r g i c a l objects came under verv austere regulations' Bold or an-rbitiousproportions and architectural bravura o1'anv kind were not tolcratcd in the buildings. r r .a n d t h e r e f e c t o r i e sl r c r c \ r ' l w i t h t h e a x i s p e r p e n d i c u l a rt o t h a t o f t h e c h r . and were rather angular in plan. and thereby accrued to the advantag^e 'I'hey of all western E.rssirge-wa1. and much gootl camc of the cordial relations between the two. in rvhich l.\ r . with the lluence reached Order.S c u l p t u r i r l e m b e l l i s h m e n t s w e r c lbrbidden in rIz-1.' 'l'he of the camera. buildtn9 had its traditional place lvcst of the passrtgc. Cistercian policl'(again in contrast to Cluniac) called for harmony. r i . { t Citeaux a small wooden church was succeedcd + r* + . in ererl clircction as f'ar as French into the British Isles. r T h e s t . but the monks becameindependent (or nearll'so) of'the outside world at the earliest possible moment. No pror ision was made the west in Cistercian church plans.uropc. the architecture of the Order. The . .which has verv grcat charms. The small original churches were perl-ectly forthright. Almost all works datcd befbre rzoo may be understood liom trvo or thrce ofthc early French cxamples. s c u l p t u r e s . p e r h a p si n t e n d e d l b r m e n i a l u s e l a t e r o n . 'l'he g r o u n d s t o r e y ' so f t h c conventual buildings wcrc reg. -I'he e a r l y . A monk f rom anywhere in the C.Ornanrental pavements were fiowne d o n . unadorned. rvhere thev occupied which led end of the nave. though uniform in their workings. with the local episcopate. P a v i l i o n .

This plan. a l l o p e n i n g i n t o a t r a n s e p t . Thus Pontigny has a special claim to be esteemed as the best existing representirtive of the great church at Clairvaux. destro)'ed at the Revolution. The church underwent a consecration of somc sort about r r48 and anorher in r rg3. Revolution.nd was replaced by 6fthe Eansept.!l I Jri f.1 of f .The Ourscamp of'rr3. At CiteauxIr7rl and Clairraux'the conrL. because he masony. Ir was crucilbrm with an aisle'carried all round. and a range of flfing buttresses. l i o m a d r a u i n gm r d c b c f o r e ( s t r u c l i o n d local tradition has affected manv cletailsof'[q16 p l a n a n d e l c r .e and aisles br. i t e a u r .s FIowever. ( . The sanctuary at Pontigny was rebuilt in somewhat similar form about rr85-rzro. is thc oldest Cistercian ensemble in existence l. 1 n t 'Ihc character. . A bcautilulll proportioned I'agadepresents the church. i r t i o nw i t h o u t d e s t r o y ' i n gt h e ( . h a d a s q u a r e church with stone walls divided into nar. foundedin r t rg. r i' . rvasuscd a t P o n t i g n ) 1 r y 6 . and ils porches. with the adjoining (and somervhatlater) cloister and monastic buildings. FontenayAbbel-. are numerous cases rvlrcre r 7 r . by angular a n g u l a ra m b u l a t o r y w a s s u r r o u n d e d The church was destroyed at the chapels. j u s t a f t e r r r r 5 . the'Bernardian' plan. At Clairvaux the original monasterv was entirely insufficient by Ir33. fact that the Cistercians Ibrb111 their masters to work outside the Ordcr tcntlg4 to accentuate this special character.1 The church at Fontenay.1 (aisleless)had transepts and a round apse. or b\. carrie{ through betwecn rrz5 and rr5o. e l s c w h e l c i n t h e c h u r c h a n d c o n v e n t u a l b u i l d i n g s a s h l a rs p u r . is that which was built at Fontenay6 [r7o] in rr3g 47.aulted. a n d t h e v a r i o u s e d i l i c e sa r e r o o m ilr sct within an cnclosure wall.226 INTER-REGIONAL AND INTERN. The site is girdled b1'woodedhills in a l o r e l 1 's e t t i n g . with a s h l a r s t o n e a n d a n a u s t e r ep o r t a l . from the air gave the church a clerestory. Rebuilding at Clairvaux bctwccn tt53 and the definitire consecration f tt71 o Itlz 5]. Angular chapels collected about both of'these lattcr elementsin later plans. B o t h r h e a i s l c l e s sa n d r h e aisled plans persisted. with a tunnel-r'aulted nave and r7z. simple tvpe of plan rvassoon au!imenled b1' angular lateral chapels making a dwarf transept. augmented bv chapels along the ends ofthe transept. I-ater the churches rvere regularly r. a transcpt with such c h a p e l s .1ltual churchcs rverc :r barometer of rhe groltl-1 of the Ortle r. and new buildings of immense extent were undertaken near by. aisles axially placed.C l a i r v a u x .. a Gothic ribbed high vault. wooden posts supporting a u'ooden roof. and rvooden roofing lvas conlined to the conv e n t u a l s t r u c t u r e s . which stands for St Bernard's own preference. The great church irt Citeaux . r r ) h : r s a n u n m i s t i t L a b l cC i s r t . Five more rectangular chapels and thc bay'devoted to the night stair occupied the other side ofthe transept. where the aisle The sanctuary was angular.{TIONAL ARCHITECTURE T H E C I S T E R C I A N SA N D T H E I R A R C H I T E C ' I ' U R E 2 2 7 in rro6 by a rectangular tunnel-vaulted stone church lbout sixteen feet wide and fift1 f'eet 'fhis long. by which time it ri rrs completed with I much enlargedslncruarr. with the necessarv ma 'l'here bulatories. t 7 7 l i n r r . b u t t h e l a t t e r church was finished with a rib-r'aulted nave about rr7o. as well as a polygonal apse and ambulatorv surrounded by angular radiating chapels inside a polygonal periphery wall.nrr5x part of the gencral rebuilding rhere. The church plan provided a rather shallow angular sanctuary with three shallow rectangular c h a p e l sa t e a c h s i d e .m o n a s t c r \ . i \ tercianair ol the buildings. corner of the transept except at the south-west also at the west front and at th! north end . r ( f i n c a s h i .

e.r ' a u l t e dc l o i s t e r . this is true of the forge building at Fontenay a handsome affair by the rivulet placed to the south-east of the cloister.These ba1's. irreproachably abuttecl bv pointed transversetunnel Iaults ()\. with its axis perpendicular to that ofthe church. but lbr-rhe windows at thc ends. have a curious look of being mass-produced. under a fine open arched truss roof.he transept is lower and narrower than the nave.v the church is remarkable. The stone night stair leads as usual from the south transept of the church to the adjoining monks' dormitory. Thc chur-ch gains most ol'its lighr liom the faEade rvindows and the corresponding ones at thc crossing and in the sanctuary. r i o v l i o m t h c c h a p t c r . though the latter are substantially vaulted b1' squrre bays o{ rib-vaulting with columnar s u p p o r t s I r 7 5 ] . t u n n e l . but it was a new thing to u s er e p e a t e db a v so f r i b .ault in the .h o u si c t o t h e c l o i s t t r .).ed music. I r o n r e n i l . Their designs are called b e c a u s et h i s t v p e o f v a u l t c o u l d b e s o m u c h morc effectivelr applicd (as intlectl it was with buttresses. An admirable pointed tunnel vault with transvcrse arches covers it. c h u r c h . on accountofits tunnel vault. Bishop Everard of Norwich was the patron of'Irontenay. The refectory was placed in the customarl Cistercian position opposite a fountain house on the south side of the cloister.t h e chapter-house. with rougher srone wall_work be_ tween.er the aislcs. .228 INTER-REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL ARCHITECTURE T H E C I S T E R C I A N SA N D T t T E I R A R C H I T I _ C T U R F .a r c h e d . Other parts of' the monastic ensemble are arranged in traclitional ways. are the rule.atism prevented the Cistercian architects from developing thc l-ull potentialitics of thc new n'pe of 'half-Gothic' vault. But austere ideals and conserr. now blocked up but originally open.1 7 r7S ( |pf asir Fontcnal. r r c r r l r o r r rt h c n o r t h . m a r k c d b y ' u n i f b r m s p u r b u t t r e s s e s n w a l l a ft e r o wall throughout the scheme. like a Cluniac church. r n r47 same way. and the camcra (a *'ork room beneath the dormitory) seem r. Acousticall. the n o b l e r o u n d . i r 1.r .r ' a u l t i n g w i t h t h e l o g i c a l G i n s i s t e n c ew h i c h w a s l a t e r t o c h a r a c t e r i z e o t h i c design. and coversd by a pointed tunncl r. Repetitive bays had of course been used bcfore in architecture. thc nave would be like a carern. since thcre is no clcrestor]'. 2 2 o r 7 j a n d l 7 + .r c : t r n t l i l t t c r i o r .r r . In contrast to the dark and heavv church. and in this connection we note that St Bernard lor.I. The nal'e continues into the squarcended principal sanctuary.a b b e r . T h e r e p e a t i n g s q u a r e b a y ' so f this construction are as ty'pically Cistcrcian as the angularity o('the church plans.ery light and open.Abbe1. as it mighr hare been in earlier times.

. church of pontigny [176 gl is a good example of the Cistercian use of Gothic betorc. and th. the overwhelming achievements of the Hieh Gothic made the Cistercian style seem ol. f'ar.France ahead ol'the Cistercian builders br. did not have reason to make them 'I'he large. the Cister_ cians.ade. For example.abbeychurch. as the most elaborate com_ positions required. 'lhe whole ell-ectof the interior is of extraordin_ ary calm and religious serenity.. the church rrrs a dwarf transept and an angular east built with and continucd into a verl handsome nave.fr.i" raulting cells of ashlar. At Pontigny the windows..l_ tashioned and provincial. There are tvoical r n d b e a u t i l u l p a r r c r n si n r h e l e a d i n g . lrom Suger's time (lr4o) for more than a centurv. . Begun about r r40 on a variant of the usual plan. . bowed up slightly lor ease in building and extra strength. tall or short in elevation. the developmen. Individual bays were 1reely made square. ob_ long.. were so dark that er.. if not before. bet*.lf_. r77. no towered or cathedralshapecould har. rn proportion. just as rhe cells of'the vault be_ r76. clerestory ol er lower and narrolver aisles with concealedflying buttresses. generous ..t-j in r r t4 came thin membranes. exemplify' the Cisrercian taste. r r 75. Gothic stained_glasswin<lows. though moclern. Delicate and f'astidious proportioning. is pleasant to look upon.rtion ot I t 1 ' r n g b u t t r e s s e st o s u s t a i n r . yet no one can fully understand Pontignv and the Cister_ cians without seeing the building liom the o p u l e n r s u r r o u n d i n g f i e l d s a h a n d s o m ew a r m _ h u e d b u l k w h i c h r e a l l y s e e m sr o b e l o n g t o t h e soil.enopenings of maximum srze !iavea barell'suflrcient light for the church interiors. ii. r j /-1.Pontignv. virginal in sweet_ n e s sa n d p u r i t y .e such union u'ith the earth [176. ambulatorv sosimply laid out that onlv rhc moulding profiles betray its late date.. pur rhe builders of tn. end. triangular. and serene. is an with trapezoidal radiating chapels.. lbunded . requiring clear glass in their church windows.abbcl' church. Pontignv."d.ccn over-arching ri bs.1 t. exccpr tbr a sprinkling of small jewels of colour. or trapezoiclal in shape. a u l t s set high un slender piers.23O INTER-REGIONALAND INTERNATIONAL ARCHITECTURE T H E C I S T E R C I A N SA N D T H E I R A R C H I T E C T U R E 23t bravura in the full Gothic ofthe ile_de_France) to highly evolved types of plan and elevation.. and lightcd by' sirnple. Full rrptoitrtiurr :]. sparingly adorned with Gothic arcading. abbtv chrrrch lhrrn. which was permissible.aulting makc the church at once impressive. deft handling of the grouped piers and simple rib-r. The.f_.r light rib systems. usual plain glass that is. f'hus the Gothic walls became sheets of glass stretching between and supported by slender picrs. alive.* i i h t h ._j. 8 I'he fagade. r r qo r. of . The typically Cistercian nave is happilv combined with an austere chevct which rcplaced 'l'here the original one about r r85 rzro.

i s t g . and the n pe cian simplicit\'.m arches supporring lvooclcn roofing are cxtraordinarily' impressive Irgoi. e r v e . a n d g i r e s c h a r a c f e rt o c r e r r .r 7 9 1 .IR ARCTUt.aulting in rlrc c h a p t e r .a b h e t .D a m e A l c o b a g ar c presents an archaic scheme. r'et it satisficd the requirement set lbrth in the epig. region. r . look g l i k e l i n e s u l l r e e s . b ec i t e d . r r 1 0 r 2 r o n r For all its unitt. w e I ' c e l t h e s o u t h o f ' F r a n c e . is excellent r. P o n t i g n r . Cistercian architecture is subtlv difl'erentiatcd region br.RCIANS AND TTIF. h a s r h e v e r ) . another of the Cistercian sitesin Itall'(it is prettill' set near Romc).a s i s u s u a l w h e r e t h e n a v e i s t u n n e l _ vaulted. t h e l i b n r r . and light these churches. also suft'ered l r o m a b a n c l o n m e n t( I 8 r 2 ) .C o m p a r e d r v i t h t h t contemporarl rrork in Paris fbr it is roughlr c o n t e m p o r a r l w i t h N o t r e . the .rl Alcobagain Portugal has one ol'thc best. CisterRomanesque lbrthrightncss. Poblet. T h e a b b e y b u i l d i n g s s u r v i r . uhich urrs built about rr8o 96.F r e n c h l o r c f o r c o u r s e db l o c k masonrl is manifest here.name lr that it takcs a rcally' good building to make a fine ruin. h a s a r e markable combination of classicserenitv.m a 1 . I t s i n t e r i o r . t e r i o r . f i n e t h r o u g h o u t . ea s a n e x t r a o r d i n a r i l l . Cisterciirn churches. and good constructlon. in a designof quite Roman amplitude. "f b u n d e d i n t t 4 7 . is an_ othcr good examplc of Cistercian stonework.lvhich a r e t h e o n h w i n d o w s v i s i b l c i n : r n e a s t w a r dy i e r v . 'I'he e a r l v a r c h i t e c t so 1 ' P o b l e th a d g i v e n t h e e r _ amplc fbr this in the main church. begun abour r r 7 o .rc engineeringproblems arc simple. In rhc south.. r i n e a r S i e n a .L a r g e w i n d o w s p l a c e dh i g h i n t h e w a l l s 'I'he piels are grouped.monasterr. S a n ( i a l g a n o . e .T h i s a r r a n g e m c n t i r e s g r e a t prominence to the windolvs in thc apse. r79 and r8o. ref'cctorr anddormitorv. 'I'here is a perfccrlr rl R o m r n e s q u e ) o i n t e dl u n n e l r : r u l t u i t h l r r r r r . lvherc. A t S i l v a c a n e .p o b l e t r 1 1 1 . . r n d i a nh a l f . _ l v e r s ca r c h c so r e r t h e n a r .Nlanv parts of'the monastic huildings irrc i n a v e r v m u c h s i m p l i f i c d a n d s u n b u r n et l G o t h r c .INE r 7 l l .thirtecnth ccnturr' i s s t a b l c . S a n t a sC r c u s i n C a t a l o n i ah a r . a n d b u d d i n g G o t h i c r . partl]' of Renaissancc datc. T'hc building was bey. I t i s v e r l i m p r e s s i r c as now resrored and re-peopled. T h e a i s l e v a u l t t in thcir turn lre abutted bv spur buttresses. near Burgos in Castile.i . ee r c c l l e n t ( . It is extraorclinarily fine in a c o u s t i c s . 5r ) . c o m p l e t e a n d i m p r e s s i re g r o u p .^r.rn a grantl on s c a l ei n r r 5 8 a n d f i n i s h e d i n r z : . 'l l. s p a c i o u sa n d b e a u t i l u l l v p r o p o r t i o n e d . rvhicl. Las Huelgas.ECTURE 2. T h e church there is the ruin ofa constructionbegun in rzrS s t i l l i n t h e B u r g r .rhat hc n a v e r . and rhe grsat dormitories riirh pointed diaphrag.ram. the heritage ol' Roman largeness com_ bines beautilullv with the Cistercian theme ol simplicitl. CISTI. and is norv happilf in usc a s a n a b b e r .t1 t h o u g h o f ' r a r h e r m e d i o c r e d e s i g n . Fosslnova. T h e c s t a b l i s h m e n t w a s l o n g d e s o l a t ea l i e r t h c s o c i a lu p r i s i n g s o f ' r 8 z z j 5 . .Thc church. with the ribs branching out :rbovethem. rista ot the interior.threc-narctl' church. and the ccllar. in sucha \\. as rvell as one ol the most remote. fbrthrightncss. m r r c h t h e l a r g e r a n t l m o r c p r o s p c r o u s .G o t h i c stvle at a time when the cathedral design ol' Amiens (the boldestHigh Gothic church which p r o v e d t o b e s t a b l ea s o r i g i n a l l l b u i l t ) w a s o n h two vcars in the future.a]. a u l t i s a b u t t e d b l a i s l ev a u l t s o n l v l l i t r l c n a r r o w e r a n c l l o w e r t h a n i t s e l f.d e s p i t c i t s b c i n g c o r r temporarr wirh the nare of' Notre_Damc in Paris.h o u s c . b u t i t r v a sr e p o s s c s ilgrin sedbl monks in rgr5. ofien called the hall church. c h u r c hi . b u t t h c R o m a n e s q u es p i r i t l i r e s o n i n a l n r o s rr t l l 'l'here thc work.r . t h e s eq u a l i t j c 5 continued to influence the gencral design of sur_ c e s s i v el v o r k s u n t i l t h e e n d o f t h e \ l i d d l e { s c . s a m ed i g n i t y w h i c h o n e f i e l s in the Pont du Gard. T h e s o u t h . A t t h c c r o s s i n gt h c r e i s a n o c l t l l -. staged towcr. I l i i \ c f \ B u l g t t n t l i : r ni n I e e l i n ga n d d e t a i l . t h e r e f ' e c t o r 1I. \ t P o b l e t ( f b u n c l e d r r .. the ashlaris unusualll. c i a n q u a l i t i c s .I This church type results fiom the use of'the repetitivc rib-\'aulted bay.INTER-REGIONAL AND IN'TERNATIONAL ARCHITEC'I'URF THF.1 'l j d.

and has giYen a good account later on.aults of Lonrb a r d t y p e w e r e b u i l t . ncar Kref'eld. The church buildings of the earliest Cistcrcian monasterics in German1.a 6 ) h a s a c o l u m n a r b a s i l i c a . dedicatcd r r g b r8r. Walderbach ( r r 43 7o and later) has a hall c h u r c h . abbeychurch. rrzj) appears to hare had the earlv simpleplan used b1'the Order. ofwhich the transepts remain... although the first (Kamp.A G o t h i c e a s tw i n d o w a n d G o t h i c v a u l t i n g s o m e - . foundedin r r32. but N'Iarienthal ( r r 3 8 . dated perhaps after r r-5o. rJ In Lombardr. being thc carliestexample) [r82. p o s s e s s e d . restorcd would seem to represent. Bv this timc Lombard brick architecturc ha(1 reachednorthern Gcrmanv. T h e s e r . With the I'ears and progressive rccons t r u c t i o n st h e m o n a s t i c b u i l d i n g s h a r c a c q u i r e d C a pt-rndcrous crman looL. Cistercianin r r4r.abbel church. but the oltlcst lrorl ( r r 4 6 7 8 ) i s s t r o n g l y B u r g u n d i a n i n f ' e c l i n g . Ultimatelv a huge and unattractivc octagonal lantern and belliy w a s r a i s e da t t h e c r o s s i n g ..234 . of itself .l +in Prcmonstratensian work (Jerichow. Shortly after thc fbundation of' r r q(r a church was started. T ' h e i m p o r t a n t a b b e y 'o f N l a u l b r o n n l ' ' I I 8 .H e i l s b r o n n . dated about rr5o.hasachurch belonging to the School of Hirsau. Georgenthal. e r i t yo f l i n c a n d the exccllent workmanship continued as rhc brick style spread (B ack steingoli&). where brick has been a basic matsrial sincc Anriquitl. 1 1 markcd a new dcparture in the buildings crccted betwecn r146 and I178. Jerichow. though in altered fbrm. b e g i n n i n g p e r h a p sa s c a r l l as r r6o. the lost wooden belfiy turrets which C i s t e r c i a n c h u r c h e s u s u a l l l . r83]. . In the nar. r r50. but the clays burn to cxcellent brick of r d e c p r e d o r w i n e c o l o u r . thc Cistcrcians o1' Chiaravalle Milanese used brick.15 almost all of them of the filiation of Morimond were often local in t1. in morc permanent fbrm. and carried fbrward 'l'he whole group is rerv wcll constructcd in stone.pe.ebig domed-up rib-r. like thcir neighbours. a n d a l l t h e s e s c h e m e sa r e r e p r e s e n t e d b 1 ' s c r r : r a lo t h c r e x a m p l a s .JJ N{ilancsc. Chiaravallc in $ r8z and rll3. and acquired 'l'he more and more affrrmative local f'eeling. abbey church ofChorin (about rzoo) is a Cistercian example.T h e church at Fossanoya dates fiom the vears r r79 t o r z o 8 . perhaps under Cistercian influcncc. The rcgion lacks stone.p e r h a p se v e n a f t e r t h e d e d i c a t i o n w h i c h w a s c c l e b r a t e di n r r 9 6 [ r 8 r I . has an apse 6chelon.

l8 Abbot Stephen Harding of Citeaux and Bishop Everard ol N o r r v i c h . In like manncr a group of mcdier al monks i n t e n d i n g t o b L r i l da n a b b c l . \Iaulbronn -{bbc1.church.m i g h t b r i n g t o t h e s i t e a p l a n l b r t h e r v h o l c f u t u r e e s t a b l i s h m e n t . e o f s u b s t a n t i a lm a s o n r r . FountainsAbber'. exploited the Gothic svstem to the ultimate. Its original sanctuarv was replaced bl the lbmous Chapel of the Nine Altars.le It must sufficc here to mention Waverley Abbev. 'lraccs of this lceling are easv to find in their inrc:pretation of the more mature French Gothie. and a simple square-ended chapel opening upon the rransept to eithcr side of the sanctuarv Tintern. and then proceed to the more diflicult works. b u t it retainsits old plan with an altar-ofthe Cross in the nar.rr' .C T U R E s I t84. s t a l l s .well preservedand imposing.1 47.r r46 78 rnd later w h a t d i l u t e t h e R o m a n e s q u eo f ' t h e c h u r c h .A m o n g t h e m E b e r b a c h ( b v e x c e p t i o n fountled liom (iiteaux) is particularlr.ielded much infbrmation r c g a r d i n g m e d i ev a l c o n d i t i o n s . it is w o r t h w h i l e t o r e p e a tw h a t h a s b c e n s a i d r e g a r d ing the imprint which the Burgundian half_ Gothic left in the minds of local architects. t'or this rebuilding has l. as it did to the Germans. (bunded in r r j r. The Cistercian style appealed to the English. b u i l l b e a u tj - . but fbr a long time few German designcrs or clients really cared fbr the novel effects.an arched stone choir enclosure. a d j o i n i n g t h e church. with occasional help fiom sistcr nonasterrcs and trar ellins artisans. rr. and transmitted some of-its artracti\. bcautilullr' m a i n t r i n e d I r 8 . It is dated r.23o rNTER-REGIONALAND INTERNATIONAL ARCHI'IECTURE T H E C I S T E R C I A N S A N D T } I F .with wonderfll I .ing German Cistercian work.a lew monks *'ith experiencc could trlin a crerv of monks and brethren during the ercction of t h c s i m p l e b u i l d i n g s r e q u i r e d i n t h e b e. irs an cxampleof the simplest form of Cistercianplan an aislelessnave and square-ended sanctuary) a short transept. t h i s e l e ment being fairlv common in Cistercianbuildings..17 here aretwo typical belfrv pinnacles.c i n n i n g . r r35 50 irncllatcr fully in it. I RA R C I T I T } . rzo. an example of the same plan with trvo chapels to e i t h e r s i d e .N l a g d e b u r gi n r z o g . Details about it belong to another volume in this series. a n d l r a sp r e s e r v e d a l o w e x t e r i o r p o r c h a c r o s st h e f i o n t . clung to the tradition of the half-Gothic.'f. : \ t B u c k t i r s to n e o r l s o m e n u i t h s i m p l et r a i n i n gi n c o n s l r u c l i o n lbrmed a cre w and ultimatcll'erected an elaborate church on the surliring n)edic\alfbundations. F i n a l l l r $ o r d m u s t b e s a i d about Bucklast Abbe v asrebuilt in tgoT zz. a pnme example of the Early English Gothic style.e.lbrecourt. rhe Engli:h h a d a f i n e r f l a i r l b r t h i s a r c h i t e c lu r e .5o. w h i c h w a r m s t h e m a s s i v el v a l l so l ' s p e y e r C a t h e dral and the rosy clilt's of the Backstein1ottl. i n t h e i r l o r . In lear. of the nronks' quarters. h a r ' eb e e n m c n tioned. a n d c o n s e q u e n t l va l o n g e r r r a n s e p ri a n d F o u n t a i n s a st h e r u i n o f a l a r s c a b b e v o a r t l r ' Norman and partly Burgundianiaff-Cu*lc ln style. as . T h e f a q a d eh a s a m a r k e d B u r g u n d i a n l l a r o u r . 'l hc G c r m a n s . w h o b u i l t F o n t e n a y . f'he brarura of'French designers. fbunded in rrz8. r85.a n d a n a n g u l a r s a n c u a r r .e q u a l i t i e st o t h e s u c c e e d i n gE a r l v E n g l i s h G o t h i c style. sl .r. which comcs first at the new cathedral . E n g l i s h c o n n e x i o n sw i t h t h e C i s t e r c i a nO r d e r go back to the beginning.5o 8o. T Cistcrcian lbrms with a German weightiness in mass and detail are we ll represented bv manv e x a m p l e s . flair. 'l'herc a r c v e r l e x t e n s i v er e m a i n s . -I-he church was built about r r ii .

u i t h b o l d massing ancl articulation of rclatirclr simple s h a p e s . Bvzantine ele- mcnts.o u r e x p o s i t i o n h a s i n d c c d b c e n p l a n n e c lt o emphasize this fhct. the buildings c h u r c h e s a n d a l l c o n t i n u c c lr o b e e r e c f e d u i t h r el a t i r c l r s i m p l e p l l n s a n d d c c o r a t i o n . variablcs introduce more difl'erenccs than might. I t i s r r s u r lt o f i n r l i r r c a t h r t g i o n s o m c p r i n c i p a l m o n u m c n t r .i n t h c choices which the practical men and decorators m a d e i n h a n d l i n g t h o s c m a t e r i r r l s . and. r v i t h a u .SCHOOI. ar hrsr sight.fhe larious local 'schools'tliRer liom onc a n o t h e r i n t h e b a s i c b u i l d i n g r n a t e r i a l s . h i c h h a sb e e ni m i t a t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h c a r c a . be supposed. where thc population lvas prcrlominantlr Germanic. In monuments of' morc t h a n r e g i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c ew e h a l e a l r c a d l ' e n countered all. but thc Roman elements may be structlrral. and.ol.t h u s c r e a t i n ga s o r t o l a r c h i t e c t u r a l lamih and a certrirr regional unitt. i In thc Scruth therc rvere manl derelopments alongfunctional lincs rvhichareintcrcstil. i d e r b a c k g ' r o u n dn a r t i s t i c h i s t o r r . In thc Romance area the prefi'rencc rvaslbr more sophisticated buildi n g s . or ncarll all.e more thrrn one such source monunlcnt) and the result is a compound locrl school. It is genelally true that in thc northern rcgion. Roman elements occur in all the regional schc.i r c t i \ e s i l h o u c t t e b r o k c n b \ t o \ \ e l ' i l n ( l pinnacle lirms.s.and with diliering emphasis. compositionll. tunctional. steep loofing (natural tr> rhe North). Yet thc great mo\.S T h e R o m a n e s q u e i s a s n l e o f l . A s \ s t e m o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o nf b r t h e s c h o o l s o f m a t u r e R o n r a n e s q u ea l c h i f e c t u r c n t u s t r e s t o D unitics of rarious sorts.e have s e e n . in the architectural b1'-wa1's which we now u n d e r t a k et o e x p l o r c .IHF. lvhcrc it occurs.\NCE CHAPTER I2 G E N E R A L C O N SI D E R A l ' I O N S IN REGARD 'I'O . ccrtlin areas hl\. in conscquence. C)riental elements. hcavv vaulting. as u. AND SOUTI]ERN trR. . has bccn its charm for many lor. in the same i aried tva\. For examnle. Northern elements almost inrariirblv appear. REGIONAT. hcar'\ stclnc rvall-uork. Iarioush combinctl. the historians havc generalh anallsed it as a series of' quasi-independcnt rcgional phcnomena. Horverer.emcnts and the chief institutions o1' Romanesque timcs with their architecture nere intcr-rcgional. a s c i n a t i n gb t 'I'his w a y sa n d l o c a l s c h o o l s . '. decorative.lgrnd .ers o1'the arts. rhe alchitecturll motifs which we shall find.PART FOLIR THE MATURE ROMANESQUE OF M IDDLI.a n d i n t h e e m p h a s i sg i r c n t o r h c r a r i o u s a s p e c t so f ' t h c t l e 'I'hese sign.

.. tht end ol the a. n r a r b l e a s a I u x u r t n r a t e r i a l .tonnrcnts belbre centurr' '-In.i. lch in ils orln wa\.easicr to g. eleventh . Itirl1. t h e c c _ c l c s i a s t i c a l a p i t a l o f A q u i t a i n e . and ) certdil have granite arrd volcanicstone.thc dr. 1o nlerit national standing. .'\ustrasia remaincd Imperial. i r r S p a i n a n d P o r t u g : r l h a rc 6. of f'ederativc monasticism (chicfl\ a r c h i t c c t ... applicable everywhere with little change.. so to speak.rl. R E ( . in respect of' mason work. though s r a n c c n t u r i e s . The Iirance of the eleventh centurl did not p r o p e r l r i n c l r r d eB l i t t a n r o r a n l i m p o l t i r r t rt e r r i torics be1'ond the Sommc.*u urrh a propar regard lbr th"ir.. .h. like ancient Roman building. ..t o s v n t h e s i z c ' crploitecllatcr). Normandl' (c. the \leuse. from irdjoinine spr(. Aulergne antl rhe I-imousin (excc. u h i l c B u r q u n d v c r c i r t e da n d c x p o r t c d seVeral inrcr..tt.of middle and southern l'rirnce. France. firsrthird ol thc tuellih ccntur\' men ucre draun liom all qtlarlers -. e r c .esrcrn velopments of vaulting i n L o m b a r c l _ rn . Whilc the Burgundian half -Gothic of the (-istercians was. under the headings: (r) the Loire Rircr area.inalitr' ('Iours.tiom out_ side.B u r g u n d v c a n c f o l i r s t i n r p o r r _ o t t e n w i t h d i f i l c u l f i ' l n c l c x p e n s e .ilti.asimportirnt first.1 i. r i . r n t lt h e R h o n c . the madt'proqress: o alsoin Llnguedoc.E v e n i n t h c b r i c k _ F o l l o r v i n g t h e a c h i e v c n t e n t so l t h e Carolin_ building recions stonc is obtainablc. withour sinrhesis.. still Latin in the Romanesque pcriod.rl cla\\ifi(.ylcs. and decoration. But in the actual development of' Romanesque. T h e G e r n r a n a n d r e l a t e dm l t r .a n d u s u a l l v i t ancc in architecture. in spite of'certain norel developments.l lering nuterials. Iior our purposes it will be most convenient to undertake first the studl. w h e r e t h c R o l n a t r e s q u ch a d bothic in a rcgion time been uninspired and unintercstfor a long more accomplishetl local inq. the S a o n e .)and thc school o1'Prris and the North (n). tints.ision berween con_ s e n a t i r c ( o r p a s s i r ) . Lorsch lrc there..J'he Nctherlancls and lieu.rs Hung-arv in later tinres).lr. r .qu" . Elsewherc in o r i e n t a l i n f l u e n c e sw e r e w c l c o m e d t o o . Ciorbic.F 2. rs \\c i s l i m c s t o n e S i l n ( l s l ( . Lombard. Southcr. Caen stone o1'Normandl' lvhich rvasexportecl tcr f l o r v e r c d a f t er t h c m i d d l e o f t h e e l c r .ll classifications re gcncralll. Vaulting.t. I t a l r m c a n w h i l e be_ c r i s p m o r . 1. when we approachthe Gothic st1-le. . a concurrcnt stlle existccl s Onll Itall ancl Prorence hacl easilr arailable tar east .. taken up with thc architecture ol-the Empire. 'I'he s c h o o lo f t h c E a s t ( n ) w i l l b e (n)Languedoc.arieri finc bul}. Germignr. stfles continued to until the Gothic from the Ile-dc-Ifrance ap' oeared in the twelfih or thirteenth centur\ From that time onu'ard. to the First Romirnesquc stvlel in the Veneto to the B]'zirntine . old \cusrr.n ermrnr.{ u s t r .a to brirrq ahout thc creetion ol i-rana. e n g i n c e r sa n d r r t h i t e c t . ccrtain{q_ { d r i a t i c a n d S p a n i s hl i m es t o n e s . Bvzantinc. to the intcrcst ol' thc Rornirn"rqu" . Though not indcpcndent.T ' h e s e i d c a s c a m e irom thc land lirance hale lairlv good sendstonc. r l eR o m a n e s q u e s t v l e sa r e c o n s e r v a t i v e . 0 u hole. a l t h o u g h i t c o n t a i n e c lB o u r g e s . and o w h a t i s s o m e t i m e s( b e c a u s e f l a t e r l r r e n c h c u l t u r a l a n d p o l i t i c a l e x p a n s i o n ) c a l l e c lt h e e i g h t h French school that ofthe Rhineland.s been camean architccturallialeidoscope. r l f . n I the o t h e r c s u l t .. and Rhine_ G a r c h i t e c t u r a l i c l e a s .. Pror-ence. it bccame the firnct t i o n o f t h e R o m a n e s q u el o c a l s t 1 ' l e so i n f l u c n c e to modulate the incoming Gothic to doand mesticate it.a s i av e r ei m p o r t a n t n c r t N c u s t r i a r 'fhe lor. D i v i d i n g R o m a n c s q u ea r c h i t c c t u r e s u m m a r ily on national lines ficlds the lbllorving classification: The Italian stllcs. fiom BurgLrn_ able. and brick-clavs which rvcre B u r g u n d i a n d e s i g n e r s g r e a t a b i l i t t .r. Saint-Riquicr..: . Similar R o m a n e s q u ea r c h i t e c t u r ec o u l d b e u n d c r strons s t o n e si n l t a l r ' ( n o r t h a n d s o u r h ) t e n d to rvcarher B r z a n t i n e r r n t l V o s l e m i n f l u e n c e .tur. ..rf. .. I O N A L S C H O O I .. the fullr chtrG acterized othic of thc Ile-de-Flance achicvcd better results abrold when it acccpted something from the heritage of the local st-vlcs. ( l ) A u r e r g n c . i n s t r u m e n t a l B e r r r . with Anjou.I. i in thc clercnth and twellth centurics) and rirc chalkl' limestone. (u) Provence. a t . ' f h c s c F r e n c h l i m e s t o n e s\ \ . re backuard-looking: in Loma bardy.t. rooling.. (c) the Loire region and western Francc. Saintongc.fi. political.csJtcrnd ideas antl Btrrgundr to thc Ilc-de. c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h o t h er e l c m e n t s . in fuscan. 'l ht. a bec. less rewlrding to rhe sculptor and the dian centres. (z) Poitou. c i t h e r to Sicilies an eclectic school sholved how r. t h e l . Carolingian . and is rcsponsiblc fbr irn irnpressir e t i r l l v t e x t u r c d : r n c a c l e l i g h t o t h e c a rr l c r .1f w h e r e r h c m a t e r i a l sa r c m o r c s i m i l a r . North_ rr.a b o u n c l sn E n g l a n d ( a l o n gu i t h f l i n t s .g. a c l As r . { u s t r a s i .hit. . S :G E N E R A L C O N S I D E R A T I O N S 2:II t h c r e r v a sI m a r k e d r c l d i n c s s t o a b s o r b \ l o s l c n r o r B v z i r n t i n ee l e n r c n t s T h i s i s n r a r k e d l l t r u e i n .nl in fact..France is most f-ecund.l. ' r e n c l ra n d N o r m a n d o m i n i o n s . p r o c l u c e dl i t t l e c t h c { n e l o . e n t h ccnE n g l a n d e r e n i n R o m a n c s q u et i m e s ) . to decper brouns_'I'his is truc also of. i*'' h o l d c r d l f l i ' r e n c e \c a l l c d l o r t h b v t r r .IO MIDDLE AND SOUTHERN RANCT. Grrrnil_ signilicant classificarion. . n ct. s s l t r r c l i r u e n . o l " r . l . l u r _ . ' l ' h e s t r i r c r s \ \ ' e r c a p proximatelv irt the boundaries ol'the Empirc.its mater-ialsbr building also point out a l orig.. a fn thc historl ol Romanesqu.N o t r n t n a l . and Germrn st.\ o r m a n s c h o o l o n l ) r u fo i in s itia r t i n g ' or . 'fhere is llso a ralid dir. a r c a l l t h c r c ) a n d A u s t r a s i af b r i t s c r c a t i o n ot rhc a n d S p a i n a l l h a i e a x c e l l e n tb r i c k _ c l a r . ..r .the east_ a n d \ e n e r i : r h o u r i c h ir could he._des_pr6s. France there is exccllcnt limestonc (c. in central Itall to Earlv Christendom: and in the Two Sicilies cclectic .logit. lleims... ccired.Jd li{nn rherc.rrl reE..a n d a l l b c a r t h c o b l i o u s imprint of thc great earlier developments (alr e a d v c o n s i d e r e d )i n t h e R h i n e l a n d . l l hare seen. . and grer. i r i t 1 .\'that Italr.and Itall-. r i d i n g s n c lr i c c o r a t i r eu o r k h a r e a ... Fulcla rrd the cngineers antl .mareri. a n d a c t i \ . cs c h o o l s :R o m e e and Provence.h. . thc neighbourine hc lirregoing gct. and the nuanccs rvhich . s uhi. lighting.ranrre. dnd chronolorljr. .rtionalll Aquitania.. . antl . .namic spread. b e : r u t i _ tun. but built handsomclr in a conscr\arive m a n n e r . with its schools of.ion s. 'l'he rcasonswerc..Srns thc northern parts of'Germanr. or of'thc East dcvclopedtherc in a German ambicnt.csring t\'pes.he n e i g h b o u r i n g r e g J i o n so f ' N e u s t r i a .B-vlieDeralconscnt thsrc were seven individual regional schools in medieval lirance.to the Earll' Christian. pale brown. and thc South-West: (r) Pdrigorcl and t h e d o n r e t lc h u r c h e so f A q u i t a i n c . Other regions with emplov them cll'ectivell. -l Gcorraphical.rrchitects took irclvantagc.(e) Burgundy. thc SpanishPortuguese ancl thc English stvles are sufTicienth c charactcrizcd. s c h is e l : d a u g h t c r -s c h o o l i n S p a i n . thc ccntreof'France has bcen callcd ma] sa. s f w h i c h o Rhenish stvle (Aachcn and \{ainz.. \'Ioslem. T I I [ .1.r) :) ' lor'th bcaringin mind: lbr rhe . acccptecl ittle that was nc\r.ruse 'dumping ground' becauseso much was rc_ the basilicirand thc First Romlnc.

the remainder had becorne a loosely-held part of the medier. actualll. (built belbre thc lerrr rooo).{rles. 'l'he primitive medieral nave-and-chancel r o 'barn' trpe of'church. where the fusion ofnorthern and srruthe r n e l e m e n t si s r e m a r k a b l e . France and the Empire.al p l a n f e a t u r e sa n d r . v . w h i c h w a s d i v i d e c lb e t w e e nR o m a n e s q u e 7 ' y p t so f P l u n 'l'he hasilicanltlun a. but the eastern parts.B u r g u n dian practice is well up to thc best general lcr. a u l t i n g . rescmbling St Benedict's C h a p e l a t S a i n t . great types. Sens.1 Kingdom had an underlving Latinity.R i q u i e r [ 5 ] .6HAPTER I3 THE KINGDON{ OF ARLES. AND BURGUNDY In the area ofthe old Carolingian Provencr: and Burgundy. B e s a n g o n . O n c I c e l sl l o m e subtly still as far north as Micon.. However. which rvrtstbr a long time just south of the boundarv of ducal Burgundl but within the bortlers ot Rom. where the Roman tradition is especialll' strong. The rotunda is not unusual in Burgundl.i t i s r v o r t h w h i l e t o u n d e r t a k e a n a n a h ' s i so f t h e e l e m e n t s . and their components so widelv used i n R o m a n e s q u ea r c h i t e c t u l e . but ser.va number ol sm:rller churchcs in Burgunclr.Char- . and the impcrtant churches represent not one. Ducal Burgundl' fbrmed a part ot the historic metropolitan archbishopric of' L y o n . Its ( major representatives at Auxerre. I'raditional and easv communications ofl'ered bv the great valleys of the Rhirne and the Sadne p'ile a u n i t y t o t h i s a r e a l s h i c h s h o w si n m a n l ' w a r s i n its architecture.rnesque France. The eastern parts of'this archbishopric bordered on Italv a n d s e r v e da s a n a t u r a l a v e n u eo f L o m b a r d i c i n fluence.T h i s w a s t r u e a l s o ofthe archbishopricof Vienne.el in the Romanesque period. especiallf in thc Franche-Comt6.with \. D U C A LB U R G U N D Y In an earlier chapter rue have obsen'ed Burgundy as a crossroads unusually open to ourside i n f l u e n c e s .a n d u n u s u a l l l g i f t e d w i t h i m a g i n ation for profiting bl them and sy-nthesizing them. being the most intercsting preservecl example. i s r e p r e s e n t e db . Since the building t1'pes in Burgundv are so various.{ilan onlv a hrrndred-odd miles a w a l . which wasin the Empire but bordered on the Rh6ne.a n d ( z ) i n P r o l e n c e . 'I'ournus Saint-Laurent. there is a strong tincture of Carolingian and Rhenish influence in the north: hence the area produced two great schools of Romanesquearchitecture: (r) in ducal Burgund)'. Immense resources were available in men and money from outside the region fbr building in Romanesque timcs. The renaissance of Roman forms was particularlv appropriate and lelicitous here. f r o m P r o r e n c c a n dS e p t i m r n i r . Roman influence cane r.nd general arrangemcnr fbr churches har-econtinued in use in Burguntlr' ever since Earlv Christian times without interruption.eral. although stronglr modified b1'medie r.al Empire bv the 'I'he historical accident of bequest in ro3z.rnthe Rh6ne laller. technicallv only ducal Burgrndr' was French.bordeling on the Rhine. but belonged archit e c t u r a l l y t o d u c a l B u r g u n d . and manv o1' the observations which will be made hcrc on structural matters arc applicableclsewhere. were understandablv German in their architecture.t h e n o r t h c r n a r c h b i s h o p r i c o f the Kingdom of . wasopen to Burgunclian influence.

ers Cathcdral has a similar crypt dated a b o u t r o z g .to be short. grcat transept was like the 'tower nave' of a 'I'he 'double Saxon church. Mention should br made of the handsome and well-built cry'pt of thc cathedralo1'Auxerre (r. with a later vault) is triapsidal. but the westcrn onc. However. in which case they may have pitch roofs like the aisles. and the vault is sometimes pierced with small windows. p t sa r e u n u s u a l i n B u r gundr'. to permit large assembliesin choir. p r o v i d e d w i t h n a v e a n d a i s l e s . individual bays. the west windows of the nave give a sufficient light.1. Sometimes they are (not as high as the nave). Aisles are almost inr. Benignus (Diion). Cr. not much used in Burgundy. 1'here is a tendency. chevet. THE KINGDOM OF ARLES. and C l u n y I I . which did not have manv Earlv Christian saints besides Germanus (Auxerre). they are typically vaulted in Burgundy . unless the naves have uncommon width. has been pres e r v e d .es. destroy'ed)provided a rather solitarv example of its indcpendenr use. The crvpt has beautifullv composed groupccl piers and fine r. with a small apse. togerhcr with handsome arcadcd transeptal screens. Canterbury. Cluny I I I . M T D D L F . where thc scheme was an established type) have triapsidal chevets and transcpts with towers.Cluny'III 'lhe was an exceptional building. 'fhe proportioning of Burgundian naves varies greatly. Saint-Vorles at Chitillon-sur-Scine (dated about gtio rooo.Ordinarily each aisle bay has a window.A 2 1 4 .r plan' (with two tranThe' archiepiscopalcross septs east of the nave) apparently originated at Cluny Ir4z]. opening from the central absidiole. It spread to England (Lewes Prior.1. as at Notre-Dame in Paris. Ordinarily two or three ba-YS sumced for this choir. in thc are E a r l y R o m a n e s q u eo f B u r g u n d y ( D i j o n I r o 7 ] : 'I'ournus Iroz]. N D S O U T H E R NF R A N C t . and thencero English Gothic. and are invariably an attractrve feature of the design. to which wide woodentrussed naves were added naves twice as wide. In such buildings. perhaps under the influence of early Charlieu. Transepts are usual in Burgundian church 'dwarf' transepts plans. which probabh. and in Cistercian work. often oblong rather than square. the scheme lvas communicated to England through Lewcs Priorv. Auxerre z6nl). cathedral of' Autun Ir6r]. but in many instanccs of vaulted churches they have been omitted or blocked up for safety's sake. but in monastic buildings the processional liturgies (much developed in Burgundy) caused the construction of very long naves which influenced those of other regions.B u r g u n d i a n R o m a n e s q u ea n d G o t h i c c h u r c h e st e n d to hare a specialaccent on the axial absidiole. . The efI'ect. bcen anall. 'fhe crossinginBurgundy.sed. and they are often 'included' (not extended beyond the flank lines of the plan). AND BUR(.a n d has the wreck of a sort o1'westwork which recalls 'fhe Carolingian and German work. it had not yet become the fbcus of guiltl acti\. and was long confined to thc most notable monastic buildings with crypts.UNDy 2. with moulded ashlar ribs.y with radiating chapels came early to Burgundy. even a few voices will hll such a building with rich resonances which are hardly obtainable in a wooden-roofed room. more or less. It is obvious that certain of the Burgundian naves were built cheaply for capacity. Valerianus (Tournus). with lateral apses attached to thc 'I'his simple arrangement was suffi- cient even for so notable a building as the twelfth-centur].aulting.1( lieu. The number of towers t r a n s e p t e d . w i t h t h e e a r l i e s t!c h e l o ni n t h e r e s i o n . which runs from the basilicas through Saint-B6nigne and V6zelay to the Cistercians. Autun Cathedral). typical. There is a continuous tradition for Roman sturdiness and amplitude. At Cluny III the height ofthe transverse arches was three times their width and the individual bays were about four times as high as they were wide. tension Stalls were regularly placed at the head of'thc naves. Ordinarilv the churchcs arr transcpt. The longer transepts were built to provide additional absidioles.{nzy-le-Duc reminiscent of a served. lighting bv clerestory windows is usual. so disposed as to gi'r'e extra c a p a c i t v l b r l a r g e a s s e m b l a g c sE a c h a r m o f ' t h e . The cemetery chapel at Cluny'(ro6. perhaps be f-elt i n t h e d o u b l e t r a n s e p t a n d t h e o c t a g o n a lr o r v e r s o1'St Hugh's Clun1. r'aultcrl sanctuary bavs. It was. impact of the Empire on Burgundian rvork secms in fict surprisinglv small. but also at Ylzelay. including the minor transept. and especialll' Dijon Iro7 9l) har. transept' at Clur. and afierlvards in Germany. is rather barn-like. and Salisbury Cathedrals). Aisles arethe rule in buildings of any importance. Bois-Sainte-Marie. Exceptionally Saint-Bdnigne at Dijon.1tts important. within a lowwalled enclosure. In the Burgundian nar.2 The ambulator. in efi'ect. in monastic churches. outside the monasteries. 'I-he'douhle-endar' plan. Torpersand pinnacles are normal on Burgundian churches. Apses are regularly semicircular. as we have seen. B u r i a l c r J . perhaps because of influence from the Loire. regularly has an octagonal domical (or'cloister') vault on squinches. reprcsentsa reduction o1'the rotunda.c ground. a n d S o u v i g n y h a d t w o a i s l e sa t e a c h s i d e o f the nave. triapsidal. The Cluniac group of Burgundian churches often has emphasis on the verticals. round-arched or pointed. not subterraneani 'crypta' may mean a vaulted chamber abor. noted especially' in the parish churches. like other early twelfth-centurv cathcdrals. which was used bv the Earh-Christians of North Aliica. to use a twostorey interior elevation. in its widespread use.ealreadl.a n d t h u s a r e s a t e l a l i t e r a t h c r t h a n i n d c p e n d c n t c o n s t r u c t i o n . plun and its approximations The Greek crzss are rare in Burgundy'. The apse dchelon occrrs in Burgundy. was doubtless influential has an excellent example. still pre. Fortunarus (Charlieu). the transepts also often proiect and have striking fagades (Paray-le-Monial Ir 561. as the chancel. York. One exccptional church. Sanctuary bays wete placed singly in lront of prethe apses of Burgundian churches of anv at all. lighted bi three windolvs. SaintGermain.p t s n d a m b u l a t o r i e s . SaintMarcel and the later Infirmary Chapel at Cluny (like the near-by church of Beaujeu and many others belonging to the school of the Loire and the region of'Bourges. Saint-Savinen. and Savinianus (Sens). Ner. however.ariably covered b1' bays ofgroin vaulting (occasionalll' quadrant vaults) separated by transverse arches which pilaster strips or spur butare buttressed b1-trcsses. with a placid rhythm in the division ofbroadly proportioned. as at Chapaize Ir34]. has an ambulatory without radiating chapels. I'aotures in Plun All Romanesque features of church planning occur in some fbrm in Burgundian cdifices. if they are short. The naves of ordinary parish churches tend. Naoes are aisleless in modest churches.. is beliered to have been the lirst. and covered bv semi-domes. was. Gothic lateral chapels were added here.though spacious. but it mar. Sens.ities and various popular religious deiotions. fbr such purposes. Small tunnel-vaulted churches of Romanesque proportions respond amazingly to the liturgical chant.a church of the central t)'pe. is re presented in the cathcdral of Ner.v.ers on thc Burgundian border. typically as enrichments of'the basilican scheme. Thev are as a rulc it little lower than rhe adfoining. roz5-3o) [rrzl which is precocious in its architectural forms. evcn in Gothic times. rotunda. Though sometimes roofed in wood.l.the result of Roman heritage and probably also for reasonsof acoustics. thcv are regularlv connccted w i t h c r 1 . 'l'hc eastern apse has becn replaced in the Gothic stvlc. in f'act.T h e d a t e o f r o z g i s g i l e n f b r t h i s w o r k . because. The much q u o t e d ' c r y p t a e ' o f C l u n y I I w e r e s e c r e t a r i ao r lateral sacristy chambers.

AND BURGUNDy 21. and the openings. which in Gothic work was indispensable. I n u n p r e t e n t i o u sw o r k these capitals are built up ol'courses. to be understood. Few grot e s q u e so c c u r . sometimes with 'laves' (laminae of stone). olten somewhat too large to be 'pinnacles' called in the modern sense. These men surelJ' worked under French direction. The Lombardic work employs simple capitals trimmed down in concave f'ashionat the angles. which sundian churches' as do Square nuclei hare three-quarler coliersist. was rather rough.rons. even early walls. with verl'narrow mortar ioints ( * of an inch). of which one was carried onlv to the clerestory level.a s w e l l a s t h e e x ceptional delicacy and classical character of the earlier moulding profiles at Cluny III. in the crypt of Saint-Philibcrt.or several orders. Prrtuls ol'embrasured lbrm. ne. Ashlar was used more and more from that time onward. but difficulties of transport prevented their wide use: the columns. S i m p l e c o l u m n c a p i tals and austere portals with blank t-Ympana appear on many churches not belonging to the Orcler. The graduai transition to the Gothic derivatives of these profiles can easily be traced in Burgundy. when the sophisticated Clutiac atelier was created. but decoratir-e columns irnd pilasters often are in the twelfih century rvith quite unconventional detail in the fom ofbevels. t\. paired western towers occur much less liequent[1'than crossingtowers. Authentic Romanesque tower roofs had pvramids of low pitch (as a rule less than forty-five degrees. Tournus. However. are square in plan. in the almost Baroque designs of the middle of the twelfth century. Ashlar stone was used. Thel-' have characteristic carved lintels. A belfry in several stages is often set over a lantern with tiny windows at the crossing. Bell cages. except on pinnacles). C r u c i and/or form nuclei have three-quarter columns pilasters flttached to them in Cluny III fluted and related buildings. as well as in Cluny III and buildings related to it' Monolithic limestone shatis trp to twentv lcet in length are easily quarried in Burgundy'.\o. are a constant feature ofthe churches. Structural columns are not fluted. which has yielded beautiful carvings in an almost Romanesque style. in one. usually with attractive ornament. being carried out with decorative pilastcrs and complicated mouldings. Simple at lirst.relativell small stones trimmed roughly to shape. Their reserved charicter accords well . requires a knowledge ot mason work in the Loire region. u m n s a d o s s e dt o t h c m i n m a t u r c w o r k . Division of vaulting bays by arches of ashlar stone may have lirst come in systematically with the Lombards.7 varies !ireatly. which weathers to beautiful toasted browns ancl soft greys. Moslem influence. The belfry stages were always roofed in wood. were left plain. both of walls and of vaulting. before q79. svmmetrically placed. t h o u g h t h e r e a r e s o m e i n t e r e s t i n g examples. brought in cusping.246 M T D D L E A N D S O U T H E R NF R A N C F - IHE KINGDOI\1 OF ARLLS. used at Saint-Philibert. but the best work has classicizing mouldings of great beaut-r.tr. rather exceptionally. cymas. rest on the crossing vault. until the twelfth century was well advanced. and in the Charlieu chapter-house. The region is blessed with an abundance of excellent limestone ranging from white to pale buffin colour. Verv spic-v decorativc effects rvcre achieved by' its use. and was omitted. about g8o rooo. more modest buildings rarelv possessthem. column bases are sometimes close to the Roman fbrm of the Attic base. Common walls are faced with moellon. Towers in the tradition of the heavy Roman turris. the ordinary joints are thicker and the ordinary coursing is narrouer. and Corinthianesqueforms are more usual.bnllt up from the ground. introduced for zontal bands Insufficient credit is given to the skill . The Burgundians had a great ragt: for decora. thev ma!' be square or round. are a common and attractive f'eature even ofmodest churches. 'Ihe sculptural decttration of Burgundian Romanesque buildings was not rich in the early period. Some of the capitals show the influence of medieval manuscript decoration. or those under Cistercian influence. Late in the twelfih century' walls and vaults both were increasinglv laced with ashlar. we mav sa!' that generally paired rvestern towers were associatedwith galilee porches of monastic inspiration. tympana. Cluny III had two great square bel(iy towers at the fagade. as in classic times. Single western towers are unusual. The mouldings in ordinary buildings are simple and far lrom subtle. Cistercian architectural asceticism made itself l e l t i n s t r r n t l yi n B u r g u n d y . The tower shapes are sober and dignified. At first. and three ofoctagonal shape. coming perhaps by way of the Auvergne. Tournus. the arcading became very elaborate and multiplied with the p a s s a g e f t i m e . still shows the marks of the small boards used as centering.' churches . masons in linding the proper of the Burgundian exceptionally good mortar' materialsand making of oblong plan occur early in the BurPiers crucifbrm piers. The Lombard corbcl table survived throughout the various phases of Burgundian Romanesque. The rough vault.r'er stuccoed. are always well disposed. In Burgundy.tive arcadinS which was unquestionablv of classicalorigin. would be accounted fbr. these dimensions are exceptional. and are frequently octagonal. Where ashlar was used. Onll modest examples. together with four pignacula ofgreat size one oblong. and most probably of Italv). with nook shafis. The fine earlier acanthus leafage at Cluny III (so l i k e a n c i e n t a c o n t h u s m o l l i s \ . may start from the roof level.l At Cluny III the typical ashlar blocks arc about three feet high.however. 'l'all and graceful crossing towers. but simplified. where they occur. so that triangles result on the facesofthe capitals instead of semicircles as so much more f r e q u e n t l f i n L o m b a r d y .ne. De t a i ls of S uperstr uct ur e The pall-porh of early Romanesque Burgundr'. were ordinaril-v built up ol drums' 1'he capitals are sometimes surprisingll' close to the antique Corinthian. ChaPaize). a few show hori- of ashlar work. zigztgs. Saint-B6nigne at Diion was exceptional in having three pairs ofstair turrets. The proportions are in almost all casesexcellent. A l'elr earll' walls show the use of rough stones with occasional herringbone work. as a rule.sThe string courses show beak mouldings derived from the classic cyma. if we might suppose that fine craftsmen came from Montecassino. examples occur at Saint-B6nig. The walls. Such details show the influence of imaginative manuscript painters and metal workers. leaf'agepredominates so generally that one and rather unskilful leafage in fact must suppose the importation of highly trained carvers (almost certainly from the marblecutting regions of France. Venice. in Burgundr show a high level of craitsmanship. Stair turrets of varving size enliven the silhouettes of manl. and ashlar spur buttresses occur in the same work. Ashlar is early used' Cylindrical piers of moellln occur early (SaintPhilibert at Tournus. two square stair turrets. Colunnar sfia/is were used lrom earlv times for support. An exception is the pink stone ol Pr6tr'. quadrangular or octagonal in plan. and moulded enclosing arches.ngth.and with it the silhouette (always interesting)ofthe buildings. Pignacula. thc execution. and was used effectivell. and beading. Pisa. or possibly Moslem Spain. Porchas and nart heces features of the more are ambitious churches. Diion. I n t h e s e c o n dh a l f o f t h e t w e l f t h o centur-y it was verv luxuriant indeed. reeding. the slrrra which regularlv surl'aced the rougher old construction would not adhere properly. cher. fbr the sarour ofthe d e s i g n si s u n m i s t a k a b l y F r e n c h . sometimes covered in the Middle Ages rvith tile.

The characteristic stone lbqadesare handsomel-v proportioned and rvell built. except lbr the apses. only builtling Nlanv of the communitr lunctions ol ment. were a common means of maintaining the vault saf'ely in position. and alwals appears in gencral acc o u r .e a storagc loft abovc. thick cclls. In these houscs at Clunl' a charming range of two-light winclows divided bv columns and set offby small piers givcs light across the whole tront ofthe upper storey.e round or pointed semi-domes. but thr tunnel \ault was the morc diffrcult to abrir successfulll. Surviving still arc several of the more or lcss standardized dwellings which were built to replace them [186]' The lots are relatively narrow. ertending beyond the stairway to give accessto a corridor l e a d i n gt o t h e k i t c h e n ( a t t h e b a c k o l t h e h o u s e . T h i s p e r m i t t e d a c l e r . was each gate leading to a small plaza. r s e dn B u r i gundy than f-arther north. dualized r e v i v a lt h i s w a s c h a n g e d . with thick joints. b c e nm a d e o f C l u n y ' I I ( r ' a u l t c d about rooo) rrnd Saint-B6nigne (roor r71. and the houses.l r o u n d a c h u r c h o r c a s t l e ' built but on flat ground they were often rectilincar.. l'hey were intended to bc remor. and the kitchen is an open court with a w e l l i n i t e s s e n t i a l l ! .r o o f i n g o f ' l a v e s o r t i l e o n timber supports o\. where there wxs 2t fbrlic of some sortl simple apartments occupiod an intermediatc floor. so that lbr I long time nt'u consrruction lor secular purposcs was not on a high level. intervening space betwcen the shop. D O M O F A R I . e sw e r e a l most exclusively used in Burgundl-. T h e t u n n e l l a u l t s o f i e n h a v e t h c r o o l i n p . W i t h C l u n l l I I t h c p o i n t e d a r c h r v a sb r o u g h r i n . was supported on hear. t t so f ' F r e n c h m c d i e r a l c l o m e s t i ca r c h i t e c tr.lun1-'. until the twelfth centur]. and it sare a morr 'l'he scicntific profile to the high vault. charactcristic house. and with time almosr all thc rramples have bccomedeformcd or hare actualli l h i l c d . Cluny. and would har.un.' that were so small. 'I'he with a big open lireplace at one end). occasionallv in the naves). as mav be seen at Lirbro br the court into tuo or thrce rooms. p n e d . require highlf indivitheir functions did not buildings. The trump e t s q u i n c h e s a n d t h e o c t a g o n a ld o m i c a l v a u l t s w h i c h o c c u r n o r m a l l y a t t h c c r o s s i n g sa r e . which avoids all deforma t i o n s t r e s si n t h e v a u l t c e l l s . after r I 59 Centering was used in building the Burgun'lhis dian vaults.ier in Gotland [S5o. ol stone.K I N ( . construction. p o s s e s s ea c h a r m i n g o l d b u i l d i n g o f t h e late Romanesque period which is said mistakenly to havc served a civic purpose as the abbey mint. built with party rvalls.or almosr as soon! as in the ile-d. h a v e h e l p e c lt o k c e p s e v e r a lo f t h e i m p o r t a n r raults in place. the old Romanesquc towns wcre.ll'c. TB u t r v h c r c .aults of thc narthcr trr Tournus (about q6o) precede thcm hoth. while the masonry solidified. Pilaster strips stiflin the wall on thc cxterior. derired fiom the tunnel r. e r e ra n d t h i n n e r g r o i n r.r. 'I'his is perhaps the placc to introducc a brief consideration of cidl arckitetzzra. where. dome ol'Saint Philibert.-It. timbcring. As far as rve know. has quadrant-r'aulted aislcs with dilphragms between the bavs. 'I'imbers lvere apparenrll' embcclded in certain w a l l s t o g i v e l o n g i t u d i n a l s t r e n B t ha t h i g h l r : \ e l s . At the ground lloor a generous pointcd arch opens upon a shop. Clunv. bar. and the'bastides' later inherited this mode' .11 kcpt both tvpes secure fbr somc time. l o a d i n g t h c h a u n c h e s .e. I/uulting in Burgundl fbllowed Roman models until well into the Gorhic period. and stuccoecl solits.a s a t Clunv. In Burgundy thc Roman citics s h r a n k w i t h i n t h e i r w a l l sa n d d e c r c a s e c l p o p u in lltion. had a very simple street system. T T I L .crsearchesover a clercstory between.o l l u t c s l a i r Jd i l e c t l v o n t h e v a u l t c c l l s . it woulcl be provided with onc or two hooded fir'eplaces. The tie-pieces wcre doubtless uselul in supporting a workmen's platfbrm durinp. but the intcrior construction wls of rvood.ed. This occurs in the dormitorr.r.H o r v c r .2 .(. and beside it a narrow square-headed openinpl gives upon the stairwal' which lcads to the apartments on the floor abor.er an air-spacc often covcrs tunnel vaulting. similarly. quite simple. This storef is divided r 86. wc find roundarchedand pointed tunnel vaulring (commonll used in the naves and transcpts) together with round and pointed groin vaulting (regularlv in the aisles.r h e r i l l a g c c h u r c h m i g h t b c medieral ol bricL or stonc in 't scttlc. (. v l i r r r . Space was allotted fbr a garden plot at the rear.rough. optimunr profile is a catenar]-. Since both round and pointed arches arc used in the arcading. F .Srlong mur. Exceptional are the niche-head squinchesand 'l'ournus. where a fburteenth-century vault of Romancsque ty-pe in the church towcr still retains its centering rz . S t o n e w a s d o u b t l e s s m u c h m o r e r . built on two sides of the abbev enclosure. It is a very attractivc medieval housc tvpe.s slight as the remains are. the vault had to bc propped up with flying buttrcsses. 'I'hc u p p e r s t a g eo ( t h e n a r t h e x . or a stable. l i k e groin vaulting.:Sr]. with three gates. e r . takcn over b) ecclesiastical or to-day had been and most ol'the towns m a n o r i a le s t a b l i s h m e n t s . werc placed at the sidewalk line. + u M I D D L E A N D S O t r lt l E R N F R A N C E . of the Cluniac priorv ol'Lewes in England. Wooden tie-pieces irt thc springing. The groin vaults have on the whole stood trn bettcr than the runncl raults. in thc Lombard manner.The Romanesque vaults are in laminated stone. It is not good practice. Sometimcs they s e r e l a i d o u l i n r i n g s . then rhe wall is weakcr t h a n i t r v o u l c lb e i f i t u e r e c o n s r r u c t e d e n t i r e h . d a t e c lp c r h a p s a b o u r rorg. T h c t u n n e l v a u l t a n d i t s d e r i v a t i r . bv set bal. the clcrestorv rvallswere wronglv locatetl over the piers. Cellars were provided with interior access. 'I'he high vaults ol Romanesque Burgundr l b r m a n i n t e r e s t i n g s t u d v i n t h e m s e l r e s . Ultimately an outer wall. lbr the buried timbers suffer from dry rot and lose their strength. as in earlJ E n g l a n d . a loft above them provided storapie A serious conflagration in rI-59 destroyed many houses at Cluny.though 'hall--Gothic' rib-vaults began to appear sporadically in Burgundy as soon. under a roof'with a dormer opening and broadly overhanging eaves.which of course ha. more easily built. the corridor. which was carlv chartered (about s r r o o ) . \ u x i l i a r l b u r r r e s s c sn o t o r i c i n a l l . built somewhat belbre r rzo. a work room.l \ I c n t i o n h a s a l r e a d r .sr/ll.ault.h. S A N D t s U R G U N D ) 219 with the sober outlincs which the Burgundian Romanesquechurches generally cxhibit. It has a big-arched grottnd floor.ault. The shop occupies about half the ground-floor arc:r. as it invariabh'does vaults ol groined or domical fbrm. 'I'he sober and powerlul r. a no u t d n o r r o o m . and a tunnel vaulr with transr. With the twclfth-centur1.

near Antibes and Cannes. church. On the Ile-Saint-Honorat there is a trefoil chapel dedicated to the Trinity. but the country chr. incorporatingparts of an older it in building dedicated ro4o. gates. it was naturally dependent on monastic architecture to a considerable extent. Since the reconstruction of' gz4 6 (probably caused bv weakened trusses).Saint-Gilles-du-Gard. and that when they came to be embellished. the castle has been rebuilt. so splendid and so strong. their simple arrangement about courtyards oflow barn-like structures is clearly traditional. At Berzd-le-Chitel near by. The countryside architecture of Romanesque Burgundy must be divined from later esque. which is one of the plan. At Saint-Victor at Marseille. -I'he really flourishing period for Provengal architecture came in the twelfth century. recollected quality which is akin to the Roman- .e. it was evcn under Spanish rule. gatehouses. with interludes of local independence. near Mricon. most interestingof its type. the church ofSaint-Pierre. the oidest extant in France. L6rins. in spite of partial rebuilding and advancing ruin. garners. in the smiling opulent lanclscape. in the cathedral of Valence. Beneath thereare fifth-century remains of unarchitecturalcharacter. when the monasterywas one of the most important in r87. Saint-Laurent. the ornament was what we have seen on the churches. but lost strength during the ensuing disasters. halls of various sorts. Arles was a natural choice as capital of the medieval kingdom.for nothing remainsof the Early Christian period. and there arc eleventh. it was full and strong at the beginning of the thirteenth century. as one may see at a glance when visiting the maiestic thirteenth-century interior of the cathedral o[ Langres.and eleventh-century building at other abbeys and cathedrals. it is believed. an eleventh-centur.but one can trace a stubby three-aisled basilicawith a largesquareatrium in front of it the a layoutwhich recalls churchof SantaMaria Antiqua in Rome. which has no clerestory. looking down on its enchanting little valley. increasing rather than diminishing as the twelfth century advanced. restoredin moof example tardy Romanesque. Arabs (before 739).10The cathedral of Saint-Paul-Trois-Chiteaux. This observation is borne out by the 'Man6canterie' at Lyon. now a museum. without losing its basicallr Roman character. S . but gives a hint of older fbrms. there is now a stour' wellJohn Cassian exterior a good crenellated built.or sixth-centurv wooden-roofed church. N'Iuch of its character was bequeathed to the 'hall--Gothic'. The abbel's had been building walls.ir a mid twellth-centur)' work. slender arches on plain oblong piers. with a Carolingian pierced screen wrll above. for it was thc capital of Roman Gaul in the fifth centurv. with the churches which remain to us liom the tenth. like the'Basilica'('royal house')in Trier T h e s e v e r l ' s p a c i o u s n a v e sa p p e a r a s a R o m a n esque church type. a twelfth-century work which served as a choir-school annexe to the cathedral.the churchwas rebuilt. times. when the cities were acquiring local independence Many older buildings of importance were replaced with maturer works in consequence' The classicizing tendency is unmistakable. was in f'act a vastly spacior"rs fifth.but betweenlolo and to3o. The upper church is of the thirdern teenthcentury. like those of the monks. At Berz!-la-Ville the grange of the Cluniac monks has been rebuilt.v work.two-towered.the cathedral to plan. and once morein the thirteenthcentury. The region lvas temporarilv a possession of the Visigoths (a8o tr). so that it has the generalcharacterof buildings'e laterRomanesque The early abbeys are unexpectedlydisappointing. and mills. Some traces of influence fiom neighbouring Burgundy are to be observed. and twelfth centuries. ascribed the Merovingian of horseshoe period. lirr instance. The village of Blanot.It wasbuilt intoa lateanlique in ouatrefoil complex. and the Empire. at Vienne. has a certain relationship to Paray-le-Monial and Clunl fbrmer The Romanesque style which we have thus described was cherished by the Burgundians. Grenoble.A N D B U R C L I N D Y 25I When a more official architecture developed. Even the bener examples ofBurgundian Renaissance and Baroque church architecture have about them a certain warmth and simple. priory planof thechurchbefore destructton western Europe.). Rural Burgundy is still largely Romanesque in its visual eff'ect. PROVENC}'Ihe essentialLatinity ofProvence is well shorrn in its Romanesque architecture. Records have come down to us regarding tenth. and because of the general expansion of Gothic art. Franks (-537and later). which was usual in the Roman Imperial thronc halls. The medieval revivals of the nineteenth century produced little of interest in Burgunilr. as we belier. though charming..or twelfih-century sections in tlre picturesque but much rebuilt lbrtihcations 01' the island. Important examples of 61th-centurv ecclesiastical architecture still exist in the region. an example with the unobstructed interior spacc ordinary form.is alsodisappointing. It is thus rt primitive sort of 'hall church'. where Urban II performed a dedication in rog5. providing^ two lines of tall. but the old court has its original location and the remarkable chapel built in the days of St Hugh still dominates it. but it rnight equally have been built as a municipal hall of some sort. which hasan augusthistory going back to its founder (4r4). Interior roof supports had to be built in gz4 6. but the remains are slight. has a well-preserved crypt dating lrom thc eighth centur) buildings which have obviously kept something of their earlier lbrm. providing support for a pitch roof of' 'I'he church was. Ostrogoths (5ro ff. near \'tienne. eleventh. It is erroneoush supposed to have had tlibunes. Saint-Pierre has had aisles nearly as high as the nave. We must infer that municipal constructions of the sort were simple at first. and a church was concemeterial overit about rorz' structed ofVaisonhasthreeapses Again. and its bishopric was then the primatial see.DOM O F A R L E .25O F MIDDLE AND SOUTHERN RANCE THE KIN(. must be more than a little like a Romanesque village.rrcheswerc often carried out in a sort ol'Romanesque or half'-Gothic stvle which blends well. The manors and granges of the region are not Romanesque. but their orientation. as does the Chiteau des Moines at Lourdon.

aults of the crypt har-c alreadybeen mentioned. It resembles. a transept.'pt. and rgo. fhgade. was completed a r88.those houses which we have obserr. In passing we should note the f'aqade of a spaciousthree-storey house ofthe twelfth century. The plan of Saint-Gilles-du-Gard.luniac priorl'' and pilgrimage centrc. .'I'IIE K I N G D O M O F A R L F . decorative ribs in the ProvenEal manncr. Saint-Gillcs-du-Gard. are composed within strong horizontal mouldings. and it is hardly more elaborate in its arrangements. now ruinous. It is well built ofashlar. r r r6 7o. r. There are three large square-headed openings on the Eround floor. was probably well along by rrj5. crvpt r 89. priorl'church. though and the apse has pretty radiating rant vaults. Saint-Gillcs-du-Gard. at [fi]-S]. and build an ambitious church at the higher level. it was decided to transfbrm the western part ofthis church (then cithcr unfinished. under way by. A new start was made c. and an apse with radiating chapels all features which are exceptional in Provence is conjectured that the vast crypt.A N D B U R G U N D Y 253 the aisles are co\rered with quadIII. gablc much later generation or more later. priorl' church. may represent a Cluniac church begun {ter rc77 .ed at Cluny.rr42. The lintels. The rib r. and two lines ofpaircd window openings above. In this Urban I I consecrated an altar in ro96. r. or in ruins) into the existing cr1. S . and the west front with its splendid threc west portals. like great fiiezes ing across the design. had aisles. Before rr42. they now sustain the pavement ofa rather piteous church a seventeenthcenturJ reconstruction corcring onlr a part of t h e a r e ao f t h e C l u n i a c c h u r c h . ^pp{ently. The east end of Saint-Gilles. tlvellih centurt' f'aqadeof housc. and exceptionally placed under the nave.It the cloister level. Plain segmental reving archcs take the load offthe lintels ofthe Etound storevi decorative arches arc cut into lintcls of the paired windows above.1r a grcat f. not far from the abbey'at Saint-Gillcsrr Ir9o]. Saint-Gillcs-du-Gard.and picturesquely' sheltered by a broad overhanging roof. r r7o.on a grander scale. rr16. perhaps as latc as rtg5. an arrangement which occurs at the great pilgrimage churches of Le Puv and Santiago de Compostela.

and the old apses were no higher. Its division into nave and aisles is not typical of the region. immediately to the east. d* s .almost cubical in shape. l t s d e c o r a t i o ni s u n a s s u m i n g pilaster strips and arched corbel tables on the two lower stages. The transept (partl-v of the tenth centurv) is of simple design and relatively slight projection. The portal seemshalf Roman becauseof its gablc.largcll'twelfthcenturl $. with an ingenious pierced frieze and a corbelled cornice. Here. J'he arches at the crossing are relatively low. 95o 7z) at the head o1'the nave were largelv replaced b-Ya new sanctuary in the fifteenth centur]'.r. tower has three principal stages.rles.v constructions (c. its classic columnar forms. Good proportion gives it a grace which is surprising in such a heavy design' ryt(leJi)andrgz.fagadc.andcloistcrgarthandtowcr.o n e frSr-31. as in the n vain lbr evidence of the earl-v ecclesiLorc astical importance of the site.-{. as is usual. and has strong set-backs which give it a r i g o r o u s p r o f i l e . Over the crossing at Arles rises one of the frnest of the Provenqal Romanesque towers Irgz]. and embellished (about r r7o-8o) by the remarkable wcst portal. This is set against a plain basilican fagade. though the latter is carried out in the excellent ashlar of Provence. rrTo llo. and the rather stumpy classiclooking statuary. It contrasts strangcly with the tall. Corinthian pilasters above. the old nave having meanrthile been rebuilt. This fagade effectively finest of its kind' is one of the of similarity in the sculptures' menBecause calls to mind the tion of Saint-Gilles inevitably cathedral of Saint-Trophime at Arlesra former o l d m o n a s t e r l e s .THE KTNGDOM OF ARLES. AND BURGUNDy 2(( enrich the composition. Formerly the main apse of the church 'fhe stood below it. Tenth-centur. nor are the very tall proportions and rather obstructive piers.Saint-Trophime. austere interior of the church.

_ bulatory. which is.111_ maiour.. finished. Avignon Cathedral.16also aislelessItq+' tg5l It stands on an lminenc" beside the heavy irregular mass of the |ruge fourteenth-century Papal Palace. in the Gothic style) [r93]. for the cloister walks are covered by substantial stone-ribbed quadrant vaulting. r. rzoo). ioins the church.A N D B U R G U N D Y Beside the church there is one of the finest cloisters in France.17 The entrance porch of the cathedral is of surprisingly Roman form and surprisingly late date (about r2oo). Above the crr p1 level ir is an imposing and beautilull_v rrilr b built . in_ fringed by an unlbrtunate nineteenth-century votive statue set like a pinnacle on the tower.. The tower behind it is in part rebuilt.and by placing relief panelson the adiacentwall surfaces.y. The pedestal and the statue on thc tower are a distressing modcrn addition columns. however. group gains much fiom its lorelv and ths remote situatlon' Much better known is the cathedral o1'Avignon. and at a little distance there is a f:rmous crucifbrm charrel of almost classicrl . ample.The supporting columns are in pairs. Among other 6ne churches which descr.Saint-Trophimc. S . gracious.by adorningthe pierswith bold figures on the interior corners. aislelesschurch of very pure and austere 1brm.Arles. and radiating chapels. A handsome Renaissance stairway contributes to the dignity of the church. perhaps. The Romanesquebays of the cloister open upon the garth through deep and richly moulded round arches. The designer beautifully lightened the effect by giving the Romanesque spur buttresses the form of fluted Corinthian souare r9.256 MTDDLE ND SOUTHERN RANCE A F T H E K I N G D O ] \ TO F A R L F . rr4o 6o and later (porch c. about r38g. an 11.. The piers ancl spur buttresses ale very heavv. but wirhout iniury to its essentially Roman dignity. A date of r069 is given for the r94. Apparently the construction of this great church was started as early as rl17. lively. set on a plinth and carrying an elegantimpost. othersoctagonal. appearance.. Someof the shaftsare round. Romanesque cloisterwalk. and varied Corinthianes(lue citpitals of great beauty. and satisfyinglv classical.l5 Its affiliationwith Cluny and irs lolrr tion on a Pilgrimage route account for rhe spacious crypt with a central rotunda. t. but consecration did not take placeuntil r r53.rbout I'zoo lSainte-Croix). r l8j with bold.. though of late date (about rr83. mention is rhe monastery church of I\1. A very simple but substantial and well-proportioned cloister ad.

This is the'dancing'bridge named in the delightful old song.r" important in the history of sculpturc. has an apse which is polygonal exteriorly. and more ordinary in form than that of Arles . The arches ancl piers ofthe bridge are fine examplcs of heavy block masonry construction' The date is r r77 85 and later. However. un. part ofit. rather dark aisleless Provengal churches rt'7i 85 and latcr Pont-Saint-B6n6zet. still survive from a cloister of this period' An odd feature of the building is an octagonal lantern s u s t a i n e d o n l o n p J i t u d i n a l ' e n c o r b e l l e da r c h e s ' sprung between the vault arches at the head of the nave. carved with rare delicacy and beauty. now broken. Saint-Pons-de-'lhomiires. A N D B U R G T J N D Y 2-59 "*==1:=--jt O lO 5rIT (iathedral. r r4o 6o andlater 'Ihus church proper. 4 R L E S . which has a character ofits own.258 I H E K I h .le an ancient city also. Roussillon. but it is gav with paired columns.t. of Saint-Bcn6zct Irq6]. being consonant with a date from about rr4o to r16o. and covered by a monumental pointed tunnel vault with transv e r s ea r c h e sI r 9 7 ] . Orange Cathedralr8 is another o{'the cavernous. In passing.being small. the baptistery. Lovely marble capitals. Septimania or Gothia (the ancient Gallia Narbonensis) is assigned to the Romanesque school ofLanguedoc. rg.Asignor.5. ref'erence should be made to thc famous bridge. ample in proportion. and a machi- . priorl' church. lor example. this cathedral is a tardv example of the type with tlvo axial towcrs which wc fbund in the filth century at the church of St Martin ol"fours. and a cloister). interior. F o r t i f i c a t i o n s o f G o t h i c d a t e b u t R o m a n e s q u e c h a r a c t e rh a v e l e l i t h e c h u r c h with an interesting interior gallerv. is actually French Catalonia.non r. has a fine church with a typical Provengal interior of rr64 and later aisleless. Alet Cathedral.r'aulted. and it has a picturesque chapel which is largely contcmporary. we find a pointed vault. and nook shafts which support this vault and the ribs are particularly rich and beautiful.C D O N IO F . The lateral mouldings. and richly carved. though Provengai influence extends into this region. The nave is of ample proportions' and handsomely covered by a pointed tunnel vault rvith transverse arches. r r6a and later Here. has lost its old cathedral of roTo-rro3 (except an aisle. The cloister is of the twelfth century. Largely because of the sculptural relationships. I97.and provided with piers only at the four corners.Ar ig. rty6. in favour of a florid Gothic edifice. Saint-Gabriel has a smaller church which is similar. but universally set aside because of the mature character of the masonrl' and sculpture. arcading. and decorated with Corinthianesque corner columns in Provengal style. Saint-Pons-de--lhomibres. too. Aix.

supported on interior arcading and provided with stout spur buttresses. builders. where multitudes har. F . C//11. The aisles are divided by arches and covered with quadrant vaulting (asat Arles) or ramping parallel tunnel vaulting (as at the cathedral of Vaison). Saint-Gilles.les oJ'Plan The southern French cathcdral of the twellth century was not a highly evolvcd building. ccrtain ambitious buildings.aulting without danger. It is stoutly built and completely r.v thc church plans are simple.e learned lrom it the charms of thesc old monastrc courts. f'he building was probably crenellated also. bur arc also unusuali the aislelesschurch with onc apse at the head of it is preponderant. Saint-Quinin at Vaison. Apsc exteriors are regularly polygonal. N{arblc was used lbr manl.aulted over a satisf'actory clerestorl'. Thc carting can be oositions finest cxamples the h. . but in gabled walls pierced with arches (wall belfries. and the nave vaulting relatively low. likc the basilicas. Since large could be windows were not needed' clerestories lbrtilied church. Trefoil plans occur. but in the admirable' design is lively and the chiselling 'fhe naaesof Provengal churches are covered vaults by substantial. rather than ProvenEal or Languedocian.260 F M I D D L EA N D S O U T H E R N R A N C E .a p p e a r c o n s e r v a t i v e . but do occur (as in the cathedral of Avignon. was used in the better constructions.ruy rnd dull. with carvings of 'l'his ProvenEal character.both carried out in monumental ashlar seem to have something Provengal about them. D et ai ls of S uper strucI ur e If one remembers that the buildings which we have been considcring are contemporar. failing a transept. with a towcr over the crossing or.decorative carvings. Sculptured figures and accessory elements strongll' T1. over the bay immediately preceding the apse. architectural embellishment onlv). cloister has been partly re-erected at The Cloisters in New York. as well as by columns and statuar). resembling Roman work.I'IIT. INGDOM K O T A R I . The precipitous austerity ofthe cathedral of Agde and the huge solidity of that of Maguelone:1 . Nave walls are strongly articulated by interior arcading and exterior spur buttresses of substantial construction. and (as a rule) a finc s e n s eo f ' a m p l e i n t e r i o r s p a c e . Saint-Guilhem had a verv fine cloister. was fortified in consequence of royal permission granted in r r73. We mav now proceed to examine the charactcristics of typical Provenqal churches. Saint-Gabriel. There is sometimes a transept. usually pointed. This bay and the apse are often lower than the rest 01 the nave. mountain valley above Aniane. At Les-Saintes-Maries-de-la-Merr+ [Ig8l there is a two-store-v church of pilgrimage. are aisled and triapsidal.A N D B U R G U N D Y z6r colated exterior gallery carried on a handsome applied arcade.thc result of historical processesin the region. it is possible to pave the extrados of masonry vaulting. and more finished than the nar. S . partly becausc the southern diocesesare small.Les Saintes-\'Iaries-de-la-Iler. but important examples are embrasured and enriched by tympanum sculpture and other reliefs. noting first ol-all the scarcir_r l inreresting monasric o churches. Porches are rare. have a convincing soliditt'. though the comrecall Roman are medie\al. such as the cathedral at Arles. provided with a cr]. But ordinarily thcre is a sheltering roof covered with round tile in the Roman manner. forming a roofterrace.' set on plinths which project in front of the faqades (Arles. 1163 77) t h e ] . The aisles were kept narrow. is Lombardic. r98. Agde.v with the Earlv Gothic constructions at Chartres Cathedral (rr35-8o) and Paris Cathedral (the sanctuary arm in its original form. and the abundancc of interesting cathedral buildings .e represents an intended reconstruction which was planned to sweep awa]' the earlier work completelv. twelfth centur. twelfth Saint-Guilhem-le-D6sert22 (eleventh and centuries) is picturesquely set in a but these are unusual. Bells are very often hung not in towers. whose designs. The towns were achieving strong civic consciousncssand were making important progress in self-government during the twclfih centurv) when most of the mature Provengal Romanesque buildings were built. generous proportions. Saint-Restitutr3). belfry walls. The church. with columns or pilasters decorating the angles.pt. they are semicircular and arcaded on the interior. or bell-cotes). Consequentl. portals sometimes take classical forrn (Carpentras.v built under the nave r. The sanctuary wider. a construction of the middle of the twelfth century. tunnel with ffansverse arches.f occur in churches which attractcd a pilgrimage. Because of the mild climate of the rcgion. and the Lombardic 'I'he lateral portal of the cathedral of Embrun). and decorators. later. which makes a third level. Fine block masonrv in limestone. well known. and it gives them great dignitv.B u t t h e y s h o w h i g h competence on the part of the architects. strongh impregnated with the provincial Roman traditions of the region. SainteMarthe at Tarascon has a similar portal with provincial works. and thus to dispense with an exterior roof.

ne as another. T o u r a i n e . spiritual. and subdivides into'groups' the architeclure ol the rasl and varied district remaining in the West of France. Returning to the interiors.. xl. stretching from the south-west to southern Brittany'r 'groups' are recognized Three architectural folin the school ot'the West of France. More unusual are the Italianate tlvers of Puissalicon (lree-standing). archirectural areas the . -I'he clearest of the suggested classifications oll Languedoc. (z) Poitou. and pierced by openings with paired arches under an enclosing arch) and Cruas2s(about ro98. Even the towers have a Roman matter-of-f'actness about them.large and small. important and 65o to desr. surrounded by battlements. Clermont. and artisticlile ar Tours. and enchanting atmospheric cflects c a r e s st h e m a s i n a n c i e n t t i m e s . Deep interior reresse. to The great rivers have kept it accessible iders. and Toulouse.ri. It rests on the quite unusually high proportion of aisleless mo.m full On of characrer and intere. A Roman architect visiting Provence in Ro_ manesque times would have seen much which would have pleased his lancy by its rngagine novelty in exploiting Late Classic lbrmsl he would have seenlittle or nothing which he could not have understood or admired. pier forms (Le Thor).s. S o l o g n e 'O r l 6 a n a i s ' with Berry. W I ' T F IB O R D E R I N G A R E A SO N T H E L O I R E MEDI'I'ERRANEAN D THE interpenetrate one another' with the result that the grouping of their monuments inlo convenient regional schools has caused art histori:rns much Puzzlement.but there never onecommanding vtas centrelor all Aquitania. Limoges. Some examples are very eleganr indecd. . the roofs maintain the flat slope of'inliquity and are covered with tile. ouilding *". and to trade. the Limousin. it consists o f s o u t h B r i t t a n y . and the others can most often. p T E Rr 4 UITANIA. Poitiers. Saintonge' and the south-west {brms group. and pines embowcr thc mrrnuments. which is not really unusual in Provence. could not hold it with lcft it open to Frankish conquest While the Frrnkswereable to drive out the Moors. lorcll i.sr' account ot easy communication. an amusing round lantern on a rounded crossing tower). though not alwa1. Arignonr. they unable protect the areafrom the Vikings. we find that crucior wall form piers are the usual supports arcading in aisleless buildings. and columnar shafts are also used in this situation. The turret over the sanctuary is surmounted by a bellry wall ofbold outline. this terrace made the building a citadel and fortress. The same is true of the mouldings.. even from the Orient.ine-vards. moreover' 7oo aislelessto about olten have a special t1'pc of rvide aisled churches nave. to which the river itselfgives a certain unity.262 N I I D D L E A N D S O U T H E R NF R A N C E A fourth was created by paving the upper vault.Fleurv (or Sainr-Benoit-sur-Loire).and derelophrd to be reconqueredl promising a oent of independenccin thc south was suffocated French conquestin the Albigensian by Wu.climate.seret ar the top of the pier (Digne. westernpart passed the English its by the historicalaccidentof a marriage. and Velay sets as one architectural school. Auvcrg. which a Anjou. Uzis (round. Spain' who thcVisigoths. earlr ancl late in the area: some r oo with aisles.There harc bccn ccntresof mtcllectual. in the lowing regions: (r) The Loire area. and ethnic rlpes . (3) P6rigord more compact architectural for conand the -\ngoumois Thc argumenr school sidering the three groups as onc !lreater fact that there is a is interesting.t h e w a r m c l a s s i c a lt e e l i n g h e i n " made piquant bv a touch of medieial inrrginr"_ tion.1 s o p h i s t i c a t e d . and Bourbonnais.be ascribecl to outside influcnce'' In the inclusive greater school of the Loire fbr and the \\'est of France (here was a search monumental and fireproof solutions through as rethe development of this aisleless type' both increased durtng sourcesand requirements coursc ol the later cleventh century rnd in the the trvellth.hur"he.orchards. to were whoinflictedterrible damage Assimilatedto to Frrnce. The piers usually have dosserets' and o f t e n a s m a l l c o l u m n r e p l a c e sr h e a n g u l a r do..Ir.all ol' th.s with transverse vaults occur in the aislelesschurches (Cavaillon). The Pyrenees have not preventedcontinuing contrctswith Spain. The relatedterritory is madeup of areas which richly varied are iniopographl.

w o r k . t99. ir transmittcdmanr 1n111. Walls are ordinarilr of fine white or buff limestone. merely indicates that aisles were requirccl ro augment this wide-naved church becausc of exceptional crowds. probably. L a c k i n g u n .F 264' MIDDLE AND SOUTHERN 'RANCF.r. devastated northern Neustria.o r i g i n a l l ya n o r a b l ce r a m p l . in spitc of' themselves. r . f'he Norman raids.5 'lhe important little thurch ol saint-(rerrtroux. . t ' . f b r i t s p l a n . thel-' are articuleted b v s h a l l o w b u t t r e s s e s .h {r $ e r e r . which might otherwise have been more like that of the southern part of Carolingian Neustrra. referring to the building as it was befbre go3 (and. with rheir uneven contours and wide joints. e\cmplifv such important architectural elements. . c r t u r n t h e choir benches and the little gates. church. enliven thc surf'ace. The origin ofthe theme is perhaps to be sought in large Roman wooden-roofed open halls like the in Temple of Augustus in Rome and the Basilica -I'rier.a n d o c c a s i o n a l h ' s h o r v p a n e l so f ' r o u g h e r s t o n e s( l i k e t h o s e o f t h c 6 l l i n F or hearting of the wall) which.a 'Ihe beautiful stone-work ofthe earlv pcriod of building in the Loire country conrinued t0 be used and improved. In order to make the development clear.ontinued to be a sourceofarchitcctural id". though very wide. i. It is to be recognized in those churches which have a wide tunnelvaulted nave.$e. however.Saint-G6n6roux. sh()\1s excellent though restored examples ofplain rntr p a t t e r n e dw a l l .r. wall areasofcarefullv shaped ficingstones in a pattern. church. was active in architecture. . i _ sidered a weak school dtringthe mature Rorlan_ esque period buildings.'3 This text. The theme is equally ro be recognized in the buildings which cover an open nave with a succession of domes. Autrdche.^reat heterogeneous. During the period of recovery after the Norman settlement (grr).Also. " r the wide-naved theme (subsequenth' dirided 2oo. we refer here to certain works in the region which underlie the mature Romanesque of the area. Burgundian and Lombard ecclesiastics greatly influenced Norman churchmanship and architecture. sometimes quotctl as proof of an earlv ambulatorJ. at St \larrin. Odo of'Clunv seems to rei'er to the rvitie_nare 'theme church' of the region in a dilicult tcrt. it . probably built afier g-5o lr(lql.e unob- structed interior space.rid up with excellent mortar. befbre . This. and the old cathedral of Bourges. 95o T T I EW E S ' I ' O F R A N C E F The Loire Group This area was really'the heir ofthe active architectural school of Carolingian Neustria. These works may fairly be considered as 'variations on an architectural theme'. rna good mason nork. and it borr. becausethc y.r. and clecorativepanel mouldings occur frequently. though paradoxically. gave a strong and distinct orientation to the Norman school of Romanesque architecture. with ashlar blocks neatlv cut to a rather stubbv shape and rvcll l. The theme of the region is thus to be recognized in those edifices which have a very wide wooden-roofed barn-like nave without aisles. I t i s m o r e i m p o r t a n t . carrying on old Neustrjnl traditions. in P6rigord and near bv.r e s p e c i a l l li n t h e w e s t . tenth centurt. with the crowds pressing is h a b i t u a l l v s o c o n s t r i c t e dt h a t t h e v o \ . . . plain or with transverse arches.1 encesto the Norman region. as often in Berry. a sermon deliveredabout go8 in the church of'g1 Martin at 1'ours.r): 'The previous builders wished it to be arranged with arcaded passages. The Loire area. and in those which by the use of parallel tunnel vaults cover an ample nave with only slender and unobstructive supports. because the strucrure. which were introduced about rr45 in Aniou to replace domed construction. and the conquest ofEngland. and those with domed-up rib vaults. as at SaintHilaire.!. as in Poitou. which had r.ery impressir. St Fulbert's Chartres. Poitiers. . or with aisles.

.. with this layout. At Crrvant the church (perhaps dating fiom the tenth century) has unusuallv good patterned wall-work.nou remored Renaissance Planshows by a pair of aisles.v a u l ted in nine compartments over lbur interior supports on each level. The wall is stayed on the exterior by semi-cylindrical buttresses ofa type which later becomes lamiliar on the tall Norman interiors. with elaborate sculpturecl capitals. Both buildings were large in scale. n g l a n da n d S p a i n . a small parcel was returned.L o i r e i s a d m i r a b l v s u b s t a n t i a l . r o. EA N D S O U T I I E R N R A N C E AQUITANIA. Almost as imposing as St X'Iartin of Tours. following this there is a handsome long sanctuary ba1' flanked $.3otwclfth ccntury..p. or Saint-Benoir(also on the middle course of the centurl' text6 it was copied from that o[ Clcr(9. The wasperhaps wooden-roofed before being covered by the existing Gothic vault. ofcourse. ) a t O r l 6 a n s r e p r e s e n t e dt h e grandeur of the early school on the rniddle course of the river. sur-Loire The old abbey of Fleury. but.{-r.. r o r 8 f 1 . its influencr e x t e n d e d t o E . It exemplifies the ideas ofthe school better than any other building. Gaucelin (illegitimate son of Hugh Capet) became abbot in roo4. except for the mutilation of its westcrn tower. and provided with apse.w* & ll -l+ i ) zoz and zo3 ( below . I . like St Martin. ii r.{p:-5:.I t ffi. built nearthc s a m c r i r e r i n $ 6 . as it $'ould be in Auvcrgne). Then.) \ pilgrimage to'Saint-Benoit-sur-Loire' dereloped. LIo der n river. with its chord on the east line ofa dwarftransept marked by two engaging dwarf towers. but its fbrms are more N .1 2 . He and :r notrble abber school gave lustre to the house.t{$'. as it always has. 4 9 r . to sheltcr the main entrancc door ofthe church. A S 2 6 i into three). zor. thc church still exists in a very perfcct state. all tunnel-vaulted above two files of columns.v and Pepin the Short on behalf ot Montecassino. at the request of Popc Zachar. beyond the nave wall line.a n d t h e o p e n g r t ) u n d s t a g es e r v c s . N o t c 4 7 ) s The clypt of Saint-Aignan. T h e n r i d d l e s t a g es u r v i v e s a s a d i s u s e d C h a p e l o f S t N I i c h a e l . . ambulatory. d u r i n g t h e d e s o l a t i o no f M o n t c ( c a s s i n o 5 8 r 7 r 4 ) .16). ) a n d t h e c h u r c h o f S a i n t A i g n a n ( r .. basilican in arrangement.s u r . T h e m c d i o a l abbel' buildings have long since becn replacecl.are still venerated. is still in existence.. N o t c f l v i n g b u t t r e s s eo f a p s e( p . a church with two axial towers). I n 6 7 3 .. The sanctuaries are in 6chelon. The small parish church at Autreche [2oo] is a good example ofthe wooden-ro<lfed nave-andchancel type of structure which must have been verl. Following the nave is a Romanesque transept with a tall crossing tower (which makes it.widely built on a modest scale in the tenth century'. The nave beyond is of Romanesque cons t r u c t i o n w i t h a p a i r o f g r o i n . Saint-Bcnoit-sur-Loire. t h e c a t h e d r a l( r o r z f f . Its composition begins with the mutilated tower-porch iust mentioncd. and radiating chapels. erected a remarkable church of the mature style in the c o u r s eo f a c e n t u r y f o l l o w i n g t h e r o 6 o s [ z o r .$.. (It seems that in 749.266 F M I D D L . which formerly had dwarf arms extendinp.# . Sint-Benoit-sur-Loire' centurv church. t h e b o n e s o f ' S tB e n e d i c t w e l t brouglrt to Fleury.4 ] . n'hich lost its upper stage as punishment to the monks for rcsisting their first commendatorv abbot ( r 525 7 ).c Io8o-trvelfth abbey choir platftrrm. near Germigny-des-Pres).'tl.v a u l t e d a i s l e s .T h e e x a m p l e a t S a i n t B e n o i t . is a development of the fortificd entrance-$av-and-chapel tower which we have followcd all the way lrorrr the church of'St Martin at Tours. This. r. comes a spacious apse with amb u l a t o r y a n d t w o r a d i a t i n g c h a p e l s( t h c n u m b e r being even.eart1 Io f /l cdnf urli ffi I rrrH m #::'* .. ahbevchurch.. where the1.lr/ . r ': . and embodies an augusr h i s t o r v . According to an eleventhmont-Ferrand maturc. WITH I } O R D E R I N GA R F . . A Carolingian fl-v-ingscreen still divides the nave from the transept.

bcyoncl which it has a fine apsc and an ambulatorv with f i v c r a d i a t i n g c h a p e l s . though construction continucd until about rr1o. and in the Poitevin arca Lesterps. . ol' Pcrrecr'-les-Forgcs has a fine tlvelfih-centurv t o w e r . clear Burgundian sculptured On the borders of Burgundv. doubtless traincd in the L o i r e r e g i o n .". The building has a clerestory throughout.lunv. There is much g r c a t e r e m p h a s i st h a n r r t C . Germignl'I'Exempt. twelfth centurr' sembles the chevet of'the church of SaintGenou. with several ba-vs.. Deformations show that this has put a strain on the walls of the apse end..t h c ground storel'seem to belong to a ltter date the late eleventh centurv. clated in the eleventh. f b l l o w e d l o c a lc u s t o m .: iq t" a s i n t e r p r e t e di n t h c L o i r c r e g i o n .7'" sanctuary is dcep.century. La (. The tower-porch mav represent the tamous tower which Abbot G a u c e l i nb e g a n t o e r e c t a b o u t r o z o .1. Whilc the design does not Y'' 'l lr '!' zo4. and columnar.. r.{ A Q t l T \ N l A .:l rM a.haritd-sur-I-oire a n d S a i n t . giving cntrance to a ty'pical church of'archaic form. but there was a dedication in r ro8 r v h i c i r m u s t h a v e s e e n r h c c s s c n t i a lp a r t s o f t h e building complete. Doubtless the tower resembled fine examples at Ebreuil [zo5].ivesa good idea of Cluny II i p o. t h e a r c h i tect of La Charit6. .t Saint-Bcnoit-sur-Loire as we know it bcgan t o c o m c i n t o b e i n g a b o u t r o 7 r . t h e r i c h c r c a r v i n p l so f . I l ' s o . 'I'hc great north-$'est ton'cr at La (. This church is as good an example ofthe interpenetration ofLigerine and Cluniac influences as the more famous examples. cl:rtedabout r r o-5. b e g r . Saint-Benoit-sur-Loire. **1 cation of rroT) to rcsemble Clunl'' III. The sanctuan' (its pavement now lowered to thc old lerel) rczo5. rvhich is also long. : t . W I T H B O R D L R I N GR } .s o m e w h i r tm o r e l o g i c a l l y planned thirn thosc at (. well lighted.Ebreuil.iotwclfth centurr . q S 2 0 9 w 1A apse pavement is raised above a spacirlus crvpt which has three rvindows (reopened) looking 91 the sanctuarv bar'. Figured capitals in the upper stage indicate a date of' about roTo 8o.luniac priories. Among the (. h a d a n a p s e i 'l'he chevet rvls enlarplcdwhen the b u i l d i n g w a s r e c o n s t r u c t e d( f b l l o w i n g t h c d c d i The J'i w '::t.:'. Saint-Benoit's priorl.p o r c h i n t h e s t 1 ' l eo f t h e L o i r c r c g i o n .*. i t h a s s u r e l y b e e n r e b u i l t .?::..harir[ I r 6 6 1u a s p e r h a p sb c g u n a b o u t r r j o a n d f i n i s h c d late in thc centurv. church. and showing influencc in thc beautiful portal. as a dccorative frieze abovc thc main arcadc.:. tunnel-like. I t s u f f e r e dl r o m fire in rogi.N e t e r s . the church of Bourbon-Lancv p. perhaps. with balustcr columns. abbeychurch. r nn r o 5 g o r s h o r t l ! a l i e r .'v :. tower and porch.:. I n t h e s ed c v i a t i o n sl r o m C l u n v . At La (-harit6-sur-Loire'' thc original buildcchclon. Both hare engaging blind arcading. and t h e a p s ei t s e l f r e a c h e s h e h c i g h t o f t h e s a n c t u a r l t v a u l t . before it was mutilated. i n g . T h e c r r r e d p o r t a l is a berrutiful example. l u n vo n t h e c o l u m n s (rathcr stout) which sustainthc apse wall. rol.E t i c n n e .

lrom the central well bv the two so 'l'his ensemble must have proannular aislcs. 3 f'he church of Neuvv-Saint-Sipulcrel [zo7] to bc arl p o s s e s s ea s i m p l e r r o t u n d a . Houcrcr. zo6 ( hLlon Lochcs. Neversll (ro68 97) [r45. is t h e c h u r c h o f B e a u j e u . it has a type of arcading which was used with great effectivencss in the Loire country' and never with nobler.Saint-Ours.en more so lbr the two hollow octagonal spires in ashlar masonry. There is an obvious connexion here with the wide nar cs of Pdrigord and near by. now partly rebuilt. but er. at Ferridres-en-Gitinais there are in the parish church traces ol an octagon (inspired fiom that of Aachen) which was built fbr Alcuin's old monastery.h. r "T h i s w a s a C l u n i r r c priorr'. b u t t l r c b a s i c i n s p i r a t i o n c o m e s l i o m t h e 5 q h s 6 l r' 1 ' Poitou. where he introduced a clerestory under the tunnel vault' he surpassed his models.R d v 6 r i e nh a s s o m eg r o i n t a u l t i r r ' : i a r t h e e a s te n d ( a n d n e c e s s a r i l yn t h c a m b u l ' t tory) along with semi-domes oYer the apse lntl radiating chapelsas is usual everywhere.E AND SOUTHIRN FRANCE BoRDERtNG ARLAS 27I <lepart greatlv from Burgundian models. extant near Bourges.1z. church were pushed out' to speak. h { r ' c r r e l e g a n ta i s l e d r w c l t i h . lvhich makes a wondcrful big bow ncar La Charit6. richer. Chitcaumeillantr" has a Bencdictine church with r arious f-eatureswhich parallel those of La Charit!. is the church of Les Aix d'Angillonlr (tweltih century'). unobstructed. earlv suggesteclat Irgq]. As noted. there was also a navc nith I Gothic faqade' and rccent excavations have uncovered remains of a transept' 'l'he lbur arms of thr. Saint-B6nigne at Diion [ro8. 1'hc church is beautifully lighted and elegantly opcn 1 ' h e g r a c e t u lc o l u m n s o l ' t h e a p s ea r e e c h o e Ji " in the median columns of a double ba-v'' the nave. h a r r o u r .R d re r i e n . as in a Church. A later and t-vpical example. rvooden-roofed'theme church' of western France. i n t e r e s t i n gf b r i t s t w o R o m a n esque axial towers. or more imposing effect than here. The architect drew upon Burgundian and Pilgrimage themes. roql and the Dome of the Rock in -lerusalem inspired thc boldest of the rotundas in the Loirc region that built in the early-twelfth centurv fol the P o w e r l u la b b e r o l ( . church 2o7( ot'posit( Ncuvl-Saint-S6pulcre. A contemporarv example betwecn Clunv ancl Lyon.ll of.li 'I'he open-naved. partlv ruined). wlTH MIDDI. was magnificentl]' re' presented on a g. The smaller churches which abound in the region.before t I6ll ). later remade as a Vaulted Saint-G6n6rour hall church. and has not undergone the disasters which have injured the greatcr building. Here the aislelesschurches *'ith projecting transepts and f'airlv tall crossing toivcrs often make similar Burgundian buildings seem rather placid by' comparison. this was an important Cluniac priory.1o in the important church of Beaulieu-les-Loches (near the Loire Rivcr. It is a fine example on a smaller scale. t i u c e c la n i n t e l c s t i n g b t r t r a t h e r r i o t o u s a r c h i tectur'rl ellect. which otherwise has slender piers as supports of pointed tunnel vaulting lvith transversc arches.AQUITANIA. and the church has pointed arch :lrJ v a u l l c o n s t r u c t i o n r . r a n d n o u a r u i n The central *. I46]. . ). rotunda survives as an openwork tower. r h i c hl o o k s C l u n i a c . Cluniac or not. almost at the southeastern extrcmity' of the school of'the Loire. thc building was known through manuscripts and pilgrims' Construct i o n w a s b e g u n i n I o 4 5 o r r 0 : + 6w h e n C o n s t a n tinc Nlonomachos was rebuilding the originat 'fhe cxisting navo at \eu\'y' rotuncla (1o45-8). aud covered with domes. where tunnel-r'aulted hall churcht' a b o u n d . lbundcd ro4z dated before r I68. Meanwhile we take up other erccptional buildings. for example. the principal altar wrrs set. and in his nave. In addition there was an aisled sanctuar]' with ambulatory long and radiating chapels. i n t c n d e d s instur in the likencss of'thc Holv Scpulchre' \cur1-Saint-Sdpulcrc originated in a fbundtn ation of ro. have the same crisp air. uith a cr\pt at its base'lbrm'femplars' ing a platform on which. The tower is seen from great distances in sweeping views over thc river.I I A noteworthv aislelcss church is Slint-Ours a t L o c h e s l s [ 2 0 6 ] .c e n l u r } c h t r r ' ( with the aislespracticalll'as high as the nate e x i s t sa t S a i n t . The rotunda derelops in the Loirc region with Carolingian precedent. ruhen the Holv Sepulchre was ruins. We easily recognizc the same activity and energetic character in the designs for SaintEticnne. S a i n t . which we shall consiclcr presently. its architectural influence spread to smaller houses which it possessed in the region.rand scale about Ioo5 . which cover its nave.

'I'hc nerv-built fortifications ofthe earlv medicval period in western Europe were tvpicallv in rvood.a n d s e m i . for the only notable Romanesque building in that region is SainteCroir at Quimperld. 'Chiteau R a b e l a i s . the dimensionsof the smaller. the larger tower at Lochcs measures about eightv by forty-{ivc feet. and at Saint-Gildrrs-dc-Rhuis. is the lively inheritance of Carolingian ideas and Neustrian tradition. it is white. 'l'here was no grcat unl- fying institution. The severer character of earlier medieval work is clearly shown b1' comparing the rounded towers of Loches with the lrowning semicircular towers of the chiteau at Angers.\ . rroo their works which. at inflr. though verl' simple.. such as the Burgundian school had. The baptistery of Poitiers is one of the oldest buildings o{'its kind.c v l i n t l e t ' t a t L o c h e s .ngland."' the ags: it merely called lbr simple open roonl one above another. the sap. l t I .t . nith . and had an thc insurrection among. It is related to both Charroux and Neurv-Saint-56pulcre.^..r a t c R o m a n e s q u cm o n u m e n t s r e m : r i ni n t h e r e g i o n . so that the effect is rather ofa Rornancsque than a Gothic chiteau. 'l'heir sheer prccipitous walls are in excellcnt a s h l a r w i t h s l i g h r l r p r o i e c t i n gb u t t r e s s e s n i l ' a s t e r s t r i p s a t B e a u g e n c . none more important than that of Charles Nlartel over the Saracens in 732. but thev have been r e p l a c e d .r" Nlention ofthesc rotundas offers the occrrsion lbr rn excursion to Brittanv. When first built a l l o f ' t h e m m e i r s u r e da b o u t r 3 o l c e t i n h e i g h r . Instead. WITH BORDERINGARDAS 273 i s o f t h e e l e v e n t hc e n t u r y . 'I'here was a brilliant court at Poitiers in the Romanesque period.tt.4njou. Chinon onrheVienneharastrongsituatiorr.38.272 |'/IIDDLE AND SOtTl HLRN FRA\t'E AQUITANIA. Geoffroy' \{artcl of Aniou. Resounding military victories were won near by in early medieval times. i' tlt' m o s t a d m i r c r lo l i t s t r p c i n l i r a n c c . I n b o t h c a s e s h e c x t e r i o r sa r c s t r i c t l \ r b u s i n c s s . It was an Carolingian Aquitania important citv under the Romans. v i t h n o s c r r c h t b l t h e g r : r c er l h i . -I'he plan of the towcrs tt .l i L e . Thc nucleus of the building is a r aultcd squarebay oi' heavv construction. A much better idea of militarv architecturr in the Romanesque period is given by the splendid torver at Beaugency.ll dwelling where Henry' II Plantagenet died in rr89 irnd wherc in r4z9 Charles VII reccived Joan of Arc. in the group of the Loire. a n d f i r e p l a c e s . is rebuilt. Henrl ll Plantagenct and Richard Caur de Lion of'E. Other old towcrs and walls have also been much r e b u i l t a n d a u g m e n t c d .R i c h e l i e u . old motit's flowed up and down the river. o e l r e ' t h e R o m a n c s q u cc o n s l r u e t i o no f t h e e l c r e t l t l r a n d t u e l t t h c e n t t t r i e si s n o u e i r d l ( ' d b r r r t l r 't zo8. and intellectual centre of this region the western part ol' was Poitiers.r" dated rt87 but restored after a collapsc in 1862. It should be noted. The eminence of the church of Poitiers goes back to its Early Christian bishop. it \\'ill be wcll to look at sc\ eral fine monuments of militarv architccture which have conncxions with both regions. conf-ess late date by significant dctails such as the almond-shlped plirn of thc proiecting towers. F-ulk Ncrra's masonrv . The Arc hitectur nl Grou p oJ'Poit ou. c n g i n e e r sa n c la r c h i t e c t s -I'he church ol'Saint- donjon at Langeais (r.a n d m a d e c r u c i ( b r m b 1 ' f b u r v a u l t e d extensions. Saintonga.is. 'l h e o l d c a th e d r a l si n t h e g r c a t c r c i t i e su e r e R in many cases omrnesquc. and a moaf. The stonecutting and mason-work are excellent.. Onlv at Santiago de Compostela were the Spaniards able to build in the grandest French Romanesque st. built after r r8o. datcd in the clercnth cenlun.T h e e x a m p l e a t B er r L r gencr. Charles VII of'France and Joan of Alc. r ooo) inaugurates a grear series in stone irnd a long period ofhieh achier tment by the French engineers. tuie. spiritual. n o f i r s t . and the South-West The greatest historical. elsewhere they olten built in simpler forms which can be traced back to Poitou and its region. and It was lor the most part the work of engineers. Limestone was actuallv imported lrom the lblloued the same route. and a ruin. Beforelearing thc group of thc Loire Ibr Poitou. a n d t h e r o t u n d a m a y be in large part. to bring it to a focus.roup of the Loire is understanclable when wc remembcr that Tours was the Breton ccclesiastical mefropolis. Onh'Rennes and its rcgion had closc connexions with Normand-v. The upper parts of the torvers ancl certain outlying works har. That Brcton Romanesque churches should have connexions with the p.na . and indecd largcly in the thirteenth century by Philippe-Auguste and Louis IX.Loches.a n d usuallv a witness to wc 6nd the ambulltorv '-l'ouraine at Loctudl . with floors of timbcr. and it was important even in Celtic times. C h a r e n t e f b r b u i l d i n g .donjon. sntrtll w i n d o r v s . Largelv becauseofits strength as a fortress.e been destroyed. From the rcport wc havc made. utu. monks on his hands in r r. r. w i t h h t c r a d d i t i o n st h c chiteau is a most imposing arral' of militalr works.rencc fiom Lantl6renncc. it is obvious that the architcctural group of the I-oire is not easily summarized. where Pierre Abelard was abbot.vle. that there is no such thing as a school of the Loire in military architecture. Beaugencr r. weathering pleasantly to bufI. and unquestionably contributed to the spread of Poitevin architectural motif's to the south-west of France and to northern Spain. thc historv of Chinon is studded with grert namcs Clor. stout lbrtifications. (unusually long for its width) of the early medi'l'he tweltth-century Grand Logis or ro1. Another simile might be that of a tree with grafted branches of various sorts. roughlv square. Hilary. but the dcsigners kept to earlv solutions of vaulting and compositional problems in the twelfth century' Poitevin dcsigners werc seeking and xchisvrng S a u v e u r a t D i n a n h a s P o i t e v i n c h a r a c t e r . It is rather rough and provincial in exccution. that was inter-regional like the wars which brought it into being. It was fbrmerll encircled b-v residences. I n t h e du MilicLr' is the site of the Roman castrum and the wartl cval fortress. O n e o f t h e m a i n r o u t e so f t h e W a y o l ' S t J a m e s (Paris Orl6ans Bordeaux) passed through Poitiers. One sap makes them all live . l r one usually' perceivcs in a nronument of' the Loire region. . and outside motifs flowed into the valley from the watershed. Excellent limestonc is available in the area ofthc Poitevin school. holrever. and t h a t c o m m c r c ea n d o t h c r c o m m u n i c r t i o n su e r e e a s i e rb v t h e w a t e r s s o u t h o f t h c p e n i n s u l a t h a n lrom NormandJ'or overland. whose shrine has been a place ol'pilgrimage throughout succeeding centuries. and the two to\lcr\ in the donjon at Lochcsrr fzo8l.s and warm greys. surrounded bv a ponderous r o u n d a i s l e .

e of SaintHilaire in Poitiers indicates. Nlonti.r..rll tunnel vault with transverse arches at Chauvignv (begun afier rtoo). A much admired example of the Poitei:n style stands handsomelv at Saint-Savin-su:Gartempe [zrol. 'l'his work was dedicatedin Io7o. at least. and the church thus becamc a hall church. This type of church spread lar and rvide cn its own merits.:' t h r o u g h l h e r e w o r k t n go r or three-na\e church (ro75) [z5rl. groin-raultrJ aisles. but rt retatns th. to rob:. carried by group. tie o l d e s t p a r r s o f t h e c h u r c h p r o p e r ( a p s e . such as uc see in this Poitevin type of church.r. radiating chapels and transept.Thelorlerpa:t o f t h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n i s a R o m a n c s q u ea x i a l e r trance tower which goes back. lransept with crossirS tower. it\ \ e mx\ ree in the t. i t i s v i s i t ' e a b f r o m c o n s i d e r a be d i s t a n c e s e c a u s e r e r l s l c : l der and beautiful Gothic spire carries the we't fronttoa greatheight 3rzfeet. cylindrical colrtmns' wcre btrilr contlid'ercar with Clunl lll and Durham i.dcdicatedIoTo the hall church arrangement' Slend(r olified by piers with applitJ Ivfindrical piers' or grouped 'crushin-' like stilts can carrs the . This nave.l cllect. At Lesterps [zo9] the present nave just east of the tower porch already mentioned repr e s e n t sa c h u r c h o f ' r o 3 z w h i c h w : r sd a m a g e db . Thc palntrngis.Lcstcrps.an open wooden-roolid n a v e . at tle east) are to be dated about ro6o 75.r. works of its kind. in line austere forms with noble and simple geometry. 'I'he wide wooden-roofed nave of Ileaulieules-Loches was divided by' two files ol'piers and corered by three parallel tunnel vaults about ro8o. vault. the central nave is tunnel-raulted' wi:ir the three western bays. The church. Statical problems are ver\r much sim- . but have a space-beauty oftheir own.latory.pts. The scheme is an old one which rvas used by the Romans.\s thc t\4elfth centur\ adranccd. ( . ambulatory. 'I'his nave is (except for end windows) dependent on openings placed high in the aisles for its light... high. which i.e x t e n d e d a b o u t I o 7 5 8 5 b y t h e c o n s t r u .and reddish-brown bv others in the crypt and the J. and consequentll' less obstructive. as the old nar. apse.otu1nnt.-"n. as a hall church.J abbel church' 216. in artistic qualitl' to Clun-v III and n"Jt it was most beautifulll'' dcsigned fbr . one ol'thc linest in tonality. since the lateral laul:s weight ofthe high perfectly placed to absorb thrust' InlvarJ are vaults partly neutraliz's thrust from the aisle ofthe high vaults' Transverse arch(s the thrust responds in tlc in the vaults strengthen them. tion ofthe western bays ofthe existing nave. only.w a s b u i l t b y a p o w e r f u l a b b e v .a m b .abbel church..a piers' and bv a striking'ma'bling' ofthe .-n-r". more generousin dimensicn than the chevet. pointetl archcs and 't':rultstook the placc of scmicircular ones.rvith rich dccoration on the faqades..l Thus before the twelfih century began. are suptawnr.. but their plans rcmained relativell' simple in most cases. imparls ttt a r e l i g i o u s b u i l d i n g a s e n s eo f g e n t l e s h e l t e r i n g mvsterv.teuf'" crr. fustity'ing the usualname'hall church'. Such arcading openings. the general efl'ect of such a building is that of an ample hall with generous sp:rce in it.-F.r. latcr ba..iorrntoutlv This part of the nave ls qurte comCathedral. it was earll' adopted for zorl. and appears abore ground in Catalan churches befbre the ]'ear rooo. buttresses easily car:r aisle walls and stout spur there:s the thrusts to the ground.attc". and radiating chapeir.11an.. Poitou was early concerned rvith effects o1' clear interior space. In Poitou supcrstructures ol'this tvpe achieved a quite ner sense of ample scale and openness. According to the most recent studies... is called thc Bible of'St Savin..1". up an ensemble and perfect':" sineularl)' complete "' hn' io't an earll cxample ut the h'rll F. The lbrmer abbey' church of Lesterps2r presents an early example of the solution of the problem ofthe vaulted church of basilican plan which rvas widelv adoptcd in Poitou."-: b1' the ever-memorable series of ... and sul'stiffer wall over the window Dortsthe crenellations ifthe building is fortifieJ' The roofing is carried over nave and aisles t'gether in a vast two-sloped turtle-back a sinobviates much trouble in mairple form which tenance.By the middle of the eleventh centurv forward-looking designers began to take an interest in vaulting problems. there was a satistactorl' t1''peof Poitevin church with the western arm covered b-vthree parallel tunnel vaults... ..S1in1-Slvin-sur-Gartempe. . Perhals there was originalll. 1 0 6 0I I t 5 ' n a \ c 'l'hc piers ancl separated bv transversc arches' supported on reall'l splenrit ofri".but it i' true that a shadorvednave Vault. Of these the middle one is regularly somewhat higher and wider than the others.. If the and it mav be in this clerestorv be given up region the nave supports miry be more slender. covered by semicircular tunnel vaulting with transverse archcs. though norv par'c h i a l .-d. brt demolished about ro95 to make wal'' fbr the s:r existing eastern bays' rvhich were hnished fr rIr5.:5 To be sure the pointed nave has its most dramatic and brerrthtaking expression when the vault is seen floating abore a pool ol light from a clercston. which is still :i[. Such interiors are less dramatic and less brilliantly lighted than the typical basilica. Sometimes between the open buttresses on tre arcading makes for 't flanks of a building. has wide.v fire about r o4o and continued very handsomely.2 ' 1 1' M T D D L t AND SOUTHERNFRANCE AeUtTANIA' wlTH B O R D E R I N GA R E A S 275 magnificent Romanesque decorative effects at thc time when thc practical ground-work of Gothic architecture was being laid in Burgundy and the i1. With the aisles approaching the nare in height. Beyond are the nate.vs.uith goo.

on . WITH BORDERINGAREAS 277 (though in a disappointing setting which emphasizes unfortunate additions.n1_ eral decorative arcading of similar charaqcr but pointed.. Used independently. in turn supported by an arcaded square stage which houses the crossing vault. r i c h l r c a r v e d a n d b o r d e r e d r . though it is perhaps the richest and 'I'he finest of'them all. The-v spread to the medieval domed churchcs of P6rigord. elsewhere and are. . Notre-Dame-la-Grande. Each slanting lront has an integral imbrication or scallop proiecting from it. r rlo +5 zIz. l a r g e c h u r c h .crv rr. but gives cmphasisto the three axial motives of the com'I'hc position.signed individually with radiating motifs. Spur buttresses and applied arcading gir. The crossine tower of Nltre_Dame_la_Grande has a simila-r roof above a cvlindrical arcaded alrd columnar upper stage. in the Abbey kitchen at Fontevrault [zz4]. characteristic ofthe Poitevin architectural group. z r z]. but the vertical ioints in the troughs often give trouble. Poitiers. so that a iolly l n v e r t e d f i s h . t i n { l w p:rtterncd masonr\ and capped by a ponrnr. Notre-Dame-la-Grande. and with distasteful restored interior polvchromy) the fine church of Notre-Dame-la-Grande28 [z r r. t h e C r u s a d c s .a. d o o r w a v i s t 1 . Such roofs < l r a i ne a s i l y b e t w e e n the imbricarions. it is generalll accepted as a sort of paradigm.s i d e d roof in two slopes. l t r n architecture. construction is attachcd to an intermediatc bav with a crossing tower. l i t h a s n o l i n t e l o r t ) . datable perhaps to r r30 45.276 F I / ' I D D L EA N D S O U T H E R N R A N C E AQUITANIA. of polvgonal erterior plan.15 on cvlindrical columns and an ambulatorl. restored (with variations). The roofs are as usual built of radiating srones with slanting tronts. *hiah .l' 'l h i s w h o l e c o m p o s i t i o nh a s a n o r i e n t l l r i t h n e s sa b o u t i t . I t h a s a n a p s ec a r r i e d columns on each side) and the arches abo.e a tl.p e r h a p s t h e r i c h n e s so f ' a B r z a n t i n e i r o r l c a s k e tr a t h e r t h a n t h a t o f \ l r r . and imbrications are repeated. show a lavish use of decorated roussoir. and thence in modern times to the Sacr6-Coeur in Paris. and thus prepares tl. i s n o t a v e r l . Once morc an elaborate corbel table marks a stagc in the composition. t o n t h e a x i s o f t h e u p p e r s t a g eo r p e d i m e n t . r. and above all three enclosing arches runs a system of spandrels embellished \\ith figure sculpture and crowned by an claborate zr r.rnk tympana.rc ey-efor the pcdimental string course. The axial motivc of' thc middle register is a vast window. encloses paired arches with bl. 1. The arcadingherc encloses statuary. Tower. m p a n u m . it is the theme of the charming'Lantern of the Dead'in Fenioux. in fact. in spite of its name. and with the flanks ofthe building at the eaveslevel. but it is broken by the richll bordered window arch.. Bundles of three engagedcolumns set iust back from the corners support a stubby drum engaged with the f'agade on each side. r r jo . it comes in prettily as a corner ornament in the church towers and lantcrns r'rith d i m i n i s h i n g s t a g e sw h i c h b e g r n t o a p p c a r a b o u t I roo in Poitou and elsewhere"Ihere is a ruined . Above each drum there is an open cylindrical arcaded stage capped with a conoidal roof and pommel. with variations. and a 'I'he tvpical round-archcd dark nave.l t r o the rcfler from the Pilgrimage to Santiago. with two zoncs of'arcading to eachside. l h c e n t i r e p e d i m e n t a s t a g ei s l ' a c e d i t h i n l e r t . Notre-Dame-la-Grande.pical Poitevin lateral elevation. a n d i s e n c l o s e di n lbur orders of'stumpv columns (two bundles of' arched corbel table. l. The faces ofthe imbrications are vertical. or at anv rate to the first half of the twellth century. profile.pical o1'the latcr Poitevin fiqades. More important. which cng a g e sa h u g e . and the old part of' t h c b u i l d i n g i s c o r . turrets.. Poitiers. basilican. with three radiating 'l'his chapels. does not correspond to thc rool'behind it.s c a l ep a t r e r n results. but the oriental suggcstion is Ltnmistakable.. The taste fbr it probabll'owes sonte' t h i n g t o a c t u a l o r i e n t a l t r a d e . t r e . c r e dw i t h t h e u s u a l s l a b . 'I'he bundle of shafts with a pinnacle which we have seen as the motif of the corner turrcts of Notre-Damc-la-Grande has an interesting history. ' p i c ao f t h e r e g i o n . On Notre-Dame-la-Grande the corner turrets are of typical form also.. Thc f'agadcis r. and is richlv bordered.n arcaded square intermediate belfry stage. aisles arc covercd with groin vaulting throughout. It appears.

The-v are in ashlar with relativell'thin cells and span about 52 feet. English. reference has been made. near Angers.276 i . and derivative monuments also in Norman Sicily.a Gothic reconstruction covered with octopartite domed-un r i b b e d v a u l r s o f r h e t y p e t h a r w a s d e v e l o p e di n Anjou. on a very simple plan: four aisleless arms of a great cross. at the Martorana in Palermo Iz7z]. Angers. Best known of all the buildings which exemplify the great aislcless cross in plan.t r a n s e p t . Some of the derivatives are as late in date as the thirteenth century. As if in compensation for this. and thc P6rigordinc domes. prcserving some of the old nave walls. is verl' considerable. except for details. the seat ofa dynasty important in French. of considerable width . a n d finished. which exists almost unchanged. Four bundles. a church of pilgrimage built from about rogo onward. which is believed to be one of the earliest [z5r]. poitiers.2e Its plan includes apse. continued by the Plantag e n e t s( w h o h e l d A n j o u l r o m r r 5 4 t o r z o o ) . At this point we should consider briefly how the architectural group of Poitou interpenetrates with that of Anjou and that of Pdrigord. stood gracefully above the corners ofa square tower stage. Their historical importance as evidence ofPoitcr. The ability to construct such a dome. An example is Sainte-Radegonde. radiating chapels.in and Angevin engineering ingenuitl. by ro7. The twelfih-centurr na\. Pursuing this matter in Anjou brings us to its capital.5.in Spain at the crossing .e. we fincl Cunault.1o. In the tweltih centur!' it was progressively rebuilt. almost free-standing at a considerable height (where it has given a good account ofitselffor nearly 9oo years). The new work was started about Ir50. Thc original cathedral was begun shortlv aftcr IoIo and dedicatedin roz5.a m b u l a t o r v . and at the same timc the Angevin rib vault.Over the crossing a somewhat warped pendentive dome was built. all within the greater school of the West of France. The northern. this structure. and eastern arms of the church terminated in apses.l a \ e r 0 2 5 ! vaulted r. but the plan is even simpler. each with its pinnacle. I t s s c a l e is much larger than that of Saint-Martin in the same citl''. { T D D L EA N D S O U T H E R NF R A N C E AQUITANIA. This pattern was used. is the c a t h e d r a lo f A n g e r s i t s e l f 3 r [ 2 r 4 . ambu_ latory. Anglers (lathcdral. 2 r 5 ] . consists of three tremendous domed-up square groined bays with the usual diagonal ribs of the Early Gothic style.RING AREAS 2?O example at the Montierneuf. a n d s h a l low oblong radiating chapels. WI l'il BORD[. Poitiers. This type of vault was much built in thc Angevin region and in zt4. making a felicitous transition to the pyramidal roof of the latter. For Saint-Martin at Angers. still in place.belfty or turritus dpe'r. makes the achievement of the splendid twelfth-century domes ofthe abbcy church ofFontevrault. 3 0T h e b u i l d i n g w a s l a i d o u t . and considered to be the oldest large French is It is reftomanesque dome in existence [zl3]. The church had a wooden-roof-ed w i d e n a v e . a p s e . e l e v e n t h t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . built in the poitevin style. southern. an old foundation. if not earlier. seem less s t r a n g e . At Sainte-Radegonde the nave is spaofthe cathedralofZamora cious. and we shall find that the domed-up Angevin octopartite ribbed vaults are related to the Aquitanian domed churches. cxtcndcd later . and Levantine history.a n d i t h e l p s a l s o t o e x p l a i n t h e A n g e v i n domed-up rib vaults to which a preliminarl.cimborio. and a very characteristic tower-porch which is accepted as a model of thc Poitevin version of that historic element. near Angers. a remarkable church (now lacking its nave) was created by reconstruction shortly after r o r z . a s w e r e m a n v in the west country. It is because of such interpenetration of these western architectural groups that French critics prefer to consider the school ofthe west of France as an inclusive unit. and beside the diagonal sides ofan octagonal stage. on a larger scale. 'pottery'. The laults combined the advantagesof the rib-r'ault ofthc ile-de-France with thc advantagcs ofthin ashlar domed construction. when the dramatic campaign of expansion of the County of Aniou was beginning. T h i s dome still serves as the support ofa rather heavy block of masonrv doubtless intended to carry s. which be in rubblc and porred 10 * o u l d s u g g e s ra L a l c R o m a n d e r i v a t i o n . [z5o] and derivative monuments . r r 5o. under the Irrench about r 2. the hrst in lirance to have so generousa dimension.

r'rultcd r. zI-5. (The octopartitc division looks. and to enjoy'. r r-5o. Angers cathedral. extended larcr .aulted the technique. e\. the luxuriant carving.ra. ) A s i m i l a r s q u a r eb a y a n d t h c s e m i circular apse. bring the interior length of the church on the main 'I'he height to the soflit of axis close to zg5 feet. W I T H B O R D E R T N CA n l _ . ancl the south-west also.v thc pointcd arches. The crowns of the cells at Angers reach a height of about 86 f'eet. The great interior space ofAngers Cathedral has a simplicitl'which is almost Roman. Returning lrom Angers and the north to Poitou.en in rustic examples. thc width is only about zg feet. due to inexpert workmanship or faulty'mortar. however. similrrly r.en fbr spans of the order of twenty feet. western towers at Angers resembles a westwork appropriatclv cnough in a cathcdral whcre the plan is almost simple enough to be Carolingian. like the U n i o n J a c k . however. in plan. when the countrv -I'he various was well organized and prospcrous. Gengal' and 'fo the Montmorillon also deserve mention. but there was a constant relative increase in the latter as the twcllth centurv advanced. though the dimensions fall short of the greatest Roman works (the nar. engagingly counterchanged.aults. the east.v.12 It is olten possible to savour these churches in an undisturbed old sctting. in a multitude of smaller buildings which have a r. Close to Poitiers there arc scvcral wcll-known examples.1 ' h c a x i a l s q u a r e tower gives an ellect somcwhat like a screcn. The buildings were almost all built in the twelfth centurv. rzo feet in height. er. the south-east. t S . which is equal to that of the Romanesque nave of Santiago. z4o feet in length. z8r Spain. with eight triangular cells. This is truc e\. as ifAngers were a pinched and narrow cathedral of basilican plan in the ile-de-France. such as was planned lbr Novon Cathcdral in the unexecuted arcade between the belfiies o1'thc 'I'he whole mass of thc three western towers. Later Gothic developments includc tcchnically interesting rib systems. Not so the laqade ofAngers Cathedral.vs with an aggreg te interior length of about r48 feet. At Cir. eleventh thirteenth centuries. north-wcst of Poitiers thcre are interesling cxamples at Parthenav. and the hierarchies of plump columns which catch a soft ripple of light fbr the fagades.en ovcr spans of double the width. In spite of the Gothic tincture given b. The blocky' front has a central portal in the stylc of Chartres. Where tunnel vaulting has been used. we lind a radiation ofthe Poitevin tvpes to thc wcst. the rather riotous arcading.erv direct appeal. a tower with stage upon stage ofdecorative arcading rises to a tall Gothic fldche. At each side. the linear qualitl'' of the details. and accepted into the iconography of the region .aults are 63 f'eet high). One comes to accept a certain awkwardncss which often results from the simple naive plans. the transverse arches is about 6q fect. and the vaults havc the characteristic Angevin octopartite division. the naves have often become deformed or have lost their r. supposed to represent Constantine. where. the imposing lagade has among its sculptures part of a horseman. and the odd feeling that thc church is like a small building magnified. Round and pointed arches were often used together.A Q U I T A N I A . with ridge ribs. which makesa definitc compromise with Gothic forms. Saint-Jouin-de-N{arnes. The transcpt of Angers Cathedral (including the crossing) consists of three ba. The space between the towers and above thc sreat window is occuoied br Rcnaissance otifs arranged to m p r o d u c e a m e d i e v a l s i l h o u c t t e .e of the Basilica Nova of N{axentius and Constantine measured 83 feet in the clear. the domes. above which is a triplet with a fine big Early Gothic window in the ccntre. here is a monument which an Imperial architect would have understood and enioyed. the lateral tunnel r. Thc stout spur buttresses havc alwal's maintained these magnificent vaults saf'ely in position. na\:e r025. which we shall considcr prcscntly. fcatures of the Poiteyin stvle as we have found them in the capital occur. have held up much better. is maturer.

and thus with the remlll:rble nave. and ordcrs Rellex influence from Spain shows itself more carvedcapitals -r. and so always sparser in the south-west.ttously Thc naveis corercdb1'a strongl-v here. has a good church with a fine fagade. domes The crossingtower' charac. Not lrar distant is Saint-Michel-'d'Entraigues'.rr::.e is well known also.. so that pilgrim throngs could sr:c and hear serliccs performed at the shrine. Mouthiers' *iti tunnel vaulting PuyP6roux. zr(r. 'l'hc apse. to Moirax.. church.:. as is usual in the style.5e].. It has a fine apse and crossing tower.adius poitiers. with aisles. Montbron)' also be ih.r "f y Poiterin and closely that Saint-P6-de-Bigorle. nnda we rrom longitudinal buildings near seriesof interesting in which the naves are corcred Angoul6m. Melle. The amusingly carved voussoirs of the arches have the motifs radiating.'l'he fagade is rich with arcading desolate' manner'and rhe main door has been more lonely. . traced with a charming to Petit-Palais. near Agen' to on into Spain' 1'he monuments are Pau.u. churches which is one of'the most elegantly composed of all. The church of Aulnay-de-Saintonp. beg. at I-'H6pital-Saint-Blaise. stepped all round and opened on the crypt Irz.j' The fbrmer convent church of Sainte-Nlalicdes-Dames at Saintes is. twellth ccnturl zrTl has a handsomepointed tunnel vault orgl l h c n a \ e . has two YerY charming and typical Saint-Hilaire.'$ i . it has a Constantine. ambulatory. At Saintes (from which the Saintonge trrkc5 its name) there exists. crypt. and Sainte-Croix at Oioresembling . an octofoil chapel (rr37) with a famous reliefofthe Archangel conquering his antagonist.ff tI at Poitiers'has an ron-Sainte-\tlarie. Aulnar'.tr.282 MIDDLF' AND SOUTIIIRN FRANCI A Q t it r A N l A ' W I T I I B O R D E n t N c l n r a s 283 Poiand Airvault. Like Civray. morc local in f-eeling. and radiating chapels. The church at Aulnav [2r6. near fagade. the Clunirc priory church of Saint'l'he Eutrope. it is oflate date and well preserved. a goal ofpilgrimage. We are here on the borders of the Saintonge.iui". raised choir (1br monrstic liturgies) communicated rvith aisles. rather than in sequence up the arch. c r r r lx dignified apse. in a very puch reducg6 state. which is typical ol'Gothic.. which has Pirigord: the Aquitttnian GrouP oJ'Doned Churches We present the domed churches of Aquitania as rhe rhird subgroup in the school ol'thc west ol France. and in places almost in the Poitevin 'jl.t"-Ot-e-la-Grande '-3lTTfi::'.of Mozarabic l"ri. (Montmoreau. :c . r391. substantially constructed. t. The question ofboth the origin and the classification of the domed churches of P6rigord 'It is dilhcult and near by has long been vexed' to understand whv so essential a feature as the roofing of a whole church lvith domes should not in itself warrant the placing of the domed- ff-' . south of Melle and Poitiers. to the south-west of tiers. irs fbr example in the vaults lirraitrits voussoirs stvlq. and Saint-Pierre.un about ro8r Ir38. oiNo. appropriatelv.{lr. a h a n d s o m e c r o s s i n g l o w c r . near Bordeaux. Chiteauneu[-sur-Charente.t""a of influence can of course from Poitou to Bordeaux (Sainte-Croix).if . Oloron.isr . is in its original claborate (brm.

by I'ar the most conspicuous example of the P6rigordine group. for.' wrote Sir Alfred Clapham (who was bv training an architect). It is eas-vto see how the southerners.284 F MIDDLE AND SOUTTII. which is rather like a Saxon westwork.'but it is argued that the adoption of'domes was more or less accidental. Unquestionably the pendentivcs were suggested ultimately by Byzantine work.Perhaps the acoustical efects were admired. which is Burgundian in style. Cahors uas an important ccntrc. though at Cahors the east end of the cathedralwas rebuilt in that style. there were churches of similar character in Cyprus at the time. look like a utilitarian solution. is indistinguishable from other churches of the school. Inexpert masonry in their lower portions gare way to better work in domes on pointed great arches which were built after the Latin basilica was burnt out in r rzo.RN RANCE 2u5 church type in a separate school. and unpierced wall piers ofashlar. Thcrc is practical iustification for them in the fact that only about a third of the tunnel vaults of the Poitevin type . bazaars. with the vast interior spacethus created continuing into a capacious open apse with three radiating chapels. usingpointed arches ofashlar on the four sides ofeach bay to support pendentives of peculiar form. covered by a conventional two-slope roof. adopted to avoid the use of a long tunnel vault (difficult ro abur). and is an episode merely in the architectural history of a school which began without them and only adopted them in a comparatively small number of churches even in P6rigord. xnd it\ cathedral served as a model fbr a famill'o1'somewhat similar buildings in the region. Whether by direct suggestion or not.'rs It should be mentioned that the group extends far outside P6rigord. Another simple earl]'example is the cathedral ofCahors [zr9]. llank and portal simple and rather uninspired in design. the othcr famous example. probably built somewhat befbre Iroo. were in no haste tbr Gothic. Saint-Etiennc-dela-C. by ro6o 7o. The west lront. two more claborate ones. but the schernr is clearly not archaic. and the quality of the mortar . which also appearsto hale been begun shortll' before r roo. and that seventyseven examples are known to have been built.a0A mere straight row offour domed units on unpierced interior piers formed the cathedral of Saint-EtiennedeJa-Cit6 in P6rigueux Izr8]. zzz]. There is now good reason for believing that Saint-Front at P6rigueux had an early dome. The schemo at Cahors consists of no more than two enormous and awkwardly proportioned rubble domes within low ashlar-f'aceddrums.even those of moderate span have held. which had round great arches and other archaic f'eatures. including several ofrhc largest examples.urilitarian elements all . still have their twelfth-centur\ cupolas. but the reverse curvature in the profile of the pendentive. Pressure from pilgrim throngs probably induced the construction. of which sixty still exist (thirty in P6rigord and the rest scattered all the way lrom Fontevrault in the Loirc country to Agen on the Garonne). accessiblethrough pilgrimage movements. was begun about rro5. Furthermore it is argued that the general ordinance of these domed churchcs. are still in position. The two original domes. resulting from geometrical relations with the pointed arch. also in ashlar. store-rooms. unlbrtunately there is no text which indicates the beginnings of the Aquitanian church type with domes arranged in series over the naves and transepts. like ordinary Romanesque vaults of thc period. accustomed to the warmth and openness of such interiors. but the construction was probabll' incomplete at that time. Angouldme Cathedral lzzr. The other fbur domes seem to have been envisioned at this time. built over and around the constricted sanctuary of an old 'Latin' basilica really a church dated about g84 to ro47. The actual shells of the oldcr cupolas are in rubble stuccoed over on the interior. and it justifies the classification ofthe domcd churchcs as a subgroup within the school of the West of France.it6. have been demolished. dedicatcd incomplete in r r rg. ofthe original dome. rather than an aesthetic pref'erence.lroo! rr50 zr9. though the domes in thc nave. The builders'instinct. Among zrli. carried on pendentivcs. commonly used for centuries previously in ordinary structures such as cisterns. hardly'prcpare the visitor for an interior with a clear span of sixty-five feet. the character of' the stone. Camille Enlart rvas persuaded that the inspiration was Cypriote. pointed arches.J. plus an apse and absidioles. dated before and after rr5o. apart lrom their roof system.r6 Although we have the eleventh-century crossing dome at Saint-Martin in Angers [zr3l. Otherwise this is a very lair statement.38 'l'he oldest of the Aquitanian domes arc Several of the oldest churches in the Aquitanian group consist simply of a file of' domes.3e The excellent architects who chose domecl conslruction built it in their own wa1. there was a dedication in r r rq. was a special development. whereas sixty out of the sevenfiseven domed churches. Ir rs only partly covered by domes. is special to the Aquitanian domes. They show low vertical drums externally. baths.would thus account for the use of'domes in this region. the solution in the nave of Angoul!me Cathedral is the old oriental solution of reduplicated domcs. Pdrigueur. The spectacular church with Iive domes lzz5-7l. a. and the like. . and the lateral portal. Cahors Ciathedral.

!r . pointed arches. else the cathcdral rvould still be in the rather restricted class of churches with towers at the transept entls (Cuxa ond St . So composed.a' previously men_ tioned fzzr. T h e l a q a d ei s a rich examplc of the Poitevin stvle.suggested. and the lantern. and which also has an axial window. is anorher type-church. irpse and transepf. :8 and larcr symmetrical group.T h e f o u r t h d o m e i s t h e l a n tern.eat I-e Puy Cathedral. o t r a n s c p t a la b sidioles. these is Souillac [zzo]. r 1-lo zzt antl zzz.. Souillac. or thq crossing at S a i n t .286 MIDDLE AND sourHERN FR:\NcE AQUI'TANIA)WIl'II BORDERI\G AREAS 2th radiating chapels. Bevond it a tunnel-vaulted bay extends to the open main apse. the dome at the crossing. the whole design of Angoul0me Cathedral obviously came to a handsome climax at the east. ' I ' h c n o r t h c r l v c h a p e l hasa tall and characteristic arcaded stagcd tower over it . Abadie the resrorcr contaminated the design with regrettable additions tympanum sculptures over the main doorwar. lvhich is augmented tly lbur -"5+-*l=-:-u 1. where thc torvers form the entire transepfal projections. each one much resembling a bav of the nal. The upper stages of these chapels are lanterns. r ro.P h i l i b e r t . which also has two domed bavs and a capacious apse with three radiating chapels opening directly upon it. {ngoul6me (lathcdral. in t h i s c a s ei n f l u e n c e d l r o m P o i t o u . They are supported in the usual wav on solid wall piers. two unlbrtunare western towcrs. 1 ^' 5r. zzz]. the wholc liont being composed as a lision of the Second Coming of Christ. rhe dare is 'fhe about rr3o. building is generally known fbr the man'ellous carvings set into the west wall of the navc and obviouslv made for a portal which was nevcr brought to completion. 'l he interior was also restored. the Gothic example at Barcelona Cathedral). a n d p e n d e n t i v e s . church. and the two terminal towers ofthe rransept produced a very striking zzo.ach has an easternabsidiole and a crr. L.at rhe cost of its old patina and much of its medieval savour: and this is likewisetrue ofthe eastend.l\{artin of Tours in their later period. and it is provided with a transepr. with much arcading and intercsting Iigural carvings. . Its matc to the south was destroyed.T o u r n u s . Souillac is bettcr proporrioned than Cahors. an awkward arcade at the top of rhe lrontispiece. the generous arcaded principal apsc. Angouldme Cathedral. as we shall sce later. perhaps. all with imbricated roofs.rcifbrm domecl chapel beyond. Old Sarum and Exeter Catheclrals. The range of four domes on the main axis is very impressive. Each arm of the transept :rt Angoul0mc is covered by a bay o1'tunnel vaulting. bl the arcrded bclfries which were being built at the time in Rome.. w h e r e t h e f b u r r a d i a t i n g a n d t u ..

Angouldme was begun about rro5. T h e h i g h v a u l t o f t h e s a n c t u a r vi s s c m i c i r c u l a r . it becamc the centre of a small but not unimportant Order (fifiy-ser.<> cr g 6r 1dtl19 zz3. Piers uere built in the tbur curnersol' the atrium space at P6rigueux. Bordeaux Cathedral was prepared fbr largc domes o\. As at Hirsau. One of the grandest of the domed churchcs was built lbr the abbey 01'Fontevrault Plantagenct roval panthcon. it prospered. lbr the Greek cross plan. is perhaps the most imposing of all the towcr porches. The holbrings low stone spire makcs one think of Saint-Ours at Loches [zo6l. Fontevrault. the bundle of columns at the pinnacle recalls P6rigord. in sequence. and. Sooo nuns b1' rrr7. Hirsau. and some of the domes were carried out in ashlar (this is the case lbr all the domes at Angouldme Cathedral exccpt one).It is covered by tunnel r. This great tower. wrrlr RoRDERtrclHr. b u i l t a b o u t r g r o t o r e p l a c et h o s c d e stroyed while the building was serr-ing militarr uses. between flanking aisles. though built in brick. Four domes of modern cons t r u c t i o n .as z8g I ?5 11 w Ii]m t-. The tower terminates in a tremendous drum of columns covered b1' an imbricated conoidal rool-.v passage-wa]' to the nave. the onll. uith \niou and Poitou' after menBefore leaving Fontelrault we should kitchcn [zz4]. man-v stored) hollow stone spire serving top which chimneys.improved proportions were better. due to later rebuilding at Saint-Front. there was a plan to make thc atrium into a covered narthex. bcneath the grcat torver. By this time the technique had quite definitell. a monk of La Chaise-Dieu. but a dome was never built over them. afier the fire. while the others flank the entrance to the church. Aquituniun all. ornament was better disposed. which in lbct it now is. supports lbr thc domes are verv stout wall piers with attachecl columns in pairs. two of which flank the entrance to the atrium. with an abbess ruling rhe communitl'. At that time surely thc beautiful cher. twelfth centurv (rcstored) . A change in proportions between cheYet and nave has sugg e s t e dt h a t d o m c s w e r e n o t o r i g i n a l l l ' p l a n n e d : it is quite possible that the original project callccl 'I'he fbr a hall arrangcmcnt. of classic fbrm. when Robcrt of Arbrissel died).a n d widcr than the crossing. Instead the-v were madc into pylons. Richard I. The tower porch with its pylons and aisles is massed rather like a westwork' but the great shaft is very classical in feeling' built up in stages with set-backs. has two elaborate dornical vaults like those which we have found singly at the transept ends ofAngoulOme Cathedral' and also. recalling thc atria which we havc seen at Clunv II and at SS. that it is worth while to describe them. -. and ornamented with pilaster and pedimental motifs. Peter and Paul. dcdicated r r rg o Poitouand \niou. the latter church being at that time still unshcathed with marblc and mosaic.important tion the abbev to survive' It is oart ofthe conventual buildings (rethe form of an octagonal torver. but Gothic vaults were built instead.FontevraultAbbe1.288 AeurrANrA. In rrrg it was dedicated br Pope Calixtus II.ault: lvith transr. has two absidioles. abbei. The splendid church is about z7 5 feet in length. in certain aspects Souillac [zzo] and Solignac (about r r3o) arc in its ambient.erse arches. and they are so little understood. +2It is easy to see wh1' thc abbey church is a noble and I'astidiouslv designed building. Once past this extraordinary tower porch.et was complete. as is the well-proport i o n e d a m b u l a t o r y 'w i t h t h r e c r a d i a t i n g c h a p el s .cn houses in all. the pilgrim lbund himself under the spacrous wcsternmost dome of the main church and near the high altar. ground store.' church. and these two items of thc styles in variety confirm the unitf which we have bcen studYing. Gensac has its file of fbur domes in reduced dimension. After this account of the Aquitanian domed style. The capitals are excellenl cramples of carving in thc Poitevin-Angu'in 'l'hc stylc. Elcanor. and its eclectic churches l o t ' t h e g o o d r e a s o n sl b r c o n s i d e r i n g ierign it on. appealing ro rhe highesr nobilitv. One entered fiom the west through the porch of the basilica.h. Saint-Front at P6rigucux+r [zz5 7i seems like an outsider. Iiounded bv Robert of Arbrissel about r r oo as a doublc abbcy. It was fairl-v well rcstored bv Boeswillwald. with its pierced wall piers' was obviouslf inspired from St Mark's in Venice (ro63 94). Fontevrault is locatcd near Angers in thc Loire country. and the nave was at leastpartlv vaulted in r rz8. as is so olien the casein the Loire rcgion. transept. kitchen. and a pinnacle at the the height to about ninetl'f-cet. though their naves are shorter. with the tombs of Hcnry II. ro77) intended for Angouldme also had its family of related churches. b e g u n a b o u t r r z 5 . with a in as roof. which suggests that the smaller eramplcs f'all near the middlc of'the century. F o n t e v r a u l t i s d c c o r a t e da l t e r t h e m a n n e r o f t h e 224. group ol domes as helonging' . was roofless. There over the tomb of St Front stood the remarkable shrine (by Guinamundus. but its nave. Its spacious nave of f b u r b a v s .er the nave. much morc like the Aquitanian churches with their bare stone-work than is the case at present.and it became a lbrecourt. over the nave ofthe cathedral of Le Puy'. rest upon the old pendentives. and. with a crossing tower. Their transepts and apses resemble Angoul6me. i s a i s l e l c s s . The new arrangements were so unusual. Isabclla [zz3]. It replaces an 'l'he eleventh-century lantern.

. liew from the south-wcst.. the erportation of the style trt Spain. The hiEh altar has been transferred once more ru F 'l .rebuilt ninetcenthcenturv. v'ith a sanctuarJ'dome.ttt sollr . ' aF r a g m e n t a r y r e m a i n s e r i s t . The traditional orientation..i1\tnor.. As it is. however. and a chapel extended eastward on the axis until modern times. richly to this part of the building.nl!. the dccisively important hrrll-church scheme. T h e n three new domes were added transr. for the church now had reverse orientation.dnd plan the relics of the saint.. and beyond the crossing a fifth and easternmost dome was built really at the loot of the nave. C h L L r t l tt i r h et L P " l a s I L S P ' P t l' n l' WA ut4tut-rnedcuPolo decorated with hgure and animal sculpture.!.. and the experimcnts with wide-nave construction. The shrine was a holwith a dome and gables. twellth century.. reinstated fbr a time. saw and admired it.f 5 --L ' i. In to77. and there Aymery Picaud. who wrote the Pilgrim's Guide to Sanlow turret tiago.ersely. or ifthe region had achieved true national status with one great capital ol'ils own.2qO MIDDLE AND SOUTHERNFRANCE 225to 227.. In tact Abadie's restoration spoiled the church. when it was replaced by a pseudo-Romanesque apse. was later given up.P6riglueux Cathcdral. f % ' % c.t.1. an imprcssivc a n d r v o r k a b l ep i l g r i m a g e c h u r c h e x i s t c d . and there are no\\ practically no traces of the old sanctuarv at the west.largelvafter r r zo.as 'I'hus we leave the style of the West of Francc. the interesting development of Gothic ribbed dome structure. and e n a m e l s . r'icw across transept. and the architectural use ofsculpture deserve to be better known and more widely appreciated than they arc. It is interesting to speculate on the question rs to whether a synthcsis of its varied elemcnts lvould ever have been achieved ifGothic art hrd not been invented.

" design which the French historians callthe Schoolof Auvergne'' The type church is Notre-Dame-du-Portat Clermont-Ferrand[zz8-3ol. four applied shafis). . This is common in Auvergne. and its are elements well articulated'It has apse.and betweenthem. much higher. and it has a of France. The other piers of the nave proper have two shafts each for the aisle arcade. lies the beautiful on one side by the Limousin.The navewall is ditided in two on cach sideby an applied column rising liom a cruciform pier. whcther the absidioles number two ot four. Eight columns support the apse and ambulatory.h. thesecolumnsserveas interior but226 tresses. including the axial one. l'hese are set so as to fbrm a sort of inner ambulatory. A quadrant vault covers the gallery cut into bavs bv diaphragm arches and spsling into the nave through triple arcades bay by bay. of course.but on the other three sides by Carolingian interior flying screens. but the chamber under the sanctuary is groin-vaulted in small bays carried on stout colurn15.althoughthere first half about r r 85' is a recordof somereconslruction In exterioraspectthe church is bold. but the lantern-transept is. and radiating chapels above. These are cusped.u. ratherofthe of the twelfth century. four of the columns are placed under the altar.with beyondthe aisles galleries no clerestory. Cllermont-Fcrrand. trlelfih ccnturv . '['here is a much-restored crypt under NotreDame-du-Port . of series church buildings highlycharacterized of rr.made by raisingthe bays which flank the crossingvault so that a rangeof windows may be carried around the three outer sides above the ridge level of the transept armsIz3o]. and the other live in the usual way by windows. of which four arc occupied by round radiating chapels.ambulatory. and it is remarked that the arrangement occurs in churches dedicated to the Virgin. and suggest somc sort of oriental influence. rises an octagonalbelfry' The crossing vault is supportedon the east by the window wall abovethe apse. it is not an earll' but work. The whole arrangement recalls Al6aume's Clermont Cathedral of 946. Loit". Notrc-Damc-du-port.CI{APTER I5 OF AUVERGNE THE SCHOOL limits of CarolingianAquiWithin the eastern Burgundy and the upper courseof onir. logically. and so have the projecting ba1's(each with a chapel) of the transept. The exterior wall of the ambulatory is logically divided into nine bays. ambulatory.a somewhat unusual feature for the region.and radiating chapelsset againstthe precipitouseast wall of a characteristicAuvergnat'lantern transept'. nor are the groin-vaulted bays of the ambulatory. In it is a compactdistrict. and thel' repeat the fbrm ofthe Carolingian flying screens uncler the crossing tower (where also the piers har'e.Pent roolsslopeupwardon the flanking bays. Entering the church' we find before us an austerenave of four bays with a plain tunnel vault. The apse has ths same height as the crossing arches. and on border"d greatcontrastto the west theotherby Velay. and one fbr the 11nn5vs15sarch which separates the aisle bays ofgroin vaulting. the apse and the sanctuary bav are not separated by a transverse arch.n"^t land of Auvergne. West of the transeptliesthe nave. but and naveis a sort ofwestwork with narthexand tribuneunder a modernaxialtower ofappropriate design.aswasformerly believed. I'he crypt repeats the main lines of the apse. over the crossingvault. In the church above. but there is no transverse arch above them.

fg an. which allows of very preffy accents in red. 'l'he background of' the Auvergnat t]-pec h u r c h i s i n t e r e s t i n g . the kcv designmust havc had this motif and transept arms of cqual height I zz9. and much more el:rborate cmbellishment of this 'I'he local building material kind on the exterior.t r a n s c p t w i t h a l o f t l b e l l r . SaintNectaire perhapscomes next. countrl. brought in from the Loire.al (built about rroo. much rebuilt).a n d a l s o s h a l l o w s u n k p a n c l s e n l i v e n e d by toy-like decorative columns ancl chisel-curl which bring a littlc oriental spice eaves-brackets to the design. hare becn settled bl l u v c r g n a t c h u r c h .b r .o t h e r s the navc has an arcadc above spur buttresses. then others Saint-Saturnin (without radiating chapels). It is difl'erentiated liom the re$ b-van indefinable flavour of'the I-oire countr. Structuralll' the lantcrn-transept recalls Gernrignr'-des-Pr6s (about 8o6) rvith its flving screens. Thcre is a tcnth-centur-n-example in Auvergnc. and this may be true of the lanterntransept also. probably'not long afier its foundation as a collegiatc church betlvcen ro6r and 1o78. with rebuilding about rr68). Whercver it was. Orcir.r. Saint-Amable at Riom.THE SCHOOL OF AUVERGNE 2qq w i t h o t h e r d e d i c a t i o n sa n a r i a l r a t l i a t whereas c h a p . r t o t c n t i r e l J ' c l e a r . lbr something of the sort mav har'e existecl at Beaulieu-les-Loches ( r oo5 . an ambulatorl' uas thc critical design.a st s p i n n a c l e .R o u n d a n d m i t r e d a l c a c l i n g i s u s e d . will be mcntioncd again. a p p e n r st o the time the archaic- looking little church at Ennezat was built. Notre-Dame-du-Port is a \crv satisfnctorv paradigm for a cluster of churches within a radius of about twent]. arrangedin panels.Clermont-F<:rrrnd.'side ol Aur ergne than in ths trrez3o. ' . and last of all Brior. One suspects that the eleventh-centurv cathedral of Cler'monl (which succccded Alclaume'sbuilding). in silhoustte it recalls Saint-Riquicr (US: 8oS). Ennezat. l ( s o m e t i n r e so b l o n g ) i s i n t r o t l r r c e d . In general the picturesque old structure in the refiactorl'local building material seems indeed morc to belong in the rock1. 5pur buttresses' There is patterneduall-work of a simplc sort in the interior ot' Notre-Damc-du-Port. Star forms occur. is an arkose or granitc. It is known to have had rvith {bur radiating chrrpels.v. Cilermont-Ferrand.rtle.. Issoire (r. brown. twclfth centur\ c o m p o s e d a g a i n s tt h e p r e c i p i t o u s b u l k o f a l a n i t e r n . about ro8o. twellthcenturt making metropolis of Francc which ClermontIierrand norv is. T'hc transepts harc u e s s e s . Notre-l )ane-clu-Port.T h e n ambulatorl is old in the region. where therc is nou a . plus transcpt arms and minus the flanking round stair tolvcrs. or black. u i t h i t s v a u l t i n g . grev. Notrc_Dame_du_port. along with a d i a p e r s n d s t r i p e s . 'l'he general formula of the at Chamalidres. NIozac (a Cluniac priorv). rr3o 5o). the oldest o1'the group. -I'here is a strong tradition lbr carll architectural and sculptural rvork connected with the abbev of L-a Chaise-Dicr.lmusing rarietl in rhe buttresses bnr finat chapels some being plain spur butof the columnar. milcs of the cit-v. The westworks are ultimatelr connected with Saint-Riquier also.

However. rather arvkwardbuilding lull ofcharactcr. a c a n o n o f ' S a i n t . a n d l a u l t i n g a r c h e sa t B e a u l i e u a r e pointed. Limoges. Its truc history was written undcr the (.the Auvergne manner slroulcl be noted merelv as a subgroup under the Schor.- Apart lrom the group of churches iust considered. rr4) r22 5] (ro78 rzr r) as an extraterritorial membcr of'the school. L i m o g e s i n t h e R o m a n e s q u ea g e w a s ruled (9r 8 to n64) by thc Dukes of Aquitainc. Except lbr its rather shadowv but indubitablc early importance.29b T { I D D L EA N D S T ] T I H E RF R . -Ihese minor churches talten with the grorrp about Clermont have undoubtcd interest bLrt they are not sufficient to make a grand school such as those rve hat. as to Le Puy.adr remlrl. proportionately.made the tomb s t r u c t u r e f b r t h e r e l i c so f s t F r o n t a t p d r i s u e u x in ro77.J u l i e n rB r i o u d ea n d c o n f i r m e d a .ounts ofToulouse between 852 a n d r z o g . and Brantirme. i r n d t w o s c u l p r o r sw e r e5 r n lt o S a i n t . [rz7]. It was a capital citv fbr the Visigoths (4rg). It has a high vault abutted b-v quadrant v a u l t s . rr{r r8]. Languedoc has a considcrable number of notable examples to show. c H e P t n nr 6 THE SCHOOL OF I-ANGUEDOC The remaining area of Carolingian Aquitania is Languedoc plus the Limousin. thus omitting thc charming enclosing arches abor.and fbrtificcl r bold.oldsmith a ancl enameller of La Chaise-Dieu. are rcmains of a small -I'he rotunda. by diplomas of ro5z. o o . and Saint-Scrnin at Toulouse Irrj. which was to be the centre of Languedoc.. to rvhich (bci c a u s e t b e c a m ep a r t o f t h e C o u n t v o f T o u l o u s e ) S e p t i m a n i ao r G o t h i a i s t o b e a d d e d .l of Languedoc. o n a c c o u n t o f l a t e r a d d i tions. though it is a rather c o n f u s e db u i l d i n g n o u .a n d t h e c h e v e t h a s a p s e . a m b u l a t o r y . for it was one of the glowing 'Bient6t la areas of early medieval civilization. 'I.ed.a m b u l a t o r v .e the paired a r c h e sw h i c h a r e s o h a r m o n i o u s a f ' e a t u r e f t h e o P i l g r i m a g ei n t e r i o r s . the cathedral of Le Pu1. rrg zrl. g. therc arc some I'ew interesting cq_ amples in Aurerplne Volvic and others wit\_ out galleries. and the fbmous marriage of Henry of Anjou to E l e a n o r o f A q u i t a i n e t e c h n i c a l l y b r o u g ..the crcation of rhc Pilgrinagc t]. anrl for der. but thc round a r c h n c r e r t h e l e s s p e r s i s t si n t h e b u i l d i n g .elopments in husbandryprefiguring those of the Cistercians. as alrt. B c a u l i e u h a s a r e m a r k a b l e lateral portal o{'about r r18. which bel o n g s t o a s e r i e sf o u n d i n t h i s r e g i o n a t S a i n t Martial. Rovat is aisleless. A m o n g t h e s et h e a b b e v c h u r c h o f B e a u Iieu in the Corrdzel is surely the most interesting. Rightlv so. . and Carolingians (78r).C e m m e in to7g. rrther like that o1' N'Ioissac. 'Ihe Normans capturcd it during a fbray'of 848. Toulouse. a n d 'I'herc radiating chapels. Because of'the earl'r' date of Saint-Martial at Limoges (about rooo 95 and later) [rrj] it is perhaps well to begin with churches in the Lirnousin which are relared to the Pilgrimagc g r o u p .athedral Ir r3. and puts them in the generalhistory ofarchitecture with other works of equal importance.e studied previoush. The abbey was lbunded in ro43 by Robert de Turlande. Oriental influences came there. had a chequerecl early histor-v.hcre.'savs Enlart of the Albigensian Crusade and the Inquisition (rzog 45) rvhich pcrmanentl-v injurcd the countrl. hare been lost. f'he aislc. lt is reported that the abbel' wa".responsiblc lbr the consrruction of roo churches in the ricinitv: elentuallv the n u m b e r o l ' m o n a s r e r i c s u b m i r r e d. and the portal has an elegant frame in three orders of pointed arches. Snint-L6onardr is anothcr simplified example of the Pilgrimage fbrmula. Representing (after a lashion t the Pilgrimage type of which so manv grcrlr examples. d rvirh La Chaise-Ilieu reachecl 4oo.a m a s t e r mason. We have already given irn accolrnt ot. who built magnifi cently' in Languedoc. . finest l'eaturc ofthe church is the adjoining tower.pc of church.entional list. Reference has also been matle to the Cistercians. and that Guinamundus. ir will probably' remain in the conr. They represent a f:ascinating interrvcaring of influences from the acknowledged masterpieces. rafale venue du nord tua cette floraison. Sainte-Foi at Conques Irr3. l l i . The abbev is remembered lbr lrorl 0n lhe roads. built about rr50. to namc the more important cxamples. There areno identifiable re_ m a i n s o f a r c h i t e c t u r a lo r s c u l p t u r a l w o r k .and hoodecl. which was matured in I-anguedoc (Saint-Martial at Limoges Irr3]. and from thc various regions bordering on Languedoc. likc Moissac. H e r e t h e most glorious of thc South Frcnch schools of' Romanesque architccturc and sculpture u'as created. but t h e r c i s n o l i c c l h a t T h i o d a r d . even rvithout the principal monuments which have bcen analysed elses. l N C E N beautiful Gothic church. h ti t u n der English dominion. It is much like a Pilgrimage church with t h c t r i f b r i u m o f t h e n a y e r e d u c e d t o t h e s c a l eo f the usual apsidal trifbrium. Merovingians (628). with Santiago(. and lef t a mark on the Church. A defect of the plan ol'our exposition of Romanesque architecture is that it takes the greatest monuments created bv Languedoc from the local school. At Saint-Martial thc charac- .he A u v e r g n a t s c h o o le a r l v e n t e r c d i n t o t h e n o m e n _ clature of'schools.

Its lantern tower is espc_ t e r e s t i n g il a t c r v a r i a n t s i n t h e L i m o u s i n .r Saint-L6onard is a straightfbru.at Brant6mc anclSaint-L6onard bcsidethe church. a m b u l a t o r . squa. rrgr.w h e r e t h c a r c a d er e s t s 'I'he on round picrs. but has a stecp-gablcd ele_ mcnt brcaking fbrward..I n t h c s e \ i r s t i n t c r i o r s p a c c sw e h a r e a n c r v v e r s i o n o f t h e u i d e n a v e sw h i c h p r o d u c c d s u c h r e m a r k able elI'ects in Carolingian and Romanesquc 'l'his timcs. two-archcd. then a frieze-like band with a simole turrets set point-rvisc.A n h c c n s . and anahsis of it rvill do fbr all.e Dorari is another striking church in thc Lim<rusin region nhich is relatecl ro the l)il_ grimagc group.r the nclv half-Romanesque cathedral of Toulouse. priorr church. on l a n < e t . tresses onrributc to a r igorousp1-ranriclal lccr c c \t Uzerchc (in a church of similar tunncl_ in this parr of the building.p o r c h . a n s i t i o n a lt o G o t h r r . small nicks takcn out of'the corners. is ycrl poctic indced. 'I'he church of Bindrent-l'Abba1'cr" in rhc Limousin is relatcd to the Pilgrimage t]'pc t h r o u g h i t s a p s e . with rich and imaginatire capitals. The louer part of' rhr cathedral tower is Romanesque. Like Saint-N{:rrtial. 'I'he main portal is a n d .rrch. Substantial spur btrt_ p r r r m i d a b o rc . T h e t o r v c r sa r e a l l i n t c r e s t i n g s t u d i e s i n t r a n _ sition liom a square basc to a pointcd roof. r i d r h r r rI l o i s s l c r r r s f i r s r p l a n n e d 1ir i. recall the oltl Saint-Riquier arrangemcnt. but the scconcl stage has a slight r c r e a l a t t h e c o r n e r . t h e c a p i t a l o f ' L a n g u c c l o c . u h i c h h a s e i g h t a r c h e c l s r a g e sb c e x c e p t f b r t h e $ e s t w o r k . with no sculpture on the t1. bur it is a ru. with arriseson thc cardinal and dral of Limoges. I t h a sa l r e a c l r t a n c l c a r r i e d u p t h e l l l l h c i g h t o l ' t h c s h a f ' t . and srr gracefully sustained b1. o l ' I .g a h l e s .)'l'he plan of'Lc Dorat is. a n d finallv reconstructcdwith the pre- z3I.nr_ h a l f . I-c l)orat has no clerestorr. . m u c h l i k e t h a t o f ' S a i nr _ neath the plramid. r . the Romanesque columns. 'l'he octagonal tower set point-wise has in_ except in the apse. w h i c j l is happill. Moulded and pointed arches of' red brick now rest on the Romanesque impost blockswhich are so beaurifully carvcd. alternatelr. the lowcst oi t h e o c t a g o n a l s t a g e s i s t r . In the other eramples the dcsign was integral: at Le Puv. I loo. and a dome of circular olan. with its beautiful garth.ard example.I t m a r k e d a s t a g i en i thc dcrelopmcnt of the characteristic widen a v c d G o t h i c o l s o u t h F r a n c c a n d C a t a l o n i a . with polygonal tourclles covering \loissac is relatcd somcwhal ro Le Dorrrr t h c l n g l e s o l l h e s q u a r e .rebase. l g l b l c t l e l c n r c n t . Above the spring_line wisc of this gable the tolver is octrgonal. and only specimensof the c a r v i n g sr e m a i n . -{ little buttr.t$. f b r i t h a s s p h c r i c t a lp e n c l e n toners rise shcer. single and in pairs. r . The famous cloister [ 2 3I ] w a s a l s o r e c o n s t r u c t e d i n t h c G o t h i c period. w e s t e r no w c r . 'I'hesetur_ rets. h . the tou. e r .a r B r a n t 6 m e t h e u p p e r p a r t o t c o u r s e .j o i n i n g s i m i o r d e r s o f c u s p e d a r c h c s .a n d t h i s i s t h c c a s el v i t h ( L a S o u t e r r a i n e ( h a s a s i m i l a r f ' a g a d ew i t h c n . T h e r e i s a b o l d s t a g e dl a n t e r r r and belfiv tower o\-er thc crossing. h tt o a c l i m a x i n S a i n t Scrnin at'l'oulousc.om a trlcs. .cr being octagonal in shapc and set point-uisr. w h i c h s e t st h e p r o f i l e b a c t l little.o turrers. Thc rowcr is s c l u a r e .l . Saint-Michel-aux-Lions. antl uscd a version of Romanesque interior buttressing to makc poss i b l e m a x i m u m G o t h i c v a r r l t i n gs p a n s .a n d a r e c o n s i d e r c r l . b u t v c r r .l a n g e n t l o t h c t o t r e r t h r o r r g h t h c h e a r . and radiating chapcls b e v o n d i t a r e s e t a g a i n s ta l o n g t r a n s e p t .The handsome slabs with large ligure relief-sof r. are trvo arcadecl stages of thc metricallv llankcd bJ.l h e c u s p c r i . T o u l o u s e . Moissac.r .rr. T h c h a l f . acccntcd b). kind of Gothic rctainecl Romancsquc proportions. r S u c h c i a l l v i n t c r e s r i n g .h a s s u f tered greatly from demolition and roconstructton' 'Ihe most elaborate cloistcr in Lrnguedoc w a st h a t o f L a D a u r a d e i n ' l ' o u l o u s c . begun in If. cast of the sanctuarv.f i l l s i n t h e a n p l l eo n t h c d i a g o n a l b c s i d e a h e a r .P c v r o u xI ) a v ca t t r a c t i l c s p e c i n r c n s of this tvpc of tower. At Uzerche thc oc_ a p p c a r o n t h e l i r n t e r nt o u .P i e r r e .ered b1 m a i n t o r v e r a n d c a c h o f t h e t o u r c l l e s . it is rr church with two axial towcrs.cloister. with the crossing torvcr. an11 S a i n t . because tho square has. :rmbulatorl'. r roo srill havc their places at thc corner piers. then cor. At the west cntl diagonal axes of the towor. octlgonal pvramid of steep slope terminates the believed) as rr hall chr. T I n s p i t e o f t h c p r e s t i g eo f ' t h e P i l g r i r n a g e f b r m u l a .trvo charming octagonal octagon. stage upon stagc. 'l'he apsc. fbrm intercsting acroteria. i t w a s c l c molished in r8r3. set point_ that is. u h i c h u i r s b r o u g . The rebuilt cloistcr.w i t h t w o o p e n i n g s o n e a c h s i d e o f t h e lorvcr storeys. in effect. h c c a t h c _ d o m c s .q u a d r a n t c o n s t r u c t i o n ) a r e l a t e d t o w c r h a s plain.a n d r r c l i a t i n g .eltth_ o c e n t u r ] ' c h u r c h .. t a g o n i s s e r f l a t u ' i s e .a s a n i n d i c a t i o n o f s p a n i s h i n f l u c n c c . This efi'ect is re_ p e a t e da t t h e t h i r d s t a g e . ancl it has reminiscences f'Saint-Riquier. o f t h e t o w c r i s s q u a r e .s h a p e dr e c c s s e s . t h e m u c h m o r c e l a b o r a t et o w e r o l ' t h e c a t h e d r a l g a g i n g asvmmetries. J. later relvorkcd sent Gothic laults Ir6o].298 MrDDr-[ AND SOUTHERN FRANCi T}IL SCHOOL OII LANGUEDO( 299 terlstlc upper stages wcre an addition of rather I a t e r c l a t eb u i l t o n t h e o l d w e s t e r r l t o w e r . Iltiennc at Ncvers.e a b l e s s s t b e s i d e t h c c h a r a c t e r i s t i cs t e c o p a n u m . f b u r t h s r i r g ei s b o l d l r s e t back abor. h a n d s o m e l l b o r c l e r e cb r f b u : .e a slope. t toucr (which contains a dome) srrn_ -I'herc the gable.e P u y ." was r a c l i c a l l l d i l l c r e n t i n t l p e . the upper parrs have becn rebuilt in Gothic v'ith a strong Romanesque f-eeling.css there is partial r e m i n i s c e n c eo f S a i n t _ R i q u i e r i n c l e r e r l y . fi.a n d f l a n k e c lb v t w o t : t l l lar hall--gables the adiacent sidcs ofthe torver. r r .

l. e do r n a m e n t .\ a r r o n . in the earlier examplcs.ard expansion until the end of Odilo's abbacl' (ro4g) w:rs almosr cotcrminous with A q u i t a n i a .:r. . h a v e a i d e d i n I I r er e . shows surprisinglv little trace of thcir How shall we achievcan ordcrh'statemcnt and explanation of' the wonderful flowering of Romanesque architecture and sculpture which we have fbund in the eleventh and twellth centuries in Carolingian Aquitania and its borderi n g l a n d s o n t h e L o i r e a n d t h e M e d i r e r r a n e a n? It is clear that there rvas an underlving dcvelopment.n with immense square rib-v4ulted bavs. as alreaclr indicated. a c h i e v e d . w h i c h h a t l t h e e a r l i c s (o n r e c o r d o l s r r c hn c n i n sular contacts (Bishop Cotlescalc antl his .spaclous n:lves of ample Romanesque proportions rvhich were prelbrred in southern France. In this ver1. I'il 'l'lius i n . I'et. iike Lom_ b a r d R o m a n e s q u ev a u l t s .and tuolfih-ccnrurv st]. ribs in con_ ncxion with domes and donricalraultsi rcncti_ t i r e o c t a g o n a ld o m i c a l r a u l t s a n d d o m c s i n e r _ haps also imbricirrrd rooting *er. and.aiat. With stout spur buttresses or interior recessesther.sjrtr_ four leet uas achiered in brick consrruc(i. the t-vpicalmasonrv wall-work. southern u-Ui.zoo i n f l u e n c e . could b e g i r e n g r e a r b r e a d r h . for the transversc arches are single and the nave has no clerestory. started in t h e s a m ey e a r . Auvergne. Romanesque schemes... in the Aquitanian area. mostl\ secular.Ios_ lem Spain as earlr as the rcnth ccntury. 'fhe centrcs trf power.. Obviousll also the Irirst Romanesque arca contributed to the architcctural fbrmation of Aquitania.S 6 n a n q u e r l ) was al home among such buildings.11in French Catalonir. C a t a l o n i a . The Gothic Sainr_ Vincent (fourteenth century and later) has x single-nave span of sixty_eight f'eet.t climate the differentiations which make a buikl_ ing sepm French had no great occasion to de_ velop. and I t a l . the wiclesr in all Irrance. in the ninth and tenth centuries.anced at the end of-rhc tenth centurv). ancl tt'pe-monuments appeared which were to affect regional building fbr several cenruries afier that. achiercd i 'I'he anv reallv noble ell'ccts.auks dividctl i n t o b a v sb v d i a p h r a g m a r c h e s s h a l l o w a r c a d i n g . .c r e a t i o no l ' s c r r l p t u r a l c c h n i q u e d u r i n g t t h e t e n t h c e n t u r r . olien tu. In Poitou quite surprisinelv monumental ellccts were earll. g-5 ).presenring.e has a semicirular banded tunnel vaulr carried on piers with crucilbrm nuclei antl attached shafts or pilasters. Oriental influences flolvcd in too.vpc.late date. The r.oaxial towers.]OI chapels. . a n d t h e tidc o1' grimalic ctrnracts.ional influencc of the monks of Clunv in their builtling enterpriscs a n d a R o m a n h e r i t a g e . is a hall church dating back to roo6 in its beginnings. with its Romanesque rrncture.a l s o .achieved with columnar supporrs and 'h:rll church' r'aulting.ombardic form.Ie. alive with Carolingian encrgy. is perhaps the best example.w h i c h w a s i n a c t u a l c o n t a c t t v i t h t h e Nloors. was reachccl). Cistercian architec_ t u r e w h e n i t c a m e ( a s a t S i l v a n e s . anl 'I'oulouse itself though the destruction of. t h o u g h t h e i r c a r \ . interrupted in execution a n d c a r r i e d o n .and parrL. A N D S o U T H E R NF R A N c E TIIE SCHOOIOF I-ANGLIEDOC . r but oriental motili cuspcd irrchcs.enth. . he light and beauriful T rrun_ sept and apseofthe thirteenth century respecr the disposition.. Y c r t h e r e i s i n t h e n o l v m u t i l a r c d and unlovely work at loulouse a good promise of Albi and Gerona (where thc widest Gothic span.ielded the effrcieni interior buttress slstem of'southern Gothic. One is much heavier than the other.r The span ot. In a way it is like the Pantheon in Rome. Serious studv of lost earlv monuments will have to bc undertaken bclbre this flow ofinfluenccs can be clarifiecl. a sign of..3oo M I D D L I . Catalonia. the wesrcrn limb of rhe lbrmcr calhedral of Sainr_\azai. -I'hcre is. the openness and light which Gothic bralurr made possibler3 .ision of the Cluniac rnonks can surch be credited with an important part in the impulsc which brought about consistcntlv larp. from the Near East in Crusacler times. show a concernlbr soliditr.arious rcgions. 'l'he church dates from the twelfth centurv. This radiated northward into the region where Gothic architecture was to be crcated. and bettcr vaulted church buildings. . Thc church of cloister Arles-sur-'I'ech was lebuilt rvith similar r. but thc nave rs like Cistercian work be_ c a u s co f i t s p o i n t e d b a n d e d t u n n e l v a u l t . in the Loire region. perhaps because of the persistcncc o f l o r i n g l l s c u l p t u r . Its radiation to the south and east may be roughlv traced b}'the churchcs which har eambulatories. It is an eleventh_ century conception.c llowed rntoAquitania. v . s'e venty-three l'cet. together with -{ngevin vaults good. r . and in vaulting basilican schemesabove the ground let'el. On the other hand. but thev comnose . At ancl near the lbgade there is rib vaulting. This abutment system of interior recesses.c. Gorhic naves could go high. ba1's and a timid clerestorv.r.r r S T ) ... norv lrlocked uo. began to gain focus about thc \ear rooo. T h e nar. monks. on. L a n g u e d o c w a s w e a ki c o n v e r s e l y . when develope<1 vertically. Along the \{editerranean coasr the influence of the Pilgrimage rype in the Romanesque ot. irs we shall see later. p.d about thc rvhole Aquitanian region anclabsorbed into the eler. ihe firsr cxampleof its t. T h e r e are other picturesque works in the mountain country tirther west.it h c d o m a i n o f t h e i r f b r r n d e r D u k e William. ' I ' h e l o w p r o p o r t i o n s and the detail are very dilfcrent from those of the High Gothic cathedral of Reims. p o r r i b l . f l a v o u r o f L a n g u e d o c a b o u t t h e s ew o r k s .a t a l a t e r t i m e . c o n s i s t e n t l y . 'I'he cathedral of Elne. retaincd the strongest imprinr. also the intcr-rep. but thc frontispiece has two crenellatcil torvcrs of traditional l.. we find many such in Burgunclv and Aquitania proper. With clerer irbutment such as the flying but_ tresses developed in the ilc_tlc_Francc atier rr7-5. Catalan laulthg (alread)' fhirh adr. Abbot Odilo is wcll known asa buildcr in r. Structuralh. of tu'.. lor ir is structurallv similar.T h u s i t * r . 1.pp. which had hardl_y. Thus there are three orclersofarches in the aisle arcade. t h e r e i s sonr.d u r i n g t h e w o r k s u n d e r t a k e n i n rz. The ell'ect is very substantial antl 'Ihere is a fine and characteristic handsomelv. boldlv domed up over plain rectangul".c r sm a \ . where in effect aqueduct_ l i L e a r c h e sa n d s u p p o r t s f o r m a c i r c u m t e r e n c e . from N. ' l h i s i s r h c s 1s t e m w h i c h w a s e m p l o v e d i n t h e T o u l r u s a n c a t h c d r aI o l ' r : r r p e r h u p .. o achieve on a grand scale the ver\. s t o u t l l abutted bt'pointed transverse tunnel vaults bav b t b a .. in the Citd. p i c r c i n g s b e r w c e n s r . . in glowing contrasr. and proportions of: thc old building . howeler. earlv sculpture norrh of the Pyrenees. latcr application of' g r o u p e d p i c r s a n d p o i n r e d a r c h e st o t h i s s c h c m c opcnecl up a whole panoramt of interesting eff'ects. but onc cliscernsthat it must have been drawn on in developing the sculpture. r c i n l b r c i n g p e r h a p sa l i n g e r ing tradition in Septimaniaor Gothia. Calcassonne shows the pa. but space does not sulice for their consideration.. decorates the exterior walls ofthe aisles.er.it is rather like aqueduct construc_ tion with'screen walls at the back and Gothic vaults sprung betrvecn. il'not bcfirre. more ma jestic. and some o1'theskill a n c ls u c c e s s l ' t h c r c g i o n a l s c h o o l sm u s t b e d u e o to thc stimulation of' wide knowledgc which c a m e w i t h t h c p r e s e n c eo f ' t h c C l u n i a c s .T ' h e a r c a o f C l u n i a c wcstr. 1'he aisles have quadrant r. i r .ancl these. w i t h t h e d o m e t u r n e d b e r w e e nr h e m .n prcvious times.v . heights.rhi calhcdral ol r z r r was planner. attached to the church.aulti n g i n t h i s p e r i o d ( c o n s e c r a t i o n . Limoges in 1273.r". L o m b i r l r l and Catalan influences were strong.{ n i o u r s u c c o s s t u lc o m b i n a t i c r n o l ' thc principlesof'ribbed and of'domed construction was rnade. rvas continued after the stanclard High Gothic of the ile-de-France had been introduced at Narbonne in rz7z.ancl Burgundian developments under First Romanesque inpact appear to har. rib.ir It is significant that the developmcnt of this type of building.

sri s w e e tt o t h c l i g h t . with ordinarv N{oorish craftsmen.{ud6jar was most appropriate to local conditions. progressivell' more settlcd in character. thc Frcnch took their architecture with them. and Languedoc. si n the livelv. and in thc Crusadeswhich began in rog7. Romanesque ol Aquitania s h o w e d a r e m a r k a b l e e x p a n s i re power. P O R ' I ' U G A I . In the lbllorving period they did not greatl!' develop thcir church art.arolingian Aquitania were not maeinified or elaborated bey-ond 'I'hev measure.v Romanesquc Spain.The areasubject to the Christians lvas nearly'doubled 'I'he new conquests were in two hundrcd 1'cars. and Seville clearly show.le which was.al tvpes createdin the area of (.RN FRANCT] f u r t h e r d e v c l o p e d . o N T u D a J A R o M A N I s e u EA R ( i H r r E c ' r ' u R L I\ BRICK The elcventh. In the earlier pcriod an ambitious Romanesquc work lbr the reconquercd arca would in- . 'I'hc Poitou. ancl the Catalan Romanesgue alwavs maintained a certain indcpen- dcnce even in Cistercian works. a p p c a r st o have been worked out in -I'oleclo before the conquest (ro85). after all. started seriouslv in the earlv eleventh centllr\. Both thesearcas were architectural provinces of' Burgundr. .In decorative works therc lvas a notable skill 'I'hcrc ofelerv sort. r c n c hg e n i u so n i r . h r i s t i a n s e r r i c e . 'l except at oledo. and Germany. as thc Gothic cathedrals of Letin. and mouldings arc treated with such consciousn e s so f e n r e l o p c . In the mo\.: Clever N'Ioorish craftsmen style. and drawn on as Christian buildings multiplied in the middle and southern parts ofthe pcninsula.t h a t 'I'hc the eflects are the equivalent of orientalism. but retained tht s p c c i a l s t a m p l ' l . carvings rvhich havc the strong bulk o1-carlv medielal work. or the Crusaders'Holv Land. in thc developcd hall churches o1'South France. Sefror G6mez-\Ioreno makes the point that ordinarl building must have procccded as before. w e r c s u c c e s s f u l l vd r a w n o n indecd at the cathedral of' in Gothic work Poitiers itsclf. and monumental tower and lantern lbrms. leaf'age. where the \. alwavs remaincd eminentlr -Ihis practical. The Mucl6iar was outsidc the currcnt of French architecture. arrd built it with a local nuance. and that of Langucdoc. s u c h d e l i c a c vo 1 ' u n d e r c u t t i n g and scale. But thc northern kingdoms were building in the French Romanesquc stvle as e a r l ya s r o 5 o . as we have scen. Hence these trvo st1'lesrvill be considered befbre we resume our studl' of the expansion of French architecture to the other lands which had been r\loslem. except in the hinterland of Valencia. i n w h i c h t h e v p a r a l l e lo r i e n t r r l and Bvzantineworks.and twclfth-ccnturv victories of the Christian kingdoms in Spain advanced their frontiers rvellsouth ofthe equator ofthe peninsula. The Christians in the Nloorish part o1'Spain worked in the Nlozarabic st1'lebefbre thc tcnth centurv. and others which suggest the subtlc refinement of Bvzantine or oriental works in ivorv such as w e r e t r e a s u r e db v t h c a r t i s t s ' p a t r o n sa n d k n o r v n to the designers themselves. with large N{oorish and Jelvish contingents in the population. MOORS AND ON LO\'IBARD\ All Christian Spain ultimatell' succumbed to French architectural genius. as well as later. original. c and thel' gain vastlv as decoration from tht stvlizcd fbrm and subtlc rippling surfaces. Barcelona.A N D c H A P T E Rr 7 STYLES DL. referred to in the preceding chapter. uhich lbr a time uas scmiindependent. g r e a t s c u l p t u r e so f t h e S c h o o l o f ' T o u l o u s e h a i t a l . Spain. . a r e s u c c e s s l u li m i t a t i o n s o f provincial Roman rvork. with grcat art.. In P6rigord a quite pedestrian and utilitarian scheme of dome construction developed spccial and monumental effects of' genuine interest.NDEN'I'ON 'I'HI. is the key to their usefulness in lronticr countr]' like Earl. T h e s a m e r e s i l i e n c e o f ' s p i r i t s h o l r . that is.l Iior us lts interest is largely confined to brickwork and wall patterning in the sophisticated Moorish tashion. The 'Ntuddjar' st.arcading. dill-erent rather than lbreign. Catalonia remained an active province of the Lombardic st1'lc until the advent of Gothic the Gothic of Citeaux.]O2 MIDDLL AND SOUTHF. o l i e n a n o r c r p o w c r i n gi n t e n s i t r. though the towcrs fiile d to multipl'l over the churchcs as thev did in Burgundl'and thc North. the fundamental architectur.u l l e r l a r i t r . and morc densel]' populated. quite apart liom the achievemcntof building the cathcdral of Pirig u c u x . thc M o o r i s h s t l l e i n ( .ement towards Spain lvhich PART FI\ E THE MATURE ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE 'I'HE HOLY LANI) O F S P A I N . and ultimatch learned the Christian Christian crafismen lcarncd the N'Ioorish sty. In Anjou and Poitou the column-bundles. With all this.vle. N'toorish masons in thcsc rcgions built verv successfullv in brick.PL. such tirelessnessof'fancf in treatinqt h e s i m p l e v o c a b u l a r y o f l c a v e s a n d s c r o l l s .

3 2 .if therc is onc. lile the originals. Romancsque architecture in f-actnevcr reached Tolcdo at all. a n d a c u s p e d r a n g e a b o r . and to devclop Rtrmanesque variations on the N. L r L u g a r c j a l r A r e r a i o i s a s i m i l a r w o r k . 1'he \ludijar stvlc oflcrs irn inrerestinr parrrlleland conrrast to thc 'brick Gothic' or' 'l'he Bttksteingttik of Germanv. has correspondins s i m p l e c x a m p l c s ..atalan First Romanesquc stvle. is much like a I r i r s t R o m a n e s q u cc h u r c h i n b r i c k . are usuallr r o o f e d i n l v o o c l . d a t c c la b o u t r z o o . givcs an oriental nuance tu the r i p p l e o l s u n s h i n c w h i c h p l a v su p o n t h e n r . a t S a h a e i l n t n d t h e P e r e g r i n ac o m e l a t c r . Santa Fi (thirtecnth centur)').p l a c ef i r r t h e b r . w i t h p o l v g o n a l a p s e s . I u d 6a r b u i l d e r s in nervlr occupied arels.le ol (-astilc. a s t i m c w o r e o n . In Spain the pattern work on the pale-brolrn brick rvalls. S r n . where . r. .a sr h ( handsomc belfrv and crossing towcr of' fhe cathcdral of"l'arazona bcar lvitness ft5ry zi) -I'here is cvcn one cxample in America . and har. t h e 1 . that was the centre of'rhe N{ud6jar s t v l e.b e a m so f t c r . .W h e n p o s siblc. built.lo.is pcrl'ectlvNloorish in stvle: a cle:tr c a s eo l ' c c l c c t i c i s m . .Iud6jar stvle.r'ho laid thc corncrstoneof the Gothic cathedralin r227. a n d t h e r e l v a sa w o n c l e r ful floncring in Zaragc:za nclncar b1.l i r s o at Sahagin lzjzl. had the brick chapclof'San Mancio. in the thirteenth century. l . Thc tlt. t h e S p a n i a r d s b e c a m e l e s s d c p c n d e n r o n l i r r c i g n e r s . Granada. t h e C r i s t o d e l a s B a t a l l a sa n r l S a n L o r e n z o . i s a s i r r p l e c l e s i g n . rz56). . Earh.r_ 'l'oro quent in this work. { r 3i n t h c p u b l i c s q u i r r e. e . e r e t h e r e i s a r o u n r l H a r c h e t l c l e c o r a t i r ea r c a d c i n t h e l o w c r r e g i s t t r . h i r p r d c ( i r r z r ri n \ l e r i c o .e thc cusping rnrl pointed arches which become er-cr morc ti. C l i s t c r c i a n a n c ld a t e .l spAIN.\rchbishop RodcrigoJimenez de Rada.S a h a g u nS a nT i r s o . it uas naturirl fbr them to profit br the j e r p e r i c n c c o f t h e \ l o o r . T h i s s a m c 'm i x r u r c o f s t r l c s i s p e r c e p t i b l e i n the southern arca at Sclille.{llbnso \rI paused rvhen he enrcred tlr. .examplcs are l l c k i n g . dated about roll7. . built 'l'his Irbout I roo. with s i m i l a r t r a i n i n g . the extension. antl b e t ' o n c l .g e n e r a l h a precedcd bv a tunnel-r'aultcd sanctuart bar rvhich carriesthe torvcr.largelr.a n c lt o s o m e e x t c n t i n t h c n o r t h d u r i n . ' l ( .i n c h u r c h a r c h i t e c t u r e .in brick. tirr. z 5\ l a v 1 o 8 . 5 . a n d . s u c h l v o r k sw c r c n o t n u n l er o u s . o c c u r a s n a r e c e i l i n g s .Al-. of a tt:nllr_ centurv mosque called El Cristo dc la l. r the Gothic period. a n c l t h i s p o i n t i s a l i k e l r s t a r t i n c . PORTU(. c i t l o n . AND THE HOLY LAND volve all thc diffrculties attendant on importetl cralismen fiom Poitou. A remarkable derclopmenr o f ' t h c I I u d !j a r s t v l e w i t h s r r o n g R o m a n e s q u e rcminiscenccs took placc in the Ebro Valler during thc Gothic agc. anclcontinued into rht 'l'eruel Renaissance. t b r i t l v a s c l e d i c a t e d n r _ : : r i bv.i c k building str. : r n c l . but organica l l r R o m i r n e s q u cr a t h c r t h a n o r i e n t a l . \ c t u a l l y ..w e r e c k i u b t l e s su t i l i t a r i a n . r v a sr e p o p u l a t e di n t h e t e n t h c c n t u r \ . e x c e n t t h a t the round-arched decorativearcading is sct i1 Iloorish-looking oblong pancls. i n t l r q thirteenth centurv. Sanro Tomr.uz. and the aislesil' prcsent. San Lorenz. \Ianv of the \luclt'jar churchcs arc ntodest a i s l e l e s s f l a i r s . a l c l o p m e n t t l i d n o t e n d w i t h G o t h i c t i m e s . and others arc more purelv oriental. I-anguedoc. i s h a n d N . has splendid examplcs ril t h c f b u r t e e n t h c e n t u r r ' . tuelf rh ccntur\'.a n d o n c o l ' t h c o l c l c r p r c s e r r e c l\ l u d 6 j a r w o r k s .Burgundl or Spanish crattsmen from the norrh. r Xlozarabic brick rvorkcrs were among the settlers when Qgintana.'I-he nnrcs.L a t e r e x a m p l e s . San Romdn at J'olcdo.wirh the spicv shadowsof dccoratire cusped and intcrlaccd arches. o f ' S a h a g r i nt.+ 'l'he 'I'oledo oldest prescn'ed example at i. instance. t u c l l i h c e n t u r r .h o u g h s ro n c built.l i l e Santiago dcl Arrabal (r. r e p h c e d b c c a u s eo t t h e i r modestscalc'l'he C l u n i a c a b b e l . near Sahaginr and L e 6 n ..r l b u n t a i n h o u s c o l r . latter str lu liom thc east . the rlecorative pilastcr str-ips and decoratire a r c a d i n g w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z et h e } I u d i ' j l r s t r l c irre bascd ultimatclv on the ver\. same elenrents u hich lvere de vcloped in thc Lombardo-(. \ l o o r i s h ' a r t c s o n a c l o s 'w i t h t l r i n t i e .

groin vaulting in t h e a i s l e s . a I-erv are noticcd hcrc. t h e c a t h e d r a l o f t h e S e o de Urgel 143.(It ha. r'tsembles a simple Prorengal or Burguntli. It is laid out rvith tremendous stout walls in fine ashlar masonrv. Nor does San Pedro at Besalu. Count o1' Barcelona (ro96 r r3r).iz. San Juan de las Abadesas'shows the old scheme of a tight cruciform plan ol surprisingly grand scale expanded by an lmbulatorv and radiating chapels (later rebuilt 2 3 3 . t gc ' t r r.' being connected with intcresting churchcs: San Pedro Galligans. is almost archaic for its date (tt3z)' It is a perfectly plain triapsidal wooden-roofed basilica without even a clerestory. i t h a s q u a d r a n t v i r u l t e d a i s l e s . and therv often have cloisters. S a n C u g a t d c l Vallds (about rI5o).? 5 S and later.v as a rather decadent period in this art. thet are in ditl'crentll-) and embellished rvith sculpture 1n the French mannsr. of course. l i k e t h e s u p p o r t s o { ' a c l o i s t e r ' .306 SPAIN. an ambulatorl. the east walls of the transept also being thick enough to contain its fbur absidioles. but in general the area retained its Lombardic st1'le.S c od e U r g e l C a t h c d r a l r r 3 r 7 5 and latcr. o' I n r r 3 5 C a t a l o n i a r v a s! o i n e d t o t h e c r o u t t abour't ttct' \ragon. in Catalonia as elsewhere in the eleventh and twelith centuries. but simpler. was masterof'the whole Nlediterranean coast-line from the Ebro to Nice. Its simplicitl accords well with the so'ere Baltic countrl rvhere it flourishcd. So it is that the chief great e n t e r p r i s eo f t h e t i m e . analvticalsection orientation in architecture.6 well known lor its paintings. I TfiE MATURE E C A T A L A NR O M A N E S Q US T Y L E Ram6n Berengucr III. 41. ' ' The grand old cathedral of rr3r-75 at the Seo ds Lht.a s c m i c i r c u l a r t L r n nel vault with trlnslersc archcs in thc nnrc. Cardona (r. O f ' t h e g r o u p o f c l o i s t e r sr v h i c h m u l t i p l i e d i n the twelfth centur)''.. and those of the apse thick enough to contrin a small a horseshoe-shaped rial rotunda. t o $ h i c h c u s l ' c t l arches give an odd oriental look. dated about Iroo.uith nichcs in the outer \\rll s e r r i n g a s r a d i a t i r r g c h a p e l s . ro8o). rvith a timid clerestorl'. French influence in Catalonia may. i n t $ o s t o r e y s . but there ts an indefinable half-oriental warmth in the buildings which must owe something ultimatel-v to the Moors. but it has Lombardic o r n a m e n t o n t h e e x t e r i o r a n d a c l o i s t c ro 1 ' L o n t bardic character. elements thc resulting btrilding docs not stcrl French. The increase of means.lro has a T-shaped plan rather like that of Ripoll. Later'. llhich n'ith the huge tlanseptal torvcrs and the trvel\e-sidcd lantern would mark a strong silhouettc ergrinstthc sk-v Not the least rcmark- .o). and S a n J a i m ed e F r o n t a n y d ( r o 7 o ) . San Clemente oF'l'ahull. but the ttnion did nor bling 'i \. as usual. San Pons de Corbeira (c. T h e c l o i s t e r n t ' t l b e a se a r l v a s I r z 5 a n d t h e p o r t a l a sl a t e a s I t 7 5 'I'hev were added. like t h e M u d 6 j a r s t 1 l e .{NDON LON{BARDY 307 started with rctual Lombard Romanesque elcments about the middle ol the twellth ccnturv' rnd devclopcd interestinglbrms appropriateto brick.li occasionally many cases richly ernbellished 'lvith carved with tvmpanum reliefs. and ordinarily vaulted.ed and unfailingly poetic.b u t t h e i m p o r t ' r n t s c u l p t u r a l m o n u m e n t t h e r e i s t h e e l a b o r a t ep i r r t a l o f ' t h e m o n a s t e r y 'c h u r c h . S r r n t aN l a r i a d e I ' E s t a n v ( r r 3 3 ) . The handsome square tower is traditionally Lombard. Gerona (about tt. e od e U r g e l C a t h e d r a lr. tozo-4o). be traced bl the ambulatory and radiating chapels (rare in Romanesque Catalonia) and by sculptural style.i t b e c a m e p l a l f u l a n d i n t r o duced Gothic motifi.:)' ancl.T h e c r o s s i n g i s c o l e r c d b 1 ' a c u r i o u s fbur-ribbed dome carried on squinches and 'l'he nate has a clcrestorlshallolvpendentivcs. to the remarlirblc church of ro. Reminiscences of the Mozarabic st1'leare unusual. from the north-west . The Catalans think ofthe later twelfth centur. t h e a p s e a r c a c l ri 5 d o u b l e c l . beside thc charming little latc Lomb:rrtlic church of San Pablo del Clmpo in Barcelon"r' a r i n v c l o i s t c ro l a b o u r I 2 o o . the crthedral of Gcrona (neally contemporarv).I 3 r . 2 3 4 . is in larious wavs like a maturer and more finished version of Ripoll. In the massive nave thcre are t\lo files ofcrucilbrm piers lvith nook-shalis. lvhich $e have mcntlolrct' previously. of prettv paired arches suppolted on paircd 'l shatts like thosc of a cloister' he fiont of the b u i l d i n g w a s p l a n n e d l b r t u o s q u a t es t a i r l u t lets. usualll' capitals. )S a n t x Maria ol \iilabertrin. L i k e m a n l ' s u c h b u i l d i n g s i n F r a n c e. supporting banded tunnel vaulting in the transept and naYe. permitted an improvement in craftsmanship' particularly in exterior walls.rl c h u r c h . richlv carr.ings which belonged to thc cloistcl ol 9. Under him French influences filtered into the architectural sculpture in Catalonia.AL' AND TIIE HOLY LAND STYLES DEPENDENT ON THE IVlOORS. p r o b a b l l i n c o r p o r a t i t . PORTU(. Yet despiteits |rcn11. the use ol'fine ashlar masonry for interior and 'l'he later churches are generous in scale. The visiror who makes the rounds of'thcse and others likc thcm cxpericnccs onc of thc tlclights ol lltc ' metlieral trrrclling ecclcsiltsticuho morttl from monaster\ to monasterJ and slu sottttthing of life in the cloister wherever he r'r'ent' t The monasterv of Ripoll has an attracttr c l o i s t e r a l s o .which had dominated since the tenth centur-t. The walls oithe transeot enclsserve as the actual bases of trvo hear'1' towers (containing compartments which open into the transept). the dates probabll tlll betwecn r r r4 and r r5o. and in the lineage of San Vicente. San Benito de Bagcs ( r v e l l a l t e r r r 5 o .

which came in b e c a u s eo f t h e i n t e r e s t w h i c h t h e n c w d v n a s t l ' (of Aragon. surprising. and dome u'as in f'act contracted fbr in r r7S between thc Chapter on onc part. ( r r 5 7 ) . In passing. especiirlll'on the extcrior. the windo$ trrccrv.lult of Notre-Dlme in Paris (about rr75 g5).with sanctuar\ bay and triapsidal chevct bevond).3O8 sPAlN. n m a s u n .h o u g h t h e f i r s t g i f t d a t e s back to 966. cloister is surprisinglv Burgurrdian . sturdiness of the most invincible Roman or 'Ihough finished in Gothic times. Completion of'the roofs. and dedicated complctc onll in r j3r. boldlr sct on a great rock which dominates th. the church has the resolute Provcngal construction. it u:rs quitc natural i n t h e C a t a l o n i ao f t h a t a p . Throughout the vasr ertent of thc l a t e r m e d i e v a l b u i l c l i n g sa t P o b l c t t h e r e i s m o r e t h a n a h i n t o f ' R o m a n e s q u e h a r a c t e ri n t h e r v l l l c work irnd massing.rr is tht heir of all these tendencies. the 1. single proiecting apsidal transept ba1's. a l s o p r o v i d e d w i t h a n a u s t e r ea n d c h a r ncteristic church which builds up into a beautilul octagonal cimborio or crossing lo\4cr r' Gothic date. The resulting effect of magnilic:rtion is awkward in various respccts.nastic p:rnthcon. begun in rrTr.AND able thing about the building is its almost pure Lombard strle.B u t t h c s t y ' l c of'the edificc shows thrt masonrv of-the Lombard ty'pe rvas expectcd. the excellent ashlal masonry has Romanesque character. is blockl' and plain like a Provcng:rl -l'he building. and Raimundus with lour lamhardos on the other: lumlturdus at the time s i g n i f r i n g n o m o r e t h a . rzoj wcst ptrrtrl into the cathedral 7ll.istcrcian sn1e. and other f'eaturesmight casilv bc mistaken fbr an actual Lombard building o1'the errlv or middle twellih century. flatroofed. Metropolitan archiepiscopal establishment in a city with manr Romirn remains. as it had becn fbr ccnturiesin Catalonia. t i i n C a t a l o n i am a r k s r n a d r a n c c . torvn. and it became the Aragonese dl. since heavy lbrms dcrivcd {rom the Cistercian stvle (with Poiter rn influence.rvasfbundcd in rr5r. in thc column-bunclle pier: ) wcre used with f-air consistency in the loucr parts of the building. and the exterior. 'l'he c o n s e r v a t i \ e c h a r a e t e ro f ' t h e b u i l d e r s i n C a t a l o n i ac a n n o t b c t o o m u c h e m p h a s i z e d . likc those of the Moorish LUlmt:. apse g:rllerl'.'l'he pointecltunnel vault with transverse arches is of'undiluted R o m a n e s q u ci b r m . is a somewhat more consistent examplc ot'this samc solid. L6rida Cathcdral. . lntl the (characteristic) octrgonal crossing tower. e w h e r c t h e r i b v a u l t s . PORTUGAL.ware of fbreign influence was thc (. l ' a l r e a d v m e n t i o n e c li n o u r b r i c f ' s u r vel of'Cistercian archjtecture. 'I'he old cathedral of L6ridara [235]. and occurs o f t e n i n w i n c l o l rs l v i t h s l e n d e rs h a f t sa n d c l e q a n t 235. of the aislosof Poblet werc) on the contrar\. the building has Gothic details also: in thc wcst portal.ative narrow openings. P o b l e t . Herc and elsewhere in thc cathedral establishment thcle are oriental touches. the other great Catalan Cistercian foundation should be mentioned Santas Creu. but imposing. ANI) THL HOLY I. The Gothic Burgundian halfin France so relativelv conscr\. The plan has the ar'rangement of a much smaller French church ol the apse echelon type (nave offive bays. rvhilc the plal ful Gothic trlcerr h'ls a half'-oricntal sparkle. sunburned late half-Gothic architccture (rzo3-78). which erplains its fine construction and its vast developmant. serc nert'r actile ol important. S u r p r i s i n g a s i t i s i n r c l a t i o n to its contcmporar). after thc Lombartls and thc ProVengaux.rl Tarragona Cathedral. where the design uith its decorative arcading. the first ensrrinp. 'l'hcrcfbrc. vicw liom thc . being fullr vaulted onlv in 1287.T h e C l u n i a c p o s s e s s i o n st. towers. sincc rr. Its plan is simpler thrn tlrat ol Tarragona (an dchelon of five apscs to t h e c a s t 0 t l h e t r a n s e p t h a n d s o m ec i m b o r i o .with Cistercian architectural forms. Of course. perhaps.1i) carll erinced in the refbrm of Citeaur.. and carvings in the Cluniac tradition. mod"r'.

Actually the conquering Christian kingdoms offered profitable opportunitics to adventurers becausethe population of Christian north Spain was not large enough to stand the 'lhc drain of cxpansion. and its abbot. R A T I O N S Conservatism in Cirtalonia prevented an earlv or effective spread of Iirench Romanesque architecture to the region.1 lur in Mur..ljr#..r. and are doubtless . Languedoc. the great patron of Santiago and Clunv. the Order o1' Calatlara rvas founded lbr the def'encc of the hasgreat a port"r i*. the when urbanism reallvbegins the. "" houses. extraoriinarv.il.r. larger than the church was added at the west. i l i l a ( r o r l o ) | 2 . though not quite to the exclusion of sophisticated Moslem works... French chivllry flo*ered at the court.. t . in Brt an donion (. T h e c o u r t b e c a m eg a l l i c i z e d . was associated with Clun1.the Exchange in L!. rhirreenrhcenturl sort..uu. So ecclesiastics as lvell as pilgrims. The rich doorwaysof the building which have survived a larcr re_ construction are ver]. as we know.egiorr.ute begai rn 1262.. overhanging. cathedralwas begun there in rz6z. It was the same with the native Church: problems on an entirely nelv scale werc presented to it. . whereaoual Aragonese . It was quite the reverse in the Christian states to the west. and religious aspects of' the war turned it into a crusade.v-' nature fitted to desire French creations.t. A large proportion of them were southern Frenchmen . w 1s n .occasional with ward and enclosure walls.irnil. is known to have brought twentl' French mas < r n s o u o r k o n t h e w a l l s o l ' . and foreig.though temporarily captured and ruled bt. When the great cities fell. at the south_west is r rall octagonalroucr sct poinr_ in 7r8.vr. The Isidorian church was overfloocled by. Bernard of Agen. arca of the Christian kingdoms trebled in the eleventh century. Solsona. i"d.t"d with Sicily. and Burgundv. Someremains medieval of civicanddomestic rork ol'the Romanesque periodexistin Cata_ ronra. reassembled thc Kingdom (parcelled in accord a n c e w i t h S a n c h o t h e G r e a t ' s b e q u e s t s )a n d enlargcd it.i Romanesque. Exchange. q u a r t e r . t l Alfonso VII (rrz6-57) lbunded a number o1' C i s t e r c i a n m o n a s t e r i e si n C a s t i l e . l1*. ancl settlers flowcd through the passesinto thc Peninsula.r*. Ho-_. Ra1'mond of Burgundy.bur the fine examples (the {rchbishop. Said. and Romanized befbre the end of the eleventh centurv.r. but lvere not rcally'ellectite until thc conringof the Cluniacs under Sancho the Great (97o ro35). rt. Certain other details can only be N:lTin origin. but also in blood.quiti-a naruralthing in the capital of that conservative architecturalprovince.rtr. perhaps also survived.Tll T:.n ecclesiasticswith suitable experience had to be called to fill the great posts. heavill.. do nor anredare thirteenth.r r o g ) .". A r a g o n .. H u e s c a ( r o t l 6 ) . It increasingl-v gained French recruits as the Pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela flourished.n. Vich.ity t.or.. Four ofthe consorts of Allbnso VI were F'renchwomen. He continued the ecclesiastical policJ' ol' Sancho.nrj"ji .:'. their room being taken by Cas'l'his tilians and French. Alfbnso's son-in-law..:T.. . ornamenfs and of. The war of rcconquest began at Cor. Lor<I. + ) .ugo.wherethe chrrrch likelr still ro bc Romanesque.r. occurred alicr the rec o n q u e s to f ' T o l e d o ( r o 8 5 ) .adonga transrttonal st1-le.se_ Catalan dominions until rz3g.o_.Moor_ ish style.So_e_ times. Romanesquestamp on Catalonia i.rqu.3IO SPAIN. a. The southrvard advance of'the doughtl' Spanish kings and soldicrs produced a splendid opportunity for inrmigration.?. elegantly embrasured. and Th. knights.a n d Z a r a g o z a( r r r 8 ) . .. Under Altbnso \''II's son. Besalf. French participation in such crusades has usually becn accompanied bv good and practical rcsults ol-some L6rida. and so it \\'as that the arbitcrs of taste and the patrons of art were b.n o t o n l f i n p o l i tics and religion. and thc storl' of thenr is often written in architecture. with manynook-shafts. ard Ge.O"ti:.Torr..AND THE HOLY LAND 6gAPTER r 8 S T Y L E SD E P E N D E N T O N F R A N C E p R E L l N l l N A R rC O N S T D [ . Benedictinism and Carolingian monasticisn'r earll-' filtered into middle and western north Spain. sa r e a t t"f he -l r t e._built nave oI three bays) except that a Gothic .. . tet t h e L i m o u s i n t r rk in the rburtee. 'Ioledo in became primate aftcr the crpture of ro85 and the resuscitation of its ancient ecclesiastical dignitl'.s t-r Barcelona.f.. this tide. l1 . POR'IUGAL. a n d Galicia.. porticoes. in spite of the apparent barrier of the Pyrenees.in particular from Poitou.in rhe back_country rillages. A nom"n. [zj6l).to.l S a n c h o ' sg r a n d s o n ."nOlnJ wasnot rcally incorporated inro the A. 1'he cloister. Srhagirn.our. 1 4. many faithful Moslems were displaced. V a l e n c i a ( r o g . .1. rs thereis a medievalimprint yet remaininp. King of Navarrc. and sei eral of his children made French marriages. which of course meant an influx of the usual Burgundian hall'-Gothic. the greatest monaster) in Castile. which reall north.along with . I alencia. thc Cid (that is. Sancho III (rr57 8).i...ona. A l l b n s o V I ( r o 6 S .

u. a n c li t w a s thc samervith of de'elopment i n c l u d i n g t h e c a t h e d r a l . parrs. and the presence of' c o n s i d e r a b l en u m b e r s o f F r e n c h craftsme'n. Intermediate bays of tunncl raulting beyond the transept preceded three Rom a n c s q u e a p s e s .... noted) [r-q71. and his excellentchoice ot il master influence of'Jaca Cathedral radiated through the district. i"rr.erse archcs uncler the vault with ..f Ar..hi. p o R .*i.*.. .l.r.'... o. likerhoseof. abour ro:0. rvould be due to thc personalintcrest of the King. lotor". Ribagorga(ro.rptrr"i Lisbon' All modern portugal had been conquered lrom the Moors by rz7g.L. Noting that two of the in finishcdlater 237.S DEP[.... like the eleventh-centu. 'fhc main triapsidal liun. lbrmcrlv o p e na t t h e s i d c s . incidentally concerned. which rvas in(luenccd lrom the L o i r e : r h e c a t h e d r a lo f A u r e r r e .nt"tion.u .1.T h e r e i s a h a u n t i n s r e m i n i s c c n c eo f ' t h e Loire region in the clesign. vivacitr'.. .*tu.rqu.i]: n e v e r b c c a m e F r e n c h . 1I1 fiontier.r. 'I'he the architectu. t { o L y L A N D A STYt. to4o 67. Parts of thc castlc antedate an cstablishmentol' Au-rustinian canons thcrc. Mozarabic archirecrureand Iloslcrn crafismen ha.iE.A l f b n s o V I I I ( r r 5 g _ r z r 4 ) .iililTT:iJ:. commanding gorgeous views of the Gdllego Vallel.Languedoc) a runncl_ v a u l t e c la i s r e l e s s .[TT: in:"iJ:"il:*.. m a r r i e da dar-rghrerof Henrl' of'Anjou (who had by his marrilge with Eleanor of. t L .iar u. n'.ur. 1'he church. Bv the t*.A f i b n s o l in .. . n r o u n r r i n i . column capitals in the intcrior of the church a r ec v e n n o w i n a b l o c k l c o n d i t i o n .k. but the relativcl-v-.n spuin. 'l'hornr. h. Alfonso vIIi won the victory which insured an ultimate triumph (r492) againstthe Moors.o-"*h"t in the stvle of.. has thc finest Romanesque c a s t l ei r . In spite of'the ob'ious French sources of style in northern spain. some slight influence Traclitional skill in cxploiting e f l ' e c t so f s u n a n d s h a c l o w .. wc find an ccho ofits plan..t ."-.y.. *.he 'aulted crvpt somcrvhat reca's saint_\larrin_ a. but onl1. and Mucl. srum'r . In the fbrmati'e period of Romanesque ar.alf J*.-i. light original construction prcdicates a Romanesque rool in wood.h.p..'.-canigou. r r . w h e r e .o. A council is saicl to har. and a fine stone dome the latter slightll'distortcd to lit over an octagon made bl trumpct squinches.2 r"-u".echoecl in stone buildings.. q u a l i t l o f ' t h c f a b r i c .ri'. dated about a ro8o to r roo. rvith the herp of pirgrimr. 'l'he nave bals are double (except the westernmost one) with elegant round columns as intermediate supports betrvt:en groupctl p i e r s ..ln\ . n e v c r h a v i n g becn carlcd. lliiil:ffiJil"l:'iJil:::T::::l'.N D T H [ .oi.e becn helcl in thc building in ro63. support hairpin-like rransr.::..i. he t Spanishmonumenrsrealll'areSpanish.o f l v h i c h t h e c e n t r l l o n e h a s been replaced. in the ensuing discussions. U G A r .v ' ' po f ' r o 3 o h a s c y l i n d r i c a l p l i n t h s r r n d e r t thc piers. with a single clcrestor] window over each opening in thc aisle arcatle. . s o u n e x p e c t c di n a r e m o r c place. h i c h rvasto bc (perhaps only in part) a raultecl sr. likc those ofJaca Cathedral). A rib rises fiom t h e m i d d l e o f e a c h s i d e o f t h e o c t a g o ni n M o o r ish fashion. to their contacs wittr ttre pilgrimage and *irh clun.thc i. ancr this is occasionalll.il. use ro6.Saint-Benoit-sur-Loire. .i"go *r. builder.rif about roo miles from c6rdoba.".r. a d o r. rS p a i n .'ra3..". s i m p l e r bulks. d o u b t l e s sc o u n t s f o r s o m e t h i n g .ru. rn m. n a v ea n d a i s l e sh a v c b e a u t i l i r l s i x t e e n t h ...c e n t u r \ star vaufting. o..-lr2 s p A I N .hc 'ailer.Aquitaine ". cluniac . represcnrcd in the cathedr"r oinoJ.ts r v o n d c r t u i l v s e r i n .. Sancho I I I ' s s o n .. .iginat. . cclesiastical E c o n n e x i o n sb r o u g h t a F r c .NDEN'I' ON FRANC[. I .rgas much as the Island) and th]s union fu'rher opened spain to influences from Frrnce' rn rzrz.rs of Ldrrcclc rrnd Gavin. I .qu."n. but there is no assurance hrrr t the lhbric was rhen adranced. and -I'he grcat merit of its sculptural dccoration.6 (17). but so eclectic a s t o s u g g e s tt h i l r a Spirniard uas rhc :rrchirecr. we may suppse that the carving 'l'he high r v a sd e l a v c d a t J a c a u n t i l a b o u t r o 7 o . n r c h u r c h c in roliz. .. sanctioned by the Pope in ro7I.. a l s os h o r v i n gt h e i n l l u e n c c of'Jaca Cathedral. picturesque efrccr. in thc fine ruined Clastilian bbev church of Arlanza. but nerver studies hare pushed the enscmble of dates back b1' t\yentr or thirtl' vears.. a b l u l i m a s so f w a l l s t n c l t o w e r s bcautifullv set on a rockt spur.... ois.Jtct Crrthedral.1':l"' or tirle rocarschoor R"o-un".. c h o.rrl Augustinian fbundation ar Siresa built 1als.rd e n c e o l r h e c o u n t r l .'. bu'ding . Abore the arcrde thc wall at Jacais plain. e a s r e r np a r t s o f t h e c h u r c h h a d been buirr hr ro57..rr. r c i f b r .er1. du. The r. 'l'here 'included trirnsept' with tunncl is an vaulting in the arms.nn. at LasNa'a^s a.hi". irregurar) ashrar stone fro-.rcture. still an unusuar thing at this date.1. 2 3 9 l . r c c a l l sL a n g u e c l o c . under the Cistercian Rule. Lzlllinaugur{rcd a distinc_ At the entrance o1'the cathedral there is a tunnel-r'aultecl porch of tlvo ba1s..p. rbrmed in the presence of Moorish a r t . h i s t o r i a n s\ \ e r c p r o n e older Frcnch architectural to post-date such structures. archaeological problems are posed b 1 ' t h c b u i l d i n g b e c a u s eo l ' t h e e x c e l l e n c eo f i t s construction and the luxuriance. Jaca cathedral."d that great territorv. impcr'ttct corrtparisons can be made (Saint-Sar-inien at Sens. thc abbel' church of Jumidges. ani the indefinable plaJ' of relationships between the buildings and their austere' alwavs mountainous surroundings or backgrouni may be lish rolalty ARAcoN AND NA\ ARRE t h e c r .lhe b a s i cd c s i g n is very slggxnl. L o a r r c ' f z j t i .. and pcrhaps of its structurc.r.which long_int.cl1tecture these two mountain kingdoms rcccired many architecturar impurses fiom abroacl. now has fine Gothic vaults.e' 'lhis nuancc is alrva's to be understood' even when not mentionecl. bur ir is -rr..qui.cilih .*sess brick Ronran_ .olu. with parirllcr t u n n " l ' ' ' o r l t ..gion. but thc earliest cluniac church still cxistinS^ is S a n S a l r . but with lions and the XP monogram (later 'I'he copied in rhc region) on th{j tympanum.nawidenarcrvasaddcd.Burgundian in general srrle like the porch.andnot ser'ile copies what precisely gi'es the subtle nuance it is difficult or impossible to sav liastidious tastc.. i. u n d e r . They are notable fbr the h a n d s o m eu s eo f . Meanwhile Burgundian dynasts were acrvancing the' conquest of Portugal' \Iilitary strugglesin which Archbishop Diego Gelmir.w i t h a n i n t e r e s t i n gw e s t p o r t a l .. In rr47. resulted in the in'-d. and its mountain barriers.

i n g so f ' t h e t i m e .r. t h a t i s . Stronglv under Cistercian and Poitevin influcncc in plan is the half'-Gothic cathcdral of Tudela. bcing set in an octagonal open spacc. and has a clcr. show foreign architectural currents in this region ofAragon and Navarre. As in Catalonia. stirrcd a rery' interesting artistic rcvival in the western kingdoms. became the church ol San Isidoro [z4o-zl when the relicsof'the grcat D o c t o r o f S e v i l l e w e r e b r o u g h t t o i t . has a half--oriental warmth and seems verr Spanish.castlechapel.. the halfGothic-half-Poitevin Santa Maria la Real at S a n g i i e s a Tr r 3 r a n d l a t e r ) . T h e h a l f ' . a Cluniac refbrming bishop. the architectural lines being delicatelv rnarked by billet mouldings. rallied alter destruction by Almanzor in 996. screened off somewhat likc a classical building in its temenos. I n L e 6 n u n k n o l v n m a s t e r so f r c a l g e n i u s e x tcnded the little old church of St John Baptist and San Pelavo de C6rdoba betrveenro54 and ro67 to fbrm a portico and the roval pantheon. In passing. 'I'he earliest eristing fragmcnt of Romani e s q u ca r c h i t e c t u r e n t h e r e g i o n i s a n e r l e n s i o n to the Visigothic crypt of thc cathedral o1'Palencia. if it existed. e\. Approach to the church is through a long ascending stair corridor to thc castle ward.{ND l'llE II()LY L{\l) STYLES EPENDENT N FRANC]E3I5 D O ception. T h e c a s t e r n c r o s s i n go f C l u n 1 . and to ths east a very elcgant arcaded apse. and the ty'pe became common in Aragon.Loarre. On the exterior the domed bay has a stubbl.lt+ sp-\l\. as well as the supposed 'l'emplar octagon at Eunate') . late twelfth century) ought to be mentioned. z1li. v . fbr instance.er arcade in the apse vault which shows competenceon the part of'the builders at this earlv date. owing to the destruc' tion of that important Romanesque building. The aesthetic and acoustical effect ol' the interior is dramatic. There is. T h e c a p i t a l c i t . by rare ex- . and everincreasing relationships rvith France.L e 6 n i t s e l f ' s i n c eg r 4 . it is worth while to mention a few stylistically complex buildings which. To the west of this is an irregular tunnel-vaulted bay.5 z3g. in Spanish fashion. r33]. and thence bv a lateral portal into the ccntral bav of the church.C A S T t L E A N D G A L t C I A . brought to a square base over thc squinches by 'broach' rool. A consistent st1''lewas maintained on the interior. who is known to have been at Cluny in t h e y e a r r r o o . 1 1T h i s a n d erected by Pedro de Roda. which we havc s t u d i e d . t h o u g h close in detail to that of'Languedoc and Poitou. with the Mud6jar work. Both Leirn and Castile had some peaccablc contact with the Nloors. without harm to the graciousness or harmonious proportions of the interior.oarre. broad trumpet squinches. placed on shalts under the gireatarches beside thc windows.10 wherc the high altar was consecrated in rzo4. initiated a new architcctural revival likc that rvhich had stirrcd Oviedo twcr centuries befbrc. thc abrupt verticalitv of the middle bay' is startling. latcr rebuilt. which probably inspired the general form of this and similar buildings. l.as one cnters. Unquestionably the old cathedral of Pamplona. castle. I I t had a somewhat similar roof. and Nlozarabic works eristed in both areas before the Romanesque stl'le t'as introduccd.o Relationships with Pamplona Cathedral in Nayarre cannot be traced. to a hemispherical dome all in firstclass ashlar which has endurcd well. O N .M o o r i s h ( Santo Sepulcro in'Iorres del Rios (alrcady reterredto Ir32.octrgonal tower. The sculptured capitals. The central bay itselfrises through a combination of' oricntal f-accted f-an squinches. PoRT('(iAL. resemble c a r r . which probably indicates that construction was wcll on towards completion at that time. ro1.s cmall half'-pvram i d s . and undoubtedll. Union with Navarre and Aragon. and -I'oulousan in the decorative arcade. Le6n (in the Asturias) alreadl'had a national st1'le of'architccture.. r. would throw interesting light on the tangled architectural history ofits period. T h e a r c h i t e c t u r e . the tardv half-Gothic -I'arraw a s s u c c e s s l u l l va b s o r b c d .thc last. who worked on the cathedral at Santiago. although the building wasnot finisheduntil about r275. -I'he church. it is in excellent ashlar work. O n e o f h i s m a s t e r sw a s S t e p h e n . has an epitaph of rog5 carvedin the lower part. lo95 which now dominatesthe whole group. Date d ro3:[.en at a late date. and shallow pendentives pierced with oculi. L 6 r i d a a n d gona are thc comparable eramPles- L [ .or like the Dome of'thc Rock in Jerusalem.

date docsnot strictlr applv to the church. Fr6mista. on the latcrtli portal. ro65-85) as the cathcdral of Le6n.ork lorrrro -a fr?t {'+ t. z4z.e capitals which are among the best anrl most interesting of their periocl. Lc6n. and at Saint-Denis (where Pepin the Short was laid awav) and also a spccial version of'the t o w e r .I ' h e l a t t e r . har.ro54 tweltih centurl 'l'he tribune abore it. The carr. We now turn to other important Romanesqueworks ofthc Leonesc school. 1o5. o n c o f t h e f i n e s t a n d b c s t p r c s e r r c d r v o r k so l i t s kind. and ertended also along the west s i d e . San Isidoro. 'P6rtico The c l el o s R e r e s ' t h u s e n c l o s e dt l v o s i d c s o f t h e ' P a n t e 6 n d e l o s R e 1 . whereas in origin the pantheon was a kind of inner narthex with a of the time. rvhen the dollager Queen's testamenl 'I'his was written. and opens into the nave through lrsr c u s p e d a r c h e s .inEl. shows progress bcyond the point rcachcd z4o.l ofthe eleventh centurv and the beginning ofthc tlvelfth. |. under the pavement of u. e s . extraordinarily well preserved. I'ante6ndc los Rc. p o r t i c o $ a s p l a c e c lo n i t s north flank.hich the old fbundations came to light in r884 8.vcs. A monaster. PORTUGAL. The well_ d e s i g n e ds y s t e m o f d o m e d .1 twcllth ccnturl' -a-J Oo.This is rcrl sqrnp. widow of Sancho the Great ot Nararrc.u p g r o i n v a u k s j u s t above them has remarkable frcsco decoration. with interesting sculptural decoration. on the Pilgrimage routc to Santiaso de Contpostela.Le6n. w i t h t h e s o l i d m a s so f ' t h c c i t v n . though it sufiers fiom hxr. and dignified.3IO SPAIN. Le6n. which was pain_ red about r r75. a l l i u s t t o the west of the passagc-wa_l . is reallv a special vcrsion of the Carolingian burial porch which we hare scen ar Saint-Riquier (where Angilbert was buriecl).. 'I'he c n s e m b l eo f t h e b u i t d i n g i s r c r r h a r m o n i o r r . 'l'hc Pante6n dc los Reles is actuallv more accornplishcd than anl'existing French *.enth centurv. A church resembling San Isidoro was builr (. like Le6n. San Isidoro. tunnel-vaulted. The transepr.'. a n d u l t i m a r c l . The church ofSan Isidoro was progressirclr r e b u i l t . was being built there br Doia Nlavor. extends bevond the lateral apscs. The platr lo54 67 z4r. and it mav be that the extraorclinarill vivacious sculptures date fronr the latter vcars of the eler. San Isicloro. in ro66.lent rvork of the cn.p o r c h e s w h i c h w e h a v c s e e ni n t h e L o i r e i n t h e P a n t e 6 n d e l o s R e v e si n t h e c a r l i e r p e r i o t l .ing been over-restored a generirtion ago.Ot? + . Its oblong area is dirided into si1 compartments over two ample columnar sunportsl the) :rnd the numerous rnall responll.!. rr a u l t e r l b y r h e a r c h i r e t l r 'I'he Petrus Deustamben. central one of its three a !i c n e r o u s p s e sh a s b e e n r e p l a c e d b u t t h e h a n d some lateral apses are still in place. but clcmolishcd to make wav for the present beautilirl Gothic building.r San Nlartin at Fr6mistarr is a sort of'paradignr lor the Leonese school. .*/ ) region ar Sr Nlartin of Tours (466 7o ancl about ro5o) and Sainr-Benoit-sur-Loirc (datccl rn rts presentfbrm shortlv after ro67).a b o v e w h i c h t h e h i g h v a u l t ( c a r _ ried airily over a clerestory in the nave) is pro_ longetl.especiallr.AND THE HOLY LAND o t h e r c h a n g e sh a r e l e f t t h e n e w w o r k o f r o 5 4 67 as a retircd chapcl. i.

but is covered by a tunncl vault with transverse arches.. b u t t h e a x i a l c h a p e l o 1 ' 24+ clt\ wall. and rather short.1 map of the Pilgrimagc at Santiago delivertng a France with its spout 'lhe eclectt(caturcs varietv ofFrcnch regional architect' of Santiago in<licatcs a Spanish "ir* an lnterlor In plssing one should mention tlt la Gloria in the cathedral if. is offered b1'the cathedral ol Santiagode CompostelaIr r3. the Christ in Glorl'. ..rigit.twelfrhcenrun p1rirndest ell'ects. . or. in the portal. t o w h i c h r e ( e r e n c ei n d e t a i l h a s a l r e a d v b e e n made. *hr.T h e c o r n e r t u r r e t s o f t h e l r a n s c p t at Poitiers) poiiou tN.l. also. fir thc most interesting and the latest in dats (1r65 r:io). It is quite clear that Leon could not have nrade the leap from N{ozarabic to Romanesque without France.f"i b) the cor.b u t t h e t u r r e t s lirnousin' The being set pointwrse. s u " a ] ' i s s t r o n g l v f ' e l ta l s o a t A v i l a : t 7 hrought l. diaphragm and nare arcadcs carr.ft"t'tuUo.ALr AND TLIE IIOL'l... the imported forms were progressivell hispanized.*t.. a t O v i e d o i n t h e l a t e r constructions of the Cimara Santa.tt. and at Santiago de (. . as the great Spanish buildings went lbrward.r+ at 01'thcse buildings. T h e : r b r u p t v e r t i c a l so f thc pair of crlindrical stlir turrets at the west. on logical grouped piers.rlng screens lt' '' xrches.'. in the v a r i o u s c h u r c h e sa t S o r i a . nf f l f U " i n S e g o r i a ' and at rhe del Burgo' in Zamora' oii. and the boldnessof the hntern give it special character.-ot Burgundr of lhclr trilolstart $orks there. the nave has no clerestorl'..ompostela in the church of Santa Nlaria del Sar (rr44). A good example of this process..connexions with the Loire region.Even more evident are the indices of Poiterin influcnce. beautifullv cmbellished uith figure sculptures i58]. I t i s e r e m p l i f i e d i n t h e c a t h e d r a lo f Ciudad Rodrigo [243J where also the nave is vaulted with Angevin ribbed domes.ti"r. the cathedral of'Ciudad Rodrigo is b1. cledible signs ol. r r4. proofof'continuing 'l'he contacts rvith wcstcrn Francc. In a wlJ'' one Roads tn iunn. with the similar vaulting of the aisles. E i t h e r it u. other fbrms were brought in to modify the design (not ahvavs to its advantage). P6rtico ""p1'of c a s e so f i n s p i r a t i o n of Orense.. The grcrt cffbrt made in Romancsque times b y w a r r i o r s .1ithere are other second hand which have evldent liom Iirance rrt weakncsses. intcrior has domcd-up rib-r'aults resembling Angerin construction.-Dame-la-Grande rowers (resembling the fzrz). The resulting building resembles a P o i t e v i n h a l l c h u r c h .ering is sustained Sr.a. s e t t l e r s . l yi t s c l f t h e s t l l c w a s c a p a b l eo f ' t h e z4j. ' where BurWe turn now to other examples is strong lt is certainl) fi'lt guntliirn influence t at thc elegar'church l ..as used bv a Spanish architect in an eclectic composition. nave. or bt a Burgundian masterin one episode ofa long-continued building enterprise.l-rhrp". carried on substantial piers which remind one of the column-bundles of Poitou. and something 'Ihe of Avilrr [244]' rrt which rvalls tior. The main thcmc of Srrntiago rvas first a c h i e v e di n L a n g u e d o c . carried. with an octagonal lantern towcl over a tunnel-vaulted transept.a still complcte 'lhc1' prescnt u bl subsequent construction' .r.o. Ra'rg . begun rogo seems ratncr San Salrador..nr* i". There are. nourished by the pilgrimage to the tomb of St Nlartin (a popular saint in Spain) and reinlbrced b1' contacts with French pilgrims to Santiag.rcnch masonslo *on. with Burgundian fbrms involved. o1l'the ambulatorv' there or Prorenqal Cusped arches . it was never applied bf itsell i n a r e a l l v l a r g e .ru. as in the case ol'the Prnte6n de los Reyes.t tower of thc cathcrlral a t t h e c a s te n d o f t h e n a v c ' l !m e ) ..n. and the'Apostolado'(rr65) of thc f-agadc Carri6n de los Condes. rzz6 1 . t.STYLES DEPENDENT ON FRANCE 3rlJ sPAIN. The southward expansion ofthe Poitevin st1'lehas alreadv been the subiect o f c o m m e n t . PORTU(.rlier liltlc ohstrtrctco and aonqu. CiudadRodrigoCathedral. r..fi. asdo the rvestern of Angounorth-"".. "nJ suggesl t a n g .s c a l eS p a n i s h b u i l d i n g . 'I'he Spaniards nerer developed a Romanesqr.a n d c c c l e s i a s t i c l i o m B u r s 9u''d!' makes it naturnl to expcct the work of Burgu"dixn architccts and sculptors.' of being rcpopulated.. in rogo' when the cttl .tc stvle strong enough to exclude all importations fiom the design of large works..n nro.LAND 3I9 is triapsidal. Although i n B u r g u r ^ . through change of plan. but the exact incidcnce of the influencc is not easl'' to determine. suggest ths Cathedral was original west front of Santiago that of Le Pu-v Irz8l' but finished offr'athe r like from Burthe P6rtico dc la Glona rvas inspirecl ('eels thc eft'ect of the gundv.. Usuallv.a beginning thc .i*go of Aguas wooden-rool'ed church i. gile a N'Ioorish in thc building . S .

with interruptions. . The narc of San Viccnte has six bavs.:d+. than (. withour prrasitcstru. l b r t h e p r o j e c t i o n h a st h r o e b a t t l e mented passrge-wavs and a machicolatcd g. a n d t h u t s t l g H ( s ta n e r l c r i o r v r e s l t l ' l l transcpt. was planned as a def'encc work fiom thc beqinn i n g . thc San \ricente ". partll Burgunclian. o f b o l d d e s i g n . thc transept \\a( apparentll enlarged eastward.yw l l l . w i r s c l o s c t o t h e c i t . ambulirtor)'. to Gothic timcs I t h a s a p l a r r w h i c h b c c a m e c l a s s i ci n S p a i n sanctuary triapsidal. In the rebuildinel.^rrll e r l .a n d i s m r g ir. groinr. The p. ith ribs on the high r':rult. a pilgrirnarrc 'oe{bie trog. The Rorranesquc cathedral. like a great hood betwecn thc rvestcrn 'l'hc tower ba]'s open lateralll upon thc towcrs.AND magnificcnt Spanish ensemble earlier in 1111. is one of the verl 6nest in Spain. it is of about rr50.ila Cathedral.AL' AND THE HOI-Y I.j. San Vicente at Avilars [u46-8|.) nificentlv imposing [24. r g i n g b 1 s rl n c d tural lincs which thc present Gothic cathcdrnl has inherited) would havc ioined and pcrhrps extended past the line of'curtain u'all erst o1 rhr cathedral.5].a'. e x i i r l b a r . .ast semicircular projcction which containecl thesc elements and 'llso continued thc line of defences: indeed . a n d q u i t c p o s s i h l i .arcassonne. and radiating chirpt'ls were erected within a \.a n d a r e l a t i v e l Yl o n g n a r c .and not nearll 16 Dttlch rcstorccl. parth' Poite\.aultecl.32O sPAIN.r" '-['hcle are other Burgundian featurcs about _ilr L-"' the squ:lrc crossing tower. applied with short sanituarl' bays to a long transept with oblong bal: c t roq and latcr zq6 arfi z.Jluie( (K.1. a lantcrtr t o w e r a t t h e c r o s s i n g .1i ivila. 24. and a spacrOus nelv apse. San Vicentt' lni t:' t'' 4 '= i ltr + projecting rvcll beyond the aisles. now replirced.in in inspiration. A n o r m a l t r i a p s i d a l p l a n ( ) r .5. east\ie$..ru{jm e n t e d t h e m .T h i s w o r k i s o f G o t h i c c l a t e .olgeous \\'cstern portai. b u t i t h a s R o m a n e s q u e c h a r a c t e r . itntl church. twclfth centurr or later. PORTU(. thc high nare with half--Gothic vaulting.4q pier fbrms. rvas begun shcitlr' continucd. It is augw mcntcd by'' r ver-r' Spanish lateral porch antl (crceptionalll-) br a tall opcn vaultcd narthe\ ba\.

San Millin. and in use bv the community planted at Silos in the nineteenth century. ribbed dome resembling Angevin vaults. There was a dedication in ro88.:r Another traditionxl element is the Spanish south porch connected perhaps.122 SPAIN. D a t i n g l r o m t h e t w e l l i h century (and continued perhaps evcn into thc thirteenth). It is now two storeys in height. i n t h e p e r i o d roljq r roo. is another in this series of triapsicl. such as Q:intanilla dc las Vifras but the striking thing is that both rhc masonry and the detail are accomplished Romanesoue.'I'hcse buildings stand in as L6ri<1aand 1'arragona do in their reSnain.48 (0!!0sne)' i r09 and later Avila' San Vicente'' r' ro8{-r roo and later. but not demonstrably. In and near Segoria and Burgos there is a charming group of such porches: Sepirlveda. But the interest at Silos must always have been in the remarkablecloister [249]. with the lateral porches ofSvrian Early Christian churches. traditional RomanIt uas begun in r r5z and ( w i t h s h a l l o w s a n c t u a r i e s i n i l s D r e s e n tl b r m . very heavv walls and contionable ashlar masonr)'. and a superlicial westcrn decoration.San Esteban. PORTUGAL. e s q u et r i a p s i d a l p l a n s . near Santandcr. Santo Domingo de Silos is another site associated rvith line sculpture. and s p c c t i \c d i s tr i c t s ' f o r t h c R o m a n e s q u e received together in transitional Gothic as with Spain. and .b u t q u i t e c r e d i b l l . As finished. The most beautilul ol'its carvingsare those on the north and east walks at the lower level. marked struction (at thc emnhasis on elaboratc lantern towcrs orientalism in thc crossing).a n d t h c d c c o r ' ative zoning are surprisinglv like thoseofa fine late Visigothic church. t h e b u t t r e s s s y s t e m . Santl -I'era Marta de shows this in another way: in l building dated rrzg the plan (a simple cross). cloister SantoDomingo de Silos' (below)" z4g. ro93 ff'. at Sego\la' characteristic tower This is all twelfth-centurl work'22 On the Duero and to lhe south' near thc western border oi the old Kingdom of Leon (the present Hispano-Portuguese border)' there is a group of half--Gothic churches which have because the cathedrals irnd collegiate churches narc in h : r v et h e c a n o n s ' c h o i r a t r h e h e a d o l ' t h e piers in unexcepSpain). Gormaz. The lost church (almost entirelv replaced between rySb ^nd r 8I6) was apparently a small building dating in part from the lifetime of St Domingo (d. and they are the oldest not dating before St Domingo's death in ro73 asArthur Kingslev P o r t e r s u p p o s e d . ro73) but enlarged at both ends.l0 The church of Santillanadel Mar. and marked indelibl-v national characteristics' probablv The cathedral of Ztmorazr lz5ol is a shong and unmistakably Spanish character' ofthe Duero to be rcalized the ol<lestofthe group The laiter include simplc.rl R o m a n e s q u eb u i l d i n g s . AND THE IIOLY LAND 323 . absorbecl. Jarawith a millo de la Fuente. the church had a layout somewhat resembling that of San Vicente at Avila.t h e m a s s i n g . it shows thc Spanish love lbr a sn le once received and given a Spanish cachet.



vault of the lantern is a singlc shell 61 ashlar work with a rib over each of the sixtcsn piers, and a gore over each of the sixtcen s 11_ -l'hc ribs have crestinp;which is drau n uD dows. i n a n o g e e c u r \ e t o t h e a p e x o t t h e t o u e r . 16 . gores and the spirclets (which repeat thc og^ee curve) both have a scale pattcrn on the stonq roofing. At the west enrl of Zamora Cathedral thcre is, lbr constrast, a vcry simple and impo:ing 'fhe squlrc to\\er. east end has unlortunilrl\ been rebuilt, but without spoiling the building. Near by, in the collegiate church of Toro, thc lantcrn of Ztmorr and the more famous onc which had meanwhile been built at Salamanc;r
z5o. Zxnora Cathedral, crossing towcr, ,. I r7,l



':." . i



-,j ,

Cathedral inspired a handsome but less erotic design. I'he church at Toro was built in thc period r 16o rz4o, almost exactly that of' thc cathedral o1'Notre-Dame in Paris. Thc herrr Romanesque walls and piers of Toro, its triapsidal chevet with short three-bav nave, sh()rt t u n n e l - r , a u l t e dt r a n s e p ta r m s a n d r i b b e d l o b u l , r r and dome d vaults, are in marked contrast to thc Parisian building, which was already on thc threshold of the High Gothic style. 'l'he l a r r t e r n a t T o r o h a s t w o s t o r e y so l ' u i n dows, like that of Salamanca, but it is finished offrather lamelv by a flat drum and simple rile 'I'here roof. is a great show of cusping on thr windows of' the drum, contrasting with ball ornament on thc corner turrets. porch at There alc two latclal portals and an arr.tl 'Ioro. The north portal has threc

dedicated in

and Gaya Nufro think that the architect was not a Spaniard, perDoor irnd the crossing tower is self'-conscious



haps becausethe orientolism of the Bishop's and exap;gcratedrather than intimately understood. Yct the building is eclectic as Spanish designcrs' work often is. The transept l-agade has a strong Poitevin imprint; the interior is simple and perf'ect Burgundian half-Gothic. It has becn sholrn in an exccllentstudt'r'that the lantcrn at the crossing was inspired in part by the domc over thc Crusadcrs' transcpt at the Church of the Holr, Sepulchre in Jerusalem (dcdicated in rr-19), though the pcndentives and thc gored panels in the ribbed dome are spccial variants of' French and Mosleln work respecti\ cl\'. Shortll aftcr its first eonstruction, corner turrets and axial grrblcswcre ldded to the crossi n g l o l r c l a l Z a m o r l . a n d t h u s i t s c x t e r i o rc a m e r o r e s c m b l e t h e c r o s s i n gt o w e r o f t h e . l \ l o n t i e r neufat Poiticrs, a vcrv influcntial design lz5rl. One window of the lantcrn rvas obscured by cach of'the lbur corner turrots, lcavin.q twelve windorvs open thrce bctween each pail oftur-

figured archivolts, two ofcusping with a figulc in every cusp, and all radiating like the figr.rrcs of'a Poiterin portal, but set ofi'by alternating archivolts of'Moorish leafage.:5 -Ihe spread ofthe characteristic lantern motrl of Zrmort in the Duero region brought it trt S a l a m a n c a ,w h e r e i t i s r c p r e s e n t c d , w i t h r a r i ations, in thc crossing tower and the formct' c h a p t e r - h o u s eo f t h e O l d C a t h e d r a l , b o t h d a t c d s h o r t l - vb e l b r e r 2 o o . T h e l a s t i m p o r t a n t m c d i eval example is the thirteenth-century chapterc I I40 z5r. Poiters, Montierneuf, renrains ofcrossing tower




house of the cathedral of plasencia, whcre it is called 'el Mel<in' because of' the lobcs in the yault. Instinctively one fcels that the great lantern_ tower of the old cathedral of Salarnan ca fzqz, 25JJ is the masterpiece ofthe series. T.he aesthe_

at Salamanca.n. .n r..h * ,,. f ,i,. ornament Salamanca Ercatest of whenth" .itrl" earl.v conrribu(ions intellecrual ,n.t to lifc 1..,..,1 t'u' d e r e l o p n r e n le r e e i n g m a d e r b o u t w b r2oo-

variedrhatzama, as of or riiTJ,T"lJill.-::: wasachicr ed

tic background ofthe cath

r"q 0 (.athcdrrl, :ir i 5 ! . S a h m a n c a ,t d I o r r c d c l G r l l o , s l r o r r l rh c l b r er z o o











Salamanca, an ancient Roman town, was held by the Moors until about ro5o. Under Alfonso VI a special effort was made about r roo to develop it, and it was repopulated under Raymond of Burgundy. The architecture of the cathedral may owe something to a tradition started by a French archbishop, Jer6nimo of P6rigord, before r rz5. Anticipations of its elements are found in Poitou, Languedoc, and Burgundy, b u t t h e b u i l d i n g p o s s e s s ea m a t u r e s p i r i t o f i t s s own as an accomplished Spanish work of art [254]. The warm but proud and unyielding mass of the beautiful procession of nave piers makes one forget that their originals are Poitevin ; the grave and severe succession of pointed

alitv of its architect, Pedro Petriz, ro be anr_ thing but Spanish.rn The building was begun about rr5z nn,1 finished early in the thirteenth centurl-. Peclrq Petriz is mentioned in r 163 or r r64 in the nill o l ' a S a l a m a n t i n ee c c l e s i a s t i c e l a w h o d i r e c t c d V the sale ol various assets fbr the work of thc 'sic cimborio quomodo dixerit PetrusPetriz quc de bet esse'. A Peter was master of the works in rrEz, rrgz, rzoz, tnd rzo7. Gudiol irnd Gala Nuio believethat the first master (responsible lbr the generous layout, with an outer porch. fir'e nar,c bays, and a transept extending a firll ba-y to each side of the nave and the triapsichl sanctuary) was influenced bv the School of' Avila; that Pedro Petriz, who took o\:er rhc building when the walls had been raised to l certain height, possessed more genius, and a bent towardsZamora. \mong Spaniartls the crossing tower go(\ 'l'orre under the name of del Gallo becausc of 'Ihe its rveather cock. tower has two storevs ot rvindows under a lobulated ribbed vrrultof sirt e e n c e l l s w h i c h c a r r i e s a s l i g h t l l , ' c o n v e xe i g h r sided fish-scale roof of stone with crockets on the arrises. This roof is in fact a separate shcll of corbel construction weighing down the 'fhe haunches of the ribbed dome. interspacc was filled with rubble. The thrusts of rhe dome are picked up by wide pilaster-like forms bchind the corner turrets, and b1'a projccting blr enclosing the middlc rvindow on cnch of' thc c a r d i n a l s i d e so f t h e r o w e r . ' f h e b a 1 ' s . . r rle a d c d o b 1 ' w e l l - d e s i g n e d g a b l e s ,t h e t u r r e r s b y c o n i c a l rool-s which increase their resistance as but-

our consideration the area There remains for '; 'l hc rural de Compostcll about Santiago ot Galicia has a rarc charm' but f,-orrn.rqu. building in that rcmotc ,h.r. it no firsr-rate tiom Slntiago The rirrtousmoter e g i o na p a r t produccd lht Romanesquc ol' mlnt. wt,iclt - including Santiago ('athedral itself Sprin 'l'he in these minor buildings' ,.fl..t.d "r. still has its battlecathedral of'I'6v, lbr instance, Lugo and Orense Cathedrals are tardy ments. indeed the Romanesque and half-Gothic is pleserved evcn to the flavour ofRomanesque works' fifteenth century in rural Galician Santa Maria del Campo in La Coruia and a Santa Maria at Cambre in the province have Thel- are, in fact, rather like the local interest. handsome Romanesque of near-b1. Portugal, which is worth)-ofstudY on its own account'

captured Lisbon in rr47 and held it, despitc N{oorish resurgence which gare much troublc r to Sancho I, his successo(rr85 rzlr). After struggles with the Moors, the Spaniards, and P o o e I n n o c e n t I I I . t h e d c f i n i t i r e b o u n d a r i c so f ' continental Portugal were reached and the During kingll' office assumed by Aflbnso III in Iu63' this process the Portuguese followed the policl-'of'repopulation with fbreigners (manr' ol' thcm French pilgrims and rdr enturers) which was so success(ulin Spain' It was Aflbnso I Henriques, ruler fiom r rz8 to r t85, who built the enduring core ofthe state, as his grandfather Alfonso VI had done in Spain. Many of the Romanesque churches date from this prosperous and effective reiP;n. Allonso Henriques's birthplace, the castle ofGuimaries, is realll' the cradle of Portugal lt goes back to g27, but was rebuilt by Henry I about rroo. and may'still be seen to-day, the finest example of Romanesque fbrtification in ifnot in the Peninsttla lts bold austere battlementcd towers are lull ofthe severit! of the time, and enormously picturesquc' Near b-v is the little nave-and-chancel church of Sio Portugal Miguel clo Castelo, where, probably, Affonso H e n r i q u e s w a s b a p t i z e di n r r I I . r o The rise o[ the towns' which occurrcd in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries in Portugal, is aptl-\ illustrated by a contemporary monument (about rzoo) theDomusMunicipalisorCouna c i l H a l l a t B r a g r r n q l z 5 5 l . T h i s u n i q u ee x a m p l c of'civic architecture (in plan rlther like a fivesided pocket, on account of'an irregular site) is placed over a cistern adioining t he castle church' In function it resembled an abbey chapterhouse; like a chapter-house it h:ts a stone bench 'fhe intcrior is tworunning cntirelv around it. and wooden-rool'ed''fhus it waspossible naved. to carry a gallery with thirty-cight windows en-. tirel.v round it at the top of the wall a rare mottl among existing buildings, but already reported i n A b b o t O d i l o ' s d o r m i t o r - va t C l u n l . l r o 4 l . ' I h e ro'15 n a r r l l e l b e t u e e n r h e t w o c o n s t tu c t i o n so f

G P O R T U AL It might hale been expected that Portugal, as the Reconquest went forword, would become a part of Christian Spain, in spite of its somewhat more Celtic stock and the rather more orienlal c h a r a c t e ro f t h e c o u n t r v . T h e C o u n t l ' o f P o r t u ' gal (Portucalia. tlking its name tiom O Porto, the Port) rvas retaken in ro5.5 64, and Allbnso VI of Spain gave it to Henrv of Burgund-v in Iog5 as a plrt of the dowrv of his daughter Teresa. This gave Alfonso \iI a certain protection against the Nloors, uho still hsld cons i d e r a b l e e r r i t o r i e st o t h e w e s to ( h i s d o m i n i o n s ' t On Alfonso \ l's death in t totl scparatism(lcveloped at oncc. The Irrench colonizers, who only succeedcd in gallicizing the court in Spain' reached indepcndcnt status in Portugal ln rr43, under Henrv of Burguncll"s son, Aflbnso I Henriqucs, Portugal achievcd an indcpendencewhich was onlv lost (and temporarily) to Philip Il and \apolcon I. Affonso I{cnriqucs extended the countrl' southward tiom the old bounclarl' on the Nilondego to the'l'agus, rvhere r'r'ithcrr'rsaderhelp he

254. Salamanca, Old Cathedral, nave, tweltih centurv nave arches, clerestory windows, and halfGothic vaults makes one forget that they' are Burgundian and Angevin; the crossing tower, though suggested by that of Ztmora, and ulrimately by the crossing tower of the Montierneuf at Poiters, is too deeph'stamped with the origin-

tresses, and break the silhouette ofthe tower in thc most admirable manner. The construction of the enormous nelv Late Gothic clthedral. begun in r5r3, involved clippingthe norrh trans e p t a n d a i s l eo f t h e o l d c h u r c h , b u t o n e m a y b e sure that the architects who left the remainder o f t h c b u i l d i n g i n p l a c e d i d s o b e c a u s eo f t h c general affcction in which it has alwavs bcen held.







.l.l r

a n d r 2 o o p o i n t s t o t h e r e l a t i v e c o n s e r v a t i s mo f cir ic architecture.j' Braga, the capital of Portugal from ro9-3 to rr47, was placcd in thc ccclesiastical province w o1'Santiago, hen the archbishopric was set up i n r r z o a t t h e e x p e n s eo f ' t h e a n c i c n t d i e n i t v o l -

influences we find that the cletail is Romanesq 1rc 'fhe sameis truc fbr the church of'Cedofcitl in O p o r t o ( r r z o i ) ; a t F e r r e i r a t h e n c r . ri n l l u c n t t . have brought a Poitevin apse.3(, The local building material, granitc, is x1 course similar to that in Galicia; hencc thc

gl*w*k*;"ilH'&, o*.ffi
:5.5.I3ragangaX{unicipal Hall, r. r:oo ,

256.CoimbraC.athedral, begrtnt I6z. from thc north-ucst P o r t u g u e s eb u i l d i n g s a s a r u l e , l i k e t h e G a l i c i a n , are wisely kept simplc, ancl whcrc elaborate sculptural clle'cts are (by exception) sought fbr.. the lbrms show the limit:rtions o1' rhe hard material r er1'clearly. P i l g r i m a g e a n d B u r g u n d i a n R o m a n e s q u ei n _ f l u c n c e s h o r r t h e m s e l r si n t h e m o r e a m b i t i o u . s e P o r t u g u c s eb u i l d i n g s . rI S i o S a l v a d o r ,- I r a v a n c i r ( r ' . r r 5 o . ) ) a n d S i o P e d r o , R a t e s( a f t e r r r 5z) are 'fravanca triapsidal with thc traditional deen r e c t a n g u l a r a p s e o tn e a x i s .B o t h c h u r c h e s a r e h h the familiar grouped piers ancl pointed arches, though the1. were never vaulted. Even more naturallv do Pilgrimage and Bulgundian inflr-re n c e sc o m e t o t h e c a t h c d r a l s u h i c h F e r c b u i l t progressivcll' as the conquest and repopuhtion went forward. until, south of the Duero, the Iate date brings in Gothic architecture instead. S o m e t h i n g r e m a i n s o f t h e c a t h e d r a lo f B r a g a ' a triapsidal truilding originrlll begun about t r o o , a n d c o n n e c t e d w i t h S a n t i a g ot h r o u g h t h e legend that Sio Pedro de Rates, a supposed disc i p l e o f S t J a m c s ,w a s t h c o r i g i n a l f b u n d e r o f t h e church in Braga. At Oporto a similar triapsidal cathedral church has been almost complctely transformcd. ,{t Lisbon there has becn much rcbuilding, but the cathsdral has been understandingll'' restorcd to something like its original fbrm. It s t a n d sp r e t t i l v o n a s l o p e a n d s t i l l d o m i n a t c s i t s quarter with a well-proportioned two-tower l a q a d ea n d p o r c h . T h e n a v e h a s a n a i s l c t o c a c h side; therc is a transept with a lantern, and'

\ I 6 r i d a ; b u t t h i s m e r e l y r e c o g n i z e ca n e r i s t i n g l state ol'affairs. Artistic influences had long bcen coming lrom Asturias and Galicia. We have in_ dicated that the tenth-centur.r, church of l.ou_ r o s a i s t h e b c s t e x i s t i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i r . eo f t h e Santiago Cathcdral which was built between 'l'he 86r and Ug6. s i m p l e r R o m a n e s q u ec h u r c h e s carr'\' on the schcme so often used in the small Asturian buildings, of a nare, and a smaller s h e d l i k e s a n u u : r r y b e y o n d ( e . g .S i o M i g u e l d o C a s t e l oa t G u i m a r i e s , r . r r o o ) ; b u t u n d e r n e w

t"or".:i not in a Gothic centurv. Work was begun on the Se Velha in r16z. In this casethe Portuguese architects produced a characteristic variation on the theme of Santiago de Compostela.. jult alier Santiago Cathedral was finished. glvrng Lrp the frivolouschiralrl.5 . _ i].s ma ' u ttshtingplatformthere.ault. and serious help was given to individuals and to the Christian Levantine states.encouraged recruitment. and provided income lbr the grert work ofdefence.. Tr-pl.as al_ ready under corrst.nave bays.. At Evora a spacious cathedral was started in the Romanesque sr1.. Decorative a. and soon thc Order rl'as establishcd in irlmost all thc kingdoms o1'I-atin Christcndom. St Bernard b sponsorcd the morement.r.o . o b e d i e n c e . it becapl6 a polrerful international institution with establi<hments rvhereler crusrrding enthu- fir'e.32 Lisbon cathedral shared two masters.Bernardo.p..min"l p.i"g in the south beyond the... an ambulatory of Gothic ribbed con_ struction with radiating chapels. The church is.of e c t i n g b a 1 ' a t e a c h e n d ' a n d t h r e e a p s e s. and the l(ht which it sheds un the head end of the church is a happy f earure ot. Robert and...oao Crit. robbers and sacrilegious. in Portugal to fortifiedTomar' at the time still close the who backto r r6z. ( r 8 . *. There were EnglishandFlemingsinthepilgrimbandwhich c a p t u r e d t h e c i t y i n t t 4 7 ..1"1_?fhas the last of the peninsular "l:. late with the addition of a navein the fantastic Gothic and transitionalstylc called Portuguese Manuelino. quadrant_r.rd aisles of six bays. ten and ele'enth examplesof the tenth 6odest .r. a r r a n g e m e n to f c e n t r a l r o t u n d a a n c la n n u l a r a i s l e craftsmen. I t s t i l l r e t a i n s i t s s e v e r ew e s t f r o n t . founded b-r-Hugh oi Pa1'ns. ultimatrll. dome covers rockl outcrop stcred to the }{oslcms because a Mohammed is said to have ascended to hcaven from it but the rock is bclieved to have been sacrctl in Jewish times also.#.andthereisatunnervaultwithrransrcrse arches over the nave.1n{ impious men.t ot Grand Nlaster the Order of pri. lthough the church a was buil between r r5g and rzz3. R S ' I e m p 1 1 1 s i n B a l d u i n I I ' s p a l a c ea d j o i n i n g t h e l ) o m e 1 ) f 1 5 s R o c k . t h e v a u l t o f t h e c a t h e d r a la n d t h u.'.TlT:r . Both of' the mo5qvss (churches under thc C.uctiorr. The sanctuarl.St Bcrnard's list) who overllooded the Holl.r"ntttt still existing the churchot rhc Coni'uifainst 'l'omar 257':58 " G traldino l' | ]Jn.omes over the aisres. Joined soon after by other knights. e s p e c i a l l yw h e n s e e n rrrnr th.n -"a. a It takcs one part ol'its name from a rvood-built centritl dome carried on a cvlindrical wall 'l'hc piercc{ b1' columnar arcades. and it washe ti. .A N D T H E H O L y L A N D sr \ LEs DEeENDl. square and rib_r. Both Orders had dependencies in Europe which served pilgrims and wa1''farers.1: very elegant and harmonious. O.332 S p A I N .norv called the 56 Velha becauseits func_ tion has been transferred to a newer building. but in additionthc 1'r:mplars l"rn-or. it has the Latin character and the fastidious warmth which we have mentioned in speaking of the finest Spanish Romanesque buildings.rr.jl The great quarities of the 'ery spacious cistercian abbey: church at Alcobaga.1si5 t the Church of the Holl' Sepulchre.lntl in searchof'salvation and plunder..erencehas already U.il.a n d l a t e r ) . . t h e w a l r s rise shecr' and they are crowned vigorouslv and prettill'' with Moorish battlements (cubes or square parrrllelepipeda bo'e the parapet' a linished with pvramidal blocks). do at \lcobaqain architcctttrc-here ^f'Cirr.le in r rg5 or r rg6 and consecrated in rzo4. In rrrg thel'undertook the obligation to protect pilgrims on the Palestinian roads.have made the building intcresting to historians of Early R e n a i s s a n c ea r c h i t e c t u r e w i t h o u t r e a l l y spoil_ i n g i t .b u t the superstructure. fbr the Romanesque w a s s t i l l b e l o v e d i n p o r t u g a l c l u r r n gt h e Gothic period. 1'he lantern.fagus. built about r:s: when the wonderful chevet ofBeauvais cathcdral was being reconstructed. L } . Ralph of Hastings. is carried high..) and the'Distant'X{osque el \qsa esque architecturc to the Near East.ribbedconstruction)atransfiguration. they banded thems e l v e st o g e t h e l t o l i r e i n c h a s t i t y . T h e i n t e r i o r .murderers.irn fotrugtl. p O R T U G A L .fhe church hrs u . protection' and charitable care which the Orders perlblmed in the East NIediterranean area. The 'Poor Knights of the Christ and the Temple of Solomon' are remembered fbr con'l'he Order was siderable works of building. a n d i t r v a so n e o f t h e Englishmen. r o 1 . to which ref. one might well cat thc hall church (here so magnificentrl represenrerr insturdl. yet the cathedral s i a s mc o u l d b e s t i r r c d .lditiorrs by' 'Joio de Ruio' (Jean de Rouen) and his school carlv in the sixteenrh centur). .i1. The orr.:f "1. Onll thc clergv m i g h t c n 1 s 1t h e d o m e d s a n c t u a r y .and a strong c. 59 r ( m i s c a l l e dt h e N l o s Since we are about to lbllow Flcnch Romanque ol (161r. who began the construdion of the cathedral in r r 5o.enturles' t" erample u c 6nd thisoutstrnding ntl. g-i" .?il.rrT.[. its rule was sanctioncd 11 the Council of'l'roves. not an Engrish buitding.ri..i: abore the .b1'the military Orders of Templars and Hospitallers. . irh . supported of'course on .-r. inspired tiom thc Rotunda ot the Anast. periurers and adulterers' (to grv(. -{t J crusalem quirrtcrsu ere earll gir cn to thc A T H ET E M P L A R S N D T I I E H ( ) S P I T A t .. Except fbr a corbel table or..a Burgundian.ruffi i:1H:. .is_ tercian or other Burgundian rnfluence in thc plan and in many of the details.. and Godefroy of Saint-Omer in the north of'France. however.of'the dav'to 'l'he-v fight for the true and suprcme King'. ir was possible ro pave ribbed . this is an appropriate place to consider the reflex from the great intcrnatitrnal another pilgrimage pilgrimage and series of Crusades to the Holv Land. by one of thc finest of thcir "i. and povertv ilccording to the rule ofSt Benedict. Thc mosquc calledthe Dome of. with corner turrets and a proiecting shallow tower_ like mass comprehending the <ieepl...rusaders) 'l'emple ancl otr occasion the porticoes of the platfbrrn entered into the Templars' pattern tbr church building in the Ordcr. has been rebuilt. which 11'g1g oth available thcre... but are 'l'his bouncled b1'an octagonal extcrior wall.rasterpieceof Nloslem architecture.'.256].er the portal a n d s m a l l a r c h e si r t t h e w i n d o w s . a transept with a t.N l oN FRANctE i-l-l bevond. o t h e r w o r shippcrs rcmaincd in thc aisles(also woodenrooted) which envelop the cylindcr.. had man! rr'c1xi1s lrorn the vagabond crowd of 'rogues .ihii cimborios in the Romanesque tradition. ( e i g h t h c e n t u r . suffused with an elegance w}ich betokens an appreciation of the delicacy resem oSan brgthat in f : ffiT"'[1'5:..d goll.l it aisles. The resulti.::11 dral of Eoo.'. The churchgoes Moorishfrontier. b o t h o n t h e i m p o s i n g r o c k p l a t l b r m u ' h e r eS o l o m o n ' s T e n r ple an3 thc later templcs all had stood. bv the genius of poitou.rhe interioreffect. On account of the mild climarc of coimbra." ."-' embrasured main portal and rvcst window of the church. rhe transept er_ tending beyond them.ralities. was not captured from the Moors until r166..que qr. Bclbre long it had rich eq{6s'rpents and cxceptionirl privilcgcs.r elecrecl in rr5o.. of the F-irst Romanesque hail church type which we have followed in harf:Gothic. u'ith the cathedral of coimbrarr [." il."k . o'J _.v . when the sanctuary of paris Cathedral s. . a i r .rr.the Rock is a great n.rr. .aulrccr.rr.. unfortunately i. which is without a clerestory. has a verv different temper from the robustBurgundian sanvicenteantltheopulent of xloslemarr on rhepart of its designers and Languedocian santiago. ont. These movements werc' greatlv facilitated.

ll""a. London. It was built as a rotunda at about r r5o. The odd arcadcd court. (lhurch ofthc Conventodo Cristo. 'I'he great Tcmplar church of the Con.. and has a rib-vaulted apse at thc free in a remarkable arcaded The church stands porcourt which recalls (with a difference) the ticoesofthe'Iemple platform in Jerusalcm . already mcn_ tioned. this church been mentioned. but cxtended by a porch and a vast choir later on.r. 'fhe stvle here is half_ Gothic. or perhaps to the atrium of a mosque. plan (K. with some Moslem detail. The octagon is well it has no interior compartment.d near Roads lrom France all joined' It was a crimage not a'femplars' church. T'omar. iilgrims' burial church.p r o i e c t i n ga p s e sl o w a r d l.like those of a normal church' Thc .a' .. and not one of them ever rated high as an archi_ tectural masterpiece. Their establishments were like contemporary conyentual structures. 'I'emplars' Church. is a notable exception.Laon. .C. in ls twotttt small central compartmenl . Like Cistercian architecture.r. dated about r I6o.t. which stands beside the little wide-naved church of San Juan de Duero may be related to Eunate. except. it is ribbut east' vaulted. has a sixtcen-sided exterior aisle wrappecl round an arched octagonal tower-like structure which serves as sanctuary. consurvives. tros flourishcd in Nararre under The Templars 'I'he octagon at the Wise (rr5o-94)' Sancho to his time Eunalc'. shrinc In England one well-known'Iemplar -l'emple Church. The greatest church of the 'l'emplars in France was that in Paris. John of Jerusalem. and often augmented later by a choir or nave.2581. with little or norhing specifically T'cmplar.J. anothcr orders. or by both.uoJ. at Templar church ol'the Vera Crtz 11 the the ambulatorl is sixtecnSpain a. under the influence of the ihJugh cle"tly built proportioned.cnto do Cristo ar Tomarr5 [257.) and sancuan. is iunate may well belong Puente la Reina' whcre the Pillitu. The church belonged to the Hospitallers of St of thc militarl. and quite lost the enchantment of'their oriental originals.t.l.[) iii ii it u-57 and z-58.l. the 'femplars' works tend to be monotonous. the was used by the Templars in a limited number of their most important churches. N{ore familiar among the Tcmplars' churches is the octagon at Laon. The real architectural geniusof the West never took on the'femplars' problem as such.. 'I'he older part ofthe church.ll. is givcnfor this building''" ir. in northern Francerr hasalreadl' [259]. the church. r. r I6o the connexion is not proved and the arrangement is not in its original condition. Templars. a n d t h e r e a r e .-)Ja -]15 O S T Y L E SD E P E N D ! ] N T N F R A N C E I d-Lt5ri/r-g ili li -ii - LILLLU J. begun between rr5o and rr6z. but z5g. occasionally. destroyed the Revolution..t. The I'emplars built vaulted churchcs in the Romanesque or Gothic idiom of their times.

The pilgrims wcrc olien both poor irnd sick. 1 ' h e H o s p i t a l l c r s a c t u a l l l a n r c 'l'emplars.onsiclered remarkablc secrated in churches rr85. with myrirds of buildings of'all sorts.rr It dor' not include a hospice. One striking Commanderv is preservcd. conscqucntlv the dettnce erpcdition' but thc should bc an orglnrzcd and ultiPalestine was much more diflicult' great waves of'em<ltion which rvere generateo end brigandage b1 matell hopeless Perfidy great sent throngs eastward prematurcll ' with . t h e l h el d . rcsulted in thc establishment of a nunrber ot L a t i n s t a t e sr u l e d b y . a n d a s w i t n e s s e so t l t ' C r u s a d e s .tl the Hospitallcrs also participated in thc cons l r u c t i o n o l h r s t i t l e s .ooo . S t Scpulchre. r. rz6o.r" 'l'cmplar 'Comnrndcr'1--' survives comNo pletc. 'I'hcre ln il 'Ihe was precedent tbr thc enterprlse Crusaders missed thcir earl-v thcir strcngth.. antl 'with man) towers that scentc(l \'largat (r'. but such a group rvould bc easil. at Saint-Andrf it Luz. t t h c n e d c a s t l c s . rr rg r27z. The knights thcn. b u l k o f t h e i r p r o p e r t y p a s s e dt o t h e O t d c r 1 . S o m e e s t a b l i s h m e n t sw e r c l i k e m a n o r s .. having been organizrd dated the '1har about rrr. nrtmbcrs. ort.1:). Northampton.rqu.l-not madc lrcll-reasoncd territorics'and were lhe gorernment ol' their while t h u J a t t h e m c r c l o f i n t er n e c i n e i e a l o u s i c s ' of the AntipoPe Clcment III' clisunitecl in ro99' reassembled th. a r l 1L . tzoo z6r. Io7.STYLES DEPENDENT 0N 336 LAND sPAIN. whereas ot.:.lk des Chevaliers(after rr4z. b r S a n t r X .uniit lo capturc Dam:rscus Near though the troops were not sent to thc cut the \loslem dominions *'hi. 1'emplars and losses and suffering Later the distress somewnat' mitigated sr-rch Hospitallcrs b1 r o97 thele A great military ellbrt came earl-v. he proabbors fiom Francc. sccular and ecclesiastical. in Constantinople on thcir *. I t 3 o . Urban II.T h e h o s p i c e w a s l o c a t e d ..'I'hc Temple Church. and it had the efl'cct ol re-uniting Western Christcnclom behincl Urban II at the expense TIIF. z6 NovFirst Crusacleat Clermont-Fcrrand on lrche m b e r t o 9 5 .5o. F r e n c h d v n a s t s r e a l l r .ogq.rselres would havc quartcrs rescmbling those of I mona s t e r l ' o f ' t h e t i m e . ..later rebuilt). Quarters like those of the monastery scrvants would be provided fbr thc servitors and garris o n . . r'. i s a g o o d e x a m p l c o f t h c E . IOLYLA\D I Examples of French Romanesquearchitectrtre t s t i l l e x i s t i n t h e I I o l l l .r.*. u s t s o u r h o f t h e C h u r c h o 1 .rt.r. but its grim still haltR o m a n e s q u ef b r m s a n d i t s l b r t i f i e d c h u r c h r l c otherwise very expressivc. who' after a iournef Parma through lirance along a route burgeonln!i churches. . a n d i t s o o n h a d a c c o m m o d a t i . c o n f i r m e d b l P o p c P a s c a lI I i n F e b r u a r l o f t h .with stronpi Burgundian and othcr R o m a n e s q u e r e m i n i s c e n c e s .''understandablc on thc basis of'what we know of monastic architecturc. L o n d o n .n g l i s h Gothic sty'le. pilgrims including the archbishop of Tooo in point of It"i. N{url. i n t e g r a t e c lw i t h t h c c h u r c h . the Hospitallcrs especiall-vcarcd (irr sur[ 'Palace of the Sick' in unfbrtunates in their J r : r u s a l e m . thc fleets ot With considerable support fiom Crusade'r hosts the Italian maritime cities thc on I5 Jul!aclvanced. and sentiment fr3m Pope. and the supposed Hospitallers' church of Little Nlaplestcad (r'.A n o b l o n g c h o i r was added in the (iothic style about rz4o. historv. nounced a remarkable tddress in Romance' and making a drarnatic cali upon Iirench picty 'fhe was enormous' response chivalric pride. e a g l e sl n d v u l t u r e s a l o n t could rcach its ramparts'. . After the suppressionof the 111. Ital-v. I n fications. the grcxt fbrtrcsses at thc Kr. clcs('heralters.' It was Urbitn's plca that the Crusade of ('hristirrn irr two. rzoo) [z{rrl. r zoo) t o s u s t a i n t h e s k y . ( i o .At this late perit. .1. r t 1car.b u t t h c l a t t e r t r e p r o p ( ' r l \ studied under thc herding of civic planning and design in the Gothic epoch.:r. In r 16o John of Wiirzbursleports 2ooo sick and rvounded being carcd Ior there. '-**r-*"&rsjw . wa-vto the Holy Land. the Iirst Nlaster of Ilouse of God the Hospital fbr the supporr of' p i l g r i m s a n d t h e n e c c s s i t i e so f t h e P o o r ' . r r 1 . but no charactcristie architccture. In Er. t h o u g h a s p i r i t u a l m o v c m e r l t . preached the with new Ro*"n. anrong othcrs. about z5o bishops and about and Spain.t h eH o l y S e p u l c h r e .rropc the Hospitallers had vast posscssions. PORTUGAL' AND THE HOLY FRANCE -13/- 'Iemplars. C a n r b r i d g cS t S e p u l c h r ci. and capturecl Jertrsalem 'Ihe-v weeks befbre L-lrban II died .rppnr. lvith ir mortalitl of liftl'a da1''l'he H o s p i t a l l e r s l b u g h t a l s o . l a r i aL a t i n a . group. alongl with three relatcd thc Norman rotunda ol'St Sepul- c h r e . C r m b r i d g e ( b u i l t a b o u t r r 3 0 ) [ z ( r o ]. 1 ' the Knights Hospitallers ol' St John of'-lrrLrr s a l e m( b 1 ' r 3 z o ) . thel Palestinc the 1'cmplars manned Crusader lbrtilrcquently built irnd streng- Francc by loose colonial empire attachcd to lt wls a !rench biood. Gcrard.a s n e c d a r o s e . r n fbr 75o sick poor.h *uuid harc E.oldicrs a.1 bv Gregor]' YII'-alforce gathercd in lnd \lcppo' . l n t h e p r e s e n c eo f l b u r t e e n '+oo bishops. w@' :'.w h i c h .*o arrangemcnts fbr ha. in t ott'1. The Krrk clcs Cheraliers.

portal of its south fagade. and ass i s t e d i n t h e c o n s e c r a t i o na t C l u n y ' I I I i n r o g . @ (] H. on the east-\\rsr a x i s o f t h e R o t u n d a o f t h e A n a s t a s i s . l'he best-known construction which resulted is the Crusadcr enlargemcnt of the Church of the Holy.\IE tl i i' : : io xsr. 1 5 8 h r 1 1 .rnsuccessfull-v tried to set up a state like the Papal Patrimony.toner. PORTUGAL. 6 t h e P a t r i a r c h N l o d e s t o s . 'fhe Crusaders rcplaced these lpses with a Jolg trxnsept entered through the frmous clouble thc most lamiliar aspect of the church. which is for us b1 lirr 'lhg lagade is flanked on the east b't' a small domcd vestibulc.. h o l v e v e r . ffi.s t o r c d t h e T o m b o f C h r i s t . who had accompaniedUrban II to France.:l7 rrr NN Irru f_l Latt.r- l . Daimbert.and on the wcst bv a belfrl. Emperor Constantine \lonomachos.a s n r a l l dome was built (the model lbr the lantcrn rrt Zamora\ and the cilst-west aris rras further th' . and r.w C ALVARf '. AND THE HOLY LAND irresponsible Christians made it necessary for the Moslems to destrol' the Crusader states.5 -?-. Sepulchrel2 [262.:r1 .in.a n d i n r o .. FIe 1. *Sb{ r* * L t *-t ''i tt l' "l$r-:il}* .' * '. a n d a l i e r t h c m a n ncr of its kind.r rNrr#'h. . Jerusalem itself was lost in r r87.4" $f *. r I49' Church of the HolJ' Sepulchre' dedicated t ^tanstt! ) and 2o3.". 1'he originrrl Constantinian Martl-rion had been destlolq4. A theocratic government was first attempted under the former bishop of Pisa. i.. and its Kingdom came to an end in t244.u' ffi W*Wfr CENTURY | +tH ll.{'Zr' .rcldgfl n e w a p s e so n t h e e a s t e r n s i d e o f t h e R o t u n t l a .338 sPAIN. . . transept oI Crusa'1ers' "I5"4"'o' n *---r sq str N -. & . succeeded in gaining considerable fiscal advantages. 263]. and the Rotunda twice rebuilt . He came to Palestinc with the Pisan fleet.5 .w a s a l w a v ss t r o n g .'Ihe e c c l e s i a s t i c a li n t e r e s t . \t the crossing of the transept. t h e R o t u n c l aa b q n l it.:rwrt . and the ambulatory' with radiating chapel5 on its wcstern side besides which he ."l. Jerusalem.(rr4 . This meant ample resources for building.

r o u p e d p i e r s . In passing. which is also unusurl " i' 1-rTge s .t h e C r u s a d e r st o the Rorunda of ro45 8 which they took oyer was a fairlv spaciousbuilding. rvith scroll-work and figures. the crypt of the Martyrion basilica survived as the Chapel o[ St Helena. ' b u i l d u p ' i n t o d o m e sa n d t u u e r s o f t\picall\ this t1'pe. T h i s g i s a d o m e d b a s i l i c a p o s s e s s i n p .'aoa. The beautit'ul south doorways ofthe transcpt ofthe Church ofthe Holy Sepulchre are exccptional in their richness.-v supcrlicial and literary resemblances when practical and structural elemcnts do not corres-I'his objection is valicl in the case of Arpond. a convinced 'Westerncr' inclined to place high discounts on theories of clirect influence. Bevond the apse. ar* cading after a fire of r8o8.a n d t h i s . pointed arches. at that time the actrral oriental inlluencc was relatively small. Ramleh. and sold to Gu!' de Lusignan. and the Rotunda..cngal-half-Poitevin transept and sanctuarl' to the Gothic bell-tower. . Four rcigning sovereigns of French nationality were present. recall early twelfihcentury Toulousan work. t h e s u p e r f i c i a l a p p e a r a n c eo f t h e b u i l d i n g s i s sometimes quite similar to Romancsque.t " u l t e d n .e bays with a tunncl vault with trans\. t . brought lrom the tomb to the multitude waiting. Supposed derivations too often repose on guesswork and suPerficial resemblanccs. the designers were obviouslv men in close communication with the motherland. which took place on r5 July rr49. with seleral clstles. The dome of the Chapel of St Helena projected upward into rhe garth of the cloister of a monastcry built fbr Augustinian canons who served the Holl'Sepulchre. l u n i a cp r i o r y c h u r c h o n M o u n t T a b o r ( n o u destroyed) had western towers provided rvith small interior chapels. C a e s a r e aG . i s q u i t e g e n e r a l i n t h c C l r r saderchurches. in the darkened Rotunda. this form. Exterior accessto the Calvary chapel was through the small domed vestibule already mentioned. The cathedrul of Beirut (now the chief old mosque of the citl ) is fairly typical.though disfigured in parts. lbr instance' at St . and served bv the choir ambulatory. although t h e r e w a s n o s p e c i a ln e e d f o r . and (befbre its destruction) a gracefirl crossingtoner with a dome on drum and pen'lhe Armenian church designs most dentives. Therc is a considerable though not disturbing variety in style and fabric. with their cancllcs ready for the symbolic light. but do S t A n n c h a s a c r o s s i n gr Ti t h inn.a3 Crusader masonrv is fine. t"l. a n d t h e e a s te n d i s t r i a p s i d a l . r r c u s e c l . on which account they are in many cases srill preservetl entire with but little change. and impressive of all the protoRomanesque stvles. Consequentll'. rvhere the Western imitation is admittedl]' \.erse rches a and a clerestory. with thg traditional ceremony of the new Easter firc. v ' I r d a t . the relics of the Holv Cross were found by the Empress Helena in 326. nd Sebastich a 'I'ortosa have transepts.The noticeablelack ol this arrangement in supposed imitations counts hearill' against the idea of direct influence fiom Armenia on the Occiclent. r h a rt h e building was complere at rhe time. PORTUGAL. Iinished. irs a memorial lo their regimc. T o r t o s a . { n i ( 9 8 q r o o l ) b . T h e . This was true also of the Nloslem conquosts and the Iconoclastic troubles. The aisles are groin-vaultcd. and the original work is beautifully cut. quite rightly. Caesarea. is the case with the Templar churches. P o i n t c d a r c h e s . S i m i l a r d o u b t : l t t en d s t h e i d e a o 1 ' d i r e c t t n fluence fiom -\rme nian ribbed vault construc- This work has largely'survived. except where trust\{'orthv historical 'fhis information is available'.ND[. Bt Ottonian times divcrgcnces betwcen East and West were strong in churchmanship and monastic practice especially strong at thc t i m e r v h e n R o m a n c s q u ea r c h i t e c t u r eu a s b e i n g formed.. menian architecture. remains. The old builclinq retainsa certain dignity in spite ofall its drrlr_ ters and the divisioning which has been neccssary in order to accornmodate the various sccts w h i c h p o s s e s si g h t s i n t h e b u i l d i n g . Bellapais Abbey. on his wav to the Holy Land during the Third Crusade. Hc was. where Constantine NIo16_ machos's work was buried within clumsl. in J. i i ord buildings hare somehow kept alir e the of the Crusadc' too oftqn lbrr e l i g i o u sa s p e c t ' in ttt. and much of the rest is at present under restoration. The carved lintels. lncl Iault. Ottonian Bl zantinism afi'ectcd architecture but little.rl1. AND THE HOLY LAND STYLES DEP[. and the buildings make their point bv ercellence of construction. in his exccllent book RomanesqueArchitetture in Il/estern Europe' takesoccasion in the chapter on the Holy Land and the East to consider the theorics of oriental influence on Romanesquc architecture. Cistercian in character though dated c.t i c e d t h e i r b u i l d i n g s l ' i t h a s h l a r . Apses enclosed in bloclt m a s s e s f m a s o n r v ( a s i s o c c a s i o n a l l y h e c a s ct t t o t Provence)occur at Nazareth. :rnd parts of . occur. rcsourccs' lvhich are folk and waste of human conspicuous f'eaturesof Llrusader history-' such that the popuA r a b o b s e r v e r ss e e m t o i n d i c a t e the Christian states was relativell' well lation of breathe off.I.b. and a sub-crypt opening downward to the east from it was none other than the grotto where. I t s g r e a t e s t r moment is at the Orthodox Easter.ery imperfect. Cyprus should be mentioned lt was conquered by Richard Cceur de Lion in rr9r. which expatriatcd vast numbers of'Greeks some of them artists.o1. One of the most notable buildings in this respectis t h e c a t h e d r a lo f . l a y t o t h e e a s to f t h e n e w a p s e .re uouSull. Critics with sound architectural training and Sir Alfred \\'as one are littlc imprcssed b. It has a dignified nave of fi. thc fiftieth anniversary o f t h e f ' a l lo f t h e c i t y i n r o 9 9 . . t . and its design has an odd 'l'he Burgundian flavour. and the shrines which still remain ofa satisfYing religious lif'e. Fine Syrian limestone is the material used.s ofignoble conrpcritionsgreed' ootLn \4oslem lealousl '^suffering of innocent ierfidy. has chapels arrangctl like the Orthodox prothesis and diaconicon. The high vault of the transept is ribbed. Many churches were in Cistercian or Burgundian half-Gothic style. It is much to be hoped that there ma1. l t i s l i k e l y . The existing work is very complex stylistically: thcre is a range all the way fiom the classicism of thc transept cornices through the half-Pror. The ambulatory was required in order to provide communication with earlier shrines on the site. t o o . r324-g.\ r n e n i a n a r c h i t c c t sd e a l t w i t h t h e s a m e elements antl manv of the same conditions as the Romanesque architectsof the West. Thcl' d e v e l o p e dp a r a l l c l s o l u t i o n sa t a n e a r l i e r p c r i o d . though with the rerracc roofs which the climate permits. be1-'ond what was bcing absorbcd by a sort ofarchitectural osmosis.ribs. In lirrrl and execution they are comparable to good French work. the Lusignans held it until I-189. a raised chapel was built over the traditional Rock ofCalvary. rvhich is the most subtle.'' Spain stronger than it had been befbre.. at the dedication of the new lvork. dome is of Levantine build in a hurry IXCHANGE F INFLUENCES: O T H EP R O B L E M F A R M E N I A O Sir Alfred Clapham.u.Tyre.utem on pc.34o spArN. Stress was laid by Sir Alfrcd on the point that intercourse between East and \\jest sufered no interruption at the fall of the \\iestern Empire' and that the rcconquest undcr Justinian rendered Eastern influence in It. according to tradition. Thus the new porrion of the church was in effect like the transept and chevet of a Pilgrimage church. a n d s i n c et h e l . some 'I'he ofthem patrons with a taste fbr Eastcrn art.{T ON FRANCL 11I prolonged across a choir to a new eastern apse surrounded by an ambulatory and radiating chapels. during the Second Crusade. sympathetic restoration of the Crusader [. decoratire cxt e r i o r a r c a d i n g s o m e w h a t r es e m b l i n g P i s a n work. Mount 'I'abor. o i n . the C . Beside the choir on the south.ndenti\(jsresembling thosc of .

. . r h c !tr'esterners which we lssociate w i t h r h e l a t c m e d i er . r u " . u . ribs arrangcd (somctimes over fbur s u p p o r t s ) lortification.F u r r h e r .he Crusaders crcnellations.ngin.. East on the Romanesclr-re and Gothic norlcl is velopments of machicolated galleries. t e a u x .a n d r e g i o n a l s i g n a l l i n g bcrrccn r i b s c h e m c s .a n d t h e s e h a r e h a d onlv slight in_ c a s t l e s. ol]'ered br rhe lbrtifications. groups of threc) the arms of'a la.on. but ibrmine (in r r a t l r t i o n a ls q u a r e o r o b l o n g d o n j o n .d \. It is significant that u.. A certain unitl' will be givcn to our cxposition by mention of the lcatures u hich the respective st]'lcs contributcd to thc dc\ elopment of'Gothic architecture. But the development was functionrrl. . in order to take up the subiect oj abuut innorltions antl impro. h ..rr.. a l l .lirr.n_ esque-loofting -{rmenian ribbetl work of the power lbr fighting in the Holy Land made effi_ tenth centur\ is a passing phase fbr th e clcr cloo_ . The With this comment on the reflex liom thc increasing scrle of rvarfhre in the \\rest for it C r u s a d c s . f r l cross on the soflit of the dome..rians. In l.ere good Eleanor of Aquitaine and Henry II. o r n e a r l r .here French influencc l1rr: trvellihcenturv would inant. : l n r l rh. It prefigured the conr v a sn i l .1_ twelve grammes of def'ence. Iiom local examples oi' Byzantine . o .r"..trr.f e r u s a l e ma l s o t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l i n l l u e n c c fire.. gundian and Prorenqal Frcnch.rc_ masons.t h c r d e r i c e s . w h i c h u .hen rhe French to$ers. d e f c n d r rr .342 SpAIN. r n d d o u h t l c s s g o o d m a s o n r a*rna liorn n o t fa r I r o n r R o u e n ( r t g h 7). o r b u t l i t t l e m o r e . c h c s . and not dcvelopmental.I. buiit thc q u a l i t . K r a k d e s C h e v a l i e r s n d a M a r g a r ) .. a u l t o r d e r o l t a l e n ta t t r a c l e dt o t h e p r o b l e n r . altcr an excursion to Dalmatia and Hungarl.. J . i\n r h e O c c i d c n r . pORTUGAL. i n s c a l e . L. -{rab impror ments on ancient Romln fbrtifica_ the picturesque and unmistakable characttr t i o r r . b u t t h e e s t l b l i s h c d s r y l c sh a d g i v c n a f a i r l y g o o d l c c o u n t o f t h e m s e l v e s .g r a d u a l l r g a \ e t o .and |erftxp.:rr. . in imposing lrr. t u r ei n the qrc.e*. . t i v e d r i v e w h i c h c v e n t u a l h .clopmcnts of.o f ' t h e c h u r . applied to the royal 'thc and noble learned hrrrd waf ibout Bvzanrine and r e s i d e n c c t . Bur_ thincenrhccnlur\-rnd buijt. bratticcs. n . o l .c onrex nrrrier_ a r c h i t e c t u r e a n c li n d e e c lt h e r e u e r e Armenians t i o n s t o i n c r e a s et h e e f l e c t i r e n e s s o l .. T h e y d e v e l o p e d s p e c t a c u l a r l r .\Iuch was lcarned m e n t c o n t i n u e si n t o i n g e n i o u sc t . are good Chdteau-Gaillard on the Seine at I_es Andelr s.and supcrior cralismanship from thc local E a r l y R o m a n e s q u es t 1 . t a l L t s e s . r v c have an centnc castlcs which were dcleloped '6cole in thc d'outrc-mcr' lvhich is verv largelr. l e sb u t l a c k c d t h e i n v e n . centrall\ placecl. bv the Crusaderknights in Svria (includins tl.1" : t r e n g r h e n . Iiastern motil's in fbrtification becamc in the cncl a n d t h e r J ) i C t U r c s q u e n c s :\ a s g c n u r n e . i lr.{rmenia and its inner had *alls witlr )ucccssi\.r i c h ness. . thesc Near_ chitcau.act. i t h i nt h e a d Holr RomanEmtrir.. r t rcal architcctural fl. and a central donjon.caschavebroueht paramount.l I{ripsim6 at Valarshapat (6rg). probabll suggested br St h c e a r l r C r u s a d e rc a s r i e s n p a l e s r i n t .of rhieh rire patrons rvereactualh..rii menians rvere alwa\-s interested in ccntralized a r r a n g e m e n t s . somrthing o l t h e f i n e tical experience on the Third Crusade.a d e rc h u r c h e s in Svria is due finest o1'the twelfih-century castles in France to them.tur. L a n t l . became national in scope in thc course of the a ttme the regions lr.{n authentic case of influence f rom the Near. rvhere 1.\rmcnians r.atures of the French chi_ rontantlc.r Sophia in Constantinople.t like a printer's sign for space ftf ) wirh a turret ar the arca. PART SIX A MATURE RON'IANESQUE RCHI ECI'URE IN THE LANDS ASSOCIA'TEI) WITHIN THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE INTRODUCTION TO CI{AP]'ERS 19-22 The areas which are to be considered in Part Six have a very loose geographical and stylistic connexion.rr t a n e o u s l . (hrce succcs\i\ewitrds. I t n e e d st o b e e m p h a s i z e dt h a t t h i s a c c o u n t i s purell topographical. .om experienced . Richard I Caur de Lion of England.ach locrrl group has its own historl' but the s t r a n d s w h i c h a r e i n t e r l v o r e n r e p r e s e n ts t 1 ' l i s t i c impulses which we havc scen appearing in thc great stlles the styles alreadr treatcd as our principal thcrne. tU . ..r y e l e a v e t h e H o l l . b e c a u s e o l r h e h i e h a r c i l s s s o c i a t en . the Ar_ r o u n d t o u e r s . The Roman_ long towers. . h i s t o r r . Iircnch dci. f l u e n c ei n r h c \ \ c s t . 'f w o S i c i l i e sa n d p r o c c e d i n g northward through Italv and. and li. a c h i e v e dt h e d e l i n i tive solution (in Irrance) of'thc esscntial vaulting problem. : r n d alsoibr. a sa l l . It had projct. m h i n a t i o n . after pr.riD. i n . a n d o c c a s i o n a l l r . the summit. The perennial shortage ol . I n s t c a d . but thc Sr. crent design imperative. son of. Thev oftbr a magniFcent architectural panorarna ol-local developments based on the primirive Romanesque of the rcspective regions. . northward again to the Germanic lands.a n d t h e h o l d of traclition was too strong.nt. Gothic architecturemight hare come out ol a number ot-the schools which we are about to analvse rhc components of Gothic w e r e t h e r c .. It is knorvn that the . rI knerv.g France.1. r o l ' t h e ( . 'l decorativeribs exist. o f ' t h i ss o r t o f r . m a s o n s . construction in Armenia begins with Surb \ ast resource\made ar ailable fo.. .ge d e c o i a t i v e a n g u l a rs u r r o u n d i n gu a l l s ".rron". AND THE HOLy LAND 'l'he tion to the West.Progressir impror cmenrs e rnclu.. equall1..non_ m a l u r c R o m a n e s q u ea r c h i t c t . beginning with the The order to be follorved is geographical.close to .n.t a u g h t a l e s s o nt o t h e W e s t .

2b4. b u t retaincd Apulia. In ro6r qr S i c i l l w a s c o n q u e r e c l . 1 rh a d a s t r o n g h o l d o n A p u l i a . near Coutancesin Normandv.w h i c h w a s built to be the famil. .R o m a n e s q u ea r c b i t e c t u r e c a m e b e c a u s e o f f a b u l o u sl i r e n c h a d v e n t u r i n g . and later to Bari Byzantine and Moslem civilization was rcflected from the south and east. Bcginrring about ro-jo seleral sons ol"l'ancred of' Hautsville or Hautteville-la-Guichard. ancl thc Basilicata.R o g e r I I . The same year marks the consccration of the f i r s t c h u r c h a t t h c a b b c v o f V e n o s a .except what might come through the pilgrimagc to Nlontc Garwhile the brilliance of gano.a s h e 'if said. then in closc maritime and political contact with south Italv and Sicilv. O n c o f t h c s o n s . The Eastern Empire had gradually.CflAPTER I9 THE Two SICIILIL'S A P U LTA As to the Holl'Land. r v h o a r r i v e d i n r o 4 ( r .w a s b v r o 5 g r c c o g .v panrheon. T h c m o u n t a i n barrier of the Apennines and the Abruzzi.lost the Beneventan and Salcrnitan arcas fo local dukc- d o m s . thc grrce of'God and St Peter help me'. came into thc south Itllian areaat the head of Norman bands. together with the stagnant Papal state. a n d t h c i s l a n c lt o t h e A r a b s i n 9 r 7 . San Nicola. n i z e da s D u k e o l ' A p u l i a a n d C a l a b r i a . undcr construction to89 . Crrlabria. and b 1 r o . so also to south Italv and S i c i l y . Bari. C o u n t o f ' S i c i l v . a l s o a s f i r t u r e D u k e o f S i c i l 1 .R o b c r t G u i s c a r d . kcpt off influences tiom the north .

r a t h e r l i k e those ofa Poitevin church. supported on columns' groin vaults Lombard fashion.'l'he modern arllngemenl fbr thc clergr'' flanking stalls kceps this area clear but in thc Romanesqueperiod the u'holc tranbe s ep t o f I B e n e d i c t i n c c h u r c h w o u l d n t r r m a l l l ma1' reserretl fbr the monks' derotions This s t i l l b c s e n s e c li n S a n N i c o l a . With these towers San Nicola became. San Nicola.hus had beenabstractctl trom his tomb in thc ancient cathedral ancl brought in ro87 to Bari. Disorders in the western ba1'sof this cons t r u c t i o n h a r e c a u s e dt h c i n t r u s i o n o f l o w d i a phragm arches spoiling the efitct of the wcst end of the great nave. r:nder construcrion ro89 h a v eo n l y l h e t w o s l e n d e r s e n t i n e l r o w c r s a t t h t ' eastern corners. above there is a simple clerestor!'t as at Pisa. a r c h e d s p u r b u t t r e s s e so n t h e f l a n k s . when Pope Urban II held the Council of.ool. .t tradition' frarne ofa the first as a The church was planned from church. A large part of the church was built and embellished by rI3z. however. and it is possible that a diaphragm arch was inrended (as at San Miniaro) though nerer execu(ed' It seemslikely that the western maior bay was l d e s i g n e ds p e c i f i c a l l yf o r t h e c o n g r e g : r r i o n1 s e r 'l'here ancl arc thrce portals xt the tag:rcle' r icest h e r e i s a l a t e r a l p o r t a l i n e a c ha i s l ca t t h e h c a d o t this maior ba1'. b u t i n r r g . thcre is iln open three-archecl screen rvhich ser\es to mirrk off the monks' choir fiom the t r a n s e p t . as the castern part does' to the wooden-I-hc handsomc rangic ol t r u s s e c lr o o f a b o r e .rn church of importance in the south of Itall'.l i s r i c composition San Nicola As an architectural a n d e c l e c t i c w i t h t h e t r a c e so l a is sophisticated pcrsonalitv in thc design' matur. u n d e r B e n e d i c t i n e a u s p i c e s . inaitiatral t t t t n t h e s i g n so l d e r e l o p m e n l w i l h i n t h e ..{pulia in rhe oldesr Nornr. ' l ' h e a r e ap a s s e dt o t h e R o m a n l r o m t h e Blzantine patriarchate in the pontificate of Urban II.rth. The first seriousbeginnings of Romanesrluq architecture came tt this timc. is felr in . . Earlr' ('hrtsm a i n a p s e h a s a s 1 ' n t h r o n o ni n t h e 265 nnd z(16. that az quadrille . was finished rog8. but the work dragged on to a dedication in r I96 a fact in the western which explains irregularities towers. I Tllitrr I The relics ofthe venerablc wonderworker St Nicholas. rvhich had played upon Normantlr. Access to the crypt was by stairways opening into the easternarranged where there were m o s tb a y so f t h e c h u r c h a i s l e s . and perhaps the original of a Hungarian group of such buildings' Almost certainly.\ b o r c i t thcre is a rich arcaded uall-gallcrl at the trilbrium levcl an early cxanrple ol' this motil. in x sanctuar) rvhich was alreadvbuilding in ro[it1. A further debt to Tuscanf is evitlent in the nare. a s a t P i s a .346 LANDS ASSOCIATED wITHIN THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRI' ir'osrcrLIEs 3r+7 obtainedthe titlc of'King in r r 3o.The eastern maior bal of the nirr e would then serl'e specilicalh f'or the scholu (dnturuilt of the monks. rvhich was intended to rise free.). is verl' efi-ective' If San Nicola was indeed at first intended to tl c . the fine great bulks of the western towers one Lombard in appearance. 'l hc building in qucstion. ro6J 95) l. flanking the strong basilican profile of the church. has taken care ofthe FI group localized on the east coast of Norman Italy'.s t a n d sa s t h e h e a d o f a r e g i o n a l s t J . Bari in the building. Diion. Analysis thus shows that thc d e b t o f t h e b u i l d i n g t o P i s a C a t h e c i r : r li s m o r e rcal than 2rpparent. irscll. one ol'the 'l'hc aislcs tower pair has never bcen completed w e r e r a u l t e t l . a fbur-torver church (one tower at each corner). j ff. However. diridcd into two mirjol bals' eachcorresponding (as at San Nliniato al Nlonte. and Lombill. be-vond thc crossing. he united ancl filled out the Normirn posscssionson the mainl a n d b 1 r r 3 7 .t o r e c e i v c t h e m . l b a l c l a c c h i n o i s p l a c e c b c n e a t h . here. rvhcre they still are. rvhich became very common in Lombardl' Thc t r i l b r i u m s p a c ei t s c l f . bishop of \{. marketl oll' fiom the thus leaving the flanking aislcs and public portals ibr accessto the pilgrimage cr-vpt' 1'he transept opens behind a triumphal arch rvhichfrrmes the altarand the apsc ln ldclition. San Nicola at Barir l z 6 q 6 1 . with its superstructure. as earlier at Saintpilgrimage meant a large crypt.a n t l a knowntousasSantaC. a n d a t t h e s a m et i m e t o s t r e n g t h e nt h e (irn oclagtlnitl sul)l)orls ol the crossing to\rer The high rrltar' rvith a lirntern on squinches). lateral entrances' This part of' the suitable in church. though the sheer prccipice ol' masonry which they m:rkc. r'l Chlisrian times. u h c r e ' l o g i c a l h t ' n o u g h . 1 t h e l ' p a s s e dt o t h r : E m p i r e . the other hall-oriental \ ere not part ol the first design.Bari.r u t ' w a r ch r u s t o f t h e a i s l e r a u l t i n g . a s a t l h e c a t h e d r a l o l P i s : r( r o f i . a c ha r m o f ' t h e t r a n s e p t h a s a n a b s i d i o l c .a s o l i e n i n E a r l l .(l influencc. l h e r c l r e n u t r i l l ) s e p tp o r l r t l s the E . in intention at least.o P c n s u p o n t h e n a v e t h r o u g h a s e r i e so f ' t r i p l e a r c h e s u n d e r e n closing arches.vra in Anatolia so much i n h o n o u r w i t h t h e G r e e k s a n d R u s s i a n s . and saw hosts ofthe First Crusade depart in rc96 7. with lenign". it lvould originally have resembled Sant'Abbondio at Como (r. Florence on columns' I z 9 o ] ) t o t h r e e a i s l e b a 1 ' sc a l r i e d As at San Nliniato there is a grouped pier at thc junction between the maior bays.

Thc stone_wort. has an interestins p l e c ci n t h c h i s r o r r o l R o m a n e s q u c s c u l p tu r e . animals in the fbrm o1'corbels. a n d m a k e s w h o l e s e r i e so f b u i l d i n g s r e l a t e c lt o S a n N i c o l a . *r. at anv rate the finel1.art b u t t r e s sa r c a d i n g .l th.t h e r c i s a s i n g . notable examples are all cathedrals. . an idiot b o y u n a b l e t o s a l a n v t h i n g b r t K .f b r u t i l i t a l i a n c o n s t r u c t i o n s . a n d e n l a r g e d i n a d i f i . .portal B t z o o ) . I t i s p o s s i b l et h a r I r e i n r c n t e d rhe well_ Nor rhe leasr charm of San Nicoia is it. To this rathcr Lombard group of NormanoItalian buildings ma]. R u r o ( t l ' e l f t h c e n t u r l ' ) .ailable.t h c e a s t c n c l has no towers or'box' only thrcc projecting . begun in rogll and dedicatedto St Nicholas the Pilgrim. a sheer straight east wall for the church. under wav in r r7<. r r i ( b e g u n a l t e r r r 5 6 .Gueliel_ a t t r a c t i v er e g i o n a l g r o u p r a n g e d a l o n g a n d n c a r 'fhc the coast north-rvesterll'from Bari. as at Alberobello timc in the [ 2 6 8 1 .r h e g a l l e r y .of buildings consrlrutes a \ert. a n d i n t c n d c r lt o h l r e t h c : l e n d e r t u i n r o u c r s absorbed into Apulian architecture.n. has mclloived to a warnt soft grevish m o t i l d p n c e r si n S l n N i c o l a a r B a r i .B ' . dated ro98. 'I-his pilgrimage who attracted pious attention.a n d B i t c t t o ( m o r c o r l e s sc o n t e m p o r a r l ' ) .: ' e f l c c t si n r h e s u n s h i n e .T h e 'l'hrone. half_Lombard look ahnut it. I t was a Roman_ resulting tlmily. 'l'he bellishecl bv the rich rvinclow of the main arrse. arcading with a half-pisan.. r r l ' ) .e r e n ts t 1 ' l c i n t h e f o u l t e c n t h c e n t r . a sq u i c k l . ei t a t t h e c o r n e r s . wirh rhe h r o w n . o l a u . . esque addition. It rcmains to mention thc box_like wall which gencrallv ar.a n d t h u s a d d t o t h e p i c t u r c s q u e n e s so f t h c r o w n s . known motif of'achurch portal lvith its columns hanclsome ashlar masonry... Several of them stand boldly with their sentinel tolvers close to t h e w a t e r ' s e d g c o n t h e A d r i a t i c s h o r e .). well related to thc more visorous mus. largcll l-ombrrd. The u'ooden-roof'ed basilic a n n r \ e h a s a n i n c l u d e d t t ' a n s e p t . as ir is callcd.na . ir is a marure u.and its use characterizes the e n c l o s e sa l l t h e a p s e so f ' S a n N i c o l a .r Less clearll li'om Bari is the filiation of the cathedral o1'Tranir [:(r71.cut. Alberobello. 'l'rani bcgun Io98' from the west Cathedral. Ibr. o n .v to their advantagc. r i s i n g a b o r . The wall has shallou. r o u n d a p s e s . trulli (corbelled tlomcs).MPIRE z6j (lpplsitt). 1 ' r i ec l e i s o n .traditional 2f8. ' . w i t h a b i s h o p ' st h r o n e o n a x i s . there is a fine wcst p o r c h l c a d i n g t o b r o n z e c l o o r s . onc ol thc mcn uho first rencue. u n d e r w a v i n r r 5 3 .t s e a u t i f i r l l v u ' c a t h e r e c l t h e b u i l d ing is lerl' handsome in a setting which hrrs 'l'hc detail is h a r d l r c h a n g c c ls i n c c i t r v a s b u i l t . be adclcd a sporaclic d o m e d g r o u p .348 LANDS ASSOCIATED \1 ITHTN THE HOLY ROMAN t. itonto (begun r r75. g e n c r a l d e s i g n o l s a n i ' i . i n I t a l v . D o m e s h a d b e e n r r s e dt i r r a l o n g 'hcel' of' Itrrll'. perhaps suglgested b-v thc I-ateran transept [283]. l e bold western towcr.ork ol. cm_ vert grearl. Bari t i a n m a n n e r .a n d t h e p o r t a l s . a c r i re i n r e x r u r c a n d l r i t h l o . elr iurir. f h i s b e a u r i l i r l . \ l o s t closelv rclated to San Nicola are thc cathedrals o f B a r l e t t a ( b e g l u na b o u t r r 3 9 . carried on the backsofanimals. church hasa complete cr]'pt.

r'eis cor.acept perhaps i r s u f f i c i e n t l vl i l c t h a r o l K a l a t S e m a n i n *ifi i questionol F'asternnfluence s u r i a t o r a i s et h e tbl the n. .350 L A N D S A S S O C I A T E DW I l H I N T H E H O L Y R O M A N E M p I R E THt.h *"t i1 rtzT fzTol' has Siponto Cathedral (twclfth century) exterior arcading also. on lhc (\teriol of the apsc.is Tuscan in str lc. and thus is suitabll' eclectic for the region. but the church Tuscan block. 2611r fiom thc north-ucst ff. fiom Burgundl-'..IES35r N f o l f ' e t t aC a t h e d r a l [ 2 6 9 1 .'I' roia. but the na. Like the churchesat Bari. entourage was lar too mixcd to havc anr' artistic orientation. \Iolfctta C. ln the latcr pcriod atier l05o' thcf( is o c c a s i o n a lF r e n c h i n f l u e n c e i n N o l m a n I t a l l ' .begun I ot1-1. It has a rich portal in the Lombard style. son ot. rather parsimoniouslv.r'constituted villes lef t Normand-v. or Monte Sant'Angelo. t less and laithless crusader Bohemond. Moreover'. ." Tuscan influences flowed.dar. . The sitc is not architccturall.SZ ql. The great shrine of St Nlichael of' Monte Gargano. -l'he Norman French wcre then still under strong influences fiom the Loire. Robert Guiscard. r r8o). f i o m r r o o a n d l a t e r . and the aisles are quadrant-vaulted: a most unusual arrangement.rtle interesting. .ered with three domes in line.]i iil looking in mass. 21 upperPartof west far. o.sons. Jumidges [:.hur. f'he date falls late in the trvelfth century (r l6z r-loo). and fi'om Lombardv.v ment.ran 'I'he latter were fighting men.athcdral. when the Hautcvet hardl. H e r e a t C a n o s ai s a l s o th" d o m e d c l a s s i c i z i n go m b ( r r r r t 8 ) o f r h c r . it has slender paired eastern towers. into Norman Italy too. lor historical rex.. rf)2and latcr. has Lombard detail.n. So far we have seen little or no l"rcnch influence in this architecture of the Norn.7 Troia Cathc_ dral. resulted from a vision of the archangel seen bl a bishop of Siponto in 49r. \'er'\' orientalis an abrupt squarc Cnthcdral. with some reconstruction about The repeated dome occurs also in 1l1o cathedral ol san Sabino in Canosa.rrrtily through thc Crusadesl lot in roq. dates lrom ro17 66. . on which the south-Italian Normans alsodrew. except for a later campanile ancl a domed tomb or baptister]-(r.TWOSICtT.l' and uas well along begun .. the Norman school u as :rs its great earll monu- F l:. and is set close to the water. and their dvnasts.l i k e t h a t o l T r a n i .

8 2 ) . a i d ed i 1 his Bl zantine mother founding a monasterv (roo4) which is srill B r r s i l i a n . for the Normans of thc court we're human alter all.a Ziza. and L.B u r g u n d i a nt r i p l e porch. has a cathedral dating lrom about r r 5o. a n d t h e i r R o m a n e s q u ea r c h i t e c t u r e absorbed. T h e l o e. B a r i . perhaps remembcrins 'Iheophano. who. \iery little ol'rcrl importance to the histor].h are basically versions of the Byzantine firtrr. and thc N. and Arthur Kingsley Porter rvas lcd to give considerable emphasis to the sculptures of San N i c o l a . The policv of the Normans. and mav date fiom the fburtecnth ccnturv. and the architects p r o t b u n d l v . B v z a n t i n e . oi which the reflcx influence elsewhere was perceptible. who acquired this region in ro57. though the successive Roman." not far lrom Naples. a s e a r l v e x a m p l e sd u e t o P i l g r i m age connexions. Palermo.of architecture $as built.Palermitan builclings in which the oriental lords of Sicily would h a r c b c e n r e r v m u c h a l h o m c .. seenrs Western.carried the Eastu. between Greek and Norman days. has an imposing ruin of rather Bvzantine character. in some wavs like the tenth. driven fiom the region by the Saracens. N e w e p i s c o p a l s e e s\ 4 e r c s e t u p 'fhe and staffed with Latin ecclesiastics. Another Byzirntine reminiscence is that ot St Nilus of Rossano. the chicl church of a monasterl') of Stild. it may have acquired thc libs through Lombard influcnce. make this Romanesque really a Romrrnesque in ltartihus.w i t h Church. where Otto III. and a lvide woodenrooled navc. ancl t h e M o s l e m s .t h o u g h u n d e r p a p a l a u s p i c c s . but the remoteness 01'the Apulian school. w earlier.w i t h p a p a l s a n c t i o n . probabh of the l a t c e l e r . Court architecturelr naturally.l (Basilian) monastic mle to Grottaf-errata. inclined to Moslem modcls.I o 'La Cattolica'(Catholicon. Menani.PalatineChapel. the court. though it is otten dated r rg-+.') Riroira believccl that thc ambulator-v at thc cathedral ofAversir dated back to ro49 56. This mode of building was still in logue uhcn the Two Sicilies were united to the Empirc.ilization. and the f'act that the civilization of the Two Sicilies was hardll a Romanesque cir.ariunr. r l 27r. a t i g h t c o n trol ofthe church. L.352 L A N D S A S S O C I A T E DW I T H I N THE HOLY ROMAN t'. though with the church 'l'cramo of San Ciemente at Torre dei Passieri. w h i c h h a s a h a l f . A't'ersa. d a crypt. SICILY The fantastic history of this island guarantecd it an exotic architecture. THE BASILICATA W o r t h l . closell rescmblcs the latel rustic Bvzantine rvhich is fbund in the Balkans. the Orthodox.n e a r t h e s i t e o l Calabria. was countcr to the Orthodox 'I'he p l a n o 1 ' R o c c e l l a i S q u i l l a c e . a wide transept. and intelligently prevented fiiction between the Latins.Ioslem pallccs were designed to house a lif'e of sophisticrtecl rsfinement such as wrs hardly known in the north.vi n r o 6 r 9r. T h e N o r m a n s .and clerenth-century churches in the capital. hallNloslern-half-Byzantine charm of' the place afl'ectcd them. Like their English cousins. but not grear. nrrr Rome. so that it sho*s the technique of Romanesquebuilding) and in Acerenza (related to Venosa). as lar as we know. which would sccm to be ultimatell ofFrench inspiration.r r3z.MPIRE T h i s i s t h e c a s ca t V e n o s a( b e g u n a f t c r I r o o a n d nerer finishcd or dilapidated.column church. e n t hc e n t u r v . hare left monuments of great dignitv but composite st1'le. near thc coast. containing an archaic-looking rib-r'aulted ambulatory.tig . w h o c o n q u e r e d S i c i l . with much grace. l'he Farcra. ( r r T t l .t Cuba are knolvn cxamples . t h e l a c h i e v e d . o f n o t i c e i s a s m a l l g r o u p o f c h u r c h e si n 'Roccella d i S q u i l l a c e ' . a n d M o s l e m r e g i m e sl e f t t h e i r m a r k . thc alien elemcnts.ll It is one ofa group o1'churches hrr. Cassiodorus's sixth-century monasterv o1'Vi\.

trloslem domes which irre hemispherical.applied. r t_1. flank building material.which accentuated orientalismof and naturallycameto expression w h i c h w e s h a l l f i n d i n t h e d r a m a t i c c l u s t e r s dominions his of turrets at Palermo Cathedral later on.An axial porch (still existing. and palm trees. honel. One finds in these designs. and rib u.r.here N4oslem pointed arch. with slencler columnsof marble dividing the navefrom the aisles triapsidalbasilican ofa plan. between r43 and r r89 r are purely Byzantine in stlle. 11the architecture. and an elaborate stalactite ceiling over. The tower terminatescoquettishh in a A famous example of' l'aried architectural similar dome. Palermo.1r. the round Roman arch. and Byzantine motives frolic together. l Pointedarchesand the squinches the dome of N{eanwhile.ond rhe narthex rhe is. and with marble and mosaic fbr rich interiors. Exotic and unchurchly asit churchI hovlerer. All are brillianr in A{editerranean sunshine and glowing rvirh warmth.the X.thenave are the oriental compon!nts this design. actuallywithin what remainso1'the there. buffs. and Moslem domes. Wherever originated.The columns and the lavish wall mosaics. bel.s o n a d o sa n d s t a l a c t i t ec e i l i n g . Moslenr. except for somerestoration.ch.j5r irnd later. a n d f i r r [25 is influence from the Salmantine school of t h i s alliance was excommunicated in r r 1q bv . and t achieving satoir-faireby which the Norman placed wirhout mouldings on short cvlindrical early profited. reallvthe churchof SantaMaria del Ammiraglio. suggested that It has been very reasonably San Giovanni degli Eremiti.. the interlaced Norman arches which make pointed_arch patterns. and grers.comb roof art(.San (laraldo.zantine mosair. in rr. the RogerII acquired territorieson the mainland tower design of the N{artorana has been half_ the orientalized. so bcfore r r6r says.irh Br. and dedicatedto St peterl really it is a miniature church.e Moslem arcading and pattern_wort looked u'ell. without seeming contracliction. essentiallv similar to San Gioand marked by a late tower) gave upon an vanni. lemon.]!tPIRE THETWOStCrLrEs 355 1' 'l 't z7z. ther.Roger II between palace rr32 and rr43. k s centur)') basicalll.like crossing is the tower of p a t r o n . construction of the wereof Moslem design. wasdedicated to the Virgin 'with much love. none other than the prtros (rough limestone) which the ancient Greeks used their temples. ( . o u n t R o g e r I I . Tall pointed arches of Moslem form. and developed rowards thc fbrm of Aftica. lbr the limestone walls weather to enchanting toasted browns. There is a poetic cloister.l. with Nloslem domes and decoratir.ork. rre d e c o r a t i v ed e t a i l sw h e r e R o m a n e s q u e .The tower (fburteenth c a t h e d r a l o f C e f ' a l i rh a d b e e n b e g u n r Tl z 7 4 l .krl .l bowers of orange.. s . it does not seem out of'place as an Byzantine four-column chur. exceptthat the e c c l e s i a s t i c ab u i l d i n g i n P a l e r m o . ir combinecl happill: wirh stucco panelled effects.n. w a s a c c o r d e d t h e t i t l e theMontierneufat Poitiers r].c are columns of classic proportlon takine thcir part in composirions u. of rI jz. has the Orthodox in the Greek parts of the island o n t h e c h u r c h ( a s i m p l e b l o c k o f a b u i l d i n g o f had for two hundred years been assimilating austere oriental exterior fbrm) a series of Moslem and Byzantine archirecturalmotifs.e pointed building was arrangecland decoratedlike a a r c a d i n g . In it decoratir. crosslng towers here. in The'N{artorana'15 [z7zl. Later building has disturbedthe original entrance system. adapted irself verv _-fbr happih ro rhe new archirectural mode. built and clecoratedbetween and I r5r forKingRogerII's I r4-t great admiralGeorgeof Antioch. rhe for .lr architects drums.tf+ L A N D S A S S O ( ] I A T t r DW I I ' H I N THE HOLY ROMAN }. richly contrasting with rhe azurc . Cataldo [2731. San is Chapelin Palermol combination the Palatine roval [z7r]. It was built br. Perhaps there o f K i n g b l t h c a n t i p o p e A n a c l e t u s I I . was built as a svnagogue and taken over atrium and narthex. and as a small andunworthy-recompense' the inscription 273.Palermo.as in an Early Christian a s a c h u t c h i n r r6r.{artorana.

is covered partly by tunnel vaulting and partly by wooden roofing. ultithe $e^t the royal pantheon was established in pately palermo. bchind rvhich appears the faqade wall ofthe church. a n d i 5 . but there is much later work w a sb u i l t b e t w e e n r r 8 o a n d I 2 o o o n a r e d u c e d plan. The transept. 6nest in all the Sicilian Romancsque.ity . {fter Roger II's time ihurch.'fhe groin vaulting and a has a sanctuary covered b1 pointed semi-dome. though Byzantine in p l a n a n d d e c o r a t i o n . In the nave proper. u'hich are sroin-vaulted.the situation was pope Innocenl ll. z . slightlv proiecting.Celalir Augustinian canons' For them a of at-rpt. the sanctuary be-vond it.s 357 but. like North-African The exterior of the cathedral is perhaps the 'l'wo minarcts in design. in the stvlc of the l.rE. decorated 'lhc nale ancl with Norman interlirced arches. 'Ihe transept is carried higher than the nave. It is a perf'ectly pure exarnpleof the Second Golden Age. i r . and the wooden-trussed roofing of the nxve was restored in rz63. with some rebuilding in thc htteenth century. iust to the norlh. i s R o n r a n e s q t t ci n s t t ' u c ture. flank an elegant columnar porch rvith three pointed archcs. proportion.. m o r e t h a n a t N { o n t e c a s s i n oo n t h e m a i n l a n d . and even King Roger's sarcophagus his tombwas transf-erred there from this. the roofis at a lower level than wasat first intcnded..loitr..TllE TWt) srcrt. [275]. project at Celilir languished. The great Christ of the semi-dome. was serrcd b1' a in rr'lo . is one of'the finest Byzantine mosaics to be fbund anywhere. handsome to\r'ers. aisles are of course basilican columnar shafis mark off the aisles. ( l c l a l i r( l a t h e d r a lb e u u nr r ."iut^tirra . church' In plan Cefalir Cathedral is very handsome -lhe east end walls are substantial. with lateral arcading. was built. the faqade dates fiom rz4o. and goes f * ii z T q . These parts of the church had been hnished and decorated in the nave rr48. and extcrior decolation. singularlv impressive. flanking it are two deep runnel-vaulted chapels.

. Monreale Cathcdral was apparentl) started in r174. i t m u s t b e s a i d t h a t t h e m o t i f . u p thc Conca d'Oro lrom Palcrmo. h e s e e \ 4 a se s t i l b Romanesquc the cathedral huilr br King Willished and a counterpoisc to the po$er o{ the fiam II as their decorative character and conscquenrlt. building and the exterior ofthe church are in a markedly local Romancsque sttle. There is no sign ofthis architectural progress ar Nlonreale. quite the reverse ol' the development in the north of France. begun r r74 .ts of Santa \4aria la \uorl in The calhctlral is the clin. and for them an intcresting conventual struc'fhis t u r e w a s r a i s e dt o t h e s o u t h o f t h e c h u r c h .fbr thc interlacing pointed zi6 and 277.sa r e a rather riotous growth. so that it was admissible to risk wooden-trussed roofing over the wide spans. Fires werc not so li'equent in the l archbishop of' Palermo.athedral. H o * ' e v c r . 1 ' h e s i t e .a b r i cw a s s u b s t a n t i a l l y c o m p l e t e.b u t t h e c h t t r c h e x t e r i o ri s n o t a s f i n e l s that of' Cefhli . where thc monks observed the Cluniac rulc. in t t76 decds and endorvmentswel'e deposited on the high altar. is onc ol'grcrt l r e a u t ) . integrated so happily that one is not so conscious of stylistic 'ingredients' as in manl ol the SiculoNorman edifices.v for south as in the north.) 'l a r c h i t c c t u l c .NlonrcaleC.rax of Sicilian Monrealel8 lz76-8.THE TWO STCTLTES 35g b a c kr o 'l-he minor originals in Constanlinople great interestand bcautl ' are also. and in rr8z the I .of IuUi. which at this verv rime was systematizing the flying buttress and ushcring in the accomplished phase of F-arlv Gorhic. interesting lafgcl. It was served b1Benedictines from La Cava on the tnainland. The vault and the Moslem t1'pc o1' :rll-but-pointcd Moslem pointed arch were sufficientll'stablc fbr the narrouer spans.

" a"-i"ation irnd of the cathecltal' . r r7z fitieenth centur\' south firgadc .t.ft. beautiful cloister enclosed within the bloclr s e r i e s o f m o n r s t i c b u i l d i n g s o n t h e s o t r r l r. prinrecxample thc st\lc Perh'tps ot irtt'f' t. l fi :. -I'hc d tf {i. dr:cor.eruberant' strangebut satisfyingexotic decoration which g as Jetig'i-tti.v classic Corinthian columns (though with Moslem pointecl arches). Possibly' refugee sculptors came here aficl thr: f a l l o f .tti. deep sanctuary and deep flanking chapels. Palermo ()athedral.i. is perfect. The cloister has twentr-fiie where pointecl arches are used also. the four corners t- .tts 360 L A N D S A S S O C I A T E DW I T H I N ' I l l E HOLY ROMAN TMPIRE 36r arches on the apse are overwrought Romanesque Baroque.. the sup!rstructure fbllows Early Christian lines in the basilican nave. This cloister is dated I 17: 89.. The plan is Romanesque. of the church.tgin spicy great monument \1as beautifully handled' lts b1 of Palermo'r'ebuiltin r r7z-85 . with nave. The st1'le is Romanesque in the transept and sanctuary.rfit"* u. stvle .'lHETwo slclt. (r194-1266)in the atn . I I7:-Et1 27() (af?oete).. " of the Hohenrnt.: :i i3 r.t h e p o l r c h l o r y l " ceiling). anLl ..." ( t h e m a r b l e d a d o o f t h e a i s l e s .'ogni" the inflrrcnct ". and the heavy portico ot t77o between the towers is very inappropriatc'r" The interior. l.. cloistcr.n coniunction.r r s1.1 *iillffi. ccnturtes As the twelfth and thirteenth achiered a the Sicilian designers advance<l.J:['iri::i* tl:. :78.2(' The cathedral at Monreale has .ftbltit"O Walter 'rhe modelled gorgeousll 85) o. . which is divided from the aisles b. No attempt was made to tirse 16. Monrcale Cathedral. aisles. styles: they' are here independent."f Mill (Gualterio of the ir.ff: t.. l e r u s a l e mi n r r 8 7 I t h e w o r k w a s s u t e l r finished b1' rzoo.i. the two blocky tower bases have disparate and not altogether pleasing terminations. transept. 1 1 .xa tion is Byzantine (in the mosrrics) nd \1n51.. however.i.iit".''r6q and cresting its rich arcading with """*'i'""0.

t h e b u i l d i n g o f w h i c h b e g a nb 1 ' r o 8 8 ' Unquestionabl-r. unlbrtunatelv thc interior was spoiled bt rebuilding between r7[ir and r8or. (. and the straight-arris groin rault were rationalized b-'-'Desiderius's 'fhel' marked a distinct and Hugh's engineers. anclactualll.v' Eg1'ptian arches. though rebuilr rn the fburteenth centur\. 8 1 l . thev went thcre able to make out at Iiom Montecassino. s c h o l a r s . are reported as having ' l a n c e o l a t e 'a r c h e s o l ' \ a u l t s ' fornttes spi.lun1' r'isitcd Nlontccassino in ro8l. Desiderius's propylaeum and church porch' each with five arches. with arrises nearly straight. the B 1 ' z a n t i n ei r n d o r i e n t a l p i n c h c d l a u l t ' i r p p r o r i nritel-v of catenarl' profile. eren to this day.rr '1. and perhaps started the process which eventuall]' crcJtedthe nevt Gothic tlpe ol enginecring' 'fhc tbrtune ofthe pointed arch lnd vault was m l t l e u l t e n t h e l w e r ea p p l i e d . Greatlf interestedin building (as we have seen). restoration z8o. and DesidcriLrs undertook a general re building of the monaslu. ) Abbe1.the fhithlul an anticiparion of the cart cults o1'Gothic cathedrals. and they should be noted here.es o doubt that the main parts ol n thc church and monastert. south portal dates fi'om r4z-5. at Cluny' As f:rr as rve present. and subscquent to 95o it flourished again. G a e t a i n r o 6 j . as rccounted bv his excellcnt archivist and biographer Lco of O s t i a . i t h i t s a u g u s t m e m o l i e s o f ' w -l'he St Benedict. An elegant interprctation of the much rebuilt Renaissance church and conventual buildings has replacccl. r. a n d b l t h e e l 1 b r t ol this man.. is a somewhat unskilful conflation of the tll'o porticoes at Montecassino lz8o z)' The pointed a r c h a n d v a u l t w e r e w e l l e s t i r b l i s h e di n E g l p t by the tenth centur.' Dcsi- Sevcral I'catules of'Desiderius's church rvelc novel. -58r. he.ior.and [ater.21 though later than the church of ro58-75 and more oriental in feeling. the great slope b1. Somc ol the builders were from Amalfi. and its great porch lrom later in the samc centurv. monasterl'. and some ol'these were carricrl u1. c l .h n a l l r ' . lbunded in -5. naturalll' take pointed shapes' The characteristic straight arrisesol thc groin vaults ol'the porch ol' Sant'Angelo in Forrnis [z8r] were d o u b t l e s sf o r m e d o v c t ' d i a g o n a l m i t r e s ' Abbot Hugh of (.a n d a r t i s t s a b o u t h i m . 1 ' h e l a 1 . ll.r u i n e d s o s o o n i r ft c r ' . f'hev scem strangelv lost in the plastcr whiteness of the uther austerc Baroquc inter.. a i l a b l et o h i m 1 1 n part surely fi'om the Normans). Constanrinople. a n d m a d e t h e abbey. Jcrusalem. then at thc summit of its powel as a widelv ramillcd commercial republic.o u tw a s o b v i o u s l l t a k e n f r o m O l r l St Peter''sn Rome [j].mperor Flederick II. .t o t h c n u m b c r o l are neirrll'two hundred. presumably also Moslcm. lru dimensioned description in Lco of Osti.a rt h c n r o s t i m p o r t a n t s h r i n e i n t h e r e g i o n r v a sN l o n t e c a s s i n o .r3 which I 'l'he porch of measured befbre the destruction Sant'Angelo in Formis. robb. as at Sant'Angelo in Formis. belltower of local tvpe at the north-east corner ol the atrium). : r D e s i d e r i u s l a b o u r c d t o r e . or an architect in his suite.2g. a n d T u n i s . Saracens. step forwarcl in Romanesque engineering. I { e gathered a pleiad of important churchmen. G r e a t r e s o u r c e s w e r e a r . with monumental srair'. Desiderius'sporch had plaster-work decorabronze tion. rvith thc inspiration and help of God. a light to its age. and the arches.the oriental pointed arch. r C l u n l l I I .I t i s o u r b e l i e f t h a t t h e n o v c l t i c : at N{ontecassino hich hare oriental charactcrw . h a d b c e n r e s t o r c c la f t e l b a r b a r i a n d e s o l a t i o n s (Lombards. Cyprus. mcdier al stllc derius imported objectsof'art lrom Constanti_ nople. s u p p o s e t l l r t r a n s m i t t e d t h c n o r e l l e a t u r e sl t .Montecassino istics were due to this influcncel and in tact some of these feutures are anlicipated in existing North-Alrican work F o r e x a m p l e .IistressLatinitas had been wantins in the skill of thcse alts . mrr11s provision fol training Italians and others in thr various arts. ^{ctual materials rvcre bror. I l r m e a n s o f p a r a l l e le x a n p l e s b u i l d i n g s o b v i o r i . In roTr the church urrs dedicated nninto trepudio 'with the grearcsl possible stir' in the presence of numer. and Montecassino continued to draw visitols of malk. on thc same sitcs.8[J:). The great Abbot Desiderius assumsd ofhce w h c n t h e N o r m a n r e p J i m ew a s b e g i n n i n g .. fbr thcl' have strangc.r.f. which was tliapsidal. belated reminisccnces of the 'Ihc Carolingian rvestwork at Saint-Riquier. the structures dcstrol-ed in t h c S e c o n c l\ \ o r l d W a r .apua (in which rcgion Nlontec a s s i n ol i c s ) i n r o i 8 . called artists thehce.r's chroniclelear. Alexlnd r i a .i n r r 3 7 . Sicilr''s orvn riotous. stumpr. a priory of Montecasstno. sprcad f-ar. but it containsthe roval and imperial tombs of thc dynastv. lvould fit them much better. warm.inspired in various l-eatures \ N. T h e c i t y .oLrs r a n k i n g e c c l e s i a s t i c sk n o u l e d g c o f i t i n s t a n t l r . and T-shaped basilic. including that of the E. 'l in the ninth rcal of his abbacv. . are constructed over a rough filling carried by straight sticks forming a mitrc. single aisle at cach side.362 L A N D S A S S O C I A T E DW I T H I N THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE in the fantastic group of turrets joined b1' a bridgc to the rvest faqade(r3oo 59). t h c r e g i o n s a b o u t B e n e v e n t oa n c lS a l c r n o . i propvlaea.Iontecassino b it has been possible to make a trustworrh\ restoration [z8o]. atrium. brought up to the apex ofthe mitre.etainctl D e s i d e r i u s ' s s c h e m ed o w n t o m o d e r n t i m e s .a b o u t l o 5 o t h e i n n e r p o r l i c o o l the Great Mosque at Mahdia (Tunisia) had pointed arches and peculiar groin vaults. tbr' f i v e h u n d r e d v c i r r s )a n d m o r e . J .t5 with a ver-vblunt point il' they were like the single remaining original pointed vault in the south pylon of the outer porch.ul. lvhcre '\. must have sholln these oriental connexionsin i t s a r c h i t e c t u r e .. t h o u g h o n a m u c h s m a l l e r s c a l e( r o u g h l l ' o n c third linear'.i n c l u d i n g { m a l f i .rght from Rome. with stations in Cairo.e s t a b l i s ht h e fine arts in Itah. . no s c r e c n e d r e c c s s e sa t t h e e n d s o f t h c t r a n s e p r . merited to regain it in our time.'if : stud]' as ln ro75 ( K .. i n r o 7 7 : N a p l e s .. and C A N I P A N I A N D N E I G I I B O U R I \ GR E G I O N S A The Normans acquired -{r'ersaand its rcgion about ro3o. ir hcavv.

this architectural and s c u l p t u r a l t r a d i t i o n w a s t h c b a s i so f t h e r e v i v a l in of antique st. i t i s a w i t n es s t o the catholic taste of the Emperor. and Amalfi (Romanesque. | 2 2 5 7 8 ) . r a v e a s e m p r i e d ( i n 7 o 3 ? ) . o f ' r v h i c h t h c P i e t r o d c l l a V i g n a i s t h e b e s t k n o w n . I)esiderius built a cenotaph. the transept pavement was established eight steps above that of thc nar. as does the basilicrn architectule' thrt 'I'wo Sicilies is a architecturally this part o('the but the attentive e1'e will Roman province find Byzxntine and Nlloslem details in them' The pulpits are parapeted platforms carricd on c o l u m n s a n d r e a c h e db 1 ' f l i g h t s o t ' s t e p s . Thc paintings of the interior mav be judgcrl b y .r.preserved' Such furnimarble have also been and Minuto. here is painted in the Cassinese style.-vle thc works of the Emperor Frederick Il. All are basilican.w h e n r e l i c s w supposed to bc those of St Benedict wcre taken to Fleury-sur-Loire afier the Lombard cleso'l'o lation. S u c h c l a s s i c i s mw a s d d o u b t l e s ss u g g e s t e b . But in the main the abbey church was a conserr. Sant'Angelo Formis. when the high altar *rrs moved here.atir. retain the ncwly--discovered tomb untouched. 'I'hus we ha.s o n o l rveshall o f t h e c l a s s i c i z i n gp u l p i t o f r z i g r v h i c h find in Pisa.1 rz79).e h c r e i n r o 6 6 7 . Iinishedr. rebuilt).a t o m b u n d e r s t o o d t o b c t h a t o f St Benedict was discovered about ten I'eetunder.e asDects o l ' i t a l e r e f l e c t e di n t h e c a t h e d r a l s l ' S a l e r n .in the Bvzantine manner i and the interior was Ii'escoed in Bvzantine stvle. the surface.l-t 'I'he dvnamic I'eaturesof Montecassino. .ives as r witness.rb usually of white marble rT'ith mosatc rlnd opus Alerandrinum insets.ebuilding.ationshar.c corroborated this. ture is often verl' picturesque.t h o s e 1 ' S a n t ' A n g e l on F o r m i s . and it ma)' l ' e p r e s e n la l s o I r t a c l i o n a g a i n s t t h e e r o t i c ' overblown Romanesque of Sicil-v' lt was obliousll the training-ground lbr Nicolrr Pisano ' P c t tu s d c \ p u l i l " a u t h o r ' ( . to rz76.IES J . Thc whole interior.ara (alier r r'1h)' -l'hev and Salerno (between rr53 and rI8r) show. w h e r c S t T h o m a s A q u i n a s * a sb o r n . a dccorative lunette was or.l e sl i k e t h a t which lr'e find in Sicilv a centurv later. Ravello (by rr56).u s u a l l . were taken up and developed in Burgundl.alves. clestroyed later. Benevenro (rebuilt rrr. a D c s i d e r i a n o i church (asremarked) [z8zl.v there is a plojection with r lecteln whele thc baldacchinos in actual reading is done. Besides these there are many rustic rcductions of the motif including the church of the town o f A q u i n o . XIan-'-. wherc thc workmanship is rustic and the air is of folk art On thc other hand. In lerelling the rocky' ridgc to make a place f b r t h e b a s i l i c a . . fbundcd ro58. r ' t h c a n c i e n t m e m o r i es o f C a p u a a n d t h e i m p e r i a l o l f i c e . o (dedicatedin ro84). at Rarello (alter log5)' La (.v l eE x a m p l e s d a t e d b e f b r e r 2 o o e x r s t .r. The monks at Montccassino in thcir recent cxcar. then. In the region therc are manv elaborate pulpits.cr each of the door_ wavs. in medielal R o m a n s t .I'II}- 304 TWO SICII. His gate at Capua (t233 4o) was built in Roman-stvlc ashlar and adorned w i t h c l a s s i c a lb u s t s . ro73 5 plates fi'om Constantinople on rhe door-\. '5 in 2 8 r a n dz8z. b u t t h e g .e. and the conservan\. It is b e l i e v e dt h a t t h i s s r v l e w a s t a k e n u p b y . with most of the tomb.. C l u n l : the chapel of Berzd-la-Ville surr. 5a n a p p o s i t i o n o f s t y .

The pretty cloister.6 r ) . This august example probably had some influence on the development of ambulatories at the main. Architectural style remained so stagnant in Rome that the church of San Clemente. It had a great man]' rooms with a p s i d a l r e c e s s e s .s.+ The monastery adjoining the Lateran had a long historl'. By the ser.enthcentury the apse pavement had been raised to the top of the memoria. its old ambulatory. It was destroy'edonl.v in r 876 . s ' l ' h eg a r t h . contiguous to the apse at the original pavement level and giving access to an axial corridor b1' which the memoria could be reached from behind. In such a history therc is little room tragic for interesting building. only to be demolished piecerneal between r45o and 1585 to make way for the present church. of the capital of the Empire from The removal the fourth century'' the barbarian disRome in rule of thc City as a part of the locations.*""#. replaced in r 5 8 5 6 . was built about tzz7. restoration stuclv as rn r r45o (Rohault de Fleurv) The cathedral of the Saviour. iI' present. h a s a fbuntain hcac in the middle of a sarden. stood until about 6oo in fiont of the Memoria Apostolicu. built under Constantine. It was the refugc of the Benedictincs of N{ontccassino.l'I'his arrangement underlics the primitive Lombard crypts. and overthrown by an earthquake .the the coming ol'Greek and e B y z a n t i n e x a r c h a t ci t h e s t r u g g l c so l l o c a l n o b l c s . whcn their own monastery was destroyed by the Lombards in -58r. though fiom the time of' Gregory lX (tzz7 4r) malarial conditions in the district led to the transf'erofthe actual pontifical residence to the Vatican Palace.r The medieval building (resulting liom progressive rec o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e p a l a c eo f t h e L a t e r a n i .asmall ancient recessat the pavement level. and more open in construction..t h o u g h d a m a g c d . by the ScalaSanta.1 and 928 bv Sergius III and John X as San Giovanni in Laterano. A semicircular corridor was formcd.r It wasfurther rebuilt alier suffcring gravely from fires in r3o8 -I'he a p s e . T h e v e n e r a b l eo l d c r b u i l d i n g [ 2 8 3 ] w a s in various fbrms the papal palace for nearll' twelve centuries. in 896. the medieval transept and navt: had been masked a bv Renaissance nd Baroque additions. Though it figured in the military struggles of' the Middle Ages. only' the terminal a p s co f t h e T r i c l i n i u m s u r v i v e sa s a s o r t o f p a v i lion. g i Y e n by Constantine to Pope N. was mistaken for the fburth-century church on the site.liltiades) was much larger than the present one. and was their first establishment in Rome.without losingits rank. Recent excavations have revealedthe history ofits apse. the pontifl.CflLPTEn zo CENTRAL I'rALY ROME AND THE PAPAL STATI. s q u a r c . Old St Peter's [3] escapeddestruction. in the Roman Romanesquc st]'le. the 'tt:Yi. until the ruins of that building under the present church were susp e c t e d( r 8 4 7 ) a n d e x c a v a t e d( r 8 5 7 . z8l. Of all this. and the high altar cstablished abor.pavement level during the N{iddle Ages. r e t a i n e d and r36r.e the latter. Near by' was the Lateran Palacc. and contains the germ of the arnbulatory scheme. laid out in the ninth centurl' (or possibly' in the lburth) without radiating chapels [2831. rebuilt alter Robert Guiscard's fire of ro8a. Pietro Vassalletto and his s o n b e i n g t h e m a s t e r s . where the altar. I-atcran Church and palace. commune.a n d t h e s e i n c l u d e d s c v e r a l ceremonial halls. was rebuilt betwcen go. and the emperors not to mention the malaria and the burning of a part of the City by Robert Guiscard all make a story. Rome. t h e S y r i a nP o p e s .

5 o .v l e .a r c n o w g r o i n . San Clcmcntc' rcsroration . t a n c i e n t t ] ' p e o f o p u s' l l c .r ' a u l t e d ' 'fhe L .r Romc. iust mentioned.T h c l ' a n d o t l l 1 1 . interior.and the likc.\ '4ltttn. o n a l l t b u r s i d e s . Paschal crrrl1ll1sticks. Rome. t ative marble and mosaic ornament rvhich rr 1n i n d e x o f t h e C o s m a t i s t . inclucling lour oblong piers betrvccn (irsmateach pair.osmctlin.ol the cathedral of'Civita-Castcllana. though built in r z r o b1 Lorenz<. It rlas an easy' step liom this thirteenth-centur]' work to some e o f t h e E a r l l R e n a i s s a n cc l o i s t u r s Cosmati and Cosmatesque work. (Ilunsen) stud-r as in r' I roo e85. r r b l e and disks ol-colourcd marble (olien porphr 11) w i t h l i n e s o f g o l d a n d c o l o u r e d m o s a i cs c t i n t h e bordcring slabs as an embellishment.ltttttrut ilppearsin the beautilul Roman church p11cm e n t s . pulpits. r roo (rcstored) J a c o p o C o s m a t i . zfl-1. .s h a p e t lc o r n c r p i e r s t e r m i n a t e r a n g c s o l supports. . chancels. takes its name trom a Roman familyw h i c h f l o u r i s h e d a ft e r I r . rvorking in the samc mxnner devekrptd 16. 'I'he most f'amiliar t\pe ot'olrl.(' rvhich is aln-rostpcrfectlv classical and in design. thc portico. I classicalentablaturc with a esque liicze is carricd entirclv around the cloistcr abore them. tombs.1 : s e e a l s o 2 8 5] . \bbot Desiderius had such a pavsment maclc lbr -N{ontecassino. ncar Rome. altars.1 ' h c y d i d o n e s e r i ous work of architecture.thrones.168 lHl' LANDs AssoclA'lED \\'lTlllN rloLY RoMAN ['NlPIRF w a l k s . Santa\Iaria in (.osm c d i n i n R o m eI i t i s d a t c d l b o u t t t o o l : \ . Each intetval betwccn t$o plcrs has 6ve grrrcctil arches cirricd on {bur pairs ot slentlel colunns abore a pilrapet the middle prrirs in each case bcing twistcd. A beautilul example ttnc o1' manf in thc citl' exists at Santa Nlari:r in (. r. r t t r r t l r i n u m s o r n i l l n r n t fbr cloisters. T h e v a r e m a d e o f s l a b so f w h i t e n r . in the Ionic st1'le. I t h a s t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i ct l g 1 .

S a n t a S a b i n a a l s o l l x . sometimes in Cosmatesque work. Elsewhere these orders were little used until Renaissance times. Although there was a grear deal o1'disturb_ ance in Rome during the strugglc o\rer thc In_ \. the r.arc inferior in desip.b u i l r b r P o p c J o h n V I I I 1 i .. ftt".c e n t L r r . head end is triapsidal. While in general the columns are Corinthianesque. l w a s r e .dates from about rzI8.5. 'I'he canons or monks used to stand inside these enclosurcs. r a r . San Giorgio in Velabro. by which time the rather stump-v campanile was finished. there is a marblc throne on the axis. San Clemente (where the top is gabled [285]).r. above which there is a staged open-work turret with small columns. used dirccand a lecternfor usein readings ti. ITALY 37r Cosmati work applied to church furniture is naturally more delicate in scale than the pavements.induccrl a certarn amount of' building.. by a f'enestrellagiving upon :r 'l'he spacefbr relics.a s i t w a s i n t h e f b u r t h . and straight or spiral fluting was regularlv garnished with mosaics set in running designs. .rs adventitious Baroque decorations.n.es.. and eventually in Gothic designs. T h e v a r e s q u a r e o r n e a r l y . ordinarilv ter_ minate in an octagonal pvramid. It was he who rebuilt San Clemente (ruintd i n r o 8 4 d u r i n g t h e s i e g eo f t h e c i t v b v R o b e r t Guiscard). all in Romc. w h e n t h a t c l r r r r l \ w a s r e b u i l t b y ' P a s c h a lI I .nthronon lbr lou cr clergy extending along the apse wall to cithcr side. pulpirsuere prorided oneto InJfor.igour of the Papacy. the orientat i o n i s r e v e r s e d . Originally.proportion. but they and the pulpits de Compostela. Columnar fbrms are ordinarily much enrichcd: often the shafts are 'Salmonic' (twisted).or c would gather monKs -^in bodY of the which wassung'Suchliturgical lir'ri.ful 'turritus apex'took the place of the dome which is usual in Byzantine baldacchinos.. were made at this time. and this is true ofthe cloisters also.ia.o office.6 fort. in the monasteries.t. ther. stone. Santa Maria in 'I'rastevere.R o m e . with a sl.taings from Scriptureat interr als' l?. Beautilul examples are to be seen at San Lorenzo fuori le N{ura (rr48 ancllater). s q u a r ei n p l a n . and execution to the Roman works. and Santa Maria in Cosmedin [zSa] (a Gothic design). as by Gelmirez at Santiaso . as is usual everywhere in the Middle Ages. for examplc lz6ql . the old choir arrangement.. as at San Clemente [285]. but the old arrangements are clear.u s e da t S a n C l e m e n t e . though in the eler. with his back to thc throne. 1'he lront ofthe apse platfbrm is pierced. . arrangement is an unusuallr perf'ectexample of the Constantinian disposition of the sanctuary elements. Occasion_ allv. rmr.ft.MpIRE ctNTRAt. officiates at the west side or back ol'the altar. with its auxiliariesof pulpits.r Rrz as already indicated' ma1 be ttor" ' l. about rIr3i the tower' ho$'ever. thev nrust hare becnoftcn Lrsrtl. Victor II. but it was also used in conjunction with Romanesque themes. the Ionic and Composite appear frcquently. and canopies were built to preventdraughts T h e o l d c h a n c r .37O L A N D S A S S O C I A T E DW I T I I I N THE HOLY ROMAN [. Verv little recrrlls Gregorl-VII.tt. or Urban II. t. fald-stools (-fitnrrtrlrtst arententioncd. and Paschal candlestick. r .^ a n o n s v"' . I 2 0 . looking eastward tolvard the choir in the nave (previously mentioned) and the conliregation. and thc works continucd to about rr3o. of Santa Maria in Cosmedin [286] and Santa 'Irastevere may have been built before Maria in o[icn hare a naire lush altracti\eness. r schola cantorum ' . . I r 'fhe has a clerestorr. l'he altar is beneath a beautiful baldacchino. rvith a raised central platfbrm. perhaps a work of' the twelfth century. but wood was later introduced for 1. The semi-dome has ir quite lovely mosaic with patterns of'rinceaux in gold against a dark ground.r ' .'r choir of San Clemenle' dating f h e c h a n c e lo r "'--t^. S a n t a ' r2oo (reslurcd) l i 1 . a chancel marked off bv a parapet at the head of the nave..enth or twelfth centurv sralls began to be pror. beneath the altar. San Bartolomeo was also rebuilt. atsl because here the ^iled. Bclow.such sralls werr 1. the during and gospel for the epistle . r b a s i l i c a T h e n a v es r i l l s h o u s l h c o r i g i n a la l r .estltures. bur sc\cral interesting churches are connected with Paschal II (rogg rrr8). rogg rro6 or r r r2. The resulting churcht [285] non h. n a t i o n 0 1 ' p i e r sa n d I o n i c c o l u m n a r s u p p o r t s . The baldacchinos in south Italv ar Bari. namely. space' the congregattonal towards ted \laria in Cosmcdin' 2 8 6 . t o s c r The church of the Santi Qyattro Incoronati was likewise rebuilt by PaschalII. and in important works. Very handsome baldacchinos.. f'hus a plaJ. and the celebrant.r. with orb and cross. lecterns. especially star patterns. San Giorgio in Velabro and Santa Pudenziana have towers which ma-vfairlv 'I'he towers be ascribed to the twelfth centur].ided. The old propl'laeurl and atrium are not greatly changed. t h e y have four corner columns with connecting architra. as in the cloister ofN{onreale. Few churches have preserved the old arrange_ ment of'stalls. recentlv restoreclg ith lragments dating back to about [12. For a long time classicalreminiscences were strong in Cosmati work.

a strangelv cnrbel_ tus. 287. exterior. .17-l ] c h a p e lo t S a n Z e n o ( 8 z z \ . At San Lorenzo luori le Mura a simple. as This completes the list of Romanesquc de_ 'lhe trsual in Rome.i'pro-papal ruler. u'ith the impost Iine carriecl as a strinE Santa Maria sopra Minerra.that crealive ditlerentiations should Deriod and . moreover. r * .i. The interior.rnrrrrllo lower storevs.and able to profit by an excellent tradition offine workmanship."i. has seven store_r.. c o u r s e a r o u n d t h e ( o r l e r l e l c h s r a g ea l .Y .n. a new cloisrer . an<l that of Santa NIaria Maggiore to r378. .r1 old building incorporating a Roman corn hall.s abo'eihe wiidow_ p h a s i z e s h e c o n s e r v a t i v e h a r a c t e ro f t h e c i r r i n t c less shaft which reaches to the eaves line of the a r c h i t e c t u r e .B u r g u n d i a n h a l f .o . howerer. the f'agadehas been restored to h a p s a b o u t r r o o ) u s e d u n c o n r . where active and canonlaw' and in medicine' in Irade ciuil reflect doesnot necessarily Whilearchitecture ol'the the'Roman-mindedness' conditons. The tower oI SS. irnd 'Ihe about r r50. i sa r c h a i ci n The Torre delle Milizieli is a private lbrtil'eeling becauseol the piers in the colonnaclc and fication dated about r2oo! or later. rvhere the Renaissance was to begin. . .t. with a fine tower h a d m o n u m e n t s l e s sl a i t h f u l t o t h e a n t i o u e s r \ l e o f r r .Oo46-rr 'i)^ politicalfigure' but . Brick is tlre constructional material.llf Innocent Il as a thankoffering lbr. gr-acelirllr propor. .favoured derelopmenr illa .E s s c n n e a r t h e L a l e r a n .b u t t h i s i s n o t t h e c a s ea t S a n t a N{ariain Cosmedin.h.sical spirit. bu. out_ e l e v a t i o n( r r r 8 ) t o t h e p a p a c y . such that thc Roman madeit natttral sovereign qreat lwle shouldbe rt homein her domain. and then uniquclr in ing.n rgr.r. Endowed with a classicalsense. i" . Rome has thirty-six of these campanili.anni e Paolo is dated to rzo6. finishetl .l.1. near menr darcs liom the rimc ot Gellsius or Calix_ Santa Maria in Cosmedin. and a chamber design. Sardinia (which the Pisans conquered). and twclfth centuries Pisa.l .rin in f'ewer openings. irt all. Florence. " . e n t i o n a lm r u n s its old condition. and characteristic works were created there.r: w i t h a c e i l i n g an d a s c h o l ac u n t o r u m . tower. have triple openings with marble mia_watt shafts. t r r U"' . have were in Rome together..l church of Santa Maria in Cosmedin.. r e c e i r . the Ci.pp. bui hrr.r(.'^lr tageously placed stands at rhe lbcade ol the Popc): the touer is. r o r 8 ) a s s i g n e d t o c o n s p i c u o u sR o m a n esque works without disturbing importancc ol the buildings.G o r h i c t l i t l n . Recent studies have brought down the very early dates ( l o r 3 .r e m a r k a b l e t i a l l v t h e s t 1 . In the monastery at St puut. Nlore irrter_ the small clerestory winclows. Somc of the Roman towers havc ceramic TUSCA Y N r n s e t s . wcll restored have mentioned. with a porch (partlv Moslem in inspiration?) to enrich rhe in front ol an open narthc\.then f'eschool._fhe fine pave_ esting is the miscalled House of Rienzi. asofabout r rzo. e di t s rernri. This is an style. the uppcr storel. 1 8 . Ir was finished T u s c a n R o m a n e s q u e c h o o li n c l u d e s t h e D u c l : . 1 t very true to type. amongthe greatest of Bologna. his s u c c e s s less clas.lr . o has a The French High Gothic is not reDrescnred . eleventh. t t i r . The area in covered br rhe over the anripope Anacletus II.b u r n e d i n . 2 8 8 ] . :' . the first Cisrercian pope. that ofSanta Ceciliato rzzo. Each ofthe sevenstoreys has arcad_ come in until about rz8o.ks.n enlighrened the personalfriend ot HildcS liUfopttite' the Anselm She encouraged Lomilrr'narna of the and. .he brick cornice.r. progresswas being ii-Europ.n. and dated rzo6. The one which is most advan_ l a r g e l yb 1 H a d r i a n I V ( r r S + q . l e o v e r st h e d o m i n i o n s a n d r e p r c c fbr ninth-century mosaics and the beautiful sents the effective reign of the great Countess r2oo. it was rhe church to which austere cloister was built to. patronol'the arts ?"'. particularly churches. fifih ( ?).oo.t h e v a u l t o f w h i c h .r . studying Antiqr. .s embellishments. S a n r a p r a s s e d e . above. R.iioned.. r s ' s side the Walls.. t .s o r d e r t o b r i n g a b o u t t h e R e n a i s s a n c e . Gelasius II was attached lrom roTg until his about r rgo. logically more substantial. . all not I5)' well remembered only . A l t e r G e l a s i r . At the cosr ofa very folly Baroque fiontis_ lished brick tower-base where the architect ( per_ plece ln stucco. Br r4o: Brunelleschiand Dr. i s s t i l l e s s e n t i a l l yt h e c h u r c h b u i l t bv than contemporary Roman *o.LANDS ASSOCIATED WI'THIN THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRL. the architects put a special stamp on a considerable number of 6ne buildings. cENTRAL rTAr. S S . t church nave. hardly chansed in signs of importance existing in Rome. r e s t o r e d ( b y e x c e p t i o n i n t t . the relative In coming to Florence we instandy encounter the controvers!' over the date o{'the Baptistery o f S a n G i o v a n n i l r [ 2 8 7 . rerr but it is basilican.bout death (r r r9) Calixtus II continued repairsand rzoo. provided with good builcling stone and the means to use the easily available marble. s undcr Eugcne III. Gior. and piers.t theydid parlicularl]in Florence BaPtisterl ' Florence. G i o r a n n i e P a o l o .t"r. ]irt u r l .It is no lessnatural given the active temper of the ..o*nt.rn_ 8oo years.tjld.. intervening Lucius II (r r44lS) some special monuments in the northern lnd \r'asthe restorer ofSanta Croce in Gerusalemme. Florence prospered in the age ofNlrtilda. Santa Maria in Trastevere.-m e n r o f d i a p h r a g m a r c h e si n r t . similar to the Lateran cloister which r... t h e o n l v I. s o u t h e r n p a r t s o f t h e I t a l i a n p e n i n s u l a ..

r Pilgrimagechurch. o r e r r z o( a c _ cording lo tlocuments broughr forward b1 Franhlin Toker) until the ninth centurr. both belong to the thirteenth century. Nor_ malll' a baptisrery would first be built ar thar time. the first splendid monument o{' the Renaissance.r5 Foundations show that the original octagon. though the fbgade was finished in the twelfth century and the pavement dates fiom rzo7. carrl' the remarkable cupola and the buttress-like external ribs which support the roofing.also rvooden-roofed. r e p r e s e n l e db 1 t h e s t r e e t . in t. We recognized a stretch of sesnienljl fbrrndation uall raithin the ocragon as rht remarns of'a henricl. was more substantial but resembled the old design in many ways. a relatir. the 6rst great vaultins enter_ prise ot' the Renaissance.Baptisterv. For The remains may be seen cathedral building. in Florence. t h e a t r i u m s t o o d ( a s b e l b r e ) t h e b a s i l i c ao f oond originalli' built in the sixth Santa Reparata. a n d h c 46ium. About the 'rear r2oo the interior of San Giovanni rvas giren its present charactcr and covered b-". at the time. both churches were rebuilt on a slightly larger scale. of the present cathedral. 5 9 .the existing vault. It became a Benedictineabbey church in ror8. The vast mosaic above.. The better to sustainthis r. as commonly in Imperial churches.r' eler. showed the structural The interior of the Baptistery is dignified. From wall to wall it measures about go f'eet English. with the entablature abo\. already started. At San Giovanni the core of the existing octagon was built. The active bishop Andrcrrs ( 8 6 9 0 3 1 i sc r e d i t e dw i r h m o v i n g r h e s e e . was considerably augmented in scale about r j-55. Florencc. or close to 93 Roman feet. reslingon conliguotts f o u n d a t i o n s i u s t w i t h i n t h c o c t a g o n o f r o .dome.288. three to a typical bay. San Miniato al Monterb [z8g grl is the most remarkable Florentine basilica. and paving slabs of great beauty and delicacv (exemplified also at San NIiniato. Pairs of handsome free-standing columns between pairs ofpilasters at the angles of'the octagon sustain an entablature in the lower storey. San Giovanni is octagonal in plan. but the arcading below which sheathes the octagon o{' ro59 seems later. Parti-coloured marble. and by rogo a new church was essentially complete. coffered panel work.enth and trvellth ccnturies was srudied as a model fbr the . two episodss thc. in new basilica. in r4zo 36. Some importation of the zebra-work of Pisa occurred which befbre tzg3 'macigno' stone. its interior thus became almost Roman in grandeur.aci t h e s e e w a s n o t m o r e d l i o m S a n I . where f o r m e r l r t h e r e w a s a n a p s e . a long period it served as the century. the apse wasflanked. and the familiar opinion that the ocrason was the original carhedral buildinE would sccrn to bc unrenable. was clected as the reforming pope Nicholas II (ro-Sg-6r). thc original atrium. A transept and probably also a crossing tower were built.. While proximity ro the ciry wall sugglcsts that _ the cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore mau o c c u p ) a n E a r l . the present system ofcolumns a n d a r c h e sw a s a p p l i e d t o t h e i n s i d e o f t h e w a l l s of the otlagon ol r05q. the present cathedral. T'hough Gothic. with an oblong extension on the western side. In this election the present rule of having the pope e l e c t e db y t h e c a r d i n a l s a l o n e w a s i n t r o d u c e d . The exterior attica datcs from this period. and the extraordinary parti-coloured pavement beneath.b u i l t l ing the early octagon. The recessesof the aqueductlike structural arches of the wall are masked by pretty bifora between marble parapets and parti-coloured panels. There is an interesting open groin-vaulted crypt which en- . replacing the earlier baptistery with a clear open u'alls sheathe an aquedtrct-like construction bent around the eiglrt angles. Each column or pilaster of the ground storey has a pilaster above it. filled respec_ tively by the memorable valves of Andrea pisano (tr3o) and Lorenzo Ghiberti (t4ot 24. However.and its parti-coloured marble veneering became and continued to be usual in the Florentine area until the Gothic came. Santa Reparata was augmented in various ways: the sanctuarlr level u'as raised. Florence) were made as time passed.supcrficiall. north. so rhat thc basilica becam. The . rnterlor. fbr it corresponds to the upper arcading on thc present cathedral.e serving to mark the spring of the great octagonal vault. an archaeological crypt which has been arin ranged near the west end of the nave at Santa Maria del Fiore. 'I'he oldest documcnted remains are those (. Beginning earlf in the eleventh century. as on the corners of the Baptistery. design.ell small building.I n the new upper structure a series o1'arches.T h e r e a r e doors on the south. respecting the old locations. the Irlorentine bishop who. The Baptistery's Corinthian columnar and pilaster orders.374 LANDS ASSOCTATED TTHTN THE HOLy W RoMAN EMpTRE cENTRAL r1'ALY 175 ol'the present huilding arc indiconstruction mcdian ioint tliridcs thc foundation Jt"a " lengthwtse' earll octagonthcre was an i o t h e e a s to f ( h e n o w .cle at the west end ol. The space. by two towers. r C h r i s r i a n c a r h c d r a ls i r e .ault. tq47 5z). This work was deducirtcd in ro-59 by Gebhard of Burgundy. lackedaisles arouri. and installing the relics ol St Zenobius.. The latter building was planned by Arnolfo di Cambio about r zg6 to replace Santa Reparata. and this great building Arnolfo's presented Brunelleschi with his opportunity to construct. and east sides.1 the earlv-sixth-century basilica of Sanrrr Reparata. with entablature or arcades.l the central space.

c E N , t R A Lt T A L \ ,


'I'ht' navchasa series olgfls a raisedsancruary' bavs with three clerestorr free three-arched in and tbur trusses each,ditided br' lindo*r archeson grouped piers The apse dirphragrn with a mosaicon the arcade. a f,1s decorative the fagadealso has a decorative rcoi-dome;

arcade with a mosaic above. Marble vencering and the brightly painted ceiling and rrusses add to the colourlul effect. San Miniato is believed to have inspired the fbgadesof the Badia at Fiesole (late twellih century, though the church was given to the Bene-


.414:-." *

z9oand ugr. F lorcncc,San trliniato, tnterior,linished ro6z go, and plan

d i c t i n e s i n r o r 8 ) , a n d t h e c o l l e g i a t ec h u r c h o l St Andrew in Empoli (twclfth centurl'). Smaller churches in Florence and the sur-f rounding region are much simpler. hey have a great deal of bare stone-work, but possess the classicaldignitv and good proportion which are generally characteristic of Florentine buildings. 'I'he year ro6z was signalized b1' an overwhelming victorv of the Pisan navy in a battle o1I' Palermo. This action marked a 6nal successin a long war against the SaracensofSicily, whom the Pisans, with the Genoese, had fought to a standstill in Sardinia. and driven fiom that island.




- |l' 'l'



zl!9. Florcncc,.San Miniato, llEade,

a : : :: : a



ro6: and twelfih centurr

l IT - - FIf'al



ltg' +l' The fbund.ll l,."t"raUtecathedral werelaid in an openstte' llt""r the church --. ( r r 53 ff')' "t --^ ^ lqrEe ftee-stanolng oaptistery

Pisans began '- 'ro following year' 1063' the

ff') (r278 Santo tr')' andcamPo #;';i;;;of examplcs finest ffii i, to make :l'.:f .tht All the buildings tJl"t*

buildings' cathedral and arcading' with marblepanelling' lr. t*.0 beautifully' thel hare weathered Li-nra.r, to monumenr rhc standas a splendid l;;;t rePublic'1; Pisan *rna.ut of the or by " lh..r,h.dttl wasdesigned Buschetus in earnest about began Boschetto.Building by Gelasius .t.or,t".tation wasperfbrmed lo=ig. westward A fairly homogeneous ii"in ttta. the building. of the nave by Rainaldus was not have ,*t.nrion Like man-v othcr great sttuctures which The plan is an elabora126r-72' nnirft.a trrr:Jl u group or school, the cathedral ofPisa layout reallythe conjunc- initiated tion ofthe basilican
group from the air' tob3 t35o zg4.Pisa,cathedral

tion of three basilicas, each with a galler-v: the great double-aisled nave is intersected b1' a minor transept formecl of two single-aisled crossbasilicasset front to front, with the domed them lzg5l Each ing ofthe great nave between with an apse oflhe minor basilicas was provided with its own at the outward extremit-v, and of rel urned r e t u r n e d a i s l e sa t i t s i n u a r d e n d ' T h c s c ofthe great aisles coalescewith the inner aisles off the transeptal basilicas' and nave, screen (on plovide extra support lbr the oval dome at the crossshallow pendentives) squinches an<1 galleries ing. The aisles are groin-vaulted; the in wood. Except at the extremltles' are covere<l around the aisles and galleries arc continuous


PisaCathedral, ro61, ro8g r:72



zg5. Pisa Cathedral, Io63, rolil


of 296.Scctions baptisterics: ,r. Pisa,r r.5-j i265, lvith hall-plans hall-scctitlns comparative n. Parma, I r96, section'rvith Plan








l L'.


is, within an embracin!i unity, stvlistically,comp o s i t e . I t s b e a u t i l u l l v s h e a t h e dm a r b l e e x t e r i o r has decolrti ve arcadesand pilaster rirngeswhich were probirbly suggested from Rome and Florence, rarher than (as has been suggesred) ii'om Armenian works remote in time and place, and dillelent in design. I'he lbur-sroried arcading ofthe faQade, Iinished in the thirteenth centurv, probably' reflects Lombard lree-standinE gallerr worl. Such arcading in marble, freestanding or applied, becomesthc sign manual of the Pisan school, especialll when accomp a n i e d w i t h s q u a r e p a n e l s s e t p o i n r u p r v a r d si n -l'he the tlmpana of the arches. n a v e a r c a d eo f ' the chulch is sct on a magnificentrangeofantiq u e c o l u m n s , p u r e l v R o m a n i n s t y l e, w i t h s l a b like impost blocks. f'he upper parr of the nave has zebra u'ork (ultimately inspired from the classical olur mittum) which becomes onlv too

Romanesque and Gothic. A pointed triumphal arch terminatesthe navc. b u t t h e r r c h e s b e v o n d a r e r o u n d , a n c lt h c m o s a i c o f t h e a p s ei s c l e a r l y i n t h e B v z a n r i n e t r a d i t i o n . T h e b a p t i s t e r y , d e s i g n e db 1 ' D i o t i s a l v i [ 2 9 . 1 ] , thc Holl h a s l e m i n i s c e n c e so f R o m a n a n r i q u i t y , a n d o t Land, to which the Pisan merchanr

I-amiliar in


The great Pisan belfr.v Iz9z] is c1-lindrical like the old belfries in Rlvenna, but much morc elaborate, being faced rvith marble and embcllished with six storel's of decorative malble g a l l e r ya r c a d i n g .U n l b r t u n a t e l y i t w a s b u i l t w i t h insufficient lbundations on ground ot unc\cn resistance, and was carried fbrward in spite ol' early settlement. Loading the uppel side and bending the shaft (which as a result has someu w h a t t h e s h a p eo l a b ; r n a n a ) e r e u n a r a i l i n gt o arrest progressile deliation fiom the perpend i c u l a r ,a n d t h i s h a s o n l r t t c c n t l r b e e ns t o p p e t l by a modeln fbr.rndationThe building is cona s i s t e n ti n s t v l e w i t h t h c b a p t i s t e r . v n d t h e c a t h e dral, although cal'ried fbrward as late ts t27r ( b y G e r a r c l o ) . T h e m o t i f i s c s s e n t i a l l yt h a t o f the galleried fbgade ofthe cathedral envcloping 'I'he bcll the cvlindrical shali of the tower' fiom about r35o' As chamber at the top dates

thus linished the torver is r79 f'cethigh, and it ts slightly' more than thirteen f'eetout of plumb' 'Ihe Campo Santo [:94] is the lburth of thc great buildings in thc cxthedral closc at Pisr. and it is said that the earth coveringthe garth is i n d e e dh o l y , h a l i n g b e e nb r o u g h t f r o m P a l e s t i n e as ballast in Pisan ships Although the fianrpo Santo was largel-vbuilt (b1' Giovanni di Simone) in rz78-83, and has Italian Gothic archesxnd tracer]',it is laid out like an clongatcd classical u a t r i u m . L a t e r i t w a st l c c o t ' a l e d i t h t a m o u s l i e s s it likc a classical toa poecile' c o e s .w h i c h m a d e I n p a s s i n go n e s h o u l d n o t e t h a t t h e t t o r t l t t r i u m came to metrt ((ttt(lcr.)tin medie\al Latin' Both a t h e u s a g ca n c l t h e a r ' c h i t e c t u r e r e m c d i e r a l i z e d examplc (It sullered in this lerr beautiful greatlv in the Second World War') In the citv, thc chlractcristicswhich rvehave n o t e d i n t h e c a t h e d r r r lg r o u p a r e f u r t h e r c x e m -

marine was transporting crusaders and pilgrims at the time of its construction. 'fhe scheme is l i k e t h a t o f t h e R o t u n d a o f t h e A n a s t a s i si n Jerus a l e m ,b u t t h e d e t a i l i s P i s a n , a n d t h e i n t e r i o r i s vaulted. The original vault is a truncared cone, w i t h i t s e r e n o w c l o s e d ;t h e o u t e r v a u l t ( l a t e r )i s a dome Iz96,r ]. Both tvpes of'roof , in wood, har-e protected the Anastasis. The older carving on the building is very beautiful, and r,erv classical i n s p i t e o f i t s d a t e ( r r 5 3 a n d l a t e r ); N i c o l a P i s a n o participated in the remodelling of'the exterior i n t h e G o t h i c s t y l e( r z 5 o 6 5 ) . t N



c E N T R A Lr r l r _ v


b ; r s i l i c a sn t h e P i s a n s t t l e i man) wooden-rooled built. Among thcse \\e ma\ menlion San were 'forrcs (late eleventh centur-Y Porto Gar,ino at 'double-ender'), the b - ve x c e p t i o n a to t. rrrr; d i S a c c a r g i aa t C o d r o n g i a n r t s( r r t 6 a n d Triniti ,. rrSo-r2oo), and Santa NIaria di Castcllo at (r. Caglialrt r zoo-r. r 3oo). On the mainland the Pisan Romancsque spreadfar bevond the boundaries of'the Republic. The style is exemplilied in parts of the cathedralofGenoa ( r r gg and later) ; at Pistoia in the church of San Giovanni luor civitas, trvcllih c e n t u r y ( t h r e e s t a g e so f P i s a n a r c a d i n g o n t h e 'Pieve' long flank ofthe church) ; at Arczzo in the church (ranges ofcolumnar galleries on or parish the laqade of the church, above an applied arcadei in stone, Izr6). Massa N{arittima Cathedral was built, still in the Pisan Romane s q u es t y l e , i n t z z S - 6 7 . O t h c r e x a m p l e sa r e S a n Giusto at Bazztno in the Abruzzi, and, firlther o n , t h e c a t h e d r a lo f ' ' l ' r o i a i n A p u l i a ( r o g t t o t h e thirteenth centur,v) rvhich wc har c alreadr' seen22 [z7ol. Before quitting central Itall w'e should mention three sites ofspecial interest. At the abbey of Sant'Antimo, near Siena, a Burgundianlooking church with apse, ambulatory', and radiating chapels, embellished, too, rvith sculpture in the Toulousan st.vle, was begun about I I I 8 . B u r g u n d i a n a r c h i t e c t u r a li n l l u e n c eb e f b r e the arrival ofthc Cistercians is almost unheardo f , a n d S a n t ' A n t i m o i s n o t w e l l e x p l a i n e d .I t w a s not Cluniac.ri At San Galgano betwcen Siena a n d M a s s a M a r i t t i m a t h e C i s t c r c i a n sb u i l t t h e i r chief house in Tuscanl'. The chulch there (alreadvmentioncd) datesft'om rzz4.

T h e r e m a i n i n g s i t e i s n e a r S i e n aa l s o ,n a m c l r . . San Gimignano, which still has thirteen tall towers (out of' 48, or tladitionall.r'76) which were raised as prir,ate fortilications liom the t w e l f t h c e n t u r v o n w a r d I z 9 7 l . S u c h t o w e r . si r l s o servc as refuges fi'om the Iiequent conflagrations which dcsolated the wood-built and crorvdcd citics of the time. At San Gimignano, a s e l s e w h e l e ,t h c t o w e r s a r e s q u a r e i n p l a n , a n d rise sheer with no ornament and ver]. f'ew openi n g s . S u c h i n d i v i d u a l c i t a d e l s , r v e rb u i l t i n g r e a t e n u n b e r s d u r i n g t h e i n t e n s e s t r u g g l e sa n d c o m petitions of medio,al cir,ic lif-e. At San Gimig n i r n o t h e t o w e r s o f t h e S a l v u c c i a r c a s c r i b c dt o the twelfth ccntury. The Palazzo Comunale ( 1 2 8 8 1 3 - 2 3 )h a s a t o u e l r 7 . 3 f - e e th i g h r v i t h a mark bel.ond which private towets might not rise.:r t o r v e r s ,a n d L u c c a Florence is reported to havc had r5o such 'rose like a lbrest'. As the

desolatedcities werc rebuilt. better construct i o n , w i t h g r e a t c r u s e o l ' m a s o n r 1 "n t h e h o u s e s , i rendered the towcrs less necessarr. Because of t h c i r c o n s i d e r a b l eb u l k a n d t h e i r t e n d e n o t o t i p when not well fbundcd. almost all the towers have now been destrol'ed- 81, erception, thc t o w e r o f t h e A s i n e l l i l - a m i l y( r r 0 9 - r g ; 3 z o G a r i s e n d a( r r r o ; t e n I'eet high; foul feet out of plumb) and the Torre fcetout of plumb; never finished) irre to bc seen in Bologna, which formerlr had about t8o privlte touers. O f t h e C o u n t e s sM a t i l d a ' s a n c e s t r a lc a s t l eo n Canossa, a rockl' f'astncssnear Reggio Emilia so much in thc news of ro77 - practicallvnothing rcmains. In generll thc tbltifications of the r e s i o n a r e r - e r vn u c h l a t e r i n d a t e .

297 San Gimignano, gcncrrl r.icu of torvcrs, I a r g e l i t s c l t i h t n ( l ( h t r l c ( . n ( lc c l l u r i c s t

is in the Pisan Romanesque I'aqade,rvith a nar.t h e x , d a t e d a b o u t r z o 4 . S a n N I i c h e l e ,a l s op i s a n . great chur.ch. The r erv much be_str.iped ancl be_ dates lrom r r43 to the lburteenth centurv. San pinnacled miniature chur.ch of Santa N1aria F l e d i a n o . | | | z . 4 j . h a s a s t r i k i n g m o s a i ct n r h . d e l l a S p i n a ( a t h o r n f i o m t h e c r . o w no f t h o r n s ) . f a g a d e ,a n d i s m o r e R o m a n . A l l a r e b a s i l i c a ni n r . 1 2 57 . s h o u s h o u s o m e l h i n g o l t h e s p i r i r o l . scheme, and employ marble, as is usual in t h e ( . a t h e d r r l R o m a n e s t l u ei v c r l o n i n T u : c a n l 1'uscanv.2o 'I'he' Gothic.1" expansion olthe Tuscan school was r erl L u c c a h a s a b e a u t i f i r ls e r i e so f c h u r c h e si n t h e considerable. In Sardinia it is found with litrlc P i s a n s t y l e , i n c l u d i n g t h e c a t h e d r a lo f s a n N t a r _ c h a n g e . r rA n E a r l v C h r i s t i a n d o m e d c r u c i f o r m tino, rlhich, through irs possession fthe ,\'olto o c h u r c h s u r v i v e s ,i n p a r t , i n S a n S a t u r n o , C a g l i a r i Santo' lrom the eler,enth century onwar.d, be_ ( f i l i h c e n t u r . r) , a n d t h e r e a r e r a r h c r r o u s h larcl c a m c a p l a c eo f ' p i l g r i m a g e .T h o u g h r h e i n r e r i o r exanrplesn the same sryle,s.ell r.uult.d.Bur i ofthc church is Gothic, our architectural interest from the eleventh to the fourteenth centur\

plified. San Paolo a Ripa d'Arno (begun about rzro) is a smaller and sercrer r.ersionof the

The torvcr beside it is very elegant. rverc more influential. with exterior gallcries. in h:r'r'ing the sanctuary in the eastern limb ol the cross (rather than cent r a l ) . which afterwards rebuilt. and cxteriorly carried out with l'ombald brickwork and detail'[zg8' 299]. Padua. but otherwise the decorative scheme 'l'he marble veneer of the runs true to tvpe' interior. Santa Fosca (perhaps d ated I o r i ) is a much Italianized version.a n d . had ver.made of slabs which werc almost white when applied. 'Il Santo' (the church of'Sant'AnAt Padua t o n i o ) l r a s l a i d o u t ( r 2 3 I ) i n s o m e l v h a tt h c s a m e * a 1 ' .f a c c dw i t h h a n d s o m ea s h l a r . " . it is a st h e b i s h o p ' s s e a tb u t a s of thc Evangelist St Mark' the shrine for relics in 828. especially for the time. The ncrv church o(' lo63 w''rs dedicated in rog5. but it was not linished with its mosaicembellishment until wcll into the twelfth century.tiun architecrure a Blzantine o " w h i c h s a . o f c o u r s e .n o t touch with Italy.1o) comes fiom thc B-vzantinc zgli.zantine church sould probablv not have large mosaic subjects on the pier rvalls. it was almost purely and undoubtedl-v due in large Byzantine in st-vle. finished contxcr also' t I. to Saint-Irront at P6rigueux. i l ] p c r e e p t i b l ea s t h e c l a s s i c i s m l ' i Tus.i n h a v i n g w i n d o w s i n t h e d o m e s c o r e r i n g t h e l i m b s o l ' t h e c r o s s . bcautiful as it was.Srnt'-{ntonio. N o ' s c h o o l ' d e l e l o p e do u t o l t h e e o n s t t ' u c t i o n ofSan N{arco in Venice''l'he building. oart to Byzantine architects and craf tsmen The standard of workmanship is verl' high.vlittle direct efect a sure sign $ that its rrrchitects cle Blzirntine' rnd out ol' 'l'he B y z a n t i n c m o s a i c i s t s . This was thc'rrrangement of Justinian and Theodora's imperial mausoleum church of the Holy Apostles in Constantinople. It recalls the original shape ot t h e t o w e r o f S a n N l a r c o o n t h e P i a z z ai n V e n i c e ' ' Pelhaps something of'the eleganceofthc church at Mur ano (a crucilbrm building with a beauttabout fully arcacledrnd gallelied apse. and u'as tower in thePiazza. of'a centralized B1'zantine squinch church t5'pc Perhaps therc is something of Bl. At Torcello. As first built. as wc have seen.zantine subtlcty in the hands o m eb u t s i m p l e b a s i l i c a nc a t h e d r a l( 6 ' 1 r. . i n t h e l a t e r additions of pointed and Renaissancest1. below the spring of the vault. now patinated to a beautiful soft brown. and brought to Venice from -{lexandria The old housedin a cruciform church after 976 tell in r9oz.le'The proiecting pierced piels go back to the B1'zln- tine originals. r e b u i l t in 86+ and again about Ioo8)' The sereneint e r i o r i s s t i l l a r r a n g e d a s D e s i d e r i u s ' s b a s i l i c aa t Montecassino was. w h i c h i s e s s e n t i a l l l L o m b a r d ' b u t r e l a t e dt o B1-zantine work. for it has five d o m e d u n i t s s o c o m b i n e d ( u i t h i r p s el n ' 1 n a r c extension) as to mark a gleat cross in groundplan. b u t i n t e r i o r l y . A Bl. and Justinian's church built at tl-retomb of St John the Evangelist in Ephesus. and enriched with tall dccorative irrcad' i n g . so f'arremoved in sentiment. bcgun rz-lr . This shows itself most fulll' Rome and Marco'r begun in Iob3' not in the church of San the ducal chapel. San N1arco difters from the original in lacking a gallerl'.CHAPTER zt I1'ALY NORTHERN I VEN CE with thc Bvzantine East Constant rel'ltionships cast qaue Ven. lvas associated with this building. Much of thc furniture of the churcl-r is Byzantine in style also.anr'. and were ttansmitted. The church is a good example of'the t-vpe 'cross ol domcs' or composite known as the cruciform five-domed church. is actualll. both of which hirve been destroyed.

r r . pilaster strips.ROM.n.r. A magnificent rotv of towns existetl crcn in a n l i q u i r vj n r h c p o | a l l e 1 . 'fhough Veneusedwhen the means allowed it. o c i on \ l i l a n i [ . was littlc imitated. rich reds in dley. rhe rcgion had international importance bt the year 8oo.. begun rz. This rvas a great aid to trade in the Middle -tg"r. o churcltesto hare sets ol bclls. in the north one is conscious of the radiating mountain pirssesand the reflex influences {r. a t e d and mature design is that of pomposa (ro63).ros -Lflgue its allurial character.ighru hir. Orieinallv t h e o p e n i n g s o n e a c h s i d e i n c r e a s e df . purr." I n L o m b a r d . We ha-vealready cu. l. as we har. later rcr.o. artistic maturity ofnorth ltalv_ LOMBARDY Thegreat alluvial plain of the po and rhe Adige whicl l_ombardv lies is r. more elaborate mouldings. the Lombardo-Catalan First Romanesque. The g1one rather grey and grittv. hence. with pilaster strips and . did not change mr. built by Abbot Guido of Ravenna [3or].ith southcrn Italv and lnFs prcsenr difticulr the Near East.'. about 7go.l. t.marked by pilaster strips. and Two striking features do. The clar burns to enchanting b u i l d si n browns tn the ceslern pall o. the Exarchare.he Lombard belfry r'25 represented on the pied_ montese cathedrals of Ivrea and Aosta bv the e a r l r e l e r c n t hc e n t u r ) . * u . t a k e n up in Germany (Fulda. i c kl t r r r _ b a r o s s aw i t h t h e i r L o m b a r d Leaguc (r r(rS g._.b. applied shaf-ting.l) whenthatEmperorsoughrrorcgarn r.$ orks to the pcl'iod of the -. \ f t e r a d c c l i n e .{ntonio. . about Nlilan. is marble and breccia (also obtainable) N'ere 311ect. . and alterwa. and enriched br. thc dnls and and to full. Ur. itselfis navigable lrom near the . Th. p a p a la n t l i r n _ perral anarchv. I t i s w e l l k n o w n as a typical example of the use of'decorative applied shafting. with more ambitious vaults.al p o s e d l v t r a c e a b l et o toeas moyed from t h e e l e \ .rr. and the rib vauh. The church has a dignilied basilicrn lbq:adeand a generous clerestory in the nave rvhich. T h e r e i s a f i n e e x a n r p l c of paircd bclfn rouers on lhc church of Sant'Abbondio ar Como in north Lombardv | 3 o o l . .o n c narrow loophole at the bottom to tbur generous arches in the bellil-.s each to s i d e a t t h e e n t r a n c eo f t h e s a n c t u a r l ' . V. i o d o l . ancl thc B-rzanrines.ohl.enna through this corriothel inclined ro assign fhe gr..chitcctur..rhr. r .The deep sanctuarv has two bavs ofrib vaulting and a ribbed apse.es. often in combination with blick.lrn.for 337 miles to rts mouth. h r e p l a c e d a n i n t e r e s r i n gE a r l y C h r i s r i a n structure which has been traced by excavation. a qurrrefbil.l .ies multiplied in the eleventh centurv becauseof improvements in bell castins. and arched corbel rables. h a n c o n l e m p o r a n e o u s l _u i r h t r the church.hJ River Sesia.lr. Sout'ces of'stone are. of Alpin._ seen how ar. . w a sb e g u n a b o u t ro63 and dedicated in ro95. built into the propl'laeum range [3].s had been built in Lombardi. more substantial buildings of much better workmanship. b u i l t o f s t o n e . Sant'. Conspicuous a m o n g t h e t v p i c a l L o m b a r d t o w e r so f e a r l 1 .ri. with pr-oiecting apses bet w e e nt h r e e o f t h e p a i r s . lateralll' there are two groined ba1.increased greatll in poprrl. ancl sculptural rnotifs.. Thc scricsof monumcnral church towers appears to begin wirh San r . largel-r.n land transport was so dilicult. dre region never \erl remote. beauti[ul.*rl There are two schools ring upon Milan facilitared o f ' a r c h a e o l o g i c atlh o u g h r c o n n e x r o n sw i t h r h e one inclincd ro stress North.om Germanic lands. a su n d o u b t e d l y v e r y i n f l u e n t i a l .r..1r Rut the lict that the Lombard stvle flooclecl so in close ro San l{arco in Venicels n. u. Gcrmant... It is the tall Lombard tower built specificallv as a belfry. has four corner torvers.h s n a d l a p s e dd u r i n g r h e p e r .t h e t a l l . o r e n z oi n M i l a n ( a b o u r 4oo. acti\e bulks of the belfrl rowers rise. The church.ly exumplc. e d e t . 'fhe n e w c h u r c h . \ m h r .e scen. l e derelopcd antl ther.r extensively rebuilt).-1 While within the Po Vallev onc f'eels Lombardy as a great corridor... Padua.s o t h a l r h c l uere capable of conlionring F r . but it shows little trace of outside indor ton'ards Spain."b1. The wooden roofine of' zgg.386 L A N D S A ^ S S O C I A T I DW T T H I N THE HOL}. brighr. It has nine stap. the gaiety of' thn architecture cristing Venetiancolour and rich matelirrls had its eli'ect on the mainland design. ui. T h e p l a i n old M o n k s ' T o u c r b e s i d eS a n r ' . i . fluence. A system chronological p. r . and manj orhers subscquenrly). ils decoration.onflu.t_ tton and urban consciousnes^i^ _ particularlr in the eleventh and twelfth c e n t u r i e s . horveyer: the squarebelfrl rower..e a c hh a s a n apsein the thicknessof the wall. S*itzcrland. Its style of that time. r r _ v jg7 Romanesque. lor better. San Satiro in l\{ilan has a characferistic cxamnle. which appears to otle something to Rome.rch as it matured.eloped..evealed br a mere 11 rt the map as a narural corridor. Ot' courseRoman towers stubby tlrrre.cater. T ' h i s s c h e m eo f a n a p s e b e t w e e na t o w e r p . . and fbr the enrichment of the wall surface. in u . Architecturally.{N EMPIRI N o R T H E R Nr r . It was used in larger. . the region W c a u s eo f brick. Belfl.i s r o o f c d i n w o o d ..t . like the d o u b l e a i s l e s . :.1. Irrance. . galleries. and eas-tcomhOWever.. Romanesque buil(1. d a r e d r o 4 3 r a r h e r .755 6s.t h c o l d e r connected Lombardl. and corbel tables fbr articulation of'the dcsign. The great betfiv of Old St Peter's in Rome. a n t l i n c r e a s e f m e a n s m a t l e i t p o s s i h l cf o r r n r n . and oler this p a i r o f l i t t l e s a n c t u a r i e so n e a t e a c hs i d e .. 1 o 2 i s o n e o f t h c o l d e s t n o r v i n e \ i s l e n c c ( r e n rh | century) though the belfrf is modcrn. e n t hc e n t u r l : t h c Rar. possible to use that material municadon made it freely. 9r"l-.

r . s o u t hf l r n k ample is claimed t try). b e c a u s s of'lost monuments. r o 6 3 9 5 . S a n F e d e l eh a sa n e a r l \ e x a m p l eo f t h e d e veloped Lombarcl caves gallerl' which we havc notcd previously at San Nicola in Bari. 1 ' h e date of San Fedelc apparently' fhlls. h t e r t h e i d e a w a s t a k e n u p b l ' t h e N l o s l e m sa n d . fbr most of i t s p r e s e n ts t r u c t u r e . The aislesare carried entirely around the t r o n s e p t s r o t h s r l ' i a p s i d a lc a s t e n d . stretching all the rvay from Armenia through the Near Easr to v a u l t s o ( ' r ' a r i o u ss o r t s Italy.oid the risk of falling vaults. s o m e w h a tl e b u i l t l . r t c r ) . the trefbil plan lnd the vaults of San lredelc at Como should bc mentioned. and lirance. a n d c o m p o u n d v a u l t s . In passing.i against conservative protesl 3ot. For us it is sullicient to say that about lo5o there was. a eireat interest in rib ribbed tunnel. a much rnorc difficult subjecr 11 involves some qucstions of-date and scopc 61' i n f l u e n c e sw h i c h m a y n e v e r b e s o l v e d . f o r t h e c h u r c h o f S a n G i a c o m o i n C o m o ( ro r . Sant'-\bhondio. fbr thesearc said to have been influenced lrom thc north. The original impulse was Byzantine (thc dome of St Sophia is the lirst ambitious ribbed rault). fully der.i n t h e c a r lI ' t r v e l f t h c e n t u r v .188 L A N D S A S S O C I A T E DW I T H I N THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE the nave is both archaic and prophctic. The earliest definitell. for alter the carthquake of'rrr7 manv fine naves wcre roofed on wooden truss-work to ar. Spain.r i b b e d g r o i n . p e r h a p s i n partial imitation of St Mary in Capitol at C o l o g n c ( r o 4 5 6 5 . W e n o w t u r n t o a c o n s i d e r a t i o no f L o n r h 1 1 6 rib vaulting.eloped ex3oo.datcd. ovel a wide area. . (lomo. I f s o . domical PomPosa' from the wcst church and tower' Io6j' o r c l o i s t e r .

.and also in the period of' lveeks or months during which it 'I'he Lombards built these vlults as solidilied. l h e r e u c r e f o u r a i c h e st o s u p p o r l . the arris ribs are not auxiliarv construction. and France. but integral).l l a s rhythmicalll divided into nearlv square units. or earlv eleventhcentury date. Since the :risle bals vaulted without ribs o b v i o u s l y 'i n d i c a t e r v h a t u n s u p p o r t e d a r e a t h e engineers could convcnientlv vault. and in consequence such vaults have not behaved well. of Roman groin vaulting (where.3go LANDS. was particularll dangerous in large-scale high vaults. Nook sha(ts on the diagonal appeared when diagonal ribs were introduced.' r025' V with diaphragm arches resembling Carolingian flying screens. R e 'l'raccs of a Lombard ribbed groin vaulr claimedfor ro4o existin the ruined older part of t h e f o r m e r a b b e l ' c h u r c h o 1 ' s a n n a z z a r oS e s i a ( n o r t h . vaults still existing have strongh'salient ar. a n d t h e v r e s t e d on terracotta capitals of archiac lbrm. in addition ro enriching it. oriental contacts mal har. F l o r e n c e [z9o]. for the impost blocks of the columnar supports were relatively small. it is worth noting that a criss-cross ot ribs in the dotrblc bays of the n:n'e would divide such bays into four triangles. T h u s . .a * h i . t h e s ew o r k s a t T o u r n u s a n d D i i o n d o n o t p o s s c s s rib vaults. and the more conservative methods of studl indicatc a later date' For the creation of the fbrm. t h e a i s l e a n d r r i h .b u t t h e r e a r e r e m a i n so f a b r i c k n a r t h e x with two-storer groin-r'aulted aisles flanking an o p e n n a v e . o m b a r d d e s i g n e r s o f t e n t h o u g h t o f t h e i r n a v e si n t e r m s o f d o u b l e bays the more so becausethe aisles were abottt half the width ol'the nave. for the. Tournus. * ri t .p r o b abl. Restoration work has shown that this wall was not integral.). has an archaic eleventh-century itself is in rubble. A c t u a l l v the ribs neutralized the advantage of domed construction. lobz ff. was one ofthe innovatorsin the'Second Period ol'Bloom' of'Armenian architecture.os t h e a t r i u m -f (dated about rog8) do not Note should be taken that Ivrea Cathedral.v brought to the angles of the vault strong concentrations ofthrust which 'l'his were neither understood nor prepared for. thc large raults ot thc Basilica of -M . false-work bstween provided a suppolt fbr the rubble of'the Iault while it was being constructed.c a l l i e d d i a p h r a g m ooup.buttresses rising from the Theshaft-like p i e r s s o m e t i m e s .' la t S a i n t e Philibert. reported as fbunded in ro4o.lo). . rvc mat sa) that the interr. and wall responds were shallow or lacking. t h e d i a g o n a l the centering which is so uselul in facilitating was easil-vimagined' construction of big ba1's .nas rebuilt after 96z and before r oo r on a large scalc. but dated about rzoo.f i r e c l e g r e e sA g a i n . came from Volpiano (forty miles distant) and Novara (only twenrl' miles distant from this same region). the Armenian architect who repaired the r.b u t i r i s n o t p o s s i b l e to trace definite influence from Armenia either at the critical rime (about roso) or upon the critical form (groin vaulting). the first Lombard ribbed groin vaults were most probably built farther east. the narthex h a s r i b s .v . Such wall-work usualll' indicates a ninth-.er. and Constlntine and thc rhermll in Rome' establishments square vaulted bays.e stirred thc originalitv of W e s t e r n b u i l d e r s . but p l a c e d o n t h e d i a g o n a l a t t h e s u g g e s t i o n . tenth-.. r. O n l v t h i s a x i a l t r i b u n e b a v h a c lr i b s . t h e p r i m i t i v e T shaped grouped nare-arcade pier developed spontaneousl!'!since there \rcre three arches 1br it to support.w e s t o l N l i l a n a n d N o r a r a ) . Comtl' rozE 4 o . Rome. J *r * r n t yu .t h o u g h . Lighter vaulting' built more or less in the French Gothic manner. sp r e p a l c d l b r l a r g e I'osition. 5 . as we easily perceive. t l u r t h e r e m p h a s i z c dt h c b a v c o m irches. interior. When transverse diaphragm arches w e r ep l a n n e d r o s p a n l h e n a r c . ar Sant'Ambrogio in Milan. about rr4o) carried across t h e o p e n n a v ea t t h e e a s te n d o f ' t h e n a r t h e x . is late enough to show Armenian influence of'this sort operati n g t h l o u g h t h e C r u s a d e s . Further development in the rault suggestedthe addition oflogical elements in the piers.T h e n a v e . Many important churches which had been rooden-roofed were successlully vaulted at that time.ibsarranged in plan like a prinrer's sign for space (f ). beginning early in the seventh century. Since the engineers were alrcad. Agliate. has becn r e p l a c c d . as well. a n d l e d t h e m t o d e r el o p t h e i r o w n e s s e n t i a l l \ o m a n i n h e r i r a n c. There is no specific documentarl reference t o e a r l y r i b b e d h i g h v a u l t s . in general to a generationor morc after r r I7. already extioned.disappearing arches'at their base. near N1ilan [65]. it would only be necessarv. Hovrer. thougtl the other bays do nor (dated about rr. Without minimizing the importance of the mountain barrier. superseded the ponderous Lombard type late in the thirteenth century.of groin vaulting' resembling in Ilurt. The Armenians first applied it systcmaticallv to church architecture. inherited fiom The history in the cr1'pts.C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e l . For the arches belween bays ol' a i s l ev a u l t i n g i n t h e c h u r c h e s . ur1. twenty-fir'e miles from Sannazzaro Sesia.ening Kingdom of Arlcs united lather than divided Lombardl. 1 1 .eloped (especiallv for nartheces) a cler. William of Diion. and with an ambulatorr'. where the applied elements are round.er compound vaulr with thc r.t At most. T h e c o l u m n s a r e \ e r V p r a c t i c a la n d u n o b s t r u c t i v e s u p p o r t s . w h i l e the piers provide bases tbr interior wall butt r e s s i n g ." In view of Nloslem rib constructions.B u t i t i s p r a c t i c a l l y c e r t a i n t h a t t h e original examples are lost. The raulting these are erchesbetween the bays. to be sure. and divided into s q u a r eb a y s . each equal in area to a squilre a i s l eb a y . for by the year r ooo very interesting and clever structural work (including a remarkable n a r t h e x ) w a s d o n e i n t h e L o m b a r d s t 1 . In earll'' work .t h e w a v w a . 'fhe narthex of the church at Casale Monf'errato.RN ITALY lgl used successfirlly though sporadicalll' by them. so arranged.rooo. for an engineer to imagine auxiliarv ribs like the usual arches ofthe little groin vaults in the crypts. and would seem to show that the Lombard ribbed groin vaulr doesnot date back to the earll years ofthe eleventh centur]-. but that examples continued (though less fiequently) to be built. with ample.aultof'St Sophia about 975. 1l " addition ofdiagonal ribs produced a much bctter s y s t e mo f i n t e r s e c i o n s a n d m a d e t h e v a u l t e a s i c r ro construct.i f i t h a d d o u b l e b a y s . a n d c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n st h a t t h e t r i b u n e was (as at V6zelay. scarcely 25o miles norrhwest from the Nlilanese area. Lomello. Partisans of later dating assign such rauk. who did such important architectural work at Saint-B6nigne(roor-r8).v.begin their medieval are used en quadtille (as in Moslem where they menwork). Odcllr cnough ar Vezela) the high raulr aborr rhe tribune actually has diagonal ribs also. Partisans of earlv dating suppose that man] earlv vaults of this tvpe failed during the severe earthquake of rI17. and that the narthex may be of the twelfth century.. in or near Milan. a n d t h e p i e r t h e r e u p o n q t t i t e naturally developed a cruciform plan (SS' Felice eFortunato. San Carpofbro. icenza. ponderous dome-like affairs which were not g o o d t o l o o k a t o r e a s yt o a b u t [ S o : 6 ] . A s t o u t a r c h e d c e n t e r i n g w a s e r e c t e d under each arch and rib. with an intermediate column bet w e e n t h e s u c c e s s i v ep i e r s .{ssoclATED WITHIN THL fiOLY ROM-\N EMPIRE NORTHF..T h e o r i g i n a l church. " . In Lombard churches the aisle arches arc ofien paired. Trdat. t h o u g h t h e o t h e r b a .t building substintial centering under t h e a r c h e so f c o n v e n t i o n a l v a u l t i n g . Herringbone work and pebbles in the construction also give it an archaic air.rises I n t h e o b l o n g g r o i n v a u l r b r i d g i n g r h e n a r c . b y w h a t o n e 'historical dead reckoning' conmight call thc whole great revival of the mid sidering thesewere due to appear in elerenth ccntur] sonre imltortant btrilding Proiects aboul l065 o r 7 5 o r 8 . it is worth noting that the piersat S:rnnazzaro esia S are rather like Moslem piers turned thron[\ f o r t r . While Sesia is on the border of the Milanese area. r 0c o m p a r e S a n N l i n i a t o a l N l o n t e . Afierwards (perhaps in the eleventh cenrury:) the Armenians der.

rown. It joins the church in . X{ilan. . ir i n c l u d e d u n d e r a w i d e s u ' e e p i n gg a b l e .MptRE :oz. Unfortunatelv the clating of the church is largelv conjectural. Sant' \mbrogio.ith stuccoed brickandrubbleraulrs.ucturc of bricft u.1. a n i n s c r i p t i o n .fiom thc *e. r i l te a r l i e r t h a n r r r . .rgh a spacious atrium with bold arches and snLr' 'l'his b u t t r e s s e s[ 3 o z ] .r1As early as r196. however. o m b a r d e n g i n e e r sa n d d e s i g n e r sw e r e a b l e t o p l a n a n d u n d e r t a k c a b o u t ro8o.st.ith its tribunc. Sant'. rvhich is nou.r o r r l i d basilican nave was replaccd by' a complcrclr vaulted. irnd twcllih ccntrtries (rcstored I li63) along with the nook shafrsin the piers fbr the permanent support of the diagonalribs. t e n t l tc c n t u r l a f i e r r r 8 r 3o3 and -io.H c r e t h e L o m b a r d K i n g s and German Empcrors were crowned with the Iron (. the vaults llere being repaired. -I-he historically important church of Sant' Ambrogio in Milan L:oz . Itisapproachedrhror. and the high vault mav n o t a c t u a l l v h a v e b e e n b r .Nlihn. at Monza. elcr cnth. We have referred to the building preriou:lr b1'mcntion of thc old apscwhich u'ith its intnrductorv bal of tunnel vaulting (an earlr cra m p l e ) w a s l e f i i n t a c t . built to a certain cxtcnr. r v h i l et h e s o o d e n .392 L A N D S A S S O C T A T E DW r l ' H r N THI] HOLy ROMAN [.{mbrogio. aisled str. but it is usuallv accepted as r e p r e s e n t i n g w h a t t h e I .Sl is a convenicnr erample ol'rhe developedfbrm ol'this architec_ t u r e a n d e n g i n e e r i n g . ninth. s e e m st o b e d a t e d a b o r r r l o g S b 1 .r handsome narthex.t h o u g h i t h : r sb e e n t . u. which.

p i c a l .a n d s i n c e t h e n a v e a p p e a r s builcling. Upon cntcring the 3o6.tt the Accordingto documents' l"rUi*a wall. T h e c h u r c h w a s s e r v e c ln o t a l w a r s p c a c e a b l l. rogj'1' We must admitthis and iru. be-vond.rERNrTALY -195 tharofthe wasnot.u p r i b b c d q u a d r i p a r t i l e\ a u l l i n F ' m u c h rebuilt. Sant'Ambrogio has a richll carled and embrasured main door-wa1. w i t h c o r b e l t a b l c s t o d i v i d e i t i n t o f r rc s t a g c s b o r e t h e e a r e so f t h e c h u l c h .Y aults' ba-v. F r a n k l . e r vt y . San Sigismondo. T h c o n i r a l a r g e o p c n i n g s a r e t h r e e i r r c h e so n e a c h s i d c o t '. d o u b l c b a y s o f domed-up rib vartlting were plannecl fiom the first. where it joins thc tower. I n t h e n a v eo f s a n t ' A m b r o g i o .subsequently built against the *rii. Conservative archaeologistshesitate to put their actual construction befbre the earthquake o f t r r 7 . h o w e r " e r . so also is the tntorlum tne rvhcre thel' are ill placcd to rcccl\e galler. 1 . I n r r z 8 r e v e n u e sw h i c h h a d g o n e t o t h e rrronks. rtt.Rivoltad'Adda. v st u n t i l r r T l l ( w i t h repairsas earlv as r r96). a n d f i n i s h c d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e o r i e i i n a ls c h e m e a l i c r r r 8 r a sophisticateddesign which is much admired a n d r .uppot..for its north wall ioined nave 'rirr.or earlv twelfih-centur'. but subsequentll'can'ied up l r e c o r e r e e lh t octagonll lantern.uay in comprerented conditions special . ro67I and (he new wasstill in u^se-in oiJnt". .d e l a .r.-v. The masonrl indicates that the atrium *rts alreadJ. finished when the tower was unde:'taken in r rz3.ttnribbed groin laults. bv a communitl' of monks and a chapter of c a n o n s . but the wcsternmost bav of'tltc . i t s s i m i l a r i t v t o t h e b e a u t i fu l b c l f i l . o f ' S a n F r a n c e s c oa t A s s i s i ( a f i e r r z z 8 ) .n t c r r u p t c d i n r r 2 8 .t h e d a t e o f r r z 8 f b r t h c f i r s t c o m pletion of Sant'Anrbrogio appears to be reasoni a b l e . the visitor seesthrec great ba]'s ol' d o m e d .ro99(r) elevcnthand trvcllih centuries pletion of the westernmost ba]' of the nave. Tht airles .that to have been in use in rr3o lvith the altar reh a b i l i t a t e c l .I'he late date explarrn the loftl' bell chamber. presumabl-v tbr building' were reass i g n e dt o t h e c a n o n s . was formerlv covered like fburth as an the others. rnd tht aisles trit<-rrium rna the rrults of *"tt. t h a s p i h s t e r s t r i p s a n d a p p l i e d I s h a f i i n g .T o t h e s o u t h s t a n d s l -lower thc lerJ' simple N{onks' (tenth centur'1) and to the north the verv handsome Canons' 'I'ower i o f r r 2 .E a c h h r r c a c l o i s t e r . but probrbl-r likc the original late 1'}re r eleventh.

i n w h i c h c a s et h e b i g double bays of rib vaulting might be later perhaps (inevitablyl) after the earthquake of rI17. E a c h p a i r of'main piers supports not onlv its shareof'the r a u l t i n g . lrom the main navc. The clill-likc srrin.. in that the east end is cor cred by two windowless bays of semicircular tunnel vaulting with transvcrse arches. Gothic st-vleappears in a dignified rose window. with somc rebuilding. s o f t h e n a r . l ' h e n a v e h a s b i g r i b . 'l'hc ofthe usual sort. a fine arcaded gallery. t h o u g h a d m i t t e d l v r u s t i c .i o l { l u e h a v ea t t o l h c t ' s p l e n d i t lc r a m p l c .a c l e r c s t o r y i s p o s s i b l c . i br . b u t w a s a c t u a l l y ' c o v e r e db v o b l o n g s i n q 1 . church has a semi-dome ancl a big single quadripartite bal. f o r t h e r e i s n o c l e r e s t o r t . It has thc usuirlsweeping w i d e g a b l e . r roo 6o. t h e a i s l e sa n d g a l l e r i e sa r e c o v c r e d b v unribbed groin vaulting. r . o each with a single clerestorv window on cach side. Paria.g a l l e r i e s .. l . d c d i c a t c dn r r o . from thc rvcsr 3o8. 'fhe interior has much r.t h e l a n t e r n . rhe t r a n s c p t h a s i t s a b s i d i o l e ss i m p l y c u r i n r o t h c subst:rntial east wall. which is a fine and spacious example. i h a s a n a p s cu i t h a t u n n e l . as at Pisa.'r l\lention should be made ol'Earlv Christian churchesin Nlilan. clirectly abore thc tlanslersc arch. a n d 'l'he screened. 1 1 . o $ i n q t o s m a l l n e s s .3go LANDS ASSOCTATED\ rTIltN THE HOLy \ ROMAN Et\tptRE NORTHhRN ITALY 397 t h r u s t o f t h e r . ) Lombard domed-r. . .v a u l t e d s a n c t u a r ) b a l .o navc-bays of rib vaulting. and a spacious cr1'pt under the raised choir. There is singular power in this design.milirr. a u t h e n r i c e a r h . rebuilt in the mature Lombard Romanesque stvlc thc Basilica Apostolorum and San Simpliciano particularly. to the north of the nlre lbqadeis.u pd o u h l c b a r s o l ' r .a n . over a crucifbrm plan and uas providcd originallv wirh a small 'I'he clerestor\'. r l I n t h c g l e a r c h u r c h o l ' S a n \ | i c h c l c a r P a ri a ' [3o7] rvehave a stonecounrcrparr of Sant'Ambrogio in Nlilan. twcllth ccnturv fagade is articulated by shafiing and dosscrcrs w h i c h l b r m s h a l l o w b u t t r e s s e s . l i k e t h e l a t e l c o n s t r u c l i o n si n ( the church). b u t t h c e l l e c t sa r c R o m a n e s q u e .in parts almost c o n i c a l . li. with a single sweeping gable fr-onring b o t h n a r e a n d a i s l e s . and this comment mav be made gencrally on works in the Milanese area. bold exterior forms ofthe church at the east are d r a m a t i z e d h a p p i l l ' b y a s e r i e so f ' G o t h i c p i n n a c l e s i n b r i c k . s r c r ' l l a m o u s . like the older work in the cathedral' carried out in stone. d a t e d r o 9 < yi ( . The date might better be applied to the t u n n e l . l i k e t h e t r a n s e p t o l ' l ) i s a . . ' I ' h e supports are logicallr clesigned. Parma Cathedral.r a u l t e d s a n c t u a r v b a 1 . i i n t e l e s t i n g b r i r s f r i c z e s f b e a s t s c u l p r u r . Here. which are vcrv irregular in curvaturc .om about thc vear r roo to about r r6o. c i r u t i o n su s a g a i n s ta c c c p t i n g very earlv dates for the rjb construction.igoul and harmoniou' proportions.ery dark befbre thc construct i o n o f . c |. The church is instructire. fbgadc. There is a single big brick tower. with a crossing cor-cred br a n o c t i r p S o n a lo m i c a l v a u l t o n s q u i n c h e s .s of uooclcn rool' construction. r r r l t _ i n g . at the east. Beyond these come tr.I t h a s a w i d e t r a n s e p t w i t h a p s e sa t t h e e n d s . It was built slowly. Here ancl there in the fine m:rsculine interior t h e r e i s a t o u c h o f t h e G o t h i c . but ilpp r o p l i a t e l r a r t i c u l a t e dg r o u p e d p i e r s . l o jo7.s arc harmoniouslv composed. bl isolating the separate ba1.r ' a u l t c c lb a v s with a clerestoly (except fbl thc traditional t u n n c l .rp rib-r. and accompanving unribbed aisle bals. in the thirtecnth century. .U n q u c s t i o n a b l v the church was \. Thc efl'ect. 'fhe would arrest a fire thele. It is an admirable example of the large Lombard parish church. but lack thc process i o n a lq u a l i t v o f t u n n c l v a u l t i n g . baysin the French manner. a n d d arms hy tunnel vaulting without trans\.ersc a r c h e s .v a u l t e d s a n c t u a r v . a s tr i b b e c l b l . T h e r e u a s a d c d i c a t i o ni r r . f b l l o w e d b 1 't h r e e b i g d o u b l e b a 1 .w i t h s l e n d e r e r intcrmediate supports not columns.and conseq u e n t l v t h e ' s l s t c m ' i s a h e r n a t e . r. verv impressive I n P l r m a ( l a t h c d r l l ' " l . Rivolta d'Adda has in the church of San S i g i s m o n d o .aults [3o{rl. The critics who date Lomblrd l a u l t i n g c o n s e r \ a t i v c l v a s s i g nt h c d e d i c a t i o n o l rIoT to the cltpt. San Xlichelc. is one ofthe grand row of E m i l i a n c a t h e d r a l s . the nave was inrcndcd t b r t n o b i g d o n r e d . Each 'I'he p o r c h h a s a r e c e s sa n d t r i b u n e a b o v e i t .) . big vaulting ba1.T h i s s h o w s i n e x p e r i e n c ea n d . Quitting the region about N{ilan fbr F. we find two excellent examples nl Lombald s t t l e i n P i a c c n z aS a n S a v i n o . s f r i b v a u l t i n g .r" P i a c e n z aC a t h e d r a l . b u t a l s o a s u b s t a n t i a lb u t t r e s s i n g u a l l uhich riscs to rhc roofing. l Tb e g u n b y r r 2 2 ' i n u s e by r r58.a n d i s a d o r n c d at the top b1. e . both extcrior and interior' is . and finished. Such rvalls.a n d t h r e e p o r c h e s w i t h t h e columns carried on the backsof animals.a l s o t h e u s u a l octagonal domical vault on squinches at the crossing.

u proiect both in widrh antl in dcpth' .r ' a u l t e d b a r s . 'I'his striking flqade was augmentcd bv t\1o t o w e r s . give a vertical accent. T'his transept) the c r o s s i n g .r fine example of thc twelfth-centurv wooden-roof'cd church in [-ombardv' there can be no happier choice than S:rn Zcno Nlaggiore 'Ihc s t fu c t u r c i n c o r r in \ ct'onlrr [. T h e w e s t e r n l i m b . plus corner pinnacles.d e d i c a t e di n r r 3 2 . . they recall the timc rvhcn baptism was an episcopalfunction. T h i s i s i n p u t Romanesque.IED \[I'IHIN THE HOLY ROMAN F-MPIRE I N O R T I I E R NT A L Y 399 short with the nllc' but planted lt ir arr.t th. both circulal churches ofthe elerenth centurY (a rare fbrm in f. but it is adorned b1' a Gothic portal.lindrical and cubical fbrms building 'l'he u p t o a n o c t a g o n a ll a n t e r n .athedral. with sculptules bl. a n d t h e c l e r e s t o r vw i n d o w s w o u l t l o f necessity (on account of the climate) be lalgcr. a n d a l a r g e b : r p t i s t e r l ' o 1r r 6 7 'I'hc cnsemble ]ras is set at the south and rvest.Benedetto Antellmi.g r e a t n u m b e r s o f s m a l l e r buildings. Parma C. in the nave. font is of convcntional form. A t t h e f .gestedb1-'the fagade of Pisa Cathedral. The c r l p t i s c o v e r e d b 1 ' a q L r a d r i l l co f ' g r o i n .+-l with the church. was used marble. thc corbel tables' and tltc openflrrt.m r i n e tains the Lombard characterintact.ioSl' I'here 'Beneare rich portals and other sculptures by Antelami' (in X'{r Porter's detto miscalled phrase).LANDS ASSOCIA'. and when large numbers of' catechumens were baptized together at Eastertide. since thev arc not inte- . thc restbeingot led blick Thc lngrrr. s t i l l r e p r e s e n t i n gt h e o l d t r a d i t i o n o t t l r c free-standing belfry.r stage : the no-rttt other is capped b1' a Gothic fourth tt"g. and capped by huge scrolls of Renaissance design a w i t h a R e n a i s s a n c e r c a d e .rhas a similar cathedral group begun in rr2g-. t h e s a n c t u a r v b a 1 ' ..p e d i m e n t . A vast torver of Gothic date r i s e st o t h e n o r t h . a s a t t h e p r i n c i p l l l e r . w i t h f i ' a g m e n t sd a t i n g back to ro4o. Cremona'. but the building which we know took character F a b o u t r r 2 3 3 .jg8 .y . from the church. aclmireclfbr its harmonious pl'oportioning.on.now sustained by tie-rods. San Pictro at Asti and San Salvatoreat Almcnno. tft. Verona Cathedral.5 . in ao*at \\ iIScarried up onl. boldly accentuatedby a rich cornice and a continuous stepped gallerr bc'l h. rvhich cannot be taken up in a general work ol' t h i s s o r t . a p s c s . horizontal is masterfullv intloduced b1'trvo less open horizontal galleries and the threc port. H e r e . p o r : r t e sl r a B m e n t s d a t i n g b a c k t o a b o u t t o .2" As .s neal the door (dated abottt 3og.O n t h e extcrior this ploduces a powerful composition of serniq. dated about rr35i the cathedral of Borgo Sirn Donnino. with b a s i l i c i r np r o f i l c : i t s e n r b c l l i s h m e n t si n t h c l b l n r ol' marble relief. pierced b-v a Gothic rose rvindow.r hal I . unilbrm s\stem marks the surrcnder of'the traditional L o m b a r d s c h e m ew h i c h r v e h a v e f b u n d i n S a n t ' Ambrogio and elsewhere. The interior also has colonnadccl galleries. To the south-west near this towel stands the b a p t i s t e r vo f t h e c a t h e t l r a l .ogi" f a l a d ew a l l o t t h e c h u l c h ' uith rhe *rffr i"fin. l b u r s t a g e ' o f gallery colonnades between strong spur but(at tresses the corncrs). but the transept arms date onlv fiom r 288 and lverc not finished unril about r342.rls' w h i l e t h e p r o i e c t i n gc e n t r a l p o r t r l l r i t h i t ' t l i bunes and buttresses. a n d i s s i n g u l a r l r a p p o s i t ei n s h o u i n g bold scale h o w t h e g r a n d q u a l i t i c so f t h c L o m b a r d R o m a n csque lived on into the Gothic and Renaissance periods. with sculptures b1 Niccolir. Monumental baptisteries of'this sort are rare in the Middle Ages. San Pietro in Cielo Aurco a t P a v i a . though in France all thc vaults would be ribbed.a* e d. and only parts ofthc old work were retainedin 'l'hc t h e m a g n i f i c e n tr e b u i l c l i n g . F c r r a r a C a t h e d r a l . 1 o . b u t t h e e a r t h q u a k eo f l r r 7 w a s d i s a s t r o u s . P a s s i n gm e n t i o n o n l y c a n b e m a d e o f thc substantial rotunda ol the old cathedral in Brescia (about r I r 5) . a decorative arcade and arched corbel table.a g a d t h e d e s i g n . each with somethinq of interest. likc the prir 'f he toners har e thcir t'ear in l\lilan irl. two in number. which was being finished at the time. b u i l t o f s t o n e . h a s s e v e n b a v s w i t h s q u a r eg r o i n v a u l t s i n t h e a i s l e s .rr. b u i l t o f b r i c k l n d stonein the tw ellih-century' st1le.onlbardl'). f i n i s h e da b o u t r r 8 o . t h e s a n c t u a r yb a r . ' I ' h eb u i l c l i n gi s l a r g e l r o t b r i c k . a n d b o t h a r m s o f t h e t r a n s e p t a I c p r a c t i c r l l \ s q u a l ' c il h e t l a n s e p t t e t m i n a l e s i n a p s e sa t t h e e n d s .1 r l. o f c o u r s e .t h e r e are uniform oblong ribbcd bavs. S a n t ' E u s t o r g i oa t M i l a n . a n d p i n nacle on the axis. now '['he f'aqadeis much licelf in its construction. T h e r e a r e . r v i t h a f a q a c l eo f s t o n c . trvellih ccnturl r I 0 6 .t h e t f : t n s e p t . .a n d t h e t o r v c r a l e a l l enriched bv galleries. with steps and an octagon:rl parapet. c h u r c h w a sl a i d olrt as a great cross in plan [jogl. .a b o r e r h r : g l o u n d s t o r e r .t t. trveen pvlon-like verticals . I'here is a precipitous great wall carried up to a tremcn(lous sweeping gable.orn.w i t h a f i n e p o l t a l of'rr35. and that in turn bl. terminate the design. r ' : r u l t e di n r r 6 z . ' ' r tS t r n t ' t " tn.t h e c r o s s i n g .ilo. it is in line riith French developmcnts. i n e beautifullv patinated. over an arcacled tliforium gallerl 'l'his ancl a clerestorr'.a n d t h c c h o r r a r m a r c \ c r \ i m p r e s s i t e i n c o m p o s i t i o n a lm a s s . a n d e a c h a r m h a s a n e a s t e r n a p s en e a r l v a s l a r g e a s t h c p r i n c i p a l a p s e .onrtutt trtipt. oi the in stone.pinnaclcs and belfry active profilc but late a tall pyramidal roof'of date. w h i c h w a sb e g u n i n I r 9 6 ' I t h a s . with a huge cr_r'ptrecalling that at Spel'er Cathedral. although not finished until the thirteenth [296e.a n d w a s l o n g u n d e r w a 1 ' ' . The weightiness of Parma is in the ltaLan tradition. The sculptor is believed to be the a u t h o r o f t h e b u i l d i n g . but made over into a vaulted hlll church. the constructionllould b e l i g h t e r .and the big oculus pielccd between the latter. c l . Perhaps the colonnaded galleries were sup.Jtlrt in colouri tbr only the corner ih. with unilbrm domed-up groin vaults' a f t e l r r 7 8 . coming above the portals and their intervening niches and below a ribbed vault -l'he of eight compartments.

but the fagade is one of the best of its kind. The octagonal church representing the Anastasis has a twelr. the fullest possible and most monumental development of the old crypt and high choir scheme which we saw in its. all with columnar shafts a s i n t e r m e d i a t e s u p p o r t s . and a large part of it is actually visible fi'om the nar. But we must go f'ar in order to reach the fbrthest limits ofthe style for echoesofit penetrated to Dalmatia (and on into Serbia as we have seen). s e e n a c r o s s t h c d e p r e s s i o n . The interior of San Pietro is disappointing. San Zeno. Gcrmany (and on into Russia. all the way to Apulia. i d e d b y i n t e r i o r d buttrcsses which rise from compound piers. Ravenna (ninth century). and even. r. dating h'om about rr5o. as already mentioned). Lccterns fbr thc readings are efl'ectivelr placed on the parapcl here and in a number of other churches uitlr similar crvots. tower.c. Verona. all places of pilgrimage.T h e a b s i d i o l e sa t t h e h e a d o f ' t h e a i s l e so p e n e d i n t o t h i s b a y . with a relatir. B r i d g e .cnth-ccntury elements) are wcll known. With this we conclude our general study of the Romanesque church architecture of Lombardy. i r . \'erona. T ' h e s e b a v s a r e i r r e g u l a r b e c a u s eo f ' t h e d e l a v s in building. w h i c h s c r i e d r s a sort of dwarf transept. T h e s u c c e e d i n gb a v i s s i n g l e . S a n t ' . The same bav anclits neighbour. r rzl and later I r 4 0 . It is rather rough wolk. a three-archod bar. to the north of France. The interior is basilican. Hungary.l i k e s t a i r st o i t . the Netherlands. Scandinavia. 1'he litulgr. i n t h e a i s l e s . T h e c r y p r o p en s through three gencrous arches upon the stair'way leading liom the nave. is l a i d o u t i n a s e r i e so f b a y . ' p tb e n e a t h t h e ' h i g h c h o i r ' . It shared eastern Italy with designs partly dependent on the'liuscan style. Adioining it is a court of tr4z which represents the Holy Garden (covered.:r rsall]. 1 O O L A N D S A S S O C I A ' t E DW T T H I N T I I E H O L y R O M A N E M p T R E NORTHERN ITALY 40r 1 r o.a Lombard Romanesque red-brick version ofthe Holy Sepulchre. and thrce two-arched bavs. r.elv small clerestorv and no trilbrium.e-sided central structurc. and Sant'Ambrogio in Milan (about g4o).g a i n s s o m e w h l t i n dignity' because the sanctuary. The nar.platlbrm is clcvated and somewhat remote. Familiar also is thc soaring. \ p o l l i n a r ei n C l a s s e . set to thc south of the church near its eastcnd.s . then there fbllow. in Jerusalem.e. covered by a beautilul Gothic rrelbil ceiling. Thcre is a vcry narrow single bat just inside the fagade. r r zl and latcr 3rr. s p a na d e s c c n d i n gf l i g h t w h i c h e x t e n d st h e $ h o l c width ofthe chulch and leadsto a magnificent c r ) . ad- joining church of San Pietro is more or less contemporar]'. The arrangement iust described is. lbrm a line Lombar d 'high c h o i r ' . between compound piers. This further reference to pilgrimage may serve to introduce the group known as Santo Stefano in Bologna. b1''the -I'he Crusader transeDt dedicated in rr49). in some degree.beginnings at Old S t P e t e r ' sl a b o u r 6 o o ) .San Zcno. of course.a r c h e d . One Lombard monument will be best understood in this combined Lombardo-Tuscan am- . b y a r t i s t sn a m e d N i c c o l d a n d G u g l i e l m o ) and bronze door valvcs (incorporating earlr eler.. plus a vaulted squaresanctuarr bar and apse of Gothic date.

*J have met in the cloister the'Piere' (parish in Lateran Rome. s e l t l o t l l tr ' 1 the transept. rather at B"ri.listic details.. built up well above the ridge lcvel irsa precaution against the sprerd of fir'e starting in 15. with double ba1's i.'l'hcrc rather than suprn in feeling encloses.i 7 . o l L o m b a r d t t p e . howeret' in the regionnear thel' oftenshow and trrnples more nurnerous are interesting combinations' has a strong Lombard Anagni CathedraF+ interior is of Roman chalacter' but e"terio-r. I-ike San \icolr 'inch. e\tcrl0r. twelfth to thirteenth centurv)and Sardinia. Lanfianco was the architect.i phragm arches.661 in irs 1sx. $ $$ t: n a m e l y . t r a n s e p t . l:'l.2. and wooden rooling. twelfth centur-v) slight' In Rome itself SS. rvith ias bav. begun togg. to jrttl$c bv his building.l1i'li a r c h e su n d e r e n c l o s i n ga r c h e s . rntcnor! ancl plan & t { $ I g. t h i c h i s a l l i n t i n c a s h l a r ' S r tu r r ' : l J malkcd alcadinc uhich is Pisan rather tb'ttt SH N E I G H B O U R IR E G I O N S O W I N G NG s E c o M P o N E N To F M A T U R L o M B A R Dr Y L E s Eastern and Middle ltalT Echoesof Lombardl in Liguria (GenoaCathedral. Miniato [zgr l and San Nicola [:. and doubtless the successf u l d e s i g no l ' S a n N i c o l a a t B a r i ( b e g u n r o 8 7 o ) [264.:. Actualll-' the plan [3 r 4] recalls San i s o n l r o n e t o u e r . though Lombard..t h e c a t h e d r a l o l t h e c i t v o 1 ' Modena. \{'asactuxll-v within the dominions of the Countess Nlatilda bient of I'uscanl'' and thus particularl)' open to Tuscan influence [3I. with intermediate colurnnr.::: big double ba1--s. i. intermediate wooden looling.'lhc stntinel towers of San Nicola are reduced to ir pllr ol tulrels abore the apse. r .Y ROMAN EMPIRL. . supports.r'csponsible fbr the ordonnance of thc iI)teft()r' which isall in uarnt rctl blick.402 LANDS ASSOCIA'I'ED W I'I'H IN'THE HOl.fti rttt tt exteriorwhich is and a is Lombalcl.a c l e r e s t o r r . explain the other\4ise surprising lack of Lombarcl rib vaulting in this important work which has rather emphatic Lomblrd stl.rded' at Bari. asrrellastirl lhe e x l e r i o r .At Arezzor5 Pisan'whilethe Jrt. makes a ive triple arches in each 3r2 to -lr+.i". I gallerv This. are (Uta. rr".'.. The building was begun in rog9. L n d e r h i m c l o u b t l e s st h c t t l ' l was finished (r ro6). w i. 3I31.O n l f i n G o t h i c t i m e s ( r 4 . and he is supposabll . which. F-rch diaphragm arch carries a parapet which hrrs bqq. Nlodena Cathedral has an .23 Tuscan influence. and. the Vassalletto' a possessing throne of lz63 b1' of St John *ho. Giovannie Paolo(about rr55) is the onl-v by' exexample. It carries:rGothic spire. an independent and ver\ pcr'r s o n a l r l e s i g n c r . a trilbrium (though lalse) rvith t1io1. 265].1 4 ( ra n d later) did the church receire its vaulting..:. N{odena Cathedral.4 1 u a.

San Zeno in Verona.i-. and a Byzantine touch in the extensive painting above the chancel arch.tf There is an interesting crypt of bJt.turv-rzo6. Ancona Cathedral (dedicated in rr28. wooden-roofed col umnar basilica' ilr. with a frcestanding square Lombard tower. a monasterv e s t a b l i s h e da r r h e p l a c e w h e r e r h c f a m o u s C o n _ suet'udinary of ro43 was tbund.hat C remains. where the p r o t r u d i n g v o u s s o i r so f t h e a i s l e g i v e a s i n g t r rr6.cldiug "nJ sculptured panels.San Pietro. There is a single old tower. and zebra-work masonry. u " r . in the eleventh centur]'' and finished in rzo6.{ost attractive and best known among this gloup of churches are San pietro and-. beyond is the sanctuary.Sanra -. . Santa Maria Maggiore [116]. " . and the view to thc raiscd sanctuary is indecd imprcssrve.. .. l'agade tower larly vigorous effect.+o4 W LANDS ASSOCTATED TTHTN THE HOLy ROMAN EMpIRE NORTHI.a. somewhat in the manncr of. { p p a r e n f l )f h e r ew a sa s o r to l . all of which recalls pisa. perhaps Spain in the rose window and its flanking ajimez windows.s h a p e dy m p a n u m . r u r l w l aboreit. of tton. The fine church of Santa Maria di portonuovo near (twelfih century. Over the main door is an e x c e p t i o n a l h o r s e s h o e . t n . The best effects at San Pietro are in its powerful nave. t . some_ times dated earlier) with a dome.RN TTALY +o5 raised choir.' ofthe eleventh centur)' supporttng a the end triapsidal raised sanctuary' arell-proportioned dates from iog3 ConThe main baldacchino work on the church continued to a structional 'I'he the west front' conclusion about rzoo at r e m i n i s c e n c c so f f a g a d ei s o v e r w r o u g h t . hi At Spoleto the f'agade San pietro:. which matches the transept arches and thus suggestsa centralized scheme. which engendered the interesting . once more.s.SantaN{ariaMaggiorc. but without the Lombard columns and hood.^ ^ . and even Burgundy.. [ .transcpt arms at the head.r.""-. . t t . with a Moslem touch in the cusped arches of the baldacchino. intermediate staee an -.. simplein fblm and Lombardin lecling. with its lion-backed portico.. Influences projected forth from Lombardy' and Tuscany. Santa N{aria was begun. J."i. Tuscania.:^ Messiore at Tuscania (formerly called T ' . h s t three portals are flanked by proiecting bcasts. ar." a b o l e . Tuscania." t t " t . Architecturallv thereis norhing recognizablv luniac in u. clcvcnthand twcllih centuries Ancona is Lombard dated about ro8g-gg. and three later 511n. [:H:ll. (trrcl{ih of to fourteenth century) is rich with ". Lombardy. of it to thc eighth centurr ' It is a irtrn otro . w i t h Tuscany. is Lombard. has a similar though simpler and finer fagadewhich has been much copied in modern times.::'1il:. \ .l-.. with three Clarolingian lower store1. A. it is believed. largely linished in rr89) has a crucifbrm plan with apsidal ends on the transept. * r r a n s e p r i r h s o m e r h i n gi k e a . though there is now. but arranged in plan like a Norman church. but the general feeling of the superstructure. ' o S a n P i e t r o I 3 I 5 | a p p e a r s( o b e t h e ^"a archaisms have led Riroira to irii"r. and ilenenthce.ffil:: ll.xi_ be rewarding. The surviring constructions 1. Farfa (Fara Sabina):o is a disappointment. It has a rathcr barn-like nave with exceptional dw:rrf.

In g55 Emperor Orto the Great ad_ ministered a crushing defeat to them. as in western L.en in ambitious buildings. and the other orders 'l'he ('istercian olclest surviving ioined them. as now. rzr3). troubles by becoming a ficf of the Holv S. which mark it as the twin sentinel towers mark the coast of Apulia. Influcnct:s flowed naturallu alons the Danube.onq.. and greatly improved thc economic basis of the still distracted countr-v' The rvestern connexions oi these monks arc archirecturallvacknowledged in the oldest ol' their abbeys. west of Budapest . and in the second cathedral of Kalocsa (suuth of Budapest. Burgundian..ne no columns abole them The rough r Nativity.:_ ly hlocked off rhe inrerior of Croatia from rhc Adriatic.{ndrew and eueen Gerirude (d. Pope Svlvcster II (Gerbert. vania. . leafage. of Croatta) in ro64..rn_ sylvania.1Croatia . with seven big ba-vs three cry'pt.and eastern Iraly. and finallv t o R o m e ) . though theoreticallr 8 1 z a n t i n e . o o .r5o' (br the "boo. is of the usual tvpe. but (as in ltaly) with strong Lombard emphasis.o. 't ffr Rab i \rhc) pl.. in r r4z. has a Lombard east end.L a t e r r h e k i n g d o m a l s o included'l r.i+oo LANDS ASSOCIATED WITHIN THE IIOLy ROMAN EMpIRE NOR'T'HERN ITAL\ +o7 local works iust reviewed. of middle and southern Italy. the cathedral of Zadar. and. but with a srrong Lombard imrrrint upon them.. by Bohemia. in -l'rogir is a place ol enchantiaa the island of ment. and the Church was organized under his son Stephen. Thev are Lombard in general character... but. French models. and thev were converted to Christianitl. already considered. as far as Bornholm' prcLombard influence shows strongl]'in the lhc c a l h c d r a lo l ' P d c s ( F i i n l L i r c h e n ' n e a r senl Drava River and the old boundarl. was constructed at Zadar (Zara) Cathedral in r r05.o-. w a st h e n t o o r e m o t e r o b e i n f l u e n c e j by Byzantine architecture. is essentiall-vtardv i h. It is charming in its place. In this great region the Hungarians constructed. remained relatively simplc. . The Croatian area. S S t e p h e n d i e d i n r o . Architectural influence fiom Burgundy began with the Cistercians. His great sarcophagus no* hr. whose reign began in 9g7. at the west' lbr that of a tribune.e not survived. now a ruin). alier r r5o)' where tracesof ambulator-v and radiating chapels h a v eb e e n r c r c a l c d b r e r c a r a l i o n s ' The Cistercians. The reigning Duke was baptized.n and Lombard vestibules open nave. One of the best known o1' these towers was built beside the mausoleum of Diocletian at Split (Spalato). however. almost to Vienna in the west.. more or less 'I'he finest of them. There is a succession of striking cathedral towers on the islands and mainland of the coast.*^-Plt lluor.". but monuments earlier than rzoo har. uirl a local savour. did their usual part. as unwelcome pagan r. Gothic of r z4o This is the eclectic Romanesque doorta-v of Trogir ('Irair) Cathedral i. to Otto III's entourage. Empire but for the struggle over the Inrr:sti_ tures. as in the case.as a rcsult of stipulations in the peacc treatv of g73. D e f i n i t e A p u l i a n i n f l u e n c e( i t s e l f p a r r l r T u s c a n and Lombard) can be rracedalso. aosidal. 'fransl'lin work.rt.a n d w a s c a n o n i z e t l i n Io83. asat Spolelo in ltalr' ther prolecting -l he t)mpanum' h."tn at Verona (qgo)' ln general thc [.urr. 'fhe mounrain barrier hasaluavs forbidtlin. r r 46).funo m c l h o d s a p p e a rt o b c L o m h a r d ilnraru. rhen. restored [3I8].n . The kine_ dom. at Kcrcz (fbundecl in rzoz. inspired perhaps from century. welcomed and much favoured beginning about rr8o. Uu. also operated across the Adriatic Sea. the cathedral. with ten villages responsible for each church. Prague(Bohcmia). Villard de Honnecourr had r.r e c o g n i z c d r e p h e na s K i n g i n . Easy navigation of the Adriatic en_ couraged contacts with all of eastern ltal\.I. as already noted. 3 U . and one. Some German architectural influences had come durine the reign ol King . v s t e m f c r o s s r o a t lc h u r c h e s o was instituted. which mighr hare hecn conquerecl for the burg.rl we note that the Benedictines came in ggg ancl afterwards as genuine agricultural colonists.'I'his plan looksrather like and Cathedral' but San Nicola at Bari or Modena St Mary. Croalia and Hungury In the period which concerns us thcse two areas wcre architectural provinces of I_ombardy. under Gregory VII (ro76).".hc stream of Lombard influence continued to flo\i. A palatine church was built at Sz6kcsfehdrvdr (Alba Regalis.. was able to abstract itself lrorn 11.isitors to Burgundy in 937 and 954.nro S. . a n d k n o w n P a r t l \ f r o m e r c a r a l pol-va relatively' large number of round and is and Ibil churches. when it was augmented by that of Tuscany. but all his buildings have been destroyed.n The door has bv Radovan' a Slav sculptor' lions. except through the Exarchate. place of honour in the museum there.". in artistic orientation befbrc -"rking a change i n r 2 8 5 ' S a n C ' r i s o g t ' n o^ t T a d n r ' Tli. We have heard of'the Hungarians before. Apitfalva (founded in r z3z) is normal Cistercian work' St George' I r4z fl 3r7.nsistcnl Lombard l r ju i o.thus acquiring a stretch ol. though Lombard in form. and thcre produced a number of interesting churches in mixed style. .especiallrin t h e b a l d a c c h i n o so f r h e c h u r c h e s . A curiositl' of the region. in the mature Romanesque period. 16i Dalmatian coast during the ensuingconfusign ( r r o .. three fbr the .30 Turning now to the properlv Hungarian monuments.urope. er. and later through Croatia. and French Gothic influence doubtless came in with him.. but the west end is pisan. 't n I t 7 5 . another. but the coastal region was alrcacll u n d q r L o m b a r d a r c h i t e c t u r a il n f l u c n c ee r e n in the Carolingian period. or Stuhlwcissen_ south-west of Budapest) for Kine Stephen. iri.faint '-There rubble' are rich doorwavs also. a n d a n i n t e r c s t i n g s . The plans..).ionut material is good ashlarslone and ii. and it extended almost to Craco$ in the north. except that the church apse is polvgonal. Vdrtcsszenkereszt (or Vdrtes.:t"ntt anolhcr amwith an ambulalor\ . In his time ten dioceses wcre created. German. whom we hare followed from Reims to Catalonia. and other. in the Ravennate stvle. often with Lombard detail. recalls Venetian work' a late date makc it essentiall-Y execution and thc piece of folk art. z ) .ai.trio" is a more c. from the eleventh ions' c e n lu r \ o n .isited Hungary by r235. The church was burned and in r8[Jr gr' The plan is tri. ' . local courts' Romanesusualll' connected with these que architecture has an eastern fringe of wal'ot central-plan churches which extends. buildings basically relared t6 Lombard.

however. 'fhe towers. as in Catalonia. There are rwo towers attached o u t s i d e t h e a i s l e sj u s t w e s t o f t h e a p s e s . delightfullv local in feeling. euite unusually for Ger_ many.|-+= \) 25 lsxr. -\part liom the mountain churches.rverenot begun earl1. a n d s e t o v e r t h e c n d b a y s o f t h e a i s l c s . j n b u i l t t h e p a l a t i n ec h u r c h ) a n c lE s z t e r g o m( G r a n .1.. tzlzfr'. and rcminds ttsthat Queen ransirional * r .n h u r .ngevin T h e c a p a b l cH u n g r r i a n a r t h i s t o r i a n G . i t l 1 . also. identifies influences Alsace.b u r i t i s c e r r a i nt h r r r h e rcrLr. i . was at work in r287. 3rll.e has threc double ba-vs. or scion linishcd. s n a l a t i n e gallery.btrilt under Bela I I I ( r r 7 3 9 ( r )a n d l a t c r .ers was uscd c a r l v t o f l u n g a r i a n a r c h i t e c r u r c . and one feels that bv then thc Gothic of Hungary. existing structure). the fbrms ot the F i r s t R o m a n e s q u e p r o v c d t e n a c i o u s .\' +og Later a dditi otts Gothic.). t a n q l e f o thc nl. ' l h e a p s c o l t h c c h a p e l . w e s t e r nt o w e r s a r e p a i r c d . P6csCathedral. r : t o portal 56. irnd trvo t r a n s e p ta r m s a r e c o l e r e d b v s q u a r e r i b r a u l t s . s i n g l e a p s e d o r -l'he triapsidal at the east. . -\ndorra.b e f b r e I z 5 8 ) . I n c o n t r a s rt h e r e i s B e l a I I I . (-1tptr Burgund. -5() f. r h o u g h w i r h G r : r m a n i ct l i t l e r e n r i a a t i o n s i n s u l ) e r s t r u c t u r c n d t l c t a i l C i ' r r r t i c o 'r t Lctter atl d. we are alwirr s c o n s c i o u s l i t s r i g o u r a n d i t s l o c a lt b c l r n e .D e r _ also at Sz6kcsleh6n. r . a church with a to\r.r c s p c c t i v e l r . At Szdkesf-eh6rYdr and F. through papll interlention' bccame r2+2 was not rapid. Thcv and their a d e r i v a t i v e s r c b a s i l i c a ni n p l a n . with an elaboratehalf-Romanesquc dated about I z5o). 'fhe tcr. existing architecturaI examples showing a tincflrre ofthese influences in our period arc a series of important Beneclictinc anrl Prcmonstratensian abbel' churches. without the rransept and wirhout columns be_ tween the piers.. showing a confinuation ot Lomb:rrrl . . c h u r c h e sa r e w e l l c o n s t r u c t o do 1 ' s t o n c a n d t h c l :rre often vaulted.).recosnlze the sourccs of Hung'arian Romanesque. l n d e r : d ' t h e in r3o8' f.JMk (orJik. . The abbcl' of Allerheiligcn' SchallhausenIr361. he steep rool-s necessitatcdb1' screre wcather give thcm a r s h a r p l v i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e.rl. The cathedral of G1'ulafl'hirvir (Karlsburg or Alba Julia in l'ransllvania) rvasfinished in its original forn-r shortll bc{bre the Taltar invasionof r24r 2.. r G i i l t t r r o 3 o ( r o . near s 9 F+!+-]-.) In t h e c h u r c h a t I ) e c sh a s m a n r . q u e r i t e . .thc rcgion -l'he hardll' has an architccture of its own. l ' h e s e w e r e ' S i p p c n ' l/oster' (nobles' toundations). almost all near the rivcr' These with their dates arc : L6b6n1' (not r er-vf ar fiom Vienna. On thc 'barn' church with r upland slopcsthe modest singlc toll'cr. often reprcscnt ir latcr mof o r t h c s o u t h .hich clnrc 'I'he striking scheme of fbur rolr. with no transept. 'l'he sancturrr bal. lvith Cluniac Pa-v*erneI r 3-sI and R o m a i n m 6 t i e r .the Ottonian cathedral built afier 994 ar Augsburpi.l l n r r . Though we ma\. 'l'he re construction afier lrnrrtu. likc its Romanesque. oa. o Esztergom Cirrhetlral.r semicircular trrnscptal absidioles reniain as before.w i t h o p s n i n g s i n t o b o t h t h c n a v ea n d t h e a i s l c s . r r5o li-. though in manv crrses the l a u l t s w e r e b u i l t a f t e r t h e R o m a n e s q u ep e l i o d . The westcrn i n f l u e n c c . towns wcre not large. rrgg rzr2.i t zerI a n d) S -I'here is a special charm to the mountain chur- c h e si n t h e n o r t h o f L o m b a r d y ' a n d o n t h c A l p i n e slopeswhich descendtowards the north.4o8 L A N D S A s S O C T A T E DW T T H T N T H E H O L y ROMAN EMpTRE NORTil[RN tTAr.r ' a u l t c dp o r c h s p r u n g b e f r v c e t r h e m . . . ofrhe wesr fagadc. but the tw<. the nar.-o. and fiom South Germanv in the flep 'l'hc principal twelfth centurv and latcr times. The sanctuarl has becn lengthenecl. (This arrangement looks ocldly. nor lar from the Danube. Q r e c n l \ l a r Ann. a n d a still half'-Romanesquc ointed mlin doorwav p is set in the f'aqadcwall. crossing. and two flank rhe main fronr in a similar vrav.. The region had treen a part of thc old Kingdom ol' A r l e s o r o f B u r g u n d l ' .. T 1 . l a t e r . n. ltrr instlncc.and Neighhouring '!re as (S a. The similaritl. between Augs'_ burg and P6csmay be fortuitous. F r e n c h : l i k ew i s e . i .with alternatell' stout and slcndcr strpporlsil\ro big $(stern towers rise boldll' wirh a high open sqtrare t E r o i n . w i t h b o r d e r i n g a r e a si n Italv and Swabia.rrr. e r \ . w a s \ . even to the raiseclchoir. :rnd no great movement was centrcd here.a s a t t h e c a t h e d r r l o f ' S t r a s s burg and its extensire related group in middle Germany. 'lhe l ' o u n d a t i o no f t h e s c c h u r c h t r i s a s e i b .er on each of its four corners. Villard de Honnecourt's visit was in rzt<.a n d t h e l still give ch:rracter to thc countr]'sidc. Yet it is said that a Frcnch master. It was still under q'irr in r287. ver!' prettv rncl cffcctire Baroquc silhoucttes. eonlinue in ust. . Lombard and German. belfl'ics of the mountain churches ofien hare nent. son ol' '-flno of Saint-Di('.a s i s t c r o t ' P h i l i p \ u g t r s t u s . this building had a pair of square belfrv t o u c r s s c t n o r t h a n d s o u t h . Here. was undcr (]luniac infltrence. r . a n d i t s R o m a n e s q u cc h u r c h i s k n o r * . and. r e p r e s e n t st h e t r a d i t i o n a l C ' l u n i a c l b r m s . $herc St Srcphennas htrried.r. t h e . E n t z from the upper Rhinclancl. It is a fbur_tower chtrrch rhat is to say. plarianRomanesque.w i t h t n o p o r r l l s o l B u r g r r n c l i : r. and are adrnirable in silhouette against thc 'f gigantic mountain masses. n. and rural Burgundl'. but the new work does not disguise a Romanesque plan. excavations). John. and Zsirnb6k (ncar B u d a p e s t .itiitrt-. near the fionticr. r l i . almost south of'Vienna. had become a sort of folk art. like an augmentation of the scheme for the west front of.G er m a n a n d A u s t r i a n 'fhc Baroque flourishcd in Switzerland too. Burgunclian componcnt. . is characteristic in the Hun_ c h a p e l . which are Lombard.sztersonr t h c t o w e r sa r e u i t h i n t h e r c t .p i c a l l v .rr lr.dr (whcre St Stephcn hacl s i s t e n r . as wcll as thc navc-and-chancel church lrith a similar to$er. it lics nc. It lrs partlv rebuilt altcrwards. F Lake Balat6n I about I 24o). n . with a rvestern apse terminating the nave between. f iirje (south o1'L6b6nv. a n c lh r t i a portal lvith columns on the backs ol' lions (rzoo-g). l e a l u r e s " n u .. grcat bend in the Danube norrh of Butlancsr.

T h e c o m b i n : r t i o n o f i n f l u e n c e si n t h i s c r o s s _ r o a d s a r e a i s e a s i l yo b s e r y e da t t h e l a r g e s to f ' t h c Romanesque cathctlrrls ol' thc rceion. is strongly Lombard. h . and elangelization. somewhat rebljll 1nj augmented. mutuallv exclusive ideals of the papac1.cr C-athedrals among them.S.. hql f. the octagonal Ottmarsheim in Alsacc (dedicated ro49) is an example i n t e r m e d i a t ci n d a t e i N i j m e g e n i s o f t h e t w e l f t h . and Charlemagne.l...li Cathedral is named fbr St Gall. v . which indecd it is.1I 11_ and the ncw intcrior is raultcd. i t i s a h a n d s o m eb u t r a r h e r u n i n s p i r c 4 twelfih-centurv work. b a s i c a l l . The diverse architectural influences which had been interwoven to fbrm German Romanesque became mature in the course ol' the eleventh century and wcre brought to a fuller maturitr. It has a great wooden-roofed nirle (now handsomelv restorecl).l . g i n d c s i g n .".r: at thc border of'the old Kinedom ol.{ND. The building was burnt out in the last war.r. l b r r h i s e d i E c er h e l . ....*|. j.li t h c b u i l d i n g l r a s r e p l l t . liom the south-uest. There are mrnv other e\anrples none more imposing than St Gertrude at Nrf-els or u Nivcllesrljrg. comparable to Saint-Riquier.. r r.". We find the powerful Carolingian architectural strain continuing.. ilff 'l... followed by.' :'"'j. rule. pi. a s i r ) n e r r . thltt o. an interesting vaulted sanctuarv. of tlany ofthe greatest churchcs in thcir larcr lirrm Mainz. Justinian. Proot'of this is the Beneraldesign..3zol. \r'lcs or ol Burgundr. N i v e l l c sS t G c r t r u d c ..n.ombardv and Burgundl.a long processof expansion at the expensc of these neighbours which rvas onl. l . r . a . B u r g u n d . colonization. 'l his chrrrch hls the general f'eeling of a Rhinelancl church. perhaps (through its massi'r'e lagade) to r group of churches in Saxonl.1.His son Henry VI ( r rgo-7) brought the Holv Roman Empire to its maximum idealll.u r g u n . ln it thcre arc somc remlrns of a lireat church consecratcd in thc prescnce of H c n l u I I i n r o r g . Frederick Barbarossa(rr5z go) considercd himself the heir of Constantine.. ..ili. There was a regularly authorized crusade against the Slavs in rr47.'. r m o u s golden altar fiontal now in paris was made.."t h c i n g u s ed . r roo). flut t i o m S t r a s s b u r ga l i t t l e l a r t h c r d o u n t . But the Emperors had dreams ofgeneral union lnd universal dominion which could not be realized because ofirreconcilable Italy. ) ^ O C I A T E tD t t i l r N v TilE HOLy ROMAN Et\IptRE mounrain church rvith paintings (r.. rnd embarked upon a large programme of expansion. two great nloments are faithfully reflected in architecture.+ro L A N D S A S .Grllusptbrte' . Under the new which ruled fiom rr38 to rz(r8.r z r 6 ) ..cc_ ful plal' of influences from L.i:. Bascl.T. e da l i e r a f i r c r.. dating basicallv fiom thc eleventh century. now h'ing1 ithin thc Belgian borders. elercnth century tnd latcr. 'lhese rnd territorially. under ir new irnd lbr. Worms.cspe_ c i a l l yu n d e r P o p e I n n o c e n t I I I ( r r 9 8 . m i s s i o n l r t o f ' t h e r eg i o n . vct related. [1": Sl.in the twclfth. as restored after rvirrdamage. 3 r g . and Spel.: Iil.and an imposing westwork.'. . f Li. Thc Palatine Chapel at Aachen also served as an inspiration in this period.v-undone rvhen the Third Reich fell. and he did something after the manner of each to make German-v powerful and prosperous.i' 22 QHAPTER GERMANY' WITH THE NETHERI. th. the country rchieved greater maturitv in political matters. and the competing..poinr. r r n The elaborate .\ND FLANDERS part of this I olunle we have gir en In rn earlier of the chief monume nts of German dl account up to the end of the Iiranconian Romanesque Hohenstaufen dynastv.h \ ..

e n t h e n t h e s p e c i f i c a l l va r c h i t e c t u r a l i n f l u e n c e h a d not been strong.t f t s r l r . German in manr w : l v s .r 'I'he special influence o[ Burgundl.. Something of the influence of Aachen survives in thc two-storel' opcn-rvcll churches a n d c h a p e l so f t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r r ' . and after a preliminary dedication of r ogg const. It had comero Germanv ecclesiastically. a n d i t s p l a n a p p e a r st o h i r \ c been thc simple earll' plan used by the Oldet B u t f o r s o m c t i m e . The influence of Clunv continued. with Hirsau." ncirr Bonn (crucifbrm.' c l o p c d . r r . M u r b a c h . the handsome two-storev church of Schwarzrheindorf. belbrc the dedicrrion olrr66i Worms Cathedral. and Abbot \l'illiam of Hirs:ru. longohurdiwt. The Lombarcl international First Romanesque component of the old architectureopcncd the wav for mature Lombard influcnces. i n t h e e a r l vp c r i o d .I l u r b a c h . r n C i s t e r c i a nm o d c l s . The trefoil plan has becn thought (doubtfully') to be a casein point. interior ol sancturrr'. tloublc church. i n t h e e r t e n s i o n o f r r 7 3 . Schwarzr h e i n d o r f. declicrted ro-16 u n d e r t h c a u s p i c e so f t h c E m p e r o r H e n r v l I . t \ c l f t h c e n t u r r( n l r e d e s t r o r t c l l thc motif had been used on the \'{inster at Bonn b e f b r e t h e d e d i c a t i o n o f I I 6 ( r ' . based partlv on Clunl II. r v a st h e f i r s t C i s t e r c i a n f o u n d a t i o n r n G c r m : r n r ' ( r r z 3 ) . caq. rr5o In France. hrrsrvhat is said to bc a n e a r l v G c r m a n e x a m p l eo f t h e f u l l l . The 'Hirsauer Schule'. shows some influencc f10nr Clunl'III. thoush with diminished force. meanwhile. 3zI. Cistercian architecture absorberl the somewhat inert rib lault of the Burgundian half-Gothic' which was repres e n t e db y a b o u t r r 6 o a t C l a i r v a u x .4I2 L A N D S A S S O C I A T E DW I ' I H I N T T I I .e r . w c l l . \ { .l M e n t i o n s h o u l d .a n t l p a i r c d t o n c r s c o m p a r a h l e ol sant'{bhondio in Como l. strongilv to Germanv with the Cistercians bejbr" graphically..a n d . and the authoritv of this design brought ribbed construction into German1. a s w c h a v e seen.1 67 8 ) | r \ + m a r k e d a n e w e r a b v l b l l o w i n g t h e t u l l r . uellih cenltrr\ nou proportioncd lireat church which thc beautifirtll rich fbrmcrlv existed at this historic sitc with lo lhosc a r c a t l i n g . Bishop i\Ieinwerk ol' Paderborn.ruta s m u k i n g i t s p r o g r e s s : u i t n e s s St Patroklus. after rrTr .\ t t h e s a m et i m e l t h c r i h r ' . t h o u e h $ i t h G e r m a n u t i r :l t l i n e s si n m a s sa n d d e t a i l . r. WITH TIIE NETIIERLANDS AND FLANDIRS '+r3 centurl'.. l . p e r h a p s not sumcicntl)'closc-knit to be callcd a School.s t r o n g l \ B u r g u n . a b b c l c h u r c h . a n d -i:o. is reallr. Schwarzrheindorl.iool' . l r i t e c t u r e o l t h c G e r m a n C i s t e r c i a n s$ : t s o l t ( n l o c r l i n t r p e .e s t a b l i s h e t . Paulinzclh a little later still. l i . h o w e r . rr5o). +K a m p . Nir ellcs.lz. onlr d liagmenl ol r l.stion continued unril r r27 or later. lior cxample. r u l b r o n n ( r r .St Gcrtrude.T I O L Y R O M A N E M P I R E GERMANY. Soest. v e t e \ .zl. and stvlistic11l.b e m a d e o f t h e h a n c l s o m e c h u r c h o f A l p i r s b a c h . a c c o r d i n g t o r e c e n t o p i n i o n .. n e a r K r e l ' e l d .. 1 .5Richcr ot'it as arrangcd st'hernttte mouldings and greatcr elaboration of parts resultcd liom Lombard influence. at any rate the medicval description of the trefbil of'Klosterrath (Rolduc) speaks q z z . a s s o c i a t e dg e o t h e m i d d l e o f t h e t w e l l t h c e n t u r v . who refbrmed about r lo h o u s e si n S w i t z c r l a n d a n d G c r m a n v .d e v e l o p c d e a v e sg a l l e r l o f L o m b a r d c h a r a c t c r [ 3 z r l .v. the date of foundation is r095. trefbil' rvith a central well. Concurrcntly there u'as an influx of nlaturc Lombard Romanesque motif-sto German.

example of rzro. T h e m c t r o politan archbishopric of' Mainz also includcd the important central and northcrn bishoprics of Speyer. (c) the l. inclucling Alsace. d a t i n g l i o m a b o u t r r 5 o .1 o In Latc Romanesquetimes South G. Bohemia (excepting Prague [rr7]) and Prussia from our considcration. and Bohemia. the Schottenkirche). natural connecting links with Lorraine and llungary respectively.1p*. 11 Hartbcrg in Styria. l . with an apsidal elemcnt. w i t h W e s t p h a l i a . Thcse south-Gerrnan churches are smaller than the eramplcs iust mentioned. thc 'l'hc Austrian provinces. upward to a dominant central towcr. It has been estimated"that over roo o1' these ccntrllized chapels existed in Bavaria. i d e a g o e sh n s f t to thc Rhineland and Aachen. In order to deal untlcrstandabll with such a large number and variety of buildings over so extended an arca and chronological scale. rather flat. This produces a tall. Thc parts of the south-Gcrman rcgion which are most important architccturally lie in the e c c l e s i a s t i c a lp r o v i n c c o f M a i n z . Regcnsburg (dated about rr8o). R I . are cemetery chapels61 charnel houses. Still others are palace and casrle chapels. .sith groin-r'aultcd aisles and vaulted triapsidal sirncgion.r: Iiranconia' the middle there arc several groups ofchurches iiuringit) is emphasizcd in that it is pl:rced as it \ s i n t h e s o u t h ' t h e l a r c b a s i l i c a n structure . a n d C u r k C ' a t h c d r a l 't o iilso a trefoil: ' * o a n l o n g a c o n s i t l t r a b l cn u m b c r ont". . . r r r J possibly related to this German type). t h o u g h Magdcburg Cathedral.r 1.h r t r c l t ' late eleventhcentun rzr.c o n t i n u o u s f r o m c n d t o e r r .a n d . inr. l i k e t h e H u n g a r i a n c a t h e d r a l n f P 6 c s( w h i c h i r a p a r a l l e le r a m p l e . . the ruler and his suite are provided fbr at thc uppcr lcrcl. in chapels of this sort (including the SirinteC h a p e l l e i n P a r i s . begun in rzog. (a) 'f S a x o n y .with but thc early clateofarrangiement is cxccptional. h o l r c v e r . churches. as regularh. and Lower Lorrainc). has a lateral port:rl. it cleclaresitself hirvc of the whole citv. [rnrion ' of examptes r'ery often carried abo\ e them.. shou.114 L A N D S A S S O C I A T E DW I T I I I N THE TIOLY RoMAN ['MPIRE ( . we therefbre all but omit Moravia. there is. the Lahn" is in*ardll It is no accidentthat St Gcorge at Limburg on rather likc Laon Cathe- -l'he The important south-German churchr. t h e C h a p e l a t V e r s a i l l c s .a n c l h u ringia. Thcy often conopen fiom sist of nine compartments. N[any' of' the examples sufl'ered greotly from over-rcstoration in the nineteenth centurv. well reprcsentetl br . Somc ol the examples tbund in alread." which is as dcep as the \\csl lrunl' e G 3 2 3 . Paderborn. m S O U T I IG [ . whilc extcriorly it is a notablc example of Gcrman Romanesque. l)ccs.T H [ .it will be necessary to dir. but was rebuilt atter a fire which occurrcd between is to\ucrs' and . Local variations Wimpfen (befbre 9q8.*o integrated towers church w e h a v e u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n[ 3 2 3 ] ' gives prominence to rn intermediate [7g]. Worms.s o m e t i m e sa l m o s t t o t h e p o i n t of' clumsiness.N } . a l s oS t r a s s b u r g . i t t h c c h u r c h i s a stronglv in the silhouette one. but thc mass of' accomplishment in Romanesque belbre the true Gothic bccame d o m i n a n t i n G e r m a n y -( n o t b ef b r e r 2 q o . It is relatcd of thc faqade tlpe u'hich handsomsst crample (Strassburg. rlpc was represented in the castlc at Nurcmberg^.1 1 6 St Stephen's Chapel in London). A \ D S A N I ) I . a n d c r s h c i m .vbeen mentioned.. f r o m i t s i b u n t l i n g by' Irish monks. w a s r c p r e s e n t e di l S t George. tuarv. however. lhi\ 1\ereon a bridgt orer thc wcsl porchi s e r c r a l r a r i e t i e so l r h e b a s i l i c a n in tryou. others rvill bt: dral. Upper Lorrainc..*.no transept: the buildi n g i s . t r i a p s i d a l . E R N I A N \ " \ \ .I T H T T I } .tt us. n _ i l t r a l i z e d s t r u c t u r e so f t h e t w e l f r h a n d t h i r t c r l l S cenluries.at \ll Saints' Chapcl' Rcg-cnsburg exteriors. where.ower Rhinc and the Nlain countrv (Franconia. Others.idc the remaindcr into (l) South Gern. J that simple piers lre of licquent occurrene. in t h e s o u t h .h a s p i e r s l a n d i t s h o u l d b e r e m a r ' L . and H i l d c s h e i m .ide the subject geographicallv and morphologically. and dir.nth and lwclfth centurics'fagade ccntral space. These latter are tvpicallv of two storcr.s the first Gothic lbrms) was verl grcat: so llreat i n d e e d a s t o i m p r i n t i t s c h a r a c r e ro n I h e c o u n t r y . \linden (lathctllirl. 'I'he a r c a sa t t h e e a s t a n d n o r t h o f G e r m a n y within thc Empire have relativcll little to contribute to our studv. rvith Baiaria and Swabia. b u t t h e r c a r e m a n t s m r r l1 . give them great savour olan.r l. elegant and beautilully composed and its dedication date is rzj5. S t J a k o b ( o t h e r w i s ec a l l c d .E a s t p h a l i a . above this opcn as. I ' { \ D F ' R S +I5 Romancsqucthus matured is characteri s t i c a l l y ' w e i g h t v . { s i m p l e r p l a n . roI5) 'fhc o"i h.5.tu. with the middlr one the ground floor up through thc second level. Regensburg.G e r m a n c h u r c h e s . . b a s i l i c a nn l b r m . R AND NLIGHBOURING IIGIONS SAXONY t h e L o w e r R h i n e a r e aa n d i n S r v c d e n ' (with Wcstphalia' Eastphalia' and In Saxony At Wimplen im Tal.n.nt p r o l u s e l yc m p l o y e d L o m b a r d d c c o r a li r e m o t i l ' 'fypical a r c a d i n ga n d b a n d s e n r i c h t h r c h u r t h f f. but rebuilt in the twelfth andcharacter' century) sugllcsts it as an intcrmediate cxample' is interesttng The'Saxon f'agade'in particular thc Gandcrsheimlr in Saxony' has pelhaps laqade tvpe to the and imposing. 'Ihe l i k e S c h w a r z r h e i n d o r f[ 3 2 r ] .riu.l"i. Some are chapcls satellite t. 1y. but bulkl and strongh profilcd mass which tcrminates the church at the west in largc r n o n u m e n t a l f a s h i o l l . s o t o s p e a k .rany. R M A N Y This region is traverscd by thc upper waters of the Rhine and thc Danube.r. quite unusually'elaboratebr the era and the fcf 'l'his church is a columnar basilica. and carried. I | 5 0 ) . Wiirzburg.

a taller oblong belfry was built.13 7z I2oo . each with a shaft. above which the cylinders (now disengaged by a sct-back of' the main belfry) rise to two stageswith twin midwall-shaft windows. Freckenhorstr'' has an equallv astonishing f'agade. The eristing church wirs built. and a pyramidal roof. r r. Hildesheim Cathedral (dedicated in I o6 r ) htts bcen rcbuilt.a d h e r e n c c to traditional even Carolinsian idcals: thcsc are the notcs of'the style. Sinrp l i c i t y o f f o r m . l the fine basilican constructions in Saxonr. hur Sr Michael [84J.4I6 L A N D S A S S O C I A T E DW I T H I N THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE 'l'here is a great show of'arcad1063and rog5. each advanced slightly. wcstern to$cr'' ' 326 (ahrrce). there arr: three twin openings with mid-wall colonnettes. Between the towers. ating fiom rr16-z9. admirably placed portal directly with respect to the similar opcnings in the belfries and the tunnel-like below. These bevels arc carricd up into octagonal towers. The evident love of towered masses rccrlls the primitivc examples of the type which *e h a v ee x a m i n e d i n S a x o n E n g l a n d . and abovc that a veriing in table precipice cut by simple horizontal string courses into fbur stages. Hildcsheim. central mass rises sheer to a tall hip roof. and the astonishing great westcrn tower just mentioned is ascribed to the !'ear r zoo or thcreabouts. and just below thc shali. allowing Ibr thc sophisticationsand outside influences in thc mature Romanesque of Germany. the lower register. same process changed thc liont part ol'the Carolingian westwork of Corvcy on the Weser into somcthing likc a'Saxon faqade'. w e i g h t i n e s si n d e t a i l sl i k c m o u l d i n g s a n d c a p i t a l s . and provided with an 'lhe entrance doorway. bevontl w h i c h i s t h e s a n c t u a r vf l a n k e d b y t r v o t a l l s q u r r c towcrs. a bellry stage. forming a hand'Ihis somelv stepped mass [jz-1]. cylindrical towers. with a single relatively small portal is flanked by the bases of'two cylindrical towors. E v i d e n t l v t h c same spirit informs thern all. rvith groin raults.r' At St Patrolilus in Soestl5[325J the corner towers are reduced to the mcrest pinnacles b e t w e e n t h e g a b l e so f a s t o u t b e l f r v t o w e r w h i c h has a porch and gallerv wrapped around three sides of it. are plain through a part o1'their height. Their conical rools are set upon eaves a littlc higher than the caves of'the main bclfry. Socst. A plain ground d storer. Each stage has two twin mid-wall'l'he shali windows. e x c e l l c n t n r a s o n r y . It is hartl to douht rhat sonrething l'the . in the sccond half'of the twcllth century. alrcrtl' 325 (olposttt). Behind this imposing and beautiIully prolilcd great westworli the nave and aislcs o1'the church extend to the transept. bevellcd at the corners. with thrce stagcs of bclfiy openings. St Godchard. in thc twellth century.linden Cathedral of ro6r had two towers. enveloped at thc base by decorativc arcading.rltl o s p i r i t u n d e r l i e s t h e w a r m y e t a u s t e r ec h a r m t . St Pxtroklus. betwecn which. The N.

3 7 z ) l .tt. destroyed in modern times) was vaulted. asalreadv reportcd.'z0 dating originalll'./ -- . Examples of on the pairs of columns between Lpitals occ. main hall. 3 z 6 l is a similar building. at a rather late date. in a heavy manner.f f i s f f i w Ed ffiAH ffi'&fi qE{ .r7r-qo) for the accomplishmenl ol'the school' iiandswell impressive' It had a woodenIt i. l r 7 l n d .(f ii /-l\ tll l l I i ] ffiffi f f i F i frE#l H ffiai trffiti.?. pporl the na\ e u all in'l r ei u t hsi gem oierswhich su phrase has Stiitzennethsel.ertures from Bishop \delog's period .o f was a remarkable sculptured choir. r c s t o r a t i o n s t u d J ' i s i n r .A c t u a l l r E l i z a b c t h ' s ' t e u r e H a l l e ' w a s superposcd on thc original residence of-the twelfth centur--v [329] not long after the Iirst construction./. and the larEle room abole it was the 'fhe structurc was much rebuilt in original hall. which include the interesting two-storcv chapel of St Ulrich. It addcd grcatll'to the amenitv ofthe 'I'he structure rs first built had three building. tingult.i : . and could be 'fhe heated upon occasion. g i t i n g . differing in that it has a masonrv apse vault.w i c l e h ' k n o w n t o o p e r a 'sangersaal'. t h c P f l l z . and communicating with a b a l c o n y .log f. and well restored recentlv' il. r r . It has preserved a stucco tympanum which is a notablc example of that sort of sculpture seldonrsecn at pr('senl. liisenach. r c h u i l t r t t e r r r . twelfth ccnturr restorltion stud!' .with radiating chapels.. WITH Tt{E NETHERLANDS AND FLANDTIRS .n a r e d r v o o d e n roofed afi'air with a central throne room marked offby parallel arcades.ffi m+F+ffi H ffi ilI effi qz9. Its rathcr archaic'Saxon tragade' stood svmbolicallv at thc foot of a long easterl-vslope which was used for vast offi cial assemblages.. 83]. fronted bv a graceful arcaded galler-r of lighter c o n s t r u c t i o n .t h e old Pfalz.At the south end of the building there are imperial rptrtmcnts. and balancing the older Chapel ofour Lacll'sct near the north end of the palace. cruciform in plan. an ambulatorl. The cathedral boundcd the east side of the assemblv area A n o t h e r g r e a t h o u s e .) S t G o d e h a r d ' a t H i l d e s h c i m( r r 3 .as the neat German o f s u p p o r t i s o l c o u r s ec o m m o n i n it. picturesquelv placed on a height near E i s e n a c h . is the Wartgoers because of the burg. a:- -:= /18-= partly remodelled under Bishop 6escribed. spacious rooms in enlilade on each of'two levels.GERMANY. s c c a l s o ( r .. u i t h d i l ' c e t e r t e r i o r a c c e s sl i o m 'I'he main room on the ground the courtl'ard. The ground floor is enclosed. P l a c e dt r a n s v e r s e l va t t h e t o p o i t h e s l o p e .pt. the old Imperial Dict town' the cathedral (dating fiom about ro4o and later.r 8 7 3 ) [ 3 2 7 .-. an octagonal crossing towcr' and paired western towers. 'fhe sober bcst qualities of' German twelfih-centur1. In Goslar. suffered severelY in the last war.r e s t o r e d .T h e t h r o n e r o o m a n d t h e l a t e r a l p a r r s o p e n u p o n t h e o u t d o o r a s s e m b l vp h c e t h r o u g h characteristic double and triple arches.5 o l n c l c .ly_ .1 'i '^-:::i..+I9 =-.i s a t r e m e n d o u s t w o . r838 67. f r o m a b o u t r o 5 o ./. which is unusual. on the u p p e rl e v e l . and a painted ilfrd medieval date' Important among its .G o s l a r .. This type (St Michael the German basilicaslT [82.v the Germans fiom the ' timeof Saint-Riquier onwards. htlt practisedimportantl-r'b. architecture may be discerncdhere. (central and largcr than the others) was a floor kitchen.. under enclosing arches. s l i l l e x i s t s( o v c r . j : 8 1 . now glazed. 1 2 8 .. -- . Wartburg.oeen dating richlv decorated cuhical lr186). a n d r e s l o r e da f t e r a c o l l a p s eo f r r 3 z .r t c r i o r .

and thc churches thcmsclves.iqy are both good examples of this. and the church (largely built bctween Ir3o is accomplished though austere rr56) [92. and 'mural v a l u e s ' i n t h e i n t e r i o r d c s i g n -M a g d e b u r g C a t h e dral. and the latest parts have. The winccoloured precipices ofbrick breaking into sharp spires and pinnacles of copperl green arc irt every wa!' as fine as the massive stone \a'allsol t h e R h e n i s h c a t h e d r a l sa n d a b b e l ' s . b a s i l i c a ni n p l a n . are at rn xdvantxge in the Backsteingotik. mutely o1-their action. l a r g e l v b e c a u s co t ' t h e p e n u r v o 1 ' g o o d b u i l d i n g s t o n e .a n d . brick construction appeared in north G e r m a n r . under the limitations of brick-work.G o t h i c p a t t e r n s .Trier Cathedral. 931 in style.i heavily in their favour. into Poland. qualities which thr.. r d l l a l o n g t h e G c r m a n a Baltic coast. begun in rzog. The church at Jcrichow.u h e n i h e c a t h c d r a l w a s v a u l t e d i n a r e b u i l d i n g o f r z z . Josef Olbrich. In our iudgement the best of the Batksttitt{r/il is not surp:rssedbv anv but the finest of the late.i t r v a st h e B .er double bavs.a r c h e d .t spcal. succes. A large number of tht' Hansa cities were in north Germany.v'. a r c R o m : r n e s q u ci n c o n t . What remains is to show how in the pcriod ot full Romanesque maturitr the architccture hcre 'Carolw a s .-Frunce. mature. WtTH THE NETHIIRLANDSAND !I-ANDr'RS !+2I I n T r i e r t h e F r a n k c n t u r m ( c l a t e da b o u t r o q o ) shows what the Romanesque tower-house was like.is in fact the first reallr. though Miinster has aisles. er. and in neighbouring rcgions subiect t<l north-Gernran i n f l u e n c e . (brms clothed in Lombard guise'' Son. was transmitted to theselater buildings. One is likell to fbrgiethow rvidelv distributed and horv important this cit_y-'t)'pc rcsidence rsalll.yi n r r ( r 5 .v in the region' Nlaturitl' rate works Maria Laach. with relativelv simple cxreriors. ing Gothic influence.w i t h m o s t a d n r i r a b l l ' ser. tardilv. German Romanesque generall. with single sup-erposed rooms. w a s b u i l t a b o u t r r . THELOWER RHINE-l\'tAll hall'-Lornbarcl.b e f b r e r z z o . Liebfrauenkirche r21o-53 .ful German Gothic lbr the imitatir. e p t i o n .reingian how the placid spirit of Hersf'eld and Limburg on the Haardt.J2O L A N D S A S S O C I A T E DW I T H I N THE HOI-Y ROMAN EMPIRE cERMANY. counts as a true Gothic church. 120].a s S i r A l t r e d C l a p h a m s o l p t l l ' s a i c l . t h e r e s u l t r e c a l l sF r c n c h t r a n s i t i o n a lc h u r c h e sl i k e t h e c a t h c d r a lo f : \ n g e r s (nave vaulted about rr5o) [zr5]. onll ab6s1 16111' miles lrom Jerichow. with domed-up rib vaults or. In Saxony the vaulting ofchurch na\. eleventhand twelfih centurics'from the west' Ia"rgely r. .ere lines and good proportions. a n d . and cven to regions n e a r P s k o l i n R u s s i a . along rvith thc frank grancleur of' Wiirzburg Cathedral and St Gertrudc at Nivelles[3rg. relatir.i. I ' I ' h e a v a i l able clar s burn to a fine red brick.escomes 'Ihe oltlcr vaults are hall'-Cistercian. and from thc beginning the German bricklavers possesseda map. The Scheldt along the Nlain.j] . affected b-v the new morement. 5 o . tracery motifs came with incrcas- l\leusc l\loscllc Rhinc rcgion. r s t h e i r a r c h i t e c t u r e .a n r l i m p o s ing monuments like X{arienburg (r276 ancl . of style is early here as well' founded in Iog3. Ycr ar Miinster in W e s t p h a l i a . wherc Roman established and fine building has its traditions are stronger history' The longest and most distinguished lie in the venerable ccclesiasticalproterritories I n earlicr v i n c e so f C o l o g n c ' T r i c r . the polygonal westernchoir was be- 33o. 'l'eutonic The Knights logicalll' adoptccl the B uck s tei ng ot i k . I r 8 2 . and with it the name of Buckstetnqotik.. ()f The earll elerenth-centtlr\ calhedral 'live on' in the present r j is said to Worms:(. It was natural that the pointed arch should soon appcar.was.r oftheir originalsin the il. f t h a t i n t e r . r2oo 70). Charming and ingenioLr5 translations ol the Gothic elements were ntl(lc into brick and rerracotta fbr thc embellishnrtnt of the buildings. hrrd bricli construction u n d e r w a .[33 one. rj4o)r. as are rhc gr-r1r churches and town halls o1'Danzig and Liibe cl Bockstcingttil. 16 5 . fbr a Prem o n s t r a t e n s i a nh o u s e o f A u g u s t i n i a n c a n o n s z r 'l'he building is wooden-roofcd.m u n i c i p a l m e r c a n t i l c commonwealth ma1. as mature has. good mortar is obtainable. t t.en l t a l a t e d a t c . But the Germanic qualitics. 'l'he Franconian cathedrals ofT'rier Ij3ol and 'Lomb:rrd guisc' onl-v in Speyer acquired their the latcst works of' construction' Worms and Mainz were more profbundll. appear earl. r 8 .nificent sense of their craft. a n d r o u n d . not lar fiom tr{agdeburg^ and on the borders ofBrandenb u r g . T h e e x c c l l e n t p r e s e r v a t i o no f t h e b u i l d i n g s a f t e r p e r i o c l s lrom 6oo to goo years should also be countc. has alreadl'been described. a n d ' \ l a i n z ' parts of this volume man]'of the most important because firstLuildings have been mentioned. Symptomatic is the lict that great architects of the twentieth centurl like Ragnar 6stberg. a Lombard dnge.rr Under Lombard inspiration and Burgundian auspices.ed. becausc of so f'ew er:rmples have sun ir. in that the lbundations are the same A cons e c r a t i o no f r r 8 l m a r k s a s t a g eo f t h e r c b u i l d i n g at the east.T h e C i s r er _ cianabbevsof'Lehninand Chorin} (rz7j r. and Germanic detail. rjzo l4oo) and Nlarienwerder(r. t c k s t e i n .elv small windows. he rib r ault wasintroduced (Lchnin. and charactcristically German 'fhe Gothic buildings. and Dominikus Boehm have drawn on the Backsteingotil' stvle.e works in stone of'the earl-vpcriocl invariablv I'all trrr shor. Brandenburg Cathedral. sensing its elemental force and authentic grandeur.' carlier Gcrman Gothic inherited through thc R o m a n e s q u ef r o m C a l o l i n g i a n b u i l d i n g d o n o t olien combine well with the G:rllic qualities ot Irrench Gothic. and srucco panels brightcntll t h c w a l l s w i t h n e a r . L i i b e c k C a t h e d r a l i n r r 7 3 .s p r e . the first in Germanr. heavv wallwork.bc said to have a national a r c h i t e c t u r e . q o t i k . is the oldwith its extension part of Germanl'.-d.

Mainz Cathedral. The belfiy of the north-west tower is frankly Gothic. flanking a sanctuary bay with (exceptionally) an octagonal tower over it.. and thirteenth centuries. t . ' ) -'l itl 'r":i". which called for round towers of equal weight flanking an octagonal tower of larger girth but inferior height. tu'clfih.l . . ) i . which' .r. whereas those at the east are staggered._ i. t h o u g h a c r u a l l ] t h e e a s t e r nc r o s s i n g f o \ ^ c r \ \ J : carried up in Gothic and then replaced In Romanesque Revival style.li.' ' ..r+"9 .-.'-. and is visible iot' ''ts man-v miles in the valley of the Main.. . is about equal to Speyer Cathedral in magnitudc. ' -' $ il!lil I t t 3lr.'"' .' .?l'. '. I ll r! il -'l=l=r::.'. . fiom the south-west gun in r 234 in Lombard half-Gothic. all enriched by arcading and g a l l e r i c s . which again is unusual. The red sandthe richness of' thc and thirteenth-century articulation givesit movement [3J3.rt the grand old metropolitan church of middle German-v [78.rtj.' .r I!ill t.t I I .. r... Tie-rods have been neccssarv in order to keep these vaults secure.. Worms Cathcdral.o .. At the easl there are a more impo:i:tg transept and octagon... stone gives it warmth.I:-t ' . 334].422 L A N D s A S S O C I A T E DW I T H I N THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE (Kautzsch) centur-1 restorrlionstutly as in the tweltih -^ '!{ainzCathedral. i : .' - .T h e h u g e b u l k o f t h e c a t h e d r a l s t a n r l : up grandly abore the town. .. and the towers are tanpient to the line of this wall. '"'lt=-' ' ' " ' " t ' " ' : l.. accentuated bv a pair of slender octagonal towers. ' t . with a trelbil sanctuir-)bel'ond. for the round towers are one bay east of the transept and its corresponding octagon.l r ! . i ! . but the architect respected the old scheme.fr:'llil-. . which with its central octagonal tower and western apsemakesan imposing front..L i :l ---. " i i f ' ' i r . the top of the western crossing tower having meanwhile becn -l rebuilt in Troubadour Gothic (I769-74).r:' .' . ! r-. tt"' r r8r ele'enth ccnrury' much rebuilt alter . as flying buttresses have never been built for them. ' f roog j2 at Nlainz terminate the axis of the western transept. 1'his arrangement results in a very successful tower system.".lnrrrrY' t'llli". The nave has five very sturdy clouble bays with rib vaulting above an arcade s]-'stemrather like that of Speyer. .. . These round towers are on a transverse axis. 4nu rrt JJJ . . . it' ' i.1 . " !. eleventh. This work on the building was done between rr8r and rz. .. twelfthbut the effect is rather different.l9. Mainz Cathedral.r r r I r ' .l=:. The apse is included within a straight east wall.i :. 332].- .. *tt o l d r o u n d t o w e r s d a t i n g f r o m t h e c a r h e d r a l. .

. w h i c h i s l a c k i n ga t S a n L o r e n z o . with its projecting tower ancl lateral stair turrets.]7. formerly-rather austere. at any rate the trefoil motifwas established in the Rhineland by the eleventh . and thc nave then receivcd the first serpartite \. Actually the e{l'ect at St Nlary in C:rpitol is very different from that of its supposed model tion ofthe church by Pope Leo IX in ro4g was t h e ( n o w l r r r g e l vr e b u i l t ) c h u r c h o f ' S a n L o r c n z o i n \ l i l a n .nJ rt underwent a special development ihere. S t M a n .w h i c h i n S a n L o r e n z o a i d i n b i n d i n g in the central space. T'he church of the Apostles in Cologne is a r. transept and sanctuary was completed at that time. R S T2< it approachesthe confluence with the Rhine.?8 In the Rhineland the key church of trefoil plan is St Mary in Capitol at Cologne:e [::S_Z]. A N D SA N D I L A N D F . The trefbil which has just been _.St Mart. 1-he interior.nrion. . v sa h o r e a g e n e r o u s c l c r e " t o r r . which. In spite ol' its tartly date. except at the west end. with vaulted aisles beyond.la[ ll' lot _ I * + tt fi' f uI .y.being approached by narrow stairways liom the transept arms. ro4o 12r0 tlrl i to a wooden-roofed nave antl aisles . however (unlike a Lombard crypt). Supposedly the trefbil scheme came fiom Lom_ bardy . dated about r rgo and laterr" [j38].rached about ro-1o. St Nlarv has a strong axial movement. in Capitol. consisting ot a vaulted apse 1nd a transept with crossing tolver and vaulted lpses. W i t h t h e construction of this fagade St Mary became an example of the old church type with two axial towers.ault in Germanl' ( r z r g). covercd bv rib vaultine in d o u b l e b a .S t \ I a r v l a c k s g a l l e r i c s . i u n i f i c d . . both longitudinal and transYcrsc. Befbre the definitive con[egun Io69 the old apse had been replaced s!crationin by a new chevet.Cologne. sometimes thought to have replaced an earlier one.Early Christian Lombardy _ ro the region. Like a Lombard church.n.]. The nave rcmainccl unvaulted. -l'he vaulting of'the was enriched with arcading. r o u n d e d .ji. The efl'ect is overwhclming because of its vast scale.u. s o r o s p c a k . it has a vast crypt.424 L A N D S A S S O C T A T E DW t T H T N THE HOLy RoN. but groin-vaulted aisles were carried all around the 'l'he f'agade.rANEMpTRE G E R M A N Y .ariation on the theme ol St Mary. A sanctuary which was the scene ofthe dedica_ jJ5 to . i n C a p i t o l b e c a m cm o r e L o m b a r d i n charactcr during a reconstruction at the end o[ the trvellth ccntury or the beginning of thc thirteenth : the exterior. T h c r e t h e m a i n s p : r c es . is closed at the west . building. hLrs a frementlous aquetluct-like arcatleon cach side of-the nave. W I ' I H ' T H E N E T H E R I . flowsncarly straighttowardsthe church..the chevet is rich with Romanes- o I -i 'o. r e c a l l st h e P a l a t i n e C h a p e l a t A a c h e n . . . which makes one fbrget the rarher dry design. a n d c e n t r a l i z c d . in Capitol.

church. r' Iuoo 3. As at St Mary in Capitol. r rgo and later. an old nave 'l'he n a r c i s a n a s to n w a sa u g m e n te d t o t h e e a s t . 81. { p a r t i c u l a r l yo u r r a g e o u s x a m p l eo l ' t h i s I l r r u r e sort of roofing was built over the central octagon of' Charlemagne's palatine Chapcl rr Aachen [7. The trefbil does not have an ambulatory. and Soissons. '_fhis type o1'rool is little admired and rarely imitated outside Gcrmany. wa-v of Flanders to a number ofcathedrals that ofthe former Merovingian capital cit-v of Tournai on the Scheldt (then iust o\rer the border of the Empire.G o t h i ci n s t y l e( r r 9 r ) . nar. has aisles. Tournai Cathedral. Th6rouanne' Noyon. ur) cenr ' narc r aultmodcrn ill . 'fhe trefoil had a much happier historv. . fiom the east (small cupola and castern spir. ' l ' h ee a s r c r n a r t o l t h e c h u r c h i s r a u l r c d p like that of St Marv in Capitol. in France. and flourishing with textile prosperity) and also Cambrai. as is usual in Gcrmanv al this rime. gallery. to the apex oi the west cnd quadripartite the tower from each gable. a n d ( o n e m i g h r m e n r i o n i n THENETHERLANDS From Cologne the trefbil passed b1. rather iike those of thc much earlier church ofSainte-'lrinitd at Caen.io.s p a c co \ e r t h e ( gallerl').r curve to a central pinnacle. All lbur of these levels rIb5 were carried into the trclbil begun about good example of the Earlv with rib vaulting a Gothic fbur-storev interior elevation 'lournai is also notable Ibr its exterior derelThis opment of the trefbil by means of towers' lbr it is only seventy-five miles is not surprising. rather than thc existing passing) the Romanesque St Gereon. ishingly consen'ative round-arched wooden'Ihis nave.3rwhcrc the sanctuary extended eastward from a oolvfbjl n a r c h a l t .rrnai Cathedral' narc Andcrnach. que arcading and Lombard eaves galleries. The axial tower and the eastern stair turrets have each individual f'ace finished ofi' with a sharp triangular gable. At the west a deep bay under and behind the axial entrance tower ioins thc western transept in making a sort of angular t r e l b i l .. which roofed construction of r I Io' still exists entire. which b-v air lrom Saint-Riquier in a countrv days has loved its towers ever since Carolingian 'Iournai the Rhenish two-towsr reproduccd end of apsidal f'agadein tall proportions at each of thc the transcpt and presumably at the root in rz4z: thert'ts m a i n a p s ew h i c h w a s d c s t r o y c d thus the also a lantern tower at the crossing: planned lbr scven towers' Moreovcr' trefoil was were rnthere are clear signs that two towers pinnacles' at tendcd. ) . Ridgcs risc sharpll.esnot replaced in post-war restoration) y9 ( right ) . the nave has sexpartite vaults and and seven_Dart raults. otherwise there is a vallcv betwcen. The facets are carried up in . and clerestory. . rrro. Cologne. as in the western tower of the church of thc Apostles. Sometimes therc is only a single roof--slopebetwcen adjacent gables.426 fi8 (belon. Its main apse is flanked by a pair of slender cylindrical stair towers which are carried high above the crossing tower. Church ol the Apostles. 34o] deserves especial mention fbr its remarkable Early Gothic development of the trefoil.-'n t t to' chcret t t65 r^. in the Romanes_ que manner. Ir was used in other churches at Colosne Gross S t M a r t i n 1r r 8 5 f f . The cathedral of Tournai32[33g. rr65 fi. trifbrium p a s s a g e a l t h e l c r e l o f t h e r o o f .1r.e and rranscpr fi'om the south-west.). r.

3-t N{uch reconstruction in the prosperous (iothic period has left us only a few great Romancsque monumcnts in the Netherlands and Fl. I t has an apse rvith paired towers.Therc is a sip. l i k c t h e t o w e r s o f A n d e r n a c h . lacks but one spire..tt Andernlch is a fbur-tower church strikingly silhouetted. it is clear that their overwhelming simplicity and strength call forth thc deepest response.rnders.) 'l'his excursion lrom the Rhincland has in a intcriors in the Rhenish style of' rhe r$'cllih centurv. which is flanked bl anorher.rnd thus the Empire thc vernacular language.like Huv (near Lidge).in the cnd. in Argentina.es o m r ( ) t ' the savour of Hildesheim. of existed' ofcourse.t uf t n . Tor. such as the church of Soignies. tication and what the French call W h e n o n e r e a c l st h e c o m m c n t s o f ' G e r m a n c r i tics on the great Gcrman works. which are contempora n e o u s . Drir of towcls. Nivclles. cultural unity' Cultural unitl . r l r 1 r twelfih ccnturv).428 LANDS ASSOCIATED WllHlN TIIE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRF. and thcy break more easily into the sky. f-pit.tion r h .. GF. is an imposing westwork. With this we close our exrrosition of thc Romanesque architecture in the broad lands controlle(l b y t h e H o l l ' R o m a n E m p i r e . but never lull1. G r a n d c s t . c u l t u r l l a r c a sw i t h i n i t r v h i c h m a d c oi "iv itsell imprrcticable' L nitr in :rrchi..risfbrtunes which prcvented the ideal fiom being realized.irn Saint-Riquier and thc impcriai Rhine. but it lvasnot in the Church to hold the European arel inclusive enough Exclusivism in the Church had.t.and both areunvaulted. T h u s w a s c r e a t e d . movements ot declslvc effect in putting new outside the ecclcsiastical pale. St Peter at Utrecht a n d t h e f b r m e r a b b e y a t S u s t e r e n h a \ . the importancc in l n e w a c t i v i t i es w e r c c .'l'he interior of Saint-Barth6lemr has been rebuilt. i n t c r i o r p r c s e r \ c si t s o r i g i n a l a r r a n g e m e n t i r l r n t r a n s e p ta n d t h r e e a p s e s .r(' which like the great church at the latter place. in German Romanesquc a lack of sophis'adresse'. realized.RMANY.. (I-ujan Cathedral. Rolduc2s (rr69) makcs ong think of Speler.rnd heavy Romanesque vault. LidgerT was important in Romanesque timcs.. and to lbrgct thc n. p e r h a p s . way pointed out a lack which one f'eels. Our Lady at N{aastricht (largely r. Both churchcs haye flects the twclfth-centurv 'Ihat vel'y tact rs ot coursc an $ral kaleidoscope' of lhe essentiall) heterog(ncou5 a*pra. but quite made over) and SainrBarth6lemy. h e a v va t t h e b a s e l i k e t h a t o f S t P a t r o k l u s a t S o e s t ..i. A s r v er e m r r k e d i n the beginning. and in respect to a ref-ercncepoint.aulrrd v e r s i o no f t h e A p o s t l e s ' C h u r c h i n C o l o g n e ( . but the exterior has retainecl its '-f Romancsque character. Gothic-r.ur. the still help us to understand the grandeur of meclieval imperial ideal. it reprosperity in the Rhine country. neru. s l Like thc other churchesto be mentioncd. They are composed within the indir. an apse bctwecn two towers.idual tower. and at the wcst a remarkablc precipitous westwork of blocky form datcd about rooo. rr. the crossinpltower.o. a n d t h c g r o u In g d i r c r ' ihrrr.w i t h true logic of placc. beyond the examples already mentioncd.T h c v a r c a t r i b u t c to the influenccs which the area received fronr Carolinp. with Gothic vaulting. .5o) has. thcrc a r c G o t h i c b u i l d i n g s w h i c h p e r p et u a t e R o m a n e s q u e s c h e m e s . for both are in 1 simple German stvle. the west end has a spacious narthex with an elaborate 'fhe c h a p c la b o v c i t .o f t e n b J ' t h e i n c o r p o r a t i o n o l ' a c t u a l R o m a n e s q u cr e m a i n s . r r r i c c o n m o r c a n d m o r e '. olIost its eommon L:rtin fonguc' l hc strength d is nowhere bctter exprcsse than in the Empire t h e i m p o s i n gc h u r t h e s l r h i c h r ' r ch a r e i u s t r i s i t porvcr in ec1 the Rhine country. it has been a view ofan architec- .its tog. WITH THI Nl]THERLANDS AND FLANDIlRS '+29 t h e w e s t c n d o f t h c n a v c . alreacly mentioned. the pattcrn of the ninetowered cathcdral which lvas in the mind of' more than onc great French designer o1-the thirteenth centur]-.t h e y . The Ntiinsrcr 11 Roermond is a more active.nificant 'l difi'ercnce between ournai Cathedral and the fine Romanesque church at Andcrnach (dated about rzoo) [34tJ. E m p i r e . but basicalll naivc in arrangenent. the present basilica is much 'I'here '['lie later. both date back in origin t9 about ro5o. rounded. a m o n g t h e c a t h c d r a l so f t h c N e t h e r l a n d s i s S t S e r v a a sa t N l a a s t r i c h t . similarly.b l o s s o m se n e r getically into three towers. however. stands up glandlv with its bold towers.th. w e s t w o r k . rather than evidence oflocal creativeness. and notable for two churches in particular St John thc Evangelist (a rotunda of g8z inspircd lrom Aachen. In various places.. with its substantial picrs . but there are a number which merit a passinr ref'erence. rvherc its basic 'l'hese grcat monumcnts can residcd alwa)s. a r e built up ofmany stages. which by contrast makes thcm appear taller and more graccful still.rrnai CathetlraI also has the lbur towers.but are subtly arranged to cmphasize the vcrtical florv of their line. as is so frequent in the Rhine country. he church was fbunded in I o r o .

y . r m a r k b e g i n sa t t h e s a m e p e r i o d a s t h l i n 6 l t r a r i o n o f ' N o r r n a n R o r n a n c s q u ci n t o E n g l 1 n 6 . a r r d i t s s q u a r g $ c s t c n d .1)andSvendNordnancl(ro7+ r ql 8 X) . r t t e nu s t i c . mlrk During the fbrmatir. on the isleof Ze1lnnl1. at first almost exclusivell fbr church buildings.r sa n d s u c h s u n i r a l s a r c e a s i l l . . e l yu n c l e r n o r t h . DINN. s The advent of Romanesque architecture is marked bv the use of masonry.5 t h i s . pre-Romanesque in style.influenced fiom Germany. solid log-wall construction was developed and widcll used for both sccular and e c c l e s i a s t i c a lt r u c t u r s s .l An ineffaceablecharacter was given to Scandinavian R o m a n e s q u ea r c h i t e c t u r e b 1 . as in Russia. and bl thc fict that carlv masonw o r k w a s c a r r i e r l o u t v e r l ' l a r g .lARK] T h e m o n u m e n t a l m a s o n r l -t r c h i t e c t u l c 6 f f ) .. and. near (irpenhagen.'1'hs1s the cathedral. e s p e c i a l l vi n t h e n o r t h . t h e h e a v y w a l l s . o n l e s s o r ' s\ ' c s t m i n s t ( .r h r o u g h l 'l'he Norwlrr'. 5 or l n t i l r r o .ngland.s h o s c c lG e l m : rn i n J lu e n c e i n i t . duc to the labour 61 llishops \iilhelm(ro6o 7.RANCE C H A P T E R2 3 SCANDINAVIA Referencehas alreadv been made to the remarkable framed wooden churches of Scandinar. AND NORTHERN F. untler Lund (rro1 64). * e r e r . r . though showing Romanesquc influences. and simple fbrms necessitated bv the climate. Indeed Gothic architecturc i n S c a n c l i n a v i as h o w s s t r o n g s t r r v i v a l s o f R o m a n e s q u ef i r r n . l n d a l . i t s a i s l c l e s sc h i r n c e l . j ) . recognized in Rentissance and modern work also. BRITAIN. t h o u g h e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l r o r r v a r . A s * i t h L . crude thel'are combincd to nrakea nerv and vigorously characterizcd art. r v a su n d c r N Hamburg-Bremen.i n t c n s c a c t i v i t v a n d wide foreign contacts. Swedcn.PART SEVEN MATURE ROMANESQUEARCHITEC'['URE IN SCANDINAVIA. he carliest Danish group centred in and abonl Roslildc.1.b1. Scandinavian critics lre right in safing that. including thc temporarl' political unity achieved under Cnut. 3 1 . The Norwegian Church was set up ab. Den_ was in thc ecclesi:lstical l)rovince of' H a m b u r g . d u l r d t l t c ( . Its coming c o r r e s p o n d sw i t h a n e r a o f .rvas i r r { l u e n e e d i o n r G e r m a n r .e medieval pcriod. and thus was basically. and the architcclulq qh6\. and then ul)der Luncl (I ro3 5z). In Sc:rndinavia rvood has continued to be an important building material for structures of all sorts. . E re arc sulliclsnldi6e1cnces in the architectule to iustif'v considering t h c S c a n d i n a v i a nc o u n t r i e s s c p a r a l r l v . steep roofing.ia. \ h 'l thc buildings have becn replaccd. : r n d i n t h e c a s co f ' s c u l p r ture. European infl uence. while the elements tiom abroad bccome s i m p l e r < . .ut gg5 lrom England. 1 r 'n 1 r 1 .B r e m e n ( f r o m a b o u t 9 .

ro8o was augnented afier the Germ:rn and Lombard influence became church becanrethe seatof a metropolitan ( r r o. and interior btrbre nrodcrn .l. v in Skine tect.. I l c c t i o n so f D a l b y a n d t h e w e s t w o r k t h e m e. . i A .. ro6o) and Lund (c.. and upper stages (now covered by conical roofs) which were fitted for def'cnce. in Jutland).l jqz ( htlon ) tnd 3+1 ( rieht ). and ibr a long time atlcrward.u i l t o n a b Wcstphali. t now in Sweden). werc finished in Lombard st1. r r z 6 .he Luncl is a complcx building [342.b u i l t a l r e r . rogo). . a u l t w a s .the cathcdrals Donarus. twclfth ccnturl. are lbur important and chara c t e r i s t i cD a n i s h r o u n d c h u r c h e s o n t h c i s l e o f Bornholm..e single central piers and annular vaults. a r y . Others are more elaboratc. is bclievcd to shon'English influcnce because of. rlrc group. ths high altar. S t O l o f ... i s t e r c i i r n ) . which Dcnmark owcs to Germanl' and ultimately to Lombardl.restoratron' t++ (Jir rr.)a::a. rrio) recallsthe Romanesquc ofColognc. Benedictine. in thc nincteenth centurJ.a. T n e n a v c h r s .l.le during the restoration.::. b a r d s t v l e w c r c d c d i c a t e di n r r z 3 .'iborg (in northern Jutlan<J) and Ribe I r-l r . still Danish). ( i) .t h o u g h t h c i n t e r i o r is French in spirit. much rebuilt later.hc rcbuildinq o l . . there is a marked German Romrncsquc imprint on the ecclesiastical architecture o1'the whole country.r T h e s m a l l c h u r c h e sl i e q u e n t l ) ' h a v e t h e t r a d i tional northern barn-like nave anclchancel fbrm.. in a tunnel_r. and its square chancel. consccrared r r46. S i n c c t h i s i s a p e r i o d o l ' strong German influence. A N D N O R T H E R N F R A N C E ScANDTNAVIA 4-l.T h e s e b u i l d i n g s har. J'hc altars of a rcmarkable crvpt in Lonr_ (acrosshe Sund from Zealand. in turn. sa c o n t l n u a t r o n of G e r n r a n i n f l u e n c c .glrJ. Qsrcrlar. At Horne 'I'orsager (on l-ven). but with an echo of the old pagan art in rhe carvings of the porral. latest of. 34:J schemc of r. . . oddly resembles Cluniac l a u l t .c had groirr canons took over. thoueh a c l u d i n g a n c a v e sg a l l e r 1 . and is supposcd to har. Netherlandish fhshion. \ b b c l s ..R o s k i l d ci n h r i c k G o t h i c . rzor). when there was a gencral restoration. l'he westcrn pairoftowers.). oftenaugmented b1'a tower. \ u g u s r i n i a n bay_s1'stem.. w a s t h c a r c hi .s o m c w h r r r projecting berwcentwo rowers..5 King Sigurd's great pilgrimage to Jerusalem 'Ihere (r lo7 r r). Manv rre in brick.i n _ Dalbv has a Saxon jook abotrtir.. In the region thgre are vrrious rc_ modcl alter a 6rc of r:14. Lund Cathcdral.rrr architecture.s h o u .aa.aultecl sandLr_ (southcrn Jutland).S o r o . Bornholm. ovcr I8oo w er c b u i l t b e l b r e r z 5 o . 3 4 . Viborg.432 S C A N D I N A I .reflects Lund (rhcn. and built in granite.. church. a n t i of \. o1'Dalb_(. O s t e r l a r [ 1 4 4 1 .. .and obviouslv provincial building which lost so much of its local savour at that time. A Dutch nuance is introduced by steppcd gables in brick. b " g u n aborr .. arbitrarily. N 1 ' l a r .aa..: :. begun about r r 50. a l s o V i t ( s k o l ( i n _ J u t l a n d . Good examplesof this pcriod exist on the isle o f Z e a l a n d R i n g s t c d . more austere. a p s e( o l ' t h a t d a t e ) h a s f i n e e x t e r i o r a r c a d i n g . Their influence.b u t t h c r .B R t T A t N .. A series of'round churches mrkes an interesti n g e p i s o d ei n t h e m e d i c v a l a r c h i t c c t u r c o f ' D e n -l'heir plan may perhaps be :r result of m:rrk. c\terior. s . a n d : l g a i n .presumablv a L o m b a r d . Old photographs make one rsgret thc simplcr..j ) l paramount in the constructionof. Brick architecture $as introduced into the Danish church under Waldcnrar the Great (rr57-8:) and Archbishop Absolon (d.:a::::. apsidal extensions. w a s c o n s e c r a t e di n r 1 . I l i i r e (.:..its small tr:tnscpt lvith narrow entrances. dated betwecn Io5o and r3oo N-v. 1 6 . rI t i s s a i d t h a t o f 2ooo Darish churches in Dcnmark.7i o n a m u c h l a r g e r s c a l e . (of brick. Venge church. a doulrlc $ e s r u o r L o l I l 2 + . t h e handsontc r a r l i : r t c tlli o m t h e t h r c c c o r n c r so f t h e countr\.

i"t of the motif about rrj5 from Sigtuna pt?li''t"n... France. Na.5 o r ' rI f + 2 . ..tg and the sanctuarv' accessto the nale is lateral memorres . but none has come down fiom the earliest period.. hasthe crossing . about 865) who laboured in the r e g i o n o f L a k e M i l a r w i t h e p h e m e r a lr e s u l t s . but tlre (brm of the building.h e r c l. 'I'he Russia. on Zealand) the churches have interior piers.i"'r"' 1::':-::lT:: l:i: ).. of Schwarzrheindorl" nesso u .ri.. Its h e r o i c a g e e n d e d w i t h D a n i s h c o n q u e s ti n I t 6 r . Ledoje o n Z e a l a n d . and energetic cornbinatil.h o w e v e r . which was Swedish from about the year rooo. .a.:.." rebuilt c h a p e l s 'e a c h w i t h a n a p s c ' occupied bv formerlv oo*.*tnt like those of St Ohf : all. Ir34-5o. c. 3 .i.As in Denmark. r li t h t w o a \ i a l t o \ e r : nave' were orlo. it ii.".have Abbey. S c i d r aR : i d a .'ntr"ni p"*.. [345' .n t in plan.. -{delitions.a n d t h e p r e v a i l i n g s i m p l i c i t r o f 1 6 . b.i..' \'isby Rhineland.l .of the conventual brought the substructures fbundations' a.i'"t. works gives them an austere charm..1 Iog walls. with carved exteriors (like those ofthe School of Vladimir).. of t.pl".. t"i"ttrt in but The stone-workis vigorous' transep"bout the church had sanctuary and Sigtuna. first xpostle to Sweden was St Ansgar (d. an upper stage.ialf"t doors as an aisleless'aulted church l ..S i g t u n aS t O l a l . .Gamla Lppsala' former t. a to the. I t was two centuries later that St Siglrid and others from England established here the first Christian settlements of importance in Sweden. tg'o archesuncler giting upon a short nave'tnosc at those the west of nearlv equal at the east upon a sanctuarv underthc to$er Lngth...t l a t e dl b o u t t j o o . Romanesque'the screening-off is ^^rhicwindows. 1 .. The coming in of foreign influences is pe1Ibctly exemplified on the isle of Gotland. r e b u i l t a n d d e d i c a t e di n t z z 5 . had active relations with all Scandinaria. there is an interesting florr.n. rlhilc the c h u r c h . s u r r i r e s : i t i s a Russians had a church there.lrrr raa"r."JHl' il. and Store Heddinge (octagonal. of compartments with .scANDlNAvlA 434 scANDINAVIA...T h i s c h u r c h w a s b u r n e d lwo uith the sancluan and of il.c..t. . Lake is which near Sigtuna' mtinrand' Gamla (old) Uppcentre of Uppsala' now their of the sanctttaries and r r-. Byzantium."-tnted tower. and the basilican c o m . transcpt traced bl excarations still usctl rs a church t. the finest of all the manr old c h u r c h e so n G o t l a n d . I t s w c s r e r n t o w c r a n c l i t s p a i r o f ' s l e n d e r e ' re a s t e r n t o \ \ c r s flanking an angular sanctuarv now h:lve Baroque bclfries.h a s a n o p e n w e l l .and a central tower. first built in the twelfih cent u r y ' .l r"::T:t:*rj. whilc thoseat the side which bound the in takl tfreir places the arcades the aisles'The lateralentranccs' inner sidesof "r" "i cornes in the period church. i s t h e o l d G e r m a n n l t r o n r l church ofSt N{ary.+: mi" ."8oscreencd crossing comparlaoses. ""r --e wtt in from Lnglano S WE D E N Nledieval Sweden aroselrom a union of Scandinavians and Goths. r . . th.. w e r e m a c l e .o-put. aisles. eff'ective.t. and Russian in'icon fluence may account for the churchcs'. .1 influences lrom abroad in the masonr\ archi_ tecture.w door' about I245' ano . ths Westphalia. and centred in Visby.rtul form on the area " . BRITAIN' AND NORTHERN FRANCE 435 Biernede. .old ]j:.a n d 3 4 6 . .d.. there wcre wooden churches..'o" rutns' t Peter' the two church :+Sl Like St . by thc ne w i.12where excavations ."t in the form is 'actoisttnni r Ioo) ano dditv "$Jtx:?l .r.O.... with under the crosslng on a targer however' iha. ). which once existed on the Island.osether recall Anglo-Saxon examples' flll'. so that At Husaby in Skaraborg[:+g]the (r I roo-3s) rovrl o'l i'. one of the Hansa cities.. 81-the year rooo there was a strong kingdom established in and about 'fhe Uppsala. -{s in Norwav. The work is often rrther crude hut novel.f cach side of. were still held as late as ro84 in at r iansi an tt:: tnt t":1:Ln 'glistening with gold" which was Il"r"it*stt"ainar oiir...6 barn-type nave and chancel church with 5o. cathedral the same site.tt.-pr. fbr there are four tangent octrgonal towers on the major axes in addition to the central tower.t1. not f'ar north of'the prescnt Stockholm. and br the narc b1 a narr.."i"l<a.ment.Vrrttt. dcspitc archiepiscopal In rt6. ' u n l .os.. Visbv Cathedral."*t the prn"". s c a l e . unmistakably with an anguur weightirheHotvSpiritis a norelinrer.n of . r 3 4 .rt..r. Englancl.. r r o o 3 r 5 crthcdral' 3+7and 348.pf". " r * i r t U . near Soro (on Zealand). largcll medicral' rnrl augment thc Present church 't lburd br c\ci\ ations i sce 3fr t. ut tathcdral' to closc tn i. They would be like the German palace chrpels but fbr the fact that the central area is vaulted at the level of the lorver aisles. K a l u n d borg on Zealand has the most monumental example.il"ill:'il: :. s o r t o f w e s t t ' r r k ' n o * r e p l a c e db v a n o . clateciabout Irqo' was strong' The westinfluence *h.. and even Persia. ambitiousSt olaf ' towcr still preserved' . thirteenth centur]' .n G"r-r" lagade' a common rvork looks like a Saxon but the st slitia rna his companions' feature esPeciallYin Skine'11 .

1fflil::'. but really unforgotren.t'urch' This was NOR\4'AY]5 iti"i"il. Orknerl (r r17 to similaritiesto has understanclable turvL which piers' square nur'iu. l c o l R o m a n e s q u e h a r a c t e ru e r e h e i n q L . r i l t l i n g sx 5 Aurbche (tenth century) in the Loirc countrr l .. a higher sanctllar\. a examples. . rt. buildings to light south ofthe church.o'ismut "n'"ing . rnd ther fit bt.. r.0.a Ut'tog-wall or vertical r e m i n i s c e n t o f R o m a n e s q u e . JSt]..t.il-.-po'tant churchbuilding in stonebethe Norse Wcst ean in Norwav about rroo' "-.n "ence England)wasf. T h e c h u r c h .... ..{ i FI I E . i . l l r c d l church.* \\ chrrreter Norman :llfl#:fU**lill'. The oldest Finnish churches il) nr."-11 amplc ."uitr r"a rcrl' "".ito"t.il.r:-htl\."*:. Except lbr the towers. centur\" ^'to .b u t r e l a t i v e l y h e a l i e r a n d s i m p l e r . teenth-century church at Lrirbro on the isle ol' G o t l a n d . In the ycar mentioned a Cistercian monasterv was fbundcd here. the monastcry was lbunded about r r5o b1'a colony from ..\lrastra.autitirllrinrn the northern landscape.."t No'ma" H.".. r r .:i:.the rotunda of complcted bv r3zo' centur'bv ir Gothic *t thirteenth been Diion' as has alreacl-v It is to be remcmbered that the Shcrl'rrrd:' Olknels. rr5o 349..:.. .1 h e i n t e r i o r r a u l t i n g i s h e a r r ."*r RingebuandLom) in rTzo' iiti.. ]asIhcnbtrr :."-blt' tall b-v GothicspiresUrdal' earrier been rohare a srightrr . thc morcment 6i the designs is strongly horizontal.'of Dcnmark was necessarilland . a still higher nave.. '.Ji^::.'. trr lilrt t h e B r i t i s h I s l es s e e m e d l e s s r e m r t t c f r o r n \idaros ol Trondheim than Denmark rrr'l lhc cnc C o n t i n e n t ..rar in the middle ol lhc conc e n t u r ] ' . i .ul . the first Cistcrcian monaster\ in S w e d e n ( r r .$ i'rl.ault with its centcrins . \\its ga\e wa]'to a never completed' Oo"ai"g navei 'Cothic"construction' was and the tomb-church at least partll' t'o-U-..1..u thc thirtecnth cenKirkrvall...ffit lntluence' but examplc of \nglo-Norman ."' of.H e n c et h c c o m i n g o l ' E n g l i s h h L t r tttttn men lo Norr. ' r r . .*"i tt t derivatire Anglo-Norman style' is fbund at St NlagnusCathedral' i.tr*...:r::i' E r e n a s l a t e a s l h c f o u r t c c n t h c e n ru r r . t r ur. BRITAIN' AND NORTFIERN 437 I n t h e s m a l l e rc h u r c h e st h r o u g h o q rn r .. Skaraborg.'"-i"'... .lrtmrnt. . s o t h a t t h c i n t e r i o r p r r ) l ) ( ) r l i r l \a r ! 'lhis description applics to the filurspacious. rl 'l.i*. l s a l r e a d y ' c i t e d a s p o s s c s s i n gs t i l l a Romanesque-t)'pe \.. rlitlr a t i o n s . In Ostergbtland. it was a great place of noted I like Saint-Benlgne' "' nilsrimage' ing operat t hrough (perhaps ""li""r".:1t' (about^rr5o. examplcs' both augRingcbu and I'om are planked elements '""nlli. . smallcr in is a kind of Northern Pontigny s c a l e .cltin thc ii... ""r-"nted '"Wt. Cathedral (c1'lindrical CatheStavrn-ger . l| h c s t y l e l i v e s o n u n r c c o g l .". and ordinarilv a lairlr tall tower.." the pilgrim wasalrcad-'tt r r 3o' OsloCathe<lrai i. n g i r Sr+edenthe same charactcristic\ .. 1 j ) . r .n. earlie( 1r . lt '* ".. . in much of tlrt l.i.. z o o l .. i *'-i"1f"iin'.SCANDINAVIA 436 FRANCE scANDINAVIA.tli'"*' l.:.. cenru^. .. il.1'hev usuallr 1n1. d a t e d ..: 35oand35r.""il. "n. . i' "uoq:)'Thc :ilYj.t.tF vault is of the thirteenth 1:]-':l t h e so1e1 r h a t t h r t h e r t o .... .. comp. \--l " " 'Bcrgen cathcdrll' twice lengthened also thirteenth-century'was in 1684).t.a n d n c i c r c a r r i e 6 r c r r h i g h . matter of course. t.i. castof the transcpt)' r large aisled Anglo-Norman l. and the monks doubtless fbund thc austerity of thc church to their liking.*n"o' ornanking':"':" H . 1 fn io'.Husaby.1 of st olaf bl olaf the tomb transeptal onc of the existing Thc corrcsc o n s e c r a t e di n t l 6 r ' ."' see^was i::i:it.i*n.6 o .*' l rs ..r'er (Trondheim) "'T"ll-:n::'hll.. l n..rtcr architecturethroughout Scrndinavia.befbre r r6z a small royal burial chapel of centralized plan and a nerv crucilbrm east end had becn addecl... T h e S w e d c st o o k t h i s s t y l c t o F i n l a n d ...)r \ rrrL uur the -fff:-.:-.fl1l.. Vrcta monasterv churchr: was begun aftcr r Ioo as a simplc littlc basilica with transepts..: ': Ldrb*r..rs()nr) come after I2oo. e v e n i n t h e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r f i r n c ll ' t t c : ' ititi-tie..t.t-:-i".i. and northern Scotland $er( r'lll(l(r Norse control in thc elerenthcenturr... In such late buildings the virultings at most half-Gothic except in metropolitan 'Ihc ornament is sparc lnd sobcr.and becamecruciform i l.hrp. but in man-v wr)'s thc\ lre stlll 'f R o m a n e s q u e . r 2 3 5.' .n"* transept' li'1"1 building with u.''.rJ.cnrh il. . . a st h e l expanded their power on the eastsholc ol the Baltic. liom Norwav' whereinfluencc . fblk alt.." o.. -'than 'il:Y]^:.ntact i [:5o... round apse. and surpris_ ingly r e c a l l s s u c h t r a d i t i o n a l b r . King Sigurd wrs Jt""* *n.ih'" pair [ ' [ ]I " :{ ' ' " -1 < ^ ^= .i-]"'".6=Ji{ . i"'tri. I t i s d o u b t f u l i i a n v s t r u c t r r r e so f fbr the Church fcfirrc tt55' s e q u e n c cw e r e b u i l t r'ttt\{ast churches continucd in use..tnd -.+f iil..c:llT1:u.

l" i".l.: the old Cirrolingian {ustrasia The bord..irh ge'nerous c v l i n d r i c a ln a r .' chancel berond a narrou chanccl ..]"10. ra l a someu har similar builtling u. more it is "Jii:T::'1"3::rl: slope. . w . In Alsace.i t i s n o r ca."rni. an unusual building.v was a priory of Saint-B6nigne' Dijon.. .aulted aisles.u . and as a result. broud and spacious. . lace ot design fbr Saint-Denis (about r r35) the ' r r [ ' c s t e r na r c h i t e c r t r r eb e g a n t o c h a n g e THERoyAL DoMATN (ir-n-or. Nevers. with lalse triforia re sembling Carolingian . .. with a smallcr n b"__.r screens between the nave rnd aisles) have a Frcnch talltrcss ol nale proporlions and are casill grouped u'ith Saint-Remi at Reims ( r o o 5 f f . a p s e ..alionot S .l t r a n c ed i d n o t b e c o m e a c u l e u n t i l the tnclfth centur]' uhen the breath of ner'l intellcctual lif'e was drawn in Paris' Then the same t)pe of intellect which created scholasticism waslbcuscdon thc problemsofgreat church l r c h i r e c t u r e .h e o r d e r l v g o v e r n m e n t a n d g r o w i n g power of the early Capetians had showed itself in the construction of hrge and important churches. the westwork as far as and Chitillon-sur-Seine.d . q8z) and Vignory (. tunnel_ v a u l t e d n a v e . in the late eleventh century. r rb e r r i n l s a l o c a l d i f l e r c n t i ation of' the Romanesquc stvle in ordinarv builclings with a clever t1'pe ofrib vaulting..H a m a r C t t h e t l r .. a morc French touch is disccrniblc in the designs. V t ' h . ordinaril... slructlon.rie.ttifr. ) [ r r r ] l b r t h a t r e l s o n . no really notable works appear to have been needed. h o o l o t t h c F ' a s ld o e s n o t d i s g u i s et h e irench in uorks of the Rhinelantl' b. In Champagne..'r1l. Champagne ancl the ile-de-France in Earll' a Romanesque times fbrn-recl sort of bridge between the Rhenish and the Loire regions l'he area included Reims.1. a . bec a m e i l n e \ \ s t r l e t h r o u g l r t h c r c a s o n e d 'n o r e l ' ol i a n d s r s l e m a t c d e r e l o p m e n ta n d e x p l o i t a t i o n F r o m t h e m o m e n t o f S u g e r ' sn eu ' such vaulting..d e .. N D O R T H E R N N !RANCE central tower. with Chartres and'lours at no great d i s t a n c e .ertl high. .. NIanv rustic churches dot the Norwesian 'fher countrJ'sidc. there is earlier French precedent for both the schemes u'hich have iust been cited as examples.rr.R i q u i e r . ro5o or a little lrt"l.a w o o d e n p i n n a c l e..r.:1" w e r c n e i r h e rl a r g en o r n u n l c r o u .ANT) N9RTHERN E ROMANESQLT OF 9RENCH Uott' OR RHI\FL{\D O. a n d b e c a u s co t ar t h c r e l : r t i r e l rl o u a i s l e a r c a d e s a n d s c r c e nc h e s ' and radiating chapels of ViThe ambulatory gnory are of the French type.a l . Io5o [92].irr. traced (as round stair towers) a sf a r b a c k a s S a i n t . so rhar the inrerior proporrions . a r e o l s i m p l e r n n r o n r r . for example.lJ cxample ol . . More fbrtun_ a t e i s R i n g s a k e r( r r r 3 3o and later).'. Neuweiler..l] c h u r c h c s .rnd clsewhere. near the borders of Carolingian Neustria.B a s i c a l l r . Rosheim.B R r T A r N . of i t s -a r c h i t c c t t r r e a s t h c l-od.. as already noted.rarn forcefulness itself felt f'ar towards the \\est' snd this made -l less emphasis' hc though with progressivell' 'douhle-endcr' scheme' lbl inrtance' German of \rerdun' penetratedas lar as the cathcdrals 'B"rrngon.vle dominates. Melun."rl Hlaler. Nlontier-en-Der (. . d e e ps a n c t u _ ar.S o m e i m p o s i n g C a l o l i n g i a n b u i l d i n g s s u r v i ' r ' e c lt. and Bourges. Andlau.lemcnr.l. r . T h e orieinal . t. B e c a u s eo f ' t h e u n doubted power ot'the Rhenish stvlc. a n d r w o * .::. and apse with flankinE c h a p e l s . Hcrc .rn . i .I n c o n t r a s r . 4 ..b u i l r a t i e r . ep i c r s .t h e s ed e s i g n sh a ' e a srrongh . To thcir brri..-nnaNct) A N DC H A M P A G N E Farther west.RANCE ND NOR\IAN ENGI. Laon. or built. .438 S C A N D T N A V T A .""U FR{\('E rre still uithin thc F]1n:t In Rhineland ". indeed Vignor.t. and crossing touer. even as far away as Pirris.:^.. SaintDenis.t cited.v wootlcn_roolerl t i m e s * i t h r i m b e r g a b l e s .l o n g n a r r o w t r a n s e p t ...:"i: molemenl.'. it is reasonableto admit its influence in this matter. with trusses of Ro: 24 cflLPTEB' A F.r r S : . the examples previousl.r.1.o o l i e n i n S a x o n E n g l a n d .'..o*.. sanctuarv.. with quadrant-\.. Paris. Both these buildings are in ruins. when the architectural ' developments llrere so intercsting elsewhere The problem of nrodernizing the shrines ot' r h e i l c . the Rhcnish st. h e nr a u l t i n g i s p r c s c n t ..::. and it is sometimes diflicult to judge whether Rhenish influence u'irs direct. Sens' Orl6ans. Beauvais. added a barn-liLe wcsrernporch. o n _ membering..r. barn-shaped a\c.. However. and others' are evidence of this. or whether it merelv rcinfbrced local tendencies' This is the case with the motif of paired towers flanking an apse.

interior h.lto p m e n r . or plired..Saint_euen.. ro5o rr5o)isanaptillusrration_. thc transepts have absidioles. ..l v o u l . a ln e a r C o m p i d g n e .\.rnp.Cerny-en-Laonnris.l. chiefl. se\enteenrh_cenrur\. the sanctuar!' rnav tcrminatein a straight wall..aulted..m".Gournay. c r i t i c a . o r r a t h e r t u r r e t s . 1 . a1 . between larple clercstorl the time. o u i n g t o u .ault became 'fhe y e r h a p s _ t oa b o u t r o 5 o . ancl capable ot.meanwhile. the .po.i. e n d i n g in absidioles.o a\ral enlrance to\rer was introducedabout rr25 ol.:.. urutr.a .:. r h c .S a i n r _ G e r n r a i n _ d e : _ p r i s . h a s a p a i r o f ( a g a d et o $ e r s .r'. Some towers arc at the fagade (this is thc case at Nlorienral).. j r and the Loire regions. irr-ih. h e i n g t i n i s h e d r a u l ts I t h e r e i s a l s o a G u t l ri c p o l t a l *iih tbur rib under a charactcristic rib-vaulted sheltered j p o r c h . l .{. BRITAIN.)... rib strucrure p rl.The portals are columnar.n a r t h e x .l rn Lngland.i in f a e s r h e r dc r e t o f _ connexion ie with the contemporary ment based on linear and Gcrnran symbolic . and the ornament (chelrons. e\cept lbr the famous a m b u 1 2 1 6 1 .:.o. r r z 5 a n d t h e h i g h r : r u l t o 1 ' r ' . r r ' r 1 .. There is perceptible progrcss between thc archaic aisle v a u l t so f .r lfrance. a r s .i.^n ungainly later sanctuar)-. How difcrent rvas the future I church..amid much on.hrr. . r t t ."nlr.rs a. a r r d local stone .. i. . it. el"-"nt t" . t h a na n v o t h e rf t p e i n .:.i.ri.. at L rcel but ri.lindricai ""1. o r f l a n k i n g t h e c h o i r ..le bout a r rz. and rhc ribs ofienendedapologe. immortality were ol-rough stone l'ith thicl_ rnor.n. o r r ec o u n t n .. provins. t r z s + o . r not bound up with Germanv.a berter. wooden roof. reproclucrions of. a s i n t h e c a s eo f T'rao'-le-Val (an exceptionaloctagon). S a i n t . _ and built up of.aon.. others rt the c r o s s i n g( a si n t h c c a s eo f ' S a i n t . slightlyswelling. u l. and a famous reprcsentation of the Whecl of liortune about thc circular window of the north transept. irncltheir pretn' design docs much to rcdcem the churches.r.olingian fl. stars. .. ilr)(] the_aisles re groin-r. Srinr_Gcrmrin_des_pres. . i n _ s t a n c e s0 1 ' e l e m e n t s h i c h w fbllow a German n:rr_ t e r n a s i n t h e p r e t t 1 .cut to shape r " . so that the mortar a l e w '. The plain little church of Sainr_Loup_cle_ Naud (r. but their sculpture is 'l'hc simple.l..l.Tlr. AND NORTHERN T.. t e i l uo r h e r c l o r c r r the oier.c r t e o t h c r .s.o build a tunnrl vault over thc sanctuarr lr:rr b c l w e e n l h e t o w e r s . t.Since under lvindows.d e .c t d e . r n t . I n P a r i s .:d .R e i m s . a s a t I l o r i c n r a l . tr.. I. shows.r 353. The building has a rich lateralportel.' ] . r.. r a n . . o n . buildings merit our attention_ lornrs and the vaulting.L a o n n a i s [ . ' '--" ' rn Sens. rather than engaged Gorhic *Urifa. iii: elc\enth and twelfth ccnturies Pitit. is Saint-Etienne at Betuvais a i s l e d b u i l d i n g o f r ' .lzq. and geometrical designs.on..*u_ l-. workmanship is mediocrc in the older building. t .. when rheo".I. Mantes. lnrihbcd at the cirsl. or with an apse. It in. the opcnings arc flankecl br flat buttresses. ol. was erectedinstead.-oi tt.y under w i r h r h e n a r c a n d a i s l e s Burgundianinfluence.rr.l. region bounded by Reims.h"r.he Early Gothic st... church haj a transcpr 1'hisexplains whv the Bureundiu.. a n d a n a p s ei c h e l o n . It was fo flolcr.ut.. While rcrt Iittlc rcmain.. r .. 1 5 . r a rd e l e l interior brr.RANCE N O R T H E R N T I R A N C EA N D N O R M A N E N G I . . ma.. r . there arc porches occasionalh. nave f.h r t r rrbrr"or.44O SCANDINAVIA.h .tr irl l. In the regions of B c r r u c c . honest rather than inspiring. " In plan. S o i s s o n l r a i s ...in.morc rp. . a It was pionn. . bays..Car. scudo_Corhi. frets.r::: this tlpe of-r.B e a u r a i s . n t l t h e i l e . as Gothic. the small churcheswhich remain to us generallv have nrres with aislcs. *ni.. "ps. towers:rre picturestluc f'eatures oi-the lrrndscape .-. ..R e m i . chrnges the high g x p e r i m e n t a l l rl i o n t b r t r t o b a r .f uith.rting I ti: r . lnsplrsd at an carlr. L .o.juot. periotl fiom thc [ . "n rvas providedfbr eachrib ofthe are norn in rh. r r z 5 .. In this bridge-territorv b e t r v e e nt h e R h e n i . b e i n g b u i l t u p s t a g eu p o n s t a g ew i t h arcading over a square plan. in the glow of'gJrcat Norman Romirnesque.. o n " r n u 1 . with semicl. . o t ' R o m a n 'fhe csquc origineastern towcrs of Nlorienl'al a r e t v p i c a l ..E t i e n n c .-.fhe movement. 1 5 l h a : d i a p h r : r g m oler tne na\-c' rrches Another church of-the period.C e r n ] .s i n g l c . luture ot rhe Schoolof.. together with corbel tables) is lar from inspired.: 30. r _ tion.a n d d e r e l o p e t l in rheDrrchr .rhe i l c _ d e _ F r . o..ute. S r r i n t .. lt i m e ..B r i e ..1]'r throughthe patientwork of rh. . carred capirals (lhe originals .e n .."'il'.'in.. t h c r e u : r sm u c h h c sj r . l o r i e n r .They-discovered ol the work or rr: the bestur. 1 ow i t h a n BS+1.un'l Norman.yinfi screen across thc nalc. vault. but such buttrcsses are not clrarac'fhe teristic in Champagnc.h:. . Bar. d a t e da b o u t r o i o .... ion Llun-v Museum) uhich u a so p c n e d b r a s p c c r a c u l a r need to be studir.i Etampes. A N D +4r The Romanesque schoolofthe ile_de_France h a l l ' .l a g a i n r e c a l l sG e r m a n p r a c t l c e . P r o v i n s ) . a sl c f t b e h i n d lbund thc wav to maturity _ ancl tt oncc. T . .q(ro lor.C o t h i cu .n.hcrt.t r 4 o .rc . 'Ihe samc tower arrangemcnt _ occrrrs tt N . h c r e was a pair of towers flanking th. and Lorraine.t....i.i.O*"la revival ofsculpture.r.cellscould U. Lombard inspiration.

a r : . Bernal.. h i c hi s u n s u r p a s s e t l . larc. w r". r r l he*"r. 1 : r of'rhar regionundoubredly i"fl . h u l S i r i n t ..t0n C a e n .. " '" .. r r e r c a d v a n t a g e oh e i:n g s k i l l a d us r.R NF R { \ L L A\D NORMAN ENGLA\D +4... with the abbev church ot'Berna1.mentcd b1' engagedcolumns.n. communrt.l . ruin.this in the architecrure... architectural heritage.Jumidges.nj of. . wcll pr..::l. . 3 5 6B e r n a l ... rOf f n e b u i l d i n g .. there are faces of. l t r o n i a n r ... at the invitation of Duke Richard II.( h e N o r m a n s a d e m t h c m F . L a t e r . n i n E n g l r .rls.... Thc ruo n. As usual.i l.ations engender.J u m r c g e sr.e which Norn_.. r * mistakable r.f. " _ r r l l . when...'.::r*l .""rr.r2 nder construction liom u built of better masonrl'. U_.fri.. . abbeychurch of Norrc-Dame. . rvhile it is small ir.. cou n o u r u r n o u s ) .. work all had a dramaric fururein N..... h o * ..t h c M Normans preferred the Germanic and Lombard'cubical'capital and simple fbrms from the 357.t h e t r i b u n e :l#: het$e.:": s h o r e sa n d r i v e r s . whore namc \rc hare neardso often.f. and morc elaborate in certain details.l: \:ll mansro someextent in their feelingfbr gra14 scalc.t. q . . gundian architectural influence came to Normandy in rooz. . a grear abhcl lbuntled rn o)-+ bJ -\r philibert. r . ... Jumicges.5 . undertook to builj a stafe.f.]1.. h O w e v e r . t +r n d . . .r]l R h i n e l a n d ... . William of Dijon sent monks from Saint-Bdnigne to reform the Nornran monasteries.J No RNtA oy ro N 'l'he Northmen.cu and lbr bical..enf.'rl. lbrcc of *.i. .'.'.l l:ttot..o*._ sentsthis morirent. . a decoratire arcade suggestive of a triforium. rheirpredilection . s o m e h o u . .uf.. such as oblong piers aug. tothe Loilrc ^.'..d o .n. _{ND NORTTIERN !RANCE N O R T H L . .. i c r r c .1-" t r m ea n d o r h e rc o n l a c r a l o n g s rhei".. but Duke Willir_'Long.t l i r l . 'h ep o w e ru l O r ". .* c h u r c h a r c h i r c c t u r eT h c .. h . Bur_ t 5 5 . BRITAIN. and sculptured capitals 'I'he o f a r a t h e r c r u d e b u t i n t e r e s t i n gs o r t [ 3 5 6 J .csrern fo*err (menrion.t p o r t .t in'u'a-. and a l r e a c l y. . r o .."i'.. ro..-1.rr.:1.to Christianitv.ca.n_rrl. . ' . c o m m u n i c a t e dt o the Norman". S a j n r _ p i e r r e .a b b e l ' c h u r c h r o r T .* Through Maine the No .41 Ethnic connex ionsu. architecture was to possess so abunAanrlv 1j551.u i n o l r b b c r c h u r t . i n c l u d i " * .. 5 .err.n. w a s g r a n d e r i n s c a l et h a n C l u n l ' I I .ith D.".. ' i r ( q 3 4a n d l a l e r ) . . ..1...rn R".r:l the abbe]..442 SCANDTNAvIA.cl and nrr lrint. It was doubtless in this waJ' that the schemeof Clunv II became one of the themes o(' Norman Romanesque architecture.. One of'them is signed T s E M B A R D U S E F E C I . r . *.. . nn.. once settled (9rr) and converted..... . the the trifbriunt passage.7 6(r .escncdin '. latter have some relationship to carh' Clunirc sculptured capitals. f r .had declined during rheperiod of the in'asion.\. beginning rorT to a b o u t r o 5 5 .. and the excellent ashla...1..

( r o 3 g ) a n d o t h e r l .nglo-Norman abbey and A second great group was soon filrmecl. nave. had an errand in England. AND NOR]\IAN ENGI. with thoseofthe crypt ofAuxerre lr rzl. ebbey (n)Durham Cathcdral.rchurch ol \otre_Dame.o m b a r d e c c l e s i a s t i c so p e n (r) 35g.A\D +45 The mouldings have some conLo:r. f. to37 6(i.abbe.. nexion perhaps through the Loire region. Bcrnal s t a n d sa r t h e h e a d o f a w h o l e g r o u p o t t i n e parish churches.'lhc chiet' Norman monasteries became important organs of the flourishing ncw feudal state. It w a sd e d i c a t e d i n r o 6 3 . churcho{ \otrc-Dame. b c c : r u s eD u k e \ [ ' i l l i a m . 1'he liqatle ol'the abbel' church is madc up o1'tuo substantial squ:rre to$ el.Interior elevations: -lumregcs. ro37 6(r . but not d c d i c a t e c lu n t i l r 0 6 7 .e tea. ambulatorv.churchofNotreDame at Jumiiges'r [:SZ ql. rog-i 9. 1-his church wrs begun in ro37 and finished in ro6(r.Jumiiges. Beforc ro37 an ambitious cathcdral with apse. 5L a n i r a n c s e t u p a s c h o o l w l i i c h s o o n achiered international imDortancc. choir ing thc wav fbr influence fiom their rerv int e r e s t i n gp a r t o f ' t h c w o r l d . and radiating chapels in the stvle of the Loire countr]' was begun at Roucn. r ' r Into this ambicnt canle the great Lantianc . whosc prcsencc ltas dcsired at the ccremonv. A t t h e a b b c v o f B e c i n r o 4 .NORTHERN FRANC[. Thus lvr: understand thc grand scale and noble dcsignof thc latcr abbe\.s with octagonll upper sterges ( d o u b l e o n o n c s i d e . s i n g l e w i t h b u r t r c s s c sa n d 358.

r. : r r ( r . litttiuun".le). hirs lbttr gcnerou: ii. perhapsalso the sanctuar. Sainte-'I'rinit6rl [3(.:l. S l i n t e W 30l \lont-Saint-Michcl.rrm o f t h e t r a n s e p t ra n d t h e n c e e a s t s a r d o r e r p i e r s llanking the sanctuarr to a small gallerv around the apse.divard tirc ( ) .1 rheir uncar11.had wooden roofing. a p r o i c c t i n g p o r c h nc.-b. it is dil}culr to lbllorv the growth ol the Norman Ron. supportcd similarlv. .n in ro6f). tozq tzz6 and later. which w a ss a t i s f a c t o r i l l s o l r c d i n a g e n e r a t i o nm o r e . r e b L r i l tw i t h a n e l a b o r a t e a r c a d ei n t h e t w e l l t h c e n t u r ] ' . t h e a b b e v so l ' N l o n t S a i n t . \ I a t i l d a ' s .had bcen dcrelopcd at the time when the Conquest gar. B e c a u s ca l m o s t a l l t h e s c buildingshnr..1l o l liet$o grertabber.rntationof' the ori:inal schcmc.3 6 r I a n d B c c ( .supporting a nragnificent lantern tower of two stages. ro3o t.ranesquc trle. except for the problem ofthe high vault.:. also rool'ed in wood. Coutances (r. one in each . and at the crossing there were fbur grcat arches. and sroin-r'aulted without trensverse ribs. and Erreur (to ro76).5 o6 5 ) . r roo \{ont-Saint-\Iichcl . air view .M i c h e l ( r o z 4 t l 4 ) 1 3 6 o .. n 1 ' e " . nrn. The tribunes were continLlecl.ilcular antl the narc uall uith irs gable. which is harmonious in proportion and verv simple in detail. ro37 63).what fcatrrres particularh' ofvaulting .t o 1 0 7 7 . Jumiiges w:rs onll' one of a notable scrics ol' c h u r c h e sb u i l t a t t h e t i m e . supports and crouped iterm. d i m c n s i o n c d t l ou h l e h a r: s i t h . rf'(. rvcre t h e c h i e f a m o n s t h e m . su!igestc(l ptrhaps bv the roval jrandeur ol l.t. s andto know exacth.c to Norman architects their stupen<lorrs pportunitv in Englar-rd. as platfbrm chapels..I ' h t r v e r e f i r u n t l c r l b r \ \ ' i l liurll1ni \tlrildl in:xpiarion .s t a g eo n I h e o t h e r ) .uTntt which intern:rl bultres\cs l'ormerlr nia6 ftom 'l ht'lislct lntl t o p o l t .dedicati(. o r ' ' " c s t m i n .{bbcr. b u t r h i s v c n l i a n d s o n r cp a r t o l t h e c h u r c h u n d o u l ' c ' c l l rr c p r e s c n t s n i u g a I"Il. h en a r e s a l l r o s a t ot h a (opening through triplct arches on tribunes the n r a d eu p o f s q u a r e b a v s d i r i d e d b l t h en a v e )a r e arches. .. a n d t h c n a g a i n i n the Gothic sn. the church conn c t t e c lr v i t h .:rber church.i6il. s l S t r so f n r a t u r i t v . Barcur ( b e f o r er o 4 t 1 . -I'he Qrecn uas buriecl in its s a r r c t u i l r li n r o 8 3 .r). later dispensed':rnd arc stock examples of the Norman Romar:sque on thc Continent.t in ro6z and hiJ a prelinrinarr. The Norman Romanesque was now matllre.diate _. t o 6 6 i l ) t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e c a t h c d r x l so f R o u e n (c.au r . Capitals of a good rudimentarr' Corinthian shapc receired painted decoration.acnshou adltncing . b b i r v c .nic1[ arriage (rrrhin the fbrbidden clem Brtcs. r r dh r n d t o r n " l t . begun in ro5z. Roofing in wood permitted encrg'etic tall proportions and a -l'he stout walls of fine large vast clerestorl''.D a m e s . . r o . ashlarblocks arc one of the beautiesofthe building.n lost. which had an ambulatorv without 'lhe nave and transcpt radiating chapels. w x s b(tju.

a in 'o77 and a sexpartite rib vault vaulting in the nlve a similar but alreaclr' building ronk. at the cnds. n i s n j 'l'here at Diion. rr2s). making two ingenious cincripl1. 1 h. io68 .a Bdnignc at Diion Sttch passages -l'he \bbare-aux-Hommes' \\ illiam's neJieawith reeul"a. .s p a c e o l c r t h c a i s l c st l i c p u r l i n s o f t h e r o o f ' a r cs u p p o r t e d b 1 l i g h t . *. Iinished the sancluir\ through t e r i o r . th.a b o l e j a c l e r e s t o r va n d w a l l p x s s a !i ep l u s a h a n d s o m e a p s e u i t h a f i c e . -\bba1'e-aur-l )ames. ". an ccho' clerestorv arcadc and the window wall Ouislreham and Berniircs'r' l i ti .Abbrle-aux-IIonrmes.':i::1j' i:'il' :J] J6z and -tb-].r.rrcn. Sainte-'l'rin it6.. lr hrs a d e c o r a t i r e t r i l i r r i u m . were oblong rib-taulted bals''fhc sanctuartcs has a mrrgnificent long nale' Saint-Etienne bcrrutiful ancl characreplacecl in tzoz b1' I which was plannecl for rvoodcn roofing' though "*fu:+"i> zo I IITH CENTURY 6oFT '@@6. a n a r c a d c dc l e r e s r o r . : [i:ll.Caen.(eat. .s ith transverse arc groin-r'aulted with lrr. C. T h e m a i n s a n c t u a r r . ' l ' h e c h u r c h h a s a q u a d r i p a r t i t e b a 1 o r e r t h c l r i s tu n j t o f t h c n a r e p r o p c r . \ r ( .: The aisles its structure is vaulted at the sides w in squrre ba1.n' passageot th.*ixrilllf]rt:lTH* '# *fi ir r''i'":. there was a rebuilt to tr. i s a b r o a d t r a n s ep r . .n date and more elaboratc in dcsign.rirrirclr.with a dosserct) and a simplc half--colum. irnd so it is with adjacent transept nas vault' octopartite rib absidioles.ls on with 'I'he nate is extcndcd (b1' a square ba-v chevet' the II and Berna-v' lt Saint-Nicholas its western side) betwcen two thrce cclls on on tht: exwith corridor chapcls squrre-ended with quite magnificent western torvers. t L r l t r n u b a l h a s o n e a c h s i d e ( i n s t c a d o f ' a l a l g . quadripartite rib vaulting (rvith doublerl cc1. was begun The arcade ofthe clerestorv has been in roTj' and othcrs oratit.r"ri ot uniform arches in trvo orders' the nave through in r o67 or r o68 . u i t h r a l r ' : r l l p a s s a g e ..::'l.li :'J:. { b o l e t h e n a r . . .rtlripartite ribbed groincd doublc bars \\rrh rhc addition of'a trans\ersc diaphragnr irrcll{)nlhc a x i s o l e a c h .. bcgun ro{r.1111 raults). t.s c r p a r t i t e r 1 1 1 1 1 dated perhaps trr-5 or earlicr (corrso. to Gothic) set out in fbur big (transitional of Saint-Nicholas smaller church fbr the parish doubie ba1''s. but not t h e s o u t h e r n p a i r . a n d a s e x p a r t i t eh l t ' b r t r i c e n the western tower pair.1tr-1 l' thc church bccame. BRITAIN. n t t e ' : similar passage in Saintevidentli. o f ' w h i c h t h c d c c p northcrn chrpels have been restored.h a s t r v o g r a n d b i g b a v s o f ' u n r i b b e d g r o i n v a u l t i n p . then a long naveof'which thc aislr rirll. . c a r c a d e t h e r v o r k i s l i r r c r i. . like that of Clunlin Caen..a n d o p e n i n g t r p o n At the crosslorcly stone spires in Gothic times o1'Sainttwin arches. a plan basicalll. AND NORTHERN IRANCE 449 T r i n i t 6 h a d : r n a p s ed c h e l o n .ntrt consecralion support' masonrv rcceive the thrusts of.an ing of S"int-Etienne there is a lantern tlre transept -fhe Etienne itself. r r c h e s .li"r. r " . l ' h e a i s l e sa r e c o \ r r r d b\ a (restorecl) ontinuous tunnel I ault * irlt prnt c trations. the grouped picrs are unifbrnr.ol -i'" r .re of the Norman clcrestories' g r " ' r n d l ro n t h e o u t s k i r t s o l ' ( ' l c n ' onen uPon on r"nat up airlcs and gallerl ol saint-Etienne its mcdierel con\entual strucJough b. is belielecl to repeilt that with. I n t h c r o o f . r . . a u h i c h s r s p r o b a h l l i n s p i r e db v S a i n r . i' iiri Tlilril: .e $ hich stopped belorv thc arcaded -l'here was a passage between thts clcrestorl'. and to rotlt ln ro85 o5 thc iotto*. n r t E t i .@'s4'@@@@iq [Fe'Snsffils i'trnt qha4 @firo @ 364. gallerv is quadrant-r'aulted' the transverso arches in each case' This iustifies which rises lrom the interior buttressing profecgrouped piers ot the aisle arcade''fhe alternatclv complex (a half-column iion.s t a n d i n q r c a d ei n t r \ . This rault is likc:l scricsof hig tlLr. a r e a r c h a i c ( o f r o 6 6 ? ) . .NORMAN ENGLAND NORTHERN FRANCE AND 448 SCANDINAVIA.Saint-Eticnne' begunr. of the con7 !.r.l t .a n d a p s e u d o .. r n s ) Y e r s cr i b a n d t w o l a t e r a lc e l l s o f r a u l t i n g . r r rr r ' .nnn iii:i"Il:ilill]. originallr open on the g r o u r r d s t r r g c .cl r r r c l r l b a r b i s e c t e db v t h e r e r t i c a l d i a p h r a g n ..: :i::l ::::[:': ro.b u t s 1 ' r o i l e d u b s c q u c n t h b r l e s b u i l c l i n g .s o t h a t e a c ho f ' t h c b a l s h a s s i r r r r c l s o f v a u l t i n e s u r l h c e .S u c h a v a u l t i s c a l l e c p i e u d o l s e x p a r t i t e b e c a u s et h e t r u e s e \ p a r t i t e r .

BRITAIN. AND NORTTIERN FRANCF.45O SCANDINAVIA.Abba-ve-aux-Hommes' 365and366 . begun ' roti8 Saint-Etienne' Caen.

F o r !t .tl Bourges. 367. m t t < l r better represented b1 fine churches..t the in assessing must be taken tnto account ille' r t 6 8 r n r l 3 o o .d e . we record now accept John Bilson's 'i#"trt"ito tectural historians ribdateof Io93-Iro4 for the at Durham aisles andchancel ..r tl r a t t h e F r e n c h a r c h i 'l First of all. * ".L a o n n a i s l . ano Saint-Vigor.ff i'ff: nay (ror7) had beenat n "f vault ofthe nale ft * int pseudo-sexpartite lbr' and in Caenis accounted i"i".rk vast theConfessor's church ti"t."'" ::.""r'v' from the threetraditions' tiit"t'itt"ot""d ideas ""'*i.T h e a g e i s .. f. It is easl'to compare the typical Gothic r a1111- is example Saint-Georges ."o'i': T""f lj'.+L. In Normandy the construction of notablt buildings continued in the twelfih centur'\.o ing of the sanctuary with the transitional rrol1 in the nave [f66].e u"ult'd baYs(St Martin .n.le with square rib-vaulted nave bays. ir6] in [^JitiJ i'u't havea Normanbackffi."r" . 2 :a ( i c r I l i o (rvhich may have had diaphragm arches).i" " Engllnd and the historic contacts of Saxon and that with the Rhine countrY' il. . the superior 'processional effect'ofunifbrm nave ba1...o*Uurd rib raults canre late in the oi-. 11. :I.o'"l.u". grounclstore-v the of in Ba1-eux' the abbe-v 'o771' ii."l the most important achievement ar"afrir"". which was prosperous there.' ..'..t church of Saint-Gcorges' spireGothic powers the stlle'ru ol aboul "i..I ofrib raulting is.park of imperial grandeur some *e 'un o"lv suess'throush *"t *hich . C e r i s y ' .. near Baveux2r (which most ccr'tainll' had diaphragm arches across the narc' Saint-Etiennc. in the tradition of Beaugencv. TJ.".and Laon among othcrs. iin"rn.::..".-Vit. E ventualll. h o r v e r e r . and olherwise grcrtlr strengthened.e n . The big double nave bars lyg handsome.. AND NORTHERN FRANCF- ENGLAND AND NORMAN NORTHERN FRANCE 453 teristic Norman Gothic design..1' our solution' ' ^ . r o g o r r 3 5 ) . H e n r v I B e a u c l e r cb u i l t a f o r m i d able donjon within.^i".il...u..i. each with a narrow oblonp. excepl . rib i'atrlt in the aisle to either side.lit ui*ard inroo5) dedicated (c' it W"stminsttt ro45-5o' tnan importxnt more were ]-butbothbuildings .S a i n t .lT ffi: "r"i..question is one of .i.slecl to the sexpartite rault being giren up. where magnificent bavs rvere built over the nave in the lourteenth centurv' not ro be repeated on that scale until the construction jn of the nave of St John the Divine. portance Notre-Dame in Paris.452 SCANDINAVIA. of fulh {gveloped character and local savour.".t. also that when knorvledge '.. had an example di:tphragms of iri".. BRITAIN. a n d F a l a i s e .1trr."il'.l a . The normal High Gothic has."*. New York.. with two square bays ol'vaulting in each aisle flanking each great sexpartite bay of the high v:rult.". the chiteau begun by Willirnr the Conqueror in Caen...in-de-Boscherville-' { 368' j6q l' rr2i' ratner c dated about centur) '. r. Abbaye-aur-Hommcs..[i]:-:.U""t. nalc the twentieth.i. "tii.he rnostimportant tl'. like the Gothic sanctuary of Saint-Etienne. O"tt" but we venture to propose un."tt' t'om tht Loirecountrr' in the middle of auxilirrr'r'ribs .1".".ea b b e r si n t l r c l reeion of Caen which built well.:'. . in design..^rv Engfar-northern f.. nineteenth :.. There were also experiments. "of-rh" style' How did the Nor-u" Romanesque the most t The. as in thc little church o1'Bury. ProEressachier ed rn tne a r r of v i e w o t t h e g e n e r a lh i s t o r v fr"... themthe Norman builders . the sexpartite vault was widely used in Early Gothic work of imthe cathedrals of Sens.M a r t i n .".:. I I r 5 ( i ) n l i k e C e r n y . as elsewhcre A b o u t r r o o .6stieve "".. Lochcs [ z o 8 l .Crren.T.. Near Roucn 1'.. Nevertheless.r0It is now modillcd' but still recognizable as a first-class militart work. square bays in the aisles and oblong bavs in the high vauit. due to the prestigr of the grert Norman works. Less..-f'l"it6 .) ll"l :'"T.'N"t*...unt..itt.rr ( r .ft.tt.*"t.. r r p p l i c a t i oo f v a u l t i n g r .tii[ in PerhaPs the creatrono wascommunl.B o s c h'e r r t z3 I i".-Hl"t. No1on. 1 5 3 a)r.t..* "....'JJ..tAoi""'1 "t chamber'about ro5o [rr5]l a*er i""tt north-westtower of Srn.. but the sexpartite vaults are uncis\.

r r 2 4 3 .l r t r u e a s t h e v e a r sp a s s e d . Carthv's Chapel at Cashelof the Kings in {rgl a n d ( .erlap is applied to thc period during which Saxon surr-ivals wcre modifiecl br.d e d i c a t e d i n r o 6 5 ) .v( r o 4 5 ) u a s u s e d l b r t h e n e s c a t h e d r a lo l 37o. and light. . (urther influcnce liom Burii-undr brought in the decisitelr important pointed arch. As in Normandr'. T h e g r e a t n e s s f t h e o p p o r t u n i t _ r .a l l w i t h a p s e s . influcnce began to plav strongll on the Island -I'he name Saxo-Norman or.45.' r r ntd e a b u n o h d a n c c o l r e s o u r c c sb r o u g h r i t a h o u t t h a t t l r r most splendid oi Norman churches are to bt (bund in England. r r l .es ates near rro5 r5 d lbr the high vaults which replaceclwooden roofi n p i o v e r t h e t r a n s e p t sa n d n a v e s o f t h e a b b e y s in Caen.St AlbansAbbe)' ittet to77 rranscPt' England. F o l l o u i n g C o n t i n e n t a lm o d e l s .:' I. ' . a group of great Benedictinc abbevs became an instrument of polict in thc pacilication and development of the countr\.In the end. The Duchv had been clererlr organized irs an ellective f'eudal statc. a g o o d i d e ao l t h e c h u r c h . r 0E x c a r a t i o n s s h o w t h a t i t w a s l i k e a t 1 ' p i c a lN o r m a n l b h c r . usedin the rib r ault oler Durham navc (rrz8 j:) lS16.\ O R N T AO V E R L A P N 'lhc eleventh centurl fbund a rather decadent better integrated Church. BRITAIN. AND NORTHERN FRANCE t h e r r u e s e x p a r t i t ev a u l t o f S a i n t . because of the Danish conquest. i n d i a g r a m m r t i c l b r m . and this proccss proved to be but a dress rehearsal lbr England. Therc s'as a surge of great churchcs rr . but not progressing in the rh1'thm ol-the Continental countries. inventive devclopment. and a sanctuarv separated liom two paral)cl c h a p e l s . st. The navc vaults r. after hesitation because ol the prestige of Norman w o r k w i t h i t s d o u b l e b a 1 .ed to be as 'l'he d u c e d t h e h i g h l v n a t i l e d e s i g n so f C o r m a c \ 1 1 . \ b b e .5 o ..graduallr. ( r .rf' S a i n t e -l r i n i t e a n d S a i n t .aults ofthe transept ends at Sainte-Trinit6. built of improved masonrl prescnrins \ o r m a n d e t a i l a n d a s l e n d e rs q u a r eI o $ e I r i l l r c r than thc traditional round lbrm. But the *'riring o n t h e w a l l f o r t h e o l d s n l e a p p e a r e da s e . Edward the Conl'essor's Westminster {bber. but the much as twent). A lelated phenomcnon pro- .t h e t l i a p s i d a lp l a n a l r e a d ve x e m p l i f i e da t W e s t m i n s t c r . g r a n d e r t h a n a n v t h i n g t h e n e x i s t e n ti n E n g l nn d I thev show that the conventual buildings lcrc l a i d o u t o n a C l u n i a c p l a n . vaulted.E t i e n n e c o m e s as a natural. r o 4 5 . It had a $estern tower pair. and the architecture rapidly becarnc Norman.E r i e n n e h a r e l o n g been dated about rr4o and rr3.rch one is r steep-roofed narc-and-chancel church.g o i n g t o t h e north of England and to Scotland.s o c i e t y .AND W i t h t h e C o n q u e s t . h-ORMAN ENGI.the nerl flow of influcnccs.took the old stvle with thcm. r rz5 3o). and it was thcre onh. -{. unilbrm square bars in the :risles.ticr the C o n q u e s t o f r o 6 6 t h e c e n t r e s b e c a m ee l e r m o r c m a r k e d l r N o r m a n .rf .t h e g o v e r n m e n t ! t h e E N G L A N D :T H E S A X O .E v i d e n t l v t h e r e w a s n o m o r e o f S a x o n i n i t t h a n w a s o b l i g a t o r l -b e c a L r s e o f c r a f t c o n d i t i o n s . or thirtv years too late.:llJ. r n dt h a t t h e s p i l i r c d rcpresentation on thc Blveux tapestr\ con\ c\ s. and a relatit:e chronology which must be maintainecl.5 rcspectivelv. necessar\correction g. a transept with a tall crossingto$cr. thin ashlarvaulting cellsfor them lll. r tT h e e l d e r g e n e r a tion of French historians worked out a consistcnt s\stcm ol'relationships.{. but the dates were proposed when the datc o{' r r z8 li fbr the high vault of the nar e of Durh a m r v a s n o t \ e t a c c e p t e d .fter this.+ [ 2 9 ] a n d S t R c g u l u s( S t R t r l c l ) at St Andrervsin Scotland (r. llreadl suggesteclb1'the cincopartite r.t sc.ir. six double bars in the narc.a n d t h i s b e c a m ei n c r e a s i n 3 . b u t r e { u g e e s .rll ecclesiastical England was renewed and trirnsl b r m c d .{NDINAVIA.h e l o g i c o f d e s i g n e r s in the ile-de-Frirnce established the more i b e a u t i f u l s 1 ' s t e mo f u n i f b r m o b l o n g b a 1 ' s n t h e high lault. \orman with Edward the Conf'essor(ro+z 66). brought up to datc. enscmble ofthcir dates has been pror. 1 .

r r 5o)marking thc transcpt "".and gallcrics' which means that the clerestorics and galleries could be generous irntl open under thc trussed navc r o o f s . was colonized bv monks from Marmoutier. -I'here w a s a c t r n s i d e r a b l er e n c u a l o f . sometimes in simple rhvthms. Gloucester Cathcdral.rr Rochester (to7i). v ( r . Malmesbury. their dcscription antl rnrlrsis i: ilter adr'lition. q71' stands practicallv as it was built (ro7tt are much later' though the satellite buildings hottsc E s s c n t i a l l rt h c k e c p o t d o n i o n i s r t t o r r c r at we hare seenin I verv reduced torm such:rs .manl of'them verl' simple.rn and that o f W o r c e s t e r ( r o 8 4 ) . Galilee.( ro73). 3 7 5 7 l w i t h t h e t r i apsidal plan.ro and the a b b e y s o f B u r y S t E d m u n d s ( r o 7 o ) .*.t a the cathedral of Winchester (ro79). Churches befbre Durham were not specificalll'planned for vaulting' ercept perhaps in the apscs. 1 ..a n d u n i l b r m (tti5 the Great Anarchl of-Stephen's reign after which a wlrnt.. T h e c h u r a c t e r i s t i co r m a n m u s o n r r i s eis\ to recognizc.456 s c A N D r N A V r A . . and every one of them on a magnificent scale. r " with the ambularorv plan. lnd \{ils trrnsnlilted to Cothit lrclri\ t ( c ( u r c .ustine's bbey ar Canterbur).c." Battle Abbel'(ro67). r t h c d r a l ' h c gU N I I I i ' T-r 372. and Kilpeck there is t)'mpanum sculpture. near Tours. Elv (i. in the 'ambulatory country' and naturally carried onward the Jumidges Rouen group of Norman works. r r75 ot a church now memorabh rcbuilt in Gothic' Legendarl' Glastonburl perished bv lire in r r8z.lor-rn stvle rvasused. nave first built. and not rcn clill'ercnt in plan and scale from Saxon uorks. r s r c r : r i r t c t li t s o r i g i n a l t i e s h n c s s .32 Old Sarum (ro76). rogo) and D u r h a m ( r o 9 3 ) 1 3 5 9 n .Abuntlant light liom thc clerestories plays upon the boldll' articulated architectural forms.I n t h e n a v s sp a r t i c u l a r l ] ' t h e r e w c r e h a n d some effects of arcading.extended transepts' relativell dcep sanct u a r i e s b u t t h e s c a l eo f t h e s m a l l e r p a r t s w a s p generous." Pclr"rrr g o rt h .nglishmedieval noticc here' fbr the tremendous .t h e r h l r c ' r l l ' u h e r e new bc'en ctrnsiderahh motlitied bv . some'l'his t i m e si n d o u b l e b a l s . with the nerv foil antl contrast ln architecture as a becoming the grealuorks nol onlt scrc the tlimcnsions rrerntndouslr long prucessional imposing naves. r z o o ) [ 3 7 3 ] . and the wellturned arches.r1 Lincoln (ro7z). articularl] so in the thick walls. the stout piers (olten cvlindrical). Durham Cathedr:rl. begun roo7. a n d s i n e e . the Conqueror's own lbundation near Hastings. P c t c r b o r o u g h ( ..4' 4rt uhich Histurl lr architecture Yet thel'must f. m o t t p r t t l c l i t o t h e r o l u m e o l t h c is entirelr tleroted to . Other great cathedrals followed immediatelv G l o u c e s r e r ( o 8 7 ) [ 3 7 r] . Cistercian i. 3 eT h e s e b u i l d i n g s w e r e begun under the Conqueror. 3 5a n d S t Albans (ro77) [j7o]. much ornamentcd latc 54). and was rebuilt in overwrought tardy Romcncsqueand prorincial Gothit. 1 . and Norman enriclrments' parlicularlv the chevron. as p r o b l e m s .ry j .aislcs.tting. which now grew bv the addition ofSt Aup.a2 37r.itt . of church and castle building in undertaking onc of the most striking theConqueror'stinlc is in the historv ol medieral :lrchitcclure' episodes bold' The great works rre all ertraordinarilr i n s t r l e ' \ p e u s cc a m e i n s i m p l e . stalie upon stalie' enriched bl' archivolt mouldings ancl shafting' T h e b c a u t i l u l b u f l : r n d u h i t e l i m c s t o n c( m r r c h o l ' i t t r a n s p o r t c d l i o n l ( a c n ) h . who died in ro87. r " a n dN o r * . .a n d i s a g r c i l b e J t l l \ o l l h c s c interiors. prcsentecl lew These buildings. Thc nlrc-and-chancclttpe cotttinttetl in urc. At Ely. Rochester. but it nou r u i n et 1 .. w h i c h has an original painted ceiling.aaaiua aorn.3 7 2 .-**WW. r o g o r r 8 o ) [ j 7 4 ] 1 1 a n d o f P e t e r b o r o u g h( r r r 8 r . B R T T A T N . p a r i s h churches.A N D N O R T H E R N F R A N C E NORTHERN FRANCEAND NORMAN ENGLAND :+57 Canterbury (ro7o). i c h 1r o g o . w i t h t a l l p r o p o r t i o n s i s e s p e c i a l l yt r u c o f E l .{t Exetcr Cathedral one finds two rich towers(of r'.areeflictivclr used' St Peter at Northampton alld Iftlev church near Orlbrtl arc uell-Lno$n tramPles' N l l n v c a s t l e sw e r e b u i l t i n E n g l a n d i n R o thc most notable bcing' ot manesquc timcs -l'owcr in Lonclon' rvhich the \\l-rite coursc.

r s ht h c c o n s t r u c t i o n s a r c n 0 $ h r g c l r o f ' Gothic ciate .hdnges ince t h c n h a r e f b r t h e n r o s t p a r t l r e c l rk i n d l r I t h e c l o r n i n a t i n g l i r r c c o t t h e R o n r u c s q t r ed c s i g n c a s i l r c i r r r i e s G o t h i c a c l t l i t i o n sl i l c t h e C h a p c l o l N i n c A l t a r s ( t h c e i t s t e r n r r i r n s e p ta n t l t h t ' ) 'l'lie o c r o s s i n gt o r r ' e r . cach ivith fbur lcr cls. . bul rrrLrslrtr thrce rectilincar srctions. anclconcentric firrrrrs 9. o r r ' i t ht h e c h u r c h e s : t i s i the earliest great bllildings l.l r n c l r c s i d e n t i a lp a r t s o f ' r h c p i l i r s t c rs t r i p s o f \ [ ' h i r e . u-irh srout lire_rralls i u r g . n rf i n : r l i r r u . c r . l R .ith r a u l t c d a i s l e sa n c l ' n l o t l c . . 5 )b o t h c r r e r n r l a n d i n . n u n r c n t s .D u r h i r me r e m p l i f i r . a n t i a n c1 r o 7 o 7 ) a s l u g m e n t e d b r P r i o r s L r n L r l p ha n d C o n r a d ( . which recall arcaded houseson thc (.1 375. l . In connexion llith residentialwork. I n ( . 5emicircular.rand later c a s t l e .b u i l d i n g c o n t i n u e du n d e r F I e n r . rcstorafion stefch ol' fiEade. r . tucllth eentur_i nolehl\ . (.l l t s ( ) D cr ) l rne.to+] - o * ' o r . r n f i . nr.noblest i n s c a l eo l R .T h e C a n t e r b u r t o l l .l 1 tepresents a s u m m i l o f r e h i . i| ) u r h r r r n Lathedral uas hlrdh sur.". E e F u n r o r t . .idingit into btrilding.hi ch N o r n t i r n c l r ' . \ ' . u h i l e t h c s u b s t .x n ( l . . $ ' i t h a c o n s t a n t l li n c r e a s ^ i nu s g g tl (r r5a-tig). 7 6. h c u .h J i l c t ' $ o r L s . Gthedral ternal. still complercon thc south ol' t h e c h u r c h .(. h i c h h c r i g h t t o t h e B f ( a r e \ t r n a . I)urhrrrt*ls planned f i o n r t h c b e g i n n i n g t o b c c n t i r c j r r a u l t e d .luni III. h c n r o d r t l a lu n i t Durham Cathedral.\ . ( ls t i l i r _ l u l . . 'l'hc : t r o t t n ( l ( .r c a ts q u a r e k c c p . t r | ) o r rl u r .1 or r . f wcllilr ccntur. cherrorr. p l u s n r o o b l o n s b d r s . douhle bars fornt thc choir'.t. r c ro l D o r l a U r r a c a a r L . I fbnc inclu<ics r l r en r an r u n l r c h i r c c rr u .begunrog. s A s w i t h t h e c a s t l e s . C-arhedral. l .458 NoR THIRN FRANcE AND NoRMAN l\til'AND '+59 Ell . .r l r t . r . n u n d f ( . c l o s t .i .1 1 15 r . l . . o L r n ( J e a p s t . lr. S q s l . f. . r ' l i . r l i n l d r i c l l i n t e r m c d i : r f e p i e r s l r e b o l t l l r m i r r L e t lu ' i t h fluting.7. t o n g so f 'l'nrr i s t h c o l c l n o r t h e r n . 'l oblong. n o r t h _ ( i r s t . g l r . br' (. r r i n lt"bor. J' I l} t. . r s tb u i l ( i l n g 5 l t h c c a t h c dral monastcrr.a n c l $as broup.prrsrcd irs rlrrr. il e shou lcl n o t e h o u s e s . r ( h u i l r r l . t . m i n ( s q u ( m . circular. . l b r m t h e r r l r c 1 3 . u r . . ( .John.\ l r i e h r cl i n F l . l . . r l l _ u u l .u h r . s u c ha s w e h a r e s e e n a t C l u n r . 1 . l \ t gallcricssupporting a tunncl_raultea nr. l o J r r o j c c r s n l h e \ o r r lh _ c t \ l \\':rlcsbetr-ccn ro66 2n{ s l u e: i l t \ c c h o q l l b . l i k e t h e J c w ' s } J o u s ei n L i n c o l n . .t tlt. t r r l c thr 'l Romanesqu. l. h c s t r t ' l ) g t h c n c ( lb . . p t h o r .a n d C l u n v I I .to+*. r s c u l i n co f 'l c h u r c h c l e s i g n s[ . ' l ' h c r a s t g r o r r p e < l i e l s r r n t ll r c h c s l r c p single har r i c h l v a r t i c u l a t e d . of ( r o r .orrtincnt.. e ra r c t i a n r e c l a s h l a r uhich cmphasizc the rn uood. o r i r r r u b i i r s . h . r / / / i i l r . t . . rl m p l t i n p r o p o r t i o n . .suggested ficationsin the Near East. tnd one oi lhe musrbearrritulh. t .i s 6 f 1 1 1 [ i l . r c m c n t .. r l he chapcl ol Sr. t. irntlthrce tnot'c. lncl quadrtllt rork {ll the . r n . a r c h i l c c t u r r c d n o H ( .. . . 3 )r v i t h s onlr onc pcriotl ot hesitatign. r ' c t r c t i r i n t h e i r .3 7 7 I | c a c h l r m o f t h c t r a n s e p t h r r s r r t l o L t b l ca n d a a l l n r a g n i f i c c n t l . rc . o r r .R o n r r n c s q u c l i r n . trl r t .1.antl in i r r h r : a i r r r f s c r t .rtrsadcr lr>rl and (rthcr lbrt. s i n t P l e rc a t h e d r a l p l a n t h r t r . d ( ' : l s l l e s\ \ r . se in _ .hich arc unlorglctt a b l e . D u r h l m i s o n c o f t h e n t o s t m .f i r e u r l c l r t r l e a r s ( t r r r r r S 0 l ' I r 1 . i t ro l t i r e 'l'he clir.. c l l l r c lt o B t . r e r p i . .( s c \ c n 1 c ' e t ) ... is one of the most dranraticthings u. r l r . IO97-rI3o) rvas an crtraordinarr picce <lf 'lhe rvondertul srvecp \orrvich architecture. . l . r q u o i n i n r : .ht t() completion in the coursc of t h i r n ' . L i l c i r s c l d e r c o n tcmporar\. l r t . l l ( g . . .r35).. warclis irrcgslar.

It n'as Durhanr flathedral' therefirrt" which the made (.r t r o l e dh a s t h c p u r l i n s . a s a t C l u n ) ' I I I ' b c c a u s co f ' f a u l n design the samc sturdl old rlalls still sustarn b u t b c c a t t s eo l ' i n c x p e r t t h c s u c c e s s t >Irl u l t constructioll in the vaulting rvcbs themsclres' stoncs w h i c h w e r e h e a ri l r b u i l t o f r o u g h l l i r t t i s h ' l ' h i s l I r r i t l e m o r t i u i o i l l t .trimmed c a p i t a l sa r c o f ' t h e at the clown fiom a cube to a circular shape r rgorous r s t r a g r r l ) a n c lt h e l l o s en o t h i n g b l t h c i l . t h a t p o s s i b l ea n c l p r a c t i c a l o v e r w i d c s p a n s l n b o t h ('lun1' buildings therc was partial f'ailure -\t in the nar e' lvhich ( r r z5) it was a fall of vaulting flring was not stable until thc addition ol the l)urb u t t r e s s e sr l h i c h r v c h a r e m c n t i o u e d { t bc reh a m t h e c h o i r r a u l t o f r o g t l r r o ' 1h t d t o p l a c e d n o t .i*pii. r g g c sftl v i n g b u t t r c s s e s 'b t t t t h e r the inner e v i c l e n t l l n o t c o n c e i v c da s s u c h ' s i n c e to lbut w s p a n c l r e l s e r e n o t o r i g i n a l l v c a r r i e c lu p L)r. i t w a s l c s s s o p h i s t i c a t c dt h a n -l'o is be surc.EN(.lun1 III obsolete b1 shouing' on ribbed high raultingl was g r a n c l e s ts c a l c . s t t t c c o e co r c r ' with sttpwas massirc virult constructl()n: tt was construction' and' as ported bl massirc rvall ('lunv III' s u c h .3-r I3J 'cubical'tvpe (that is.p a r t their units.LAND NORTHERN FRANCE AND NORMAN 4OI Cathedral. and 377.Durham I o9. the gallerv at Dtrrham. relied on mrss firt' the \\'hlt rt'ntainecl to bc donc ln crcirting it u'ls tct takc thc llrctGorhic sttlc as rve knou . as (prccariousll') C l u n .rrham. which c r r r r i c co n a r c h e s l l v o o d e n . like ir qreat Imperial the nalc rvall. (rtrund in thc choir. rvith . c of tunttel r':rtrlting ut hr ribhed penctrJli()lls 'l'hus the vault is lirr thc clcresttrrl' winclorvs' little higher than the windou openc a r r i e c lb u t ings.vI I I . strength German buililing. scgmcntal ilr tlrc nrtrc) r v er e w h i c h s r . well but not pert'ectlvadapted to -I'hel arc irctuallr much like sectlons supports. 1'he g:rtler-vis verv handsome' each enclosingtwirr lrches' in cach two arches. s e p a r a t e db v t r a n s v c r s e a r c h c s ' a r e s e v e n . anclis lbutted bctwcen irnd bclo* thcm' at instead ol' above them. -l'he Iaults of these double bavs' double bar.it1 .

n o r . n relatir. so wcightv that it rcquircd "n. Later excavations scem to show that the apse was round irt the upper lerel. had the firsr scts flanking a nave technical tlelelopnrent |. Saint-Dcnis. onlv a tbotand a half in tliametcr. But it was an astonishing dcsign.( and east elerirtion.elv thin. making a sorr of.1. . h of the severies re slightll'swelling. r .r11. i n f a c t . w i r h t h c i n r .tlll' 37gt c (opposire/._. a b o r . abbo' ch urch.a l m o s t R o m a n l m b u l a t o r y o l ' t h c 9 1 y p 1 .. t r r . b y a n o t h e r g r e : r ta n d b o l c l .1n a I 'fhe aspcct. in. here shown h. r l. Originll r:rulting.Saint-Dcnis.i 378 ( uhoxe .auxiliarr firlseseniceable as a fbrtress)..tgainrt fire' a st o r e q u i r e n o m o r c i n t c r i o t ' s t t p and disposecl . . so thrt thcr a B e h i n d t h e h e a r ' l . as the I o c o n s l r u e rw i t h s i m p l c c e n t c r i n g it h t . and pierced lvith l.) (p. resenrblesthc design of SxintD e n i s i n i m p o r t a .in intcnt i o n . Gothic architecture was achier. its relatively thin vaulting.462 S C A N D I N A V T A . c o l l a r t o r c c e i v ea n d c o n t a i n t h e r .vpothetic. .\ l l i n a l l . where the masons became accustomed to build ribbcd r . e n c l o s i n gw a l l r v a s t o h . ntl l{. c x c a r . tbr the apse at \i6zclal' built about rr7o.b r (substantiallvbuilt.aulting in narthex. already-suggested t Clunl and a Durham. i n .ancl abovc the subr v o r k .. This was done in the ile-cle-France.. to rcbuild Saint-L)cnis unfortunatclv not r e a l i z e d . 49r. a u l t sw i t h t h i n w c b s o f c u t s t o n e .h a s l i g h t r i b s . t h .n tr c s P e c t s ) ' srll The clesiiner' itr thus ration'rlizing his Romlnand vault constructiol)' went belond of thc conrcntional e s c l u cp r o c e d u r e s . r.B R I T A I N .]29.f b r u : r r d .h r o k i n g projcct.rncet w i n d o w s . E x c e p t i o n a l l y .5. Note 47). { .a n d w e r e d i s posed to carrv lurther the erploitation of rhe pointed arch.w a s a m o s t a d m i r a b l e .i't b r m o l ' l b u r f i l e s o f s l c n d e r c r l i n d r i .c.toring lvts n r a s s i r ca n d o b s t r u c t i v e p i c r s ' S a i n t . l r r t t . r. ' . f l r i n g b u t t r e s s c sa r e r c p o r t c d0 n the chord of the apse by r r45. rvith predecessor churchcs ) Plan largell' bascd on Crosbl''s excavations.itiol ('rnd illustration r4o right. still in pllce in the nlrrher..1. r r . with little if anl.p fQ A \rt' n. showing llving buttrcsses (K. .r a d i a t i n g c h a p e l s . b q .ecl.1r.m r i n s t a n t i a l .rrgt l. l n s t e a c l fabric.+ ' . a t i o n s a l e s h o w n .a n d o dereloping the effictirc f'eatures f each. . s p r i n g o f ' t h e G o t h i c s t v l e . . w h i c h r r c e a s v tion.116 r r i. a u l t i n gr h r u s t s . r r5-5. abhev church. \t/ - a f1 *oq * . A N D N O R T H E R N F R A N C E portion and sophistic:rtionof' Clunl' III. w e s t r v o r kr v h i c h s t i l l c r i s t s c o u l d b e b u i l t u p c l e v e r l v . its IIJ'ing buttresses. a r c h b r r r r c h . e x i s t i n g a b s i d i o l e s )i t w a s t o [ r a l e b c c n l o a d g 4 to thicken and strcngthen it. ... .1. e n t i r c l \ . r I l5--l+ and thirteenth centurv. Sens.. . r r15 4oi section ofchevet (K.abour the church uas to hare becn a dorrhlq. e \ c e l ) t l b r t b u r p i e r sa t t h e c r o s . j o i n i n g t o t h e m t h e r i b v a u l t i n g o 1 ' D u r h a m .c a p a b l co 1 ' r e a l i z a . namcly-thc plan ofAbbot Suger. er v h i c h ( i f w e m a r j r . ^ " p o r l s . t h i s m o d e o { r ' a u l r i n g . h r r . .D c n i s stonc and glirss' p l a n n c c lt o h i r r c a t h i n s h e l l o t r'et so amazingh intcgratcd irronf . d S " h r . and crcnellatedto make it tween thc ribs. and that the transept had an elenrent on the east. amhullrr.-1. c o l u m n a r b a s i l i c al j 7 8 l .

o m _ g^enialitr nd anrplitude a which camc ro thc lioprchension.A N D N O R T H E R N T R A N C E e :8o. and onl1. o f rht. r n u n i o n w i t h t h e p a s r .rr4o . . Iikc conlbrnritv to rcgional traclitions which ucr. Not thc least precioLrsrrstroduction of' perlicted flving buttresscs abour pect ol the Rontancsquc is its afier_lile in . thc\. r \llhilc the support s. 'i" :1'. loti\ and aborc tl'eling. r n r l had revolutionary conscquences.i. {F g tt.n csquc. fo u n d c r s t r r n c l i n gi t i s t l ' t r r ( c J l r r R o n r l n e : q t r cg c n i u : . W h e r e t h e G o t h i c c l e i g n s: l r c m o r c h u n r .abber chttrclr. p r r r .lrrnr more focalized and dcfinitc than in Runran_ Iires again.a frae_ t t ' r i o r o l . \ ai t h u n l r t w o f l ) .rint-Dcnis. u t h e d r . i n heacllongBeaur. In well_char_ R o m a n w o r k . thcir rvarmth. S a i n t . a u l tw e r c r c r v m u c h more drnanric and complex. is almost an abstrtction. r r r ( K l .c s p c c i . . * . ment survives. u r .r.ent on. r p t t l r t i " t t r ' l i l l t r s t r r it" n l .\stent w:ts thus much s i m p l c r f h a n i n R o m i r n e s q u e: l r c h i t c c t u r c .r rrrr. r r . ancl their grace irl f \ \ h r n c c r h e l i r c t r h : r rr h t . I n t h e s c r c n i f i .ambulatorv. { m i c n s ( . it was nevcr finished. ' . e Corhit. . .464 S c A N D T N A V I A . Reims (.D e n i s . the dcsigns becamcever strongcr. 1 5 g l lhxt the crchitt.in_ too bold. .need to be nruch more dellnitelr b u i l d i n g s . led to nrorc firllr m a n s s q L i e so n e o l i t s m o s t v a l u e d l e g a c i c s i o n r a f c h a r a c l t ' r i z r d u i l d i n g s . irs t p e r s p t tl i r t i n t . h r i s r i a rh a s i l i t . rr h c i n _ Rtiman architecturc.arl\ C . . r l h h r r l l t . anci thc ker.ris tlrc irlacterized Gothic structure.r 'I'hcn I r75.ulnerable woodcn_roof-ed L.as time $. r n h s port rhan the r. i n gh u t r r . 'l'hc original c l e s i e no f . i r i s p o s s i b l e o 5 1 . . the strcsses are much petuous spirit tlf (-entula ancl rhe rhircl (. but the new mode ner. thc a r t i c u l a t e dr . B R T T A T N . a l l a n d r . I el r . ) . .rr_ digm of Gothic.rr. . r e n i n c r e l s r .l ji. abbc_rchurch.c a theol'em. their variefi. r lt l r e r . i r . S. o n c i s c o n s c i o u so l t l r c u n l i ) r g o r r c t L n o r r n a n d t r n d c r s r o o dF . the impress of traineclintellcct on multitutle of' Gothic buildings chcrish". Sirint-f)enis. t . rhe p.erthele. 1 . i n .1and thirteenthcentury t h a t o r d e r c c li n t c l l i s e n c c w h i c h f l o * e r c r l i n rhr: Gothic centuries.ss c l a s s i cn o b i l i t r I i k e t h a r o I ' r h e f i n e s t G r c c l . .athedral. a . .' xi Y rt tn ( l r++ 381. ( . in 5^cns ancl other grett soutir!r. . g .