A • abnormal high pressure

1

A 1) activity 2) apparent 3) atmospheric 4) air 5) air apparent 6) Stiles mobility ratio 7) area 8) amplitude 9) atomic weight 9) ampere 10) Avogadro's number a 1) area 2) areal 3) tortuosity 4) apparent 5) acoustic 6) atmospheric 7) formation factor coefficient 8) year 9) atto-10) annum A angstrom A/ acidizing with a* apparent formation factor coefficient AA after acidizing a.a. as above Aalenian A global age of geological time that occurred about 180-175 m. y. ago. It is part of the Middle Jurassic epoch. AAMPL acoustic amplitude log AAODC American Association of Oilwell Drilling Contractors AAPG American Association of Petroleum Geologists AAPL American Association of Petroleum Landmen Ab albite ab above A.B. able-bodied (seaman) abaft 1) in a direction toward the stern or back of an offshore drilling rig or ship 2) behind aban abandoned abandon 1) to permanently cease production of oil and gas from a well followed by plugging the well 2) to not attempt to complete a well that has been drilled. Casing can sometimes be pulled and salvaged from an abandoned well, and a cement plug must be put in it to prevent groundwater pollution. Abandoning a well is in contrast to temporarily shutting in a well that can later be put back on production. abandoned oil crude oil that has leaked from a pipeline or tank, and the operator has made no effort to recover it abandoned pressure the maximum average gas reservoir pressure that will produce insufficient gas to make the gas wells in that reservoir economic. Abdandoned pressure depends primarily on the pipeline purchase contract pressure, which is often between 700 and 1,000 psi, and the economic viability of compression. Pa abandoned well 1) a well that has been drilled as a dry hole 2) a well that no longer serves a purpose.

An abandoned oil or gas well is no longer an economic producer of oil or gas. An abandoned water, injection, service, or observation well no longer serves that purpose. All abandoned wells are required by the government regulatory agency to be properly plugged. abd abandonment contour the subsurface elevation in a water-drive oil reservoir at which the rising oil/water contact reaches the top of the pay and the well(s) is abandoned abandonment costs the cost incurred in abandoning a well by plugging it and removing the equipment abandonment plug a cement bridge used to seal a dry hole or depleted well abbreviated abstract a set of summaries of all recorded instruments concerning the title to a tract of land. An abbreviated abstract is in contrast to a verbatim abstract with complete copies of all the recorded instruments. (bob-tail abstract) ABC method a technique used in refraction seismic to determine the effect of the irregular weathered zone or low-velocity layer near the surface. Two seismic shots are made at A and C and are recorded at A, B, and C. abd 1) abandoned 2) abundant abd-gw abandoned gas well abd loc abandoned location abd-ogw abandoned oil and gas well abd-ow abandoned oil well AB electrodes the electrodes on the sonde used in electric resistivity logs A-BHC amplitude logging abiogenic gas methane gas that was formed from an inorganic source such as a volcano abiogenic theory a theory that some methane on earth was formed inorganically and is primeval gas (abiotic theory) abiotic theory see abiogenic theory ABND or abnd abandoned abnormal event an event on seismic that is not a direct reflection. An abnormal event can be a multiple, refraction, surface wave, or diffraction. abnormal high pressure subsurface fluid pressure that is higher than would be expected for that depth with normal hydrostatic pressure alone. The normal hydrostatic pressure increase depends on the density of the ground water. The pressure increase is 45 psi/ 100 ft for water with a salinity of 55.4 ppt and 46.5 psi/100 ft for water salinity of 100 ppt. Abnormal high pressure usually occurs in reservoirs that are sealed by surrounding rocks such as shales or by faults that do not allow fluids to escape the reservoir. During burial, the sedimentary rocks compact by expelling fluids from the pore spaces. In an abnormally high-

2

abnormal low pressure • absorber absolute dogleg a dogleg angle reported for a well that allows for the horizontal component of the deviation along with the vertical component. If a well changes in deviation from 2° east to 2° west in 100 feet, the absolute dogleg would be 4°/100 ft. absolute filter a filter designed to separate all particles above a specific size. An absolute filter is in contrast to a nominal filter. absolute humidity the amount of water in air measured in weight-per-unit-volume such as milligrams of water per cubic meter of air (mg/m3) absolute open flow potential the theoretical rate at which a well (sand face) would flow at the wall of the well with zero pounds pressure in the well. Absolute open flow potential depends upon the fluid pressure in the reservoir, reservoir permeability, thickness of the pay and other factors. It can be calculated in a gas well from a four-point test. AOFP absolute permeability a measure of the ease (permeability) in which a single fluid can flow through the pores of a rock when only that one fluid is present in the pores of the rock. Absolute permeability is independent of the fluid viscosity. Usually, however, two fluids are present in the pores of a reservoir rock and effective permeability is applicable. absolute porosity the ratio of the volume of all spaces between particles (pores), both interconnected and isolated, to the total volume of the rock. Absolute porosity is expressed as a percentage and is in contrast to effective porosity. (total porosity) absolute pressure total pressure including both atmospheric pressure and gauge pressure. Absolute pressure is often measured in pounds per square inch absolute (psia). Absolute pressure is in contrast to gauge pressure. absolute refractive index the inverse ratio of the speed of light through a substance to the speed of light through a vacuum. The absolute refractive index is usually obtained from the refractive index measured in air. absolute temperature a temperature based on a temperature scale in which 0° equals the temperature (-273.15°C) at which molecular motion ceases and there is no heat. On the Kelvin absolute temperature scale, water freezes at 273° and boils at 373°. Degrees Kelvin can be converted to degrees centigrade by subtracting 273°. absolute viscosity the ratio of the viscosity of a fluid measured in poises to the density of a fluid. Absolute viscosity is expressed in units of stokes or centistokes. (kinematic viscosity) absolute volume volume per unit mass absolute zero the temperature at which there is a complete absence of heat and there is no molecular movement. Absolute zero is -273.15°C and -459.688°F, which is usually rounded off to -460°F. absorb see absorption absorbent the material used to remove liquids from a gasby absorption. Absorption oil is used to remove liquids from wet gas. absorber equipment, typically a tower, that is designed to use absorption to remove liquids from a gas stream. In an absorption plant, an absorber is

pressure reservoir, the fluids have been prevented from being expelled by the surrounding rocks, and the rock or lithostatic pressure, which increases about 100 psi/100 ft depth, is transferred to the fluid pressure. Abnormal high-pressure reservoirs have pressures between hydrostatic and lithostatic pressures. Reservoirs with abnormal high pressures have relatively low seismic velocities and low densities and are in contrast to abnormal high pressure reservoirs. (super-normal pressure) abnormal low pressure subsurface fluid pressure that is lower than would be expected from normal hydrostatic (fluid) pressure at that depth. Abnormal low pressure is often caused by erosion removing some of the overlying sedimentary rock, decreasing the depth of the reservoir but not relieving the fluid pressure in the isolated reservior. Abnormal low pressure reservoirs are in contrast to abnormal high pressure reservoirs, (subnormal pressure) abnormal pore pressure pore pressure that is greater or lower than normal hydrostatic pressure for that depth. aboard on a ship or offshore drilling rig AB-P abnormal pressure ABPR abandoned producer abrasion mechanical wearing away or grinding by friction abrasion drilling a well-cutting method in which abrasive particles such as sand are jetted from nozzles to drill the hole abrasive jet cleaning a well-stimulation technique that uses a jetting tool with nozzles on a tubing string. Water, sometimes carrying sand or acid, is jetted out the nozzles of a jetting tool at pressures up to 1,000 psi to clean perforations and remove gypsum. abrasive resistance the ability of a diamond bit to resist scratching by the rocks it drills abrogate to fail to fulfill a contract abrsi jet abrasive jet abs absent ABSC abandoned sub commercial

absorber capacity • accident used to remove liquid hydrocarbons from natural gas. The gas flows into the bottom of the tower, and the absorption oil enters the top. As the natural gas rises and bubbles through the descending oil in bubble trays, the liquid hydrocarbons are absorbed from the gas. The liquid hydrocarbons are then removed from the oil by distillation. A glycol absorber or TEG unit removes water from natural gas in the field. The natural gas is injected into the bottom of the absorber and bubbles up through descending triethylene glycol. The dry gas exits the top of the absorber, and the wet glycol is reconcentrated in a reboiler. Natural gas sweetening by iron sponge and the alkanolamine process are also done in an absorber. Absorbers are designed as either packed or tray-type towers. (absorption or absorber tower) asbr absorber capacity a maximum amount of natural gas that can be processed by an absorption tower at a specific absorption rate, temperature, and pressure absorber tower see absorber absorption 1) the removal of a liquid by the capillary, osmotic, chemical, or solvent reaction in a substance. The extraction is made by a physical and/or chemical change in a sorbent material, and the molecules or ions of one substance penetrate into the interior of a liquid or solid. Absorption is in contrast to adsorption which is a surface phenomon. 2) the decrease in the energy of a seismic wave as it passes through rocks and is converted into heat energy 3) the radiation loss as energy passes through a material absrn absorption gasoline the retrograde gas, natural gasoline, or condensate removed from natural gas by absorption oil in an absorption tower absorption oil oil used in an absorber to separate liquid hydrocarbons from natural gas. The oil absorbs the liquid hydrocarbons out of the gas as it bubbles up through the oil. The liquid hydrocarbons are then removed from the oil by distillation. absorption plant a facility used to remove liquid hydrocarbons from natural gas in the field. The gas, usually casinghead gas, bubbles through oil (absorption oil) which absorbs the liquid hydrocarbons. This is done in an absorber at temperatures between 80 to 120°F. An absorption plant can remove between 40% and 75% of the propane and up to 100% recovery of H6 and heavier hydrocarbons. The liquid hydrocarbons are then removed from the oil by distillation. absorption-refrigeration cycle a type of refrigeration system used in a natural-gas stripping plant in which a refrigerant, usually ammonia, is absorbed by water absorption tower see absorber absorptivity the capacity of a substance to absorb incident radiant energy absrn absorption abst abstract abstract or abstract of title a set of a) copies {verbatim abstract) or b) summaries {abbreviated or bob-tail abstract) of all the recorded instruments concerning the title to a tract of land. It is used in the title examination for a parcel of land and is made by a landman or abstract company. An abstract can be base, complemental, or supplemental, abst

3

abstract-based title opinion a title opinion that is made from a complete abstract in contrast to a standup title opinion that is made from a run sheet abstract company or plant a commercial firm that has compiled and maintains land ownership records. The abstract company contains tract books and card systems recording individuals and the transactions in that county. Other information on file includes probates, court suits, divorces, marriages, and bankruptcies. Some companies charge a flat rate or hourly rate to let landmen use their facilities. Others do not let landmen use their facility but prepare a run sheet or other data for a fee. An abstract plant is not a title company that insures property titles. Title companies are usually not involved in oil and gas properties. abstracter a professional who makes summaries of interests or legal ownerships of land and/or mineral rights abstracting service a commercial firm that makes summaries of the interests or legal ownerships of land and/or mineral rights abt about ABUN or abun abundant abyssal the deep ocean environment greater than 3,000 ft deep AC alternating current A,, amplitude of compressional wave ac acre ACBL acoustic cement bond log ACC annual capital charge accelerated cost recovery system a method used to calculate depreciation of equipment for federal tax based on the rates and lives as defined in federal tax law. The equipment is amortized over a short period. ACRS accelerated delay rental an increase in the amount of delay rental payment during the last years of the primary term of a lease accelerated depreciation a depreciation method that uses larger amounts of deductions from income in early years with declining amounts in later years. Two types include a) declining balance and b) sumof-the-years. Accelerated depreciation allows for a faster tax write-off and is in contrast to the straightline depreciation method. acceleration of gravity 980.616 cm/sec/sec or 32.172 ft/sec/sec at 45° latitude and sea level accelerator a chemical that is used to increase reaction rate. A cement accelerator is used to speed up the rate of reaction between cement and water. This results in a more rapid development of strength and a reduction in setting and thickening time. Some cement accelerators are calcium chloride, sodium silicate, sodium chloride in low concentrations, seawater, gypsum, and ammonium chlorite. access road a road constructed from a public road to a drillsite. The route is first surveyed and flagged in coordination with the drilling foreman. An earthmoving contractor is used to construct the road. accident the completion of a task that seemed impossible

4

accommodation block • acid additives The blowout preventer accumulators are located on the wellhead on a subsea well. 2) a tank used to temporarily store the continuous-process liquid used in a gas plant accumulator drill a test run once or more each week on a drilling rig. The accumulator pumps are shut off, and the initial accumulator pressure is recorded. All the preventers are thrown at the same time and their closing is timed and recorded. The final accumulator pressure is recorded. The results are reported on the Friday morning drilling report. All the preventers should have closed within 20 minutes, and the final pressure should have been above 1,150 psi. accuracy the actual divided by the measured value. Accuracy can be expressed as a percent of full scale or percent of reading on an instrument. acd acidize ACDW acid water ACEAC acetic acid A-Cem acoustic cement acetic acid an organic acid (C2H4O2) that is used to acidize wells. Acetic acid is less corrosive than many acids. ACEAC acetylene series an unsaturated, open-chain hydrocarbon with one triple bond. Acetylene series molecules are highly reactive but are not naturally common. The general formula for the acetylene series is CnH2n-2 . An example is acetylene C2H2. (alkyne)

accommodation block the living module or quarters deck house on an offshore rig. An accommodation block can contain office space, storage, catering, and recreational facilities. accommodation platform a ship or semisubmersible (flotel) or fixed platform that is used to house offshore workers. The accommodation platform is often adjacent and connected to a production platform. accordian display a type of 3-D seismic display consisting of narrow, horizontal slices, one above the other accordion fold a fold in sedimentary rocks in which the fold limbs are straight with uniform thickness but there is a angular hinge line with thickening (chevron or zigzag fold) accredited investor an individual defined under Regulation D of the Federal Securities Act, who has institutional status, an insider position, or a minimum level of income or net worth. ACI accrued royalty royalty payments due on oil and gas that has already been produced accrued treasury asset the sum of all the discounted cash flows until discounted payout. ATA accumulation chamber equipment used in gas lift when the volume of formation fluids produced makes continuous gas lift impractical. The fluids are allowed to build up in the chamber until intermittent application of compressed gas forces the accumulated fluids up the production tube. As the fluids flow up the tubing, the formation is protected from the pressure by closing of the standing valve. Two types are insert and two packer. The insert type uses an expanding tubing section and a dip tube, whereas the two-packer type uses the tubing and the tubingcasing annulus. accumulator 1) a high-pressure cylinder that is used to store liquid or gas under pressure for a hydraulic or air-activated system. An accumulator is used to activate blowout preventers and tensioner systems on drilling rigs. An blowout preventer accumulator is located on a landing at least 100-150 ft from the wellhead. It usually contains of hydraulic fluid stored under pressure from compressed nitrogen. The nitrogen is separated from the hydraulic fluid by a floating separator or rubber diaphragm. A smallvolume, high-pressure pump compresses the nitrogen by forcing it into steel bottles. The accumulator provides power when the hydraulic pumps are not working or is used to supplement the pump pressure.

H-C=C—H
acetylene

accumulators (off rotary drilling rig chart)

acetylene welding a method of burning acetylene gas and oxygen at high temperatures to join steel ACF autocorrelation function ACF or acf actual cubic feet ACFM or acfitn actual cubic feet per minute ACFR or acfr acid fracture treatment AC-FT or ac-ft acre feet A CHL atlantic chlorinlog ACI 1) American Concrete Institute 2) accredited investor ACI/ acidizing with acic acicular acicular a sedimentary particle with a length at least three times longer than its width acic acid acidize acid a chemical compound that can react with a base to form a salt. Acid contains hydrogen which dissociates in solution to form hydrogen ions. Acids occur from 0 to 7 on the pH scale. Hydrochloric and sulfuric acids are examples. The most common acids used in acidizing a well are 15% hydrochloric or HC1 (regular acid), a combination of hydrochloric and hydrofluoric or HC1/HF (mud acid), hydrofluoric or HF, acetic, and formic acid. acid additives chemicals and materials that are added to acid to change the properties of the acid

acid bottle • acid soak or spot during acidizing. Some types of acid additives are surfactants, sequestering agents, antisludge agents, corrosion inhibitors, alcohol, gelling agents, fluid loss materials, clay stabilizers, scale inhibitors, acid dispersions, mutual solvent surfactants, and formation cleaners. acid bottle the first well surveying tool. The 4-oz soda-lime-glass bottle was filled half-full with hydrofluoric acid and encased in a long cylinder called a bomb or a clinometer case of brass or steel. acid-bottle inclinometer a device that is used to determine the angle (inclination) of a well during an acid-dip survey. A glass container of hydrofluoric acid is lowered into the well. The hydrofluoric acid etches the level surface of the acid on the glass. From this, the inclination of the well is read.

5

acid brittleness a form of corrosion on steel in which free hydrogen ions form on a wet metal surface as the result of corrosion. Some of the hydrogen ions enter the steel, reduce the steel's ductility, and cause brittle fractures, (hydrogen embrittlement or hydrogen stress cracking) acid-dip survey a method that uses an acid bottle inclinometer to determine the inclination of a well. Hydrofluoric acid etches the level of the acid on a glass container in the well. acid dispersion a solvent-in-acid that is used to remove oil and paraffin from a formation during matrix acidizing. The dispersion is a mineral or organic acid and an aromatic solvent. Both the solvent and acid contact the formation at the same time. Acid dispersion is also used to remove scale. acidfrac or acid fracturing a well-stimulation technique used to both dissolve and fracture carbonate reservoirs. An inert, gelled water pad is first injected into the well to fracture the formation. An acid-in-oil emulsion is then injected with or without proppants to etch the fracture face. A slug of regular acid can then be injected. AF acidg acidizing acid gas 1) a gas that forms an acid with water and is corrosive. Two common acid gases are hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO2). 2) natural gas that contains nonhydrocarbon gases that, when dissolved in water, will form an acid They include

hydrogen sulfide, mercaptains and carbon dioxide. (sour gas) acid inhibitor an additive used in an acid job to retard the acid reaction rate to prevent damage to well equipment. Acid inhibitors are either organic, such as nitrogen or sulfur bearing compounds, or inorganic such as copper or arsenic. acid intensifier an additive used in an acid job to accelerate or intensify the acid reaction. An intensified acid is a mixture of inhibited hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids. The fluoride intensifies the acid reaction rate. acidity 1) the quality of being acidic, usually measured on the pH scale, where below 7 is acidic in contrast to basic 2) a measure of the silica content of a rock Granites are acidic, whereas basalts are basic. acidize, acidizing or acid job a method used to increase production in a well that is producing from a carbonate formation by using acid to dissolve the reservoir rock. The most common acids used are 15% HCl (regular acid), HC1/HF (mud acid), HF, acetic, and formic. An acid inhibitor or reaction-rate retarder can be used to delay the reaction time of a strong acid to protect equipment in the well and allow the acid to penetrate the formation. The acid is usually pumped down the well and held under pressure for a period of time. The spent acid is then pumped back out during cleanout and the well is swabbed. Acid volumes commonly range from 1,000 to 100,000 gals of 10-20% acid. Matrix or interstitial acidizing is used to etch a formation, usually a carbonate to increase permeability in a well. Matrix acidizing is done with pressures less than formation fracture pressure, and the acid flows through the natural permeability routes in the formation. A wellbore cleanup treatment uses acid to remove cement residue, drilling mud, scale and perforation debris from a well. There is little or no circulation of acid during a wellbore cleanup. An acidfrac is a hydraulic fracture job that uses an acidic frac fluid with or without propellents. Acid additives can be combined with the acid to reduce friction, control clay, stabilize clays and break emulsions. Types of acid jobs include a) uncontrolled treatment, b) controlled treatment, and c) stage acidizing. Acidizing was first attempted in 1895 by Herman Frasch using HCl but did not become effective until 1932 when inhibitors were developed, (acid stimulation or treatment) acd, acid or acidg acid number the milligrams of potassium hydroxide that are neutralized by 1 g of crude oil. Acid number is a measure of crude oil reactivity with a caustic solution used in enhanced oil recovery. acid pickling the use of a hydraulic or sulfuric acid bath for steel tubulars before galvanizing acid-reaction-rate retarder a surfactant additive that is used in acidizing. The retarder coats the rock surfaces and forms a physical barrier to reduce the rate of acid reaction with the rock. acid resistance the resistance of cement to softening and corrosive effects of acids acid soak or spot a well treatment in which acid, usually regular acid composed of 15% hydrochloric acid and water, is pumped down the tubing and allowed to stand in the completion zone. Acid soak

6

acid stimulation • acreage-based royalty transmitters on the seafloor and hydrophones mounted on the hull of the drill ship. A shipboard computer is used to accurately locate the drillship in reference to the transmitters. Acoustic position reference is called a dynamic positioning or ask system. acoustic reentry the use of acoustic signals to relocate a wellhead on the seabed acoustic signature the oscilloscope pattern made by a sonic cement-bond log with different cement bondings between the casing and the well bore acoustic survey an acoustic velocity or sonic log measurement acoustic transponder a device that is put on the seafloor and is both a receiver and transmitter of sonic energy. The acoustic transponder will transmit only after it receives a specific signal. The signal allows the searching vessel to accurately locate the direction and distance to the acoustic transponder. It is used to reposition a semisubmersible or drillship for reentering a subsea well. acoustic travel time the time that it takes sound to travel from one point to another acoustic-velocity log 1) a wireline well log that records sound velocity through rock layers in a well. The velocity is recorded in units of microseconds per foot (m sec/ft) and are called interval transit time, t or Af. The sonde has a transmitter and two receivers, one 3 ft from the transmitter and the other 5 ft. The compensated sonic log has two sound transmitters on the sonde. Their values are averaged to reduce errors due to sonde tilt or borehole size changes. The velocities are used to determine the lithologies and compute the porosity of the rocks. Shale strongly affects the porosity of a formation determined by an acoustic-velocity log, and shaly formations must be corrected for this effect. Gas will decrease the sound velocity and increase the apparent velocity. Porosity measured by the acoustic-velocity log does not record vugular and fracture pores. (sonic or velocity log) AVL or ALC 2) see sonic log acoustic wave a sound or seismic wave Acoustilog® a sonic log AC PAR D acoustic parameter-depth AC PAR L acoustic parameter-logging AC PAR 16 acoustic parameter-16-mm scope acquired lands United States federal lands that were obtained by purchase, condemnation, gift, or exchange. Acquired lands are in contrast to public domain lands. acquisition costs the costs of obtaining leases or property acre land area in the English system containing 43,560 ft2or 4,840 yd2 There are 640 ac in a section or square mile and 23,040 ac in a township. ac acreage land held under lease acrg acreage attribution a term used in setting production allowable by a government regulatory agency. Acreage attribution is the acreage drained by a well in excess of the normal drilling and spacing unit. acreage-based royalty royalty paid on a per-acre basis. An acreage-based royalty is used for a shut-in

is used to remove scale, coatings, and sludges and to clean the perforation tunnels. It is followed by a backflow or return of the spent acid. Acid soak is similar to a treatment called acid wash. acid stimulation see acidize, acidizing or acid job acid test the application of acid to a rock to test for limestone or the minerals calcite or aragonite. Carbon dioxide bubbles form when the acid reacts with the calcium carbonate. acid treatment see acidize, acidizing, or acid job acid wash a well treatment in which acid, usually regular acid composed of 15% hydrochloric acid and water, is pumped down the tubing and past the completion zone several times. Acid wash is used to remove scale, coatings, and sludges and to clean the perforation tunnels. A backflow or cleanout is used to return the spent acid. A similar treatment is an acid soak or spot. ACM acid-cut mud Acme junior or senior gas gravity balance an instrument used to determine the specific gravity of natural gas in the field. The balance operates on the principle that densities of two gases at base pressure are in an inverse ratio to the pressures that give both gases equal buoyant forces. The Acme senior gas gravity balance is used to test large volumes of gas, whereas the Acme junior gas gravity balance is used to test small volumes of casinghead gas. acoustic basement the opaque area on a seismic profile that is usually located below the well-layered sedimentary rock. Acoustic basement is usually igneous or metamorphic rock. acoustic enclosure an enclosing structure around machinery that is designed to reduce the noise level acoustic impedance seismic velocity times density. Acoustic impedance is sometimes called hardness. acoustic location navigation using underwater sound transmission. In the active system, the searching vessel gives off the sound impulse which is received on an acoustic transponder on seafloor objects to be located. The acoustic transponder then gives off its own answering signal. In the passive system, pingers at specific locations on the seafloor give off sound impulses which are received on the searching vessel. The passive system is used in dynamic positioning. acoustic log™ a sonic log acoustic log a group of wireline well logs, each of which records some property of acoustic wave travel either through the rocks adjacent to the wellbore or through the casing and cement. A sonic log measures the velocity of a compressional wave through the rocks. An amplitude log measures the amplitude of the waves passing through the rocks. The character log, microseismogram log, signature log, and others record some aspect of the acoustic wave train. The cementbond log indicates the quality of the cement bond behind the pipe casing. The fracture log is used to locate fractures in the rocks adjacent to the wellbore. The borehole televiewer images the wellbore. ACSL acoustic plenum a sound-proof room acoustic position reference a location system used by drill ships to keep the drillship above the drill site. An acoustic position reference consists of acoustic

acreage-contribution agreement or letter • actual calendar day allowable well or time covered by the force majeure (act-ofGod) clause. acreage-contribution agreement or letter a support agreement between two companies. One company gives leases or interests in leases in the area of a well drilled down to a certain depth by the other company in exchange for information on that well. A variation is the cash contribution. acreage exchange a cross assignment of interests in leases between parties in order to pool the rights of the parties in those leases (acreage swap) acreage factor the acreage that is allocated to a well in order to determine allowable production by a government regulatory agency acreage selection clause 1) a provision in an oil and gas lease that allows the lessee to select acreage after a geophysical survey. The lessee takes a shortterm lease on the land. After a geophysical survey, the lessee then selects favorable acreage and usually pays money to put that acreage under a longer term lease. 2) a provision in a contract that allows the purchaser to select the leases to be assigned acreage swap see acreage exchange acreage tolerance the amount of acreage, usually expressed as a percentage, in which a specified area can exceed for a specific purpose such as pooling acre-foot a unit of volume that is an acre in area and one foot deep. One acre-foot holds 7,758 bbl of oil and is the equivalent of 43,560 ft3, ac-ft, AC-FT or
acre-ft

7

acritach

neutrons to irradiate formation in a well to create radioisotopes. The radioisotope energy emissions and decay times are used to identify the elements present in the formations. active clay a clay that reacts with drilling and completion fluids. Active clay is in contrast to passive clay. active length the distance from the bit to the point of tangency located on the drill collars in a pendulum bottomhole assembly active margin a plate edge that is characterized by a subduction zone such as a deep ocean trench and/ or coastal mountain range. The other margins in plate tectonics are passive and transform. active pit one of the steel mud-pit tanks that holds drilling mud next to a rotary drilling rig. It is located on the end where the mud pumps or supercharging centrifugal pumps suck the mud out of the tanks to start the mud circulating. The active pit is used to mix, condition, treat, and store the mud. (suction pit or suction tank, mud suction tank or sump pit) active system the total volume of drilling mud in the well and mud tanks that is circulated while drilling a well active well 1) a well in production or service in contrast to an abandoned or shut-in well 2) the producing or injecting well in an interference test in contrast to the observation well act-of-God clause a provision in an oil and gas lease that states that the lessee will not have violated the terms of the lease if prevented from fulfilling the lease by conditions beyond the lessee's control (force majeure clause) ACT system automatic custody transfer system actual calendar day allowable an allowable (the amount of gas and/or oil production that is allowed

acre foot

acre-ft acre foot acre yield the average production of oil and gas from one acre of reservoir area acrg acreage acritarch a microfossil of uncertain biological affinity. They are unicellar and are related to algae. Acritarchs range from Precambrian to present. ACRS accelerated cost recovery system ACS American Chemical Society AC-SCR system alternating current-siliconcontrolled rectifier system AC SIGN acoustic signature ACSL acoustic log ACT automatic custody transfer Act actinolite activated charcoal carbon that has a high absorptive and adsorptive capacity activation the changing of a stable element into an unstable isotope by bombardment with neutrons activation energy the energy necessary for reacting substances to make a chemical transformation activation logging wireline well logging using

8

actual gas volume • adsorption addl additional adiabatic change a change in gas volume, pressure, or temperature without any net loss or gain of heat adjacent-bed effect the effect of the rock layers above and below on the well-log response of a rock layer. The adjacent-bed effect is amplified with thin beds and deep investigation logs. A focused log is engineered to minimize this effect. (shoulder-bed effect) ADJCK adjustable choke adjustable choke a manual or automatic, conical needle in a seat valve that can be changed to alter the amount of fluid or gas flow through it. An adjustable choke is in contrast to a fixed choke. ADJCK adjusted posted price a contract price between a buyer and seller of oil that has been adjusted for the gr API, sulfur content and/or any other properties of the oil as well as the selling and marketing costs of the oil adjustment-of-unit interest a reallocation of interests in a unit agreement as more complete information on the properties is obtained. The original allocation could have been made before a property covered by the unit was fully developed. Subsequent development could have altered the original estimate of reserves allocated to each unit. The unit agreement allows a certain time for the participants to reallocate the interests in the unit as more facts become known. ADOM adomite admix to mix one substance into another admixture effect an intermolecular effect that causes two volumes of different gases that are added together to result in a volume that is not the sum of the two separate volumes. A gallon of ethane and a gallon of propane will mix to form less than 2 gal. However, 1 lb of ethane mixed with 1 lb of propane will result in 2 lbs. ADR asset depriciation range ADS atmospheric diving system adsorbent a solid, such as activated charcoal or silica gel, that uses adsorption to remove liquids from gas adsorber tower a tower in which gas flows down through tables covered with a chemical called an adsorbent that removes a liquid from the gas. The reaction is a batch process and the adsorbent can usually be regenerated by heating. Dehydration of natural gas using activated alumina (bauxite) or silica gel occurs in an adsorption tower. The process can be used for a higher dew-point depression than absorption. It can remove the water down to less than 1/2 lbs/MMscf with a dew point of -40°F. adspn adsorption adsorption the attraction of the molecules of a liquid or gas to the surface of a solid. Adsorption is used to remove fluids from either the atmosphere or mixtures of gases and liquids. Adsorption does not cause either physical or chemical changes in the sorbent material which is called the adsorbent. Activated alumina and silica gel are used to adsorb water from natural gas. Activated charcoal or silica gel are used to adsorb liquid hydrocarbons out of natural gas. Zeolites are often used to adsorb acid gases such as hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide

by a government regulatory agency) calculated on a per-day basis (calendar day allowable) actual gas volume the space occupied by a given amount of gas under line temperature and pressure. Actual gas volume is measured in actual cubic feet (acf). actual moisture the measured water content in natural gas actual value profit the total accumulative net cash flow of an investment such as drilling a well. Actual value profit is the amount of monies made minus the monies spent. (ultimate net profit or ultimate net income) AVP actual weight the weight per unit length of drill pipe, including the upset areas and tool joints. Actual weight is about 5-10% more than nominal weight which is calculated from the theoretical. actuation test a mechanical test of the working of closing elements on a blowout preventer actuator a mechanism used to remotely or automatically open and close valves and stops ACW acid-cut water acyclic without rings acyclic hydrocarbon a hydrocarbon molecule that occurs as an open chain. Acyclic hydrocarbons include the normal and branched alkane groups, the unsaturated alkene group with double bonds, and the unsaturated alkyne group with triple bonds. These are in contrast to alicyclic and polycyclic hydrocarbons. AD authorized depth A/D assistant driller adamantine drill a drill with steel shot set in the cutting edge that is used for hard formations. The steel shot revolves under the rim of a rotating table (shot drill) adapter or adaptor a fitting that has two different nominal sizes, thread sizes and designs, and/or pressure ratings and is used to connect equipment of different nominal sizes and/or pressure ratings (crossover) adaptor spool a short, steel cylinder with flanged ends that connects blowout preventers of different sizes, thread sizes and designs, or pressure ratings to the casinghead of a well ADD or add additive ADDC Association of Desk and Derrick Clubs of North America addition gypsum-anhydrite and water that is added to cement clinker during manufacture addition section a mud tank compartment located between the removal and suction sections that is agitated for mixing substances into the drilling mud additive a chemical or material that is added in small amounts to a large volume of another substance to change its characteristics. Some examples of cement additives include calcium chloride as an accelerator, gypsum as a retarder, and barium sulfate as weighing material. Mud additives are primarily mud thinners and thickeners. Some other types include friction reducers, clay stabilizers, and surface-tension reducers. ADD or add

adsorption column from natural gas. The liquids are then removed by steam treatment of the adsorbent. Adsorption is in contrast to absorption in which the molecules or ions penetrate the interior of the substance. adspn adsorption column a glass column in a gas chromatograph that is packed with charcoal, silica gel, zeolites, or polymers that adsorb gas. The adsorption column is used to separate oxygen, nitrogen, and methane and is in contrast to a partition or gas/liquid column. (gas/solid column) adsorption gasoline the natural gasoline (retrograde gas) that is removed from wet gas by activated charcoal or silica gel in an adsorption plant adsorption plant field equipment that is designed to remove water and liquid hydrocarbons from natural gas by using an adsorbent ad valorem charge a lease rental payment that is based on the appraised value of the unproduced minerals in the ground. As drilling discovers new reserves, the value of the unproduced minerals and amount of rental will change. ad valorem tax the state or county tax that is assessed on the value of property advance payment an interest-free loan made by an interstate pipeline to a gas exploration company to drill gas wells in return for a) the dedication of the discoveries to the pipeline or b) a full reimbursement for the dry holes advanced payment agreement a method used to finance the development of oil and gas property. The money is advanced for drilling and developing the property in exchange for the right to receive some of the oil and gas production from that property. advanced recovery methods waterflooding and enhanced-oil-recovery methods advance royalty 1) shut-in royalty in certain lease forms. Shut-in royalty is a payment made to the lessor in order to maintain a lease when a well is not producing. 2) a minimum royalty or payment that must be made to the lessor. An advance royalty is often taken out of future production. adverse mobility ratio the mobility ratio is computed by dividing the viscosity of crude oil by the viscosity of an injection fluid. An adverse mobility ratio occurs in waterfloods and enhanced-oil-recovery projects when the viscosity of the oil is much higher than the fluid injected into the reservoir to move it. The pressure drop per unit distance is lower in any injected fluid finger than in the oil bank causing the pressure at the end of the injected fluid finger to become higher than that in the surrounding oil. This causes the injected fluid fingers to push ahead, extending the injected fluid fingers and causing a breakthrough. An effective waterflood or enhancedoil-recovery project uses a low mobility ratio. adverse possession ownership of land that is claimed by hostile, notorious, and open possession against the title holder of record AEC anion exchange capacity A electrode the current-emitting eletrode in a welllog resistivity sonde aeolian transported and deposited by wind such as

• affidavit of noncompliance

9

the sand in sand dunes in a desert environment (eolian) aeolianite a clastic sedimentary rock composed of consolidated wind-blown sediments. An aeolianite is typically a dune sand that is naturally cemented. (eolianite) aerated flow a type of fluid flow that is characterized by liquid containing a large number of gas bubbles aerated fluid fluid that contains entrained gas bubbles. Aerated drilling fluids include air, natural gas, mist, foam, and aerated mud. aerated mud a drilling fluid formed by injecting air or gas into the mud between the mud tanks and the standpipe. Aerated mud is used to reduce the hydrostatic pressure in a well and to drill low-pressure formations. It combines the advantages of air and mud drilling. aerated zone see zone of aeration aeration the injection of a gas such as air into a liquid or solid. Air or gas is injected into drilling mud to reduce mud weight and the hydraulic head in the well. aerial magnetic survey a survey that records variations in the earth's magnetic field using a magnetometer and an airplane. Common airborne magnetometers used are flux-gate, nuclear-precession, and optically pumped types. A high-sensitivity aerial magnetic survey is measured in units of 0.1 g. Highdensity aerial magnetic survey is flown with flight lines spaced one-third to one-half the distance from the surface to basement. The survey is used to estimate depth to basement and to locate structures. aerial photograph a photograph, usually in black and white, of the earth's surface made by a camera in an airplane. The photographs can be taken in stereo (at slightly different angles with an overlap) and examined under a stereoscope in order to see relief. Aerial photographs are used for making topographic and geological maps. aerify 1) to inject air into 2) to change into a gas aerobic the presence of free air or oxygen. When applied to water, it is water that contains enough oxygen to support aerobic bacteria and contains greater than 0.2 ml/1 oxygen. Aerobic is in contrast to anaerobic. oxic aerobic bacteria bacteria that require free oxygen in air or water to live. Aerobic bacteria are responsible for most organic decay. The bacteria can produce slime that accumulates on metal surfaces of wells and causes corrosion. aeromagnetic magnetic readings made with an airborne magnetometer. Two types of magnetometers can be used. The fluxgate magnetometer is the oldest. The commonest is the proton precession magnetometer. An alkali-vapor magnetometer has just been developed. The magnetic units are measured in gammas (7). AF 1) acid fracture 2) after fracturing AFE authority or authorization for expenditure affiant the party that makes an affidavit affidavit a sworn declaration of facts in writing affidavit of noncompliance a declaration by the

10

affidavit of production • air-balanced beam pumping or pump unit into a pipeline and in return gives the producer a voucher for the quantity of oil see ganger ager a water-filled pressure chamber that is used to apply external pressure to gas lift valves AGFR acid-gel frac Agg or aggr aggregate aggradational built up by deposition of sediments aggregate 1) two or more particles that are strongly bound together and cannot be broken by normal mixing or shaking 2) inert mineral material having a particle size generally greater than 10 mesh Agg or aggr aggregated solution a suspension with face-to-face association of clay mineral platelets. An aggregated solution causes a decrease in viscosity and gel strength in drilling mud. AGI American Geological Institute aging 1) the natural or artificial curing of cement 2) the stabilization on an emulsion interface agitator apparatus used to stir a fluid A mud-pit agitator is used to stir the drilling mud in the mud tanks. Two common types are electric-driven rotating blades and centrifugal pump jets called mud, surface, or submarine guns. One or more agitators of 10-20 hp are used per tank. Agitators are designed to move liquids and keep the solids suspended. stirrer Aglm agglomerate AGP additional gas produced AGU American Geophysical Union A-h ampere-hour and anhedral AHSV anchor-handling supply vessel AHT anchor-handling tug AHV anchor-handling vessel AI artificial intelligence ai decline rate at qi in a decline curve analysis AIChE American Institute of Chemical Engineers AICPA American Institute of Certified Public Accountants AIME American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers AIMME American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers AIOE acid/oil emulsion AIPG American Institute of Petroleum Geologists AIR average injection rate air air drilling air activated operated by the force and movement of a gas under pressure. Air activated is in contrast to hydraulic. (pneumatic) air-balanced beam pumping or pump unit a type of oil well pump that uses a piston and rod in a cylinder with compressed air to balance the weight of the sucker-rod string. An air-balanced beam pumping unit is in contrast to the type of pump that uses a counterweight to balance the sucker rods. It is more compact and lighter that the crank counterbalanced and beam balanced types. Because

owner of land (lessor) that is filed after a lease has been forfeited. This occurs after the lessee fails to comply with provisions of the lease and has failed to execute and record a release of record for the lease. affidavit of production a form or declaration that the operator of a new well files for record with a government agency to testify that production in paying quantities has commenced. An affidavit of production is required in certain states to extend the lease or interest in the well. (certificate of production) affiliated company a company that owns a controlling or influential share of another company affiliated producer a company engaged in the production of natural gas which is affiliated with a natural gas pipeline AFIT after federal income tax AFP average flowing pressure A-frame 1) the A-shaped, highest portion of a standard derrick on a drilling rig that is used to support the crown block 2) the stationary, A-shaped structure that supports and anchors in upright position the mast of a jackknife rig on a drilling rig 3) an A-shaped lifting device aft after aft toward the back or stern of a ship or offshore drilling rig. Aft is in contrast to forward. AFTA apatite fission track analysis after-acquired rights clause a provision found in an agreement such as a joint venture or farmout that allows parties in an agreement to share in certain future acquisition of interests by other parties in the agreement after-acquired title an interest that was acquired by the grantor or lessor after the execution of a lease or conveyance after-acquired title clause a provision in an oil and gas lease that extends the coverage of the lease to any interest in the property acquired after the lease afterburn the combustion of any unburned hydrocarbons in the exhaust gas manifold of an engine after cooler the heat exchangers that cool natural gas after the gas has been heated by compression in a compressor station after flow the flow of fluid from the reservoir into a well after the well has been shut in. (afterproduction) afternoon tour a drilling rig shift that goes from 4:00 p.m. to midnight afterproduction 1) the flow of fluids from the reservoir into a well after the well has been shut in (after flow) 2) the fluids that flow from a reservoir into a well after the well has been shut in AGA American Gas Association against pressure A valve that is closed on a flowing fluid stream AGC automatic gain control age 1) a time subdivision of an epoch 2) to allow the cement in a well to cure or harden agent an old term for a pipeline employee who permits the flow of oil from producer's storage tanks

airborne magnetometer • air-injection porosity
walking beam

11

pitman

Samson post

air drilling rig (truck mounted) air balanced beam pumping unit

of this, the unit is often found in remote and difficult locations or offshore. airborne magnetometer a device carried by an airplane that is used to measure variations in the earth's magnetic field. Most measure total-field intensity, although vector and vertical component are sometimes measured. The most common types are the flux-gate, nuclear-precession, and optically pumped magnetometers. The magnetometer can be used to estimate depth to basement and locate subsurface geological structures. air chamber a small surge chamber that is filled with air that is connected to a reciprocating pump's discharge line see pulsation dampener air clutch a device that is used to engage and disengage a power transmission. High-pressure air acts on a diaphragm chamber to move a pressure plate to compress a release spring that holds the air clutch in the disengaged position. Air clutches are common on a drilling rig. air-cooled exchanger equipment that uses air blowing across external fins to cool a liquid air cut air in a liquid system air cutting the accidental inclusion of air in a drilling or well fluid air drill an air or pneumatic drilling rig that pumps air down the center of the pipe to remove cuttings from the bottom of the well air drilling rotary drilling that uses compressed air instead of a circulating mud system. The air is supplied by a skid-mounted air compressor and diesel engine that delivers 300-500 ft3 of air per minute at 300600 psi. Three to five compressors are used. The air is pumped down the mud line. The top of the bell nipple is fitted with an air drilling head to prevent the air from flowing out the top of the bell nipple. Conventional roller cone bits are used. The air and well cuttings come up to to the surface through the annulus of the well and blow out through a blooey line into a blooey pit. The circulation is controlled by a standpipe valve on the rig floor. More weight is put on the bit and less rpms are used compared to drilling with mud. Air drilling is two to five times faster and less expensive than mud drilling but cannot effectively control abnormally high pressures or build a filter cake to stabilize the well. It is ineffective when too much water enters the well. The water, air, and

dust can form mud rings that stick to the bottom hole assembly. Air drilling, however, alleviates the problems of formation damage and lost circulation, but there is a danger of an air-methane explosion. air aired up a plunger pump with a gas lock air gap the distance from the bottom of the base of an offshore drilling rig or ship's hull to the surface of the ocean air governor a device used on an air compressor to control the unloading of the compressor at a predetermined high-pressure setting and to restrict the air flow at a predetermined low-pressure setting air gun 1) a common type of marine seismic source. The air gun or array of air guns is towed behind a boat at a depth of about 20-30 ft and releases a very high-pressure bubble of air (2,000-3,000 psi) into the water. Air guns are made in different sizes and are measured in cubic centimeters (cc) of chamber volume. The air gun gives a seismic pulse ranging from 0 to 250 Hz. The frequency spectrum of the air gun depends on the volume and pressure of air in the chamber. Different air guns in an array often have different chamber sizes to produce a signal with a broad frequency spectrum. Air guns can also be used to work in swamps, tanks, or pits of water on land. A secondary emission of a bubble pulse is a problem with the air gun signal. 2) a hand tool that is powered by compressed air air hoist lifting equipment that is powered by compressed air. An air hoist on the floor of a drilling rig is used to lift the pipe up the V-door to the drilling rig floor. It uses a reel of rope that goes through a pulley near the top of the derrick. air injection 1) an enhanced oil recovery technique that uses injection wells to pump air into a subsurface, depleted oil reservoir. Disadvantages of air injection are that air injection can corrode metal equipment in the well and form an explosive mixture. The air can also oxidize oil in the reservoir which results in the formation of compounds that can reduce the flow of oil. Air, however, is cheaper to inject than any other gas such as natural gas or inert gases. 2) a method to inject diesel fuel into the combustion chamber of a diesel engine by using a compressed air chamber air-injection porosity the porosity of a rock sample measured with a porosimeter. Air is injected into a vacuum chamber with a sample of known volume. Boyle's law, using pressure changes and volume, is

12

air receiver • alkalinity intertidal area. Algal filaments hold the underlying micrite (limestone mud) in place. Storms wash micrite onto the algal mat and a new algal mat is formed on top. In this manner, great thicknesses of algal mats can be built up. The limestone deposited can be both a source rock and reservoir rock for petroleum. algorithm a sequence of instructions used to solve a problem. A computer program can be an algorithm. aliasing the creation of a false image caused by insufficient sampling when digitizing. The ambiguity in frequency resolution from seismic signal sampling is caused by aliasing. Alias or antialias filters can be used to remove the frequencies that cause aliasing.

utilized to calculate porosity. Air-injection porosity is the most accurate field method for calculating porosity. air receiver a compressed air storage bottle air shooting a seismic method using explosive charges in sacks located 18 in. above ground on stakes. Several charges in a pattern are shot in a nearby simultaneous sequence by explose cord connecting the shots. air-tube clutch a device that engages a driven member when a tube is inflated and disengages when the tube is deflated air tugger a semiportable, pneumatic winch air weight the weight of a drillstring completely suspended in air AJET abrasive jet Al andaliesite A lab analytical laboratory albertite a jet-black asphaltic bitumen that occurs in veins. It has a conchoidal fracture and a specific gravity of about 1.1. Albertite is a local term and is found in Albert County, New Brunswick, Canada, and in Scotland, Australia, and Indiana. Albian a global age of geological time that occurred from about 108-100 m. y. ago. It is part of the Lower Cretaceous epoch. ALC acoustic velocity log ALC-GR acoustilog, caliper, gamma ray log ALC-GRN acoustilog, gamma ray, neutron log ALC-N acoustilog, neutron log alcohol slug process a type of enhanced oil recovery that uses miscible flood by the injection of a small amount of organic solvent such as isopropyl alcohol into a depleted oil reservoir Alexandrian a North American age of geological time that occurred from about 425-422 m. y. ago. It is part of the Silurian period. ALG or alg along Alg or alg algae algae fossil and modern plants that range from unicellular to colonial and have existed from Precambrian to the present. They are aquatic, both floating and attached. Calcareous or calcified algae have contributed enormous amounts of limestone to the geological record. Discoasters and coccolithophores, types of floating algae, are good guide fossils. Algae contain lipids that are thought to be the precursors of crude oil. Alg or alg algid mat a surface of algae that grows in a tropical,

H 1 1 H — C — C—H

H

1
H -

c —
1
H

1
C

1
H

alicyclic (cyclobutane)

algal mat

alicyclic a group of saturated, closed-ring hydrocarbons with the formula CnH2n. An example is cyclobutane C4H8. (cyclopamffin series, cycloalkanes, or nathene series) alidade a surveyor's instrument that consists of a telescope with a ruler along its base. An alidade is used on a plane table to measure angles between a base line and points that are surveyed. alignment angle of stabilizer the angle between the center line of a stabilizer used in drilling a deviated hole and the center line of the well aliphatic organic compounds that are not aromatic and nonpolar. Aliphatic compounds include alkanes, alkenes and alkynes. The term originally described fatty. alk alkalinity alkali a base or hydroxide that has very alkaline or basic chemical properties in contrast to acidic alkaline having the properties of an alkali alkaline flooding an enhanced oil-recovery process in which alkaline chemicals such as sodium hydroxide are injected into the reservoir. The alkaline chemicals react with oil in the reservoir to form surfactants. The surfactants and oil flow better through the reservoir because of reduced interfacial tension, spontaneous emulsification, and changes in wettability. A slug of polymer-thickened water is then injected into the reservoir to produce a more uniform sweep of the surfactants and oil. This is followed by injection of fresh and then saline waters to drive the oil toward producing wells, (caustic flooding) alkalinity the number of equivalents of acid that a substance will react with to form a salt. Alkalinity is the sum of carbonate, bicarbonates, hydrocarbonates,

13 Allochemical rock is in contrast to orthochemical and autochthonous rocks. number of wells. alkene a hydrocarbon with carbon-carbon double bonds and the formula CnH2n. Alkalinity is determined by acid titration. octane. It bubbles up through bubble traps of solution that are descending in the tower. propane. open-chain hydrocarbon with one triple bond. silicates. allowable overpull the difference between the yield strength of a tubular such as casing and the load carried by that joint allowable penalty A reduction penalty in the normal . Allophane occurs in a variety of colors as incrustations and seams in rocks. heptane. alkanolamine a family of organic compounds that include monoethanolamine (MEA). The structure of the molecule can be normal. ethane. or field is permitted to produce per given time by a government regulatory agency. Alkanes have low chemical activities but are important fuels. an allonge is a separately listed provision. The allowable can be based on depth (depth yardstick) and spacing. and pentane and the higher alkanes starting with hexane. The formula can be based on acreage. Long-chain normal alkane molecules (C]7+) are solids and are known as waxes. all-inclusive clause a provision in an oil and gas lease that protects the lessee from errors in the description of the land under the lease by including all the land owned by the lessor in that area (catchall. Not all states impose allowables. The sour gas goes into the bottom of the tower through an inlet scrubber where the liquids are removed. diethanolamine (DEA). An allowable is often given in barrels of oil/day (BOPD) for a certain number of days each month. The general formula for an alkyne is CnH2n_2. On a lease. Crude oils generally contain 5-80% alkanes. The right of a state to regulate production is called prorationing and is done on the basis of market demand. cover all or Mother Hubbard clause) Allo allochem allocation see allowable allochem a relatively coarse carbonate particle in a carbonate rock that was transported and deposited as a whole particle Allo allochemical rock a rock composed of allochems. or triethanolamine to absorb the acid gases in a continuous process in an absorber. butane. and triethanolamine (TEA) that are used to remove acid gases from natural gas alkanolamine sweetening or processing the removal of acid gases such as hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide from natural gas. This gives an indication of how many exploratory dry holes can be drilled to justify the return. The jaws which are held by a coiled spring and snap together when the fish is contacted. The process uses an alkanolamine solution of monoethanolamine. An example is propylene C3H6. and an example is acetylene C2H2. Allowable dry holes are the net present value of the successful well (production revenues minus costs discounted for time) divided by the cost of the exploratory well if it was a dry hole. branched. alk alkalinity control the adjustment of drilling mud pH by the addition of sodium hydroxide or lime alkane a hydrocarbon molecule formed by a saturated (no double or triple bonds between carbons) chain. Allowable depletion is the greater of either cost or percentage depletion. allowable dry holes a measure of the economic viability of drilling an exploratory well. (acetylene series) alligator grab a wireline fishing tool that is lowered into a well with its jaws pinned open. An example would be sedimentary grains that were transported and deposited. Alkynes are highly reactive but are not naturally common. (allogenic) allodapic limestone a limestone deposited by turbidity currents allogenic something that formed somewhere else than where it is located now. and c) cyclic alkanes that form a circle.alkalinity control • allowable penalty borates. Three types of alkanes are a) normal alkanes that form straight chains. and almost all of the hydrocarbons in natural gas are alkanes. b) branched alkanes which have limbs. Only minor amounts of alkene occur in sediments and petroleum. lease. diethanolamine. allowable days the number of days in a month that oil and/or gas can be produced under order by a government regulatory agency (scheduled allowable days) allowable depletion the money that a specific producing party can deduct from its taxable income during a year. The sweet gas exits the tower through a scrubber that removes any solution. (rider or exhibit) allophane an amorphous clay mineral that is composed of Al2O3SiO2nH2O. and acre-feet of pay. allotted land Indian land that is designated for a specific individual's use but the title is held by the United States allow allowable allowable the maximum amount of gas and/or oil that a well. (olefin) alkylation a refinery process that combines light hydrocarbons to form high octane gasoline alkyne an unsaturated. (permitted production) allow allowable allocation formula the instructions issued by a government regulatory agency to divide the amount of petroleum that the agency allows to be produced from each well or leasehold per unit of time (allowable) among all operators in the field. An example would be sedimentary grains that were transported and deposited. Alkanes include the normal alkanes of methane. and larger molecules. allochton a rock mass that has been moved from its original site by tectonic forces such as thrust faults allochthonous formed somewhere else than where it is located now. (allochthonous) allogenic grain a sedimentary particle that was transported and deposited (detrital grain) allonge an attachment that specifies details on an agreement. Alkane boiling points increase regularly with molecular weight. or cyclic. and phosphates in water. A reboiler uses heat treatment to strip the acid gases from the absorbent solution.

The process is called alkanolamine sweetening. one of which has metallic properties all-thread nipple a short pipe with threads all along its length alluvial sediments deposited by a stream or river alluvial fen a fan-shaped deposit of sediments formed by an intermittent river flowing onto a plain such as a desert. The units are often portable. Alternating current is described by its frequency. see alkanolamine sweetening Amm ammonite ammeter an instrument that measures electrical current ammonia water or ammonium hydroxide a chemical (NH4OH) that is used to neutralize hydrogen sulfide during drillstem and wireline tests ammonite an extinct type of cephalopod belonging to the order Ammonoidea that existed from the Devonian to Cretaceous period. The bubble trays contain monethanolamine. descending wave particle motion amplitude A-mast an A-shaped assembly. a^ mud filtrate activity AMI area of mutual interest amine an organic compound that is made by substituting one or more hydrogen atoms in ammonia with an organic radical. amine unit a type of natural gas treatment installation that uses organic bases (amines) to absorb H2S. An alpha particle can be emitted from an atomic nucleus during radioactive decay of uranium 238. whereas the lower fan deposits are stream deposited. Potential reservoir rocks can be deposited in an alluvial fan environment. The upper fan deposits tend to be mud-flow deposited. usually of steel. or hertz. amine/gas absorber tower a vertical bubble-tray tower used in sour gas sweetening with the alkanolamine process.. A clock drives the chart and depth is correlated with time. chambered shells in the ocean. A direct current flows in one direction. helical Bourdon tube that rotates a stylus on a circular chart. They were similar to squids and lived in coiled. the number of cycles per second. aloe rope a rope made from aloe plant fiber used in cable-tool drilling along-track scanner a scanner used in remote sensing with a linear array of detectors that is oriented normal to the flight path ALP articulated loading platform a 1) angle 2) spontaneous potential (SP) reduction factor 3) alternative coefficient 4) dip 5) absorption coefficient 6) azimuth 7) alpha particle 8) angle of well inclination from vertical alpha pseudostate spontaneous potential divided by static spontaneous potential alpha or a map an isopachous map of clean sand thickness in a formation The distribution of the clean sands is calculated from the spontaneous potential measurement of the reservoir and is based on the observation that shale in the formation will decrease the spontaneous potential response. Alpha I artificial lift equipment that balances the rod string driving the rod pump in the producing well with a hanging counterweight of cast iron weights in an adjacent. Amm amor amorphous amorphous a substance such as a rock that lacks crystal structure amor allowable or amount of production permitted by a government regulatory agency for a well because of a location exception in the drilling of the well allowable period the time period during which an allowable or permitted amount of production can be produced allowable rope load the nominal breaking strength of a rope divided by a design factor allowable stress the maximum stress that a structure is designed to withstand for safe operations alloy a metallic substance formed by a solid solution of two or more elements. shallow well. Amines are used to remove hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide from natural gas.14 allowable period • amorphous that of light. Ammonites are guide fossils to the Mesozoic Era when the sutures on their shells became very ornate. The sour gas inlet is on the bottom and the sweet gas outlet on the top of the tower. The thickness of the reservoir with a spontaneous potential response greater than the alpha cutoff is measured and plotted. used for lifting amb amber ambient temperature the surrounding temperature Amerada pressure gauge a mechanical. The Alpha I system gives long (3040 ft). The gauge contains a pressure sensitive. (winch and cable or winch-type pumping unit) alpha particle an atomic particle that is positively charged and consists of two protons and two neutrons and has a mass of 4 on the atomic weight scale. and rotary cam mechanism. The static spontaneous potential (SSP) valve for a clean sand is calculated and an arbitrary cutoff of alpha such as 50% (a50) or 75% (a75) is selected based on regional production histories. The cable connects the rod string with the counterweight and the polished rod is replaced with a polished tube. slow pumping strokes that decrease peak load on the rods and yields a higher fluid output than other pumping units. or triethanolamine (TEA). selfcontained instrument that is used to measure bottomhole pressures. The Alpha I system consists of a winch. The alpha particle travels at a speed of about one-tenth .. AC alternator an electric generator or dynamo that produces an alternating current altg alternating a. cable. carbonly sulfide (COS) and CO2 from the natural gas. a alpha ring a guarded electrode alt 1) altered 2) alternate alternating current an electric current that regularly reverses its flow of direction. diethanolamine.

One ampere equals one coulomb per second (C/s). metamorphic. analog-to-digital converter the electronic equipment used in seismic exploration to convert the seismic signal to a binary code number with 16 bits anastomosing stream a stream formed of numerous. Under certain conditions in a well. or nonionic surfactant. Ground anchors are used to secure guy wires for masts and derricks. anaerobic bacteria bacteria that do not need free oxygen to live. The anchor normally sets on the bottom of the well or on a cement plug. anal analysis analog computer a computer that stores information in a manner that varies uniformly between specific limits. Cementbond acoustic logs and fracture logs are examples. A current of one ampere has 6. Today seismic is usually digitally recorded. Modern computers are digital. Anchors are also used to hold a boat or semisubmersible in position. amphiphatic a balance in the interfacial tension of oil and water in an oil-base drilling mud amphoteric surfactant an organic molecule with a water-soluble group that can be either + or — charged or uncharged. amplitude ratio the amplitude of an anomalous seismic wave divided by the normal or background seismic-wave amplitude. The environment does not have enough oxygen to support aerobic bacteria. and immature sedimentary rocks. This is in contrast to aerobic bacteria. Pyrite in sediments is indicative of anaerobic bacteria. AVO AMPS S-wave amplitude AMT. A or amp amphibole a common. A slide rule is an example. amplifier an instrument that increases the amplitude of a signal such as voltage.2 to 1. The greater the seismic energy or amplitude of the reflection of a seismic event. anchor buoy a floating device that is used to position or to mark the position of an anchor on a drillship or semisubmersible. Amphiboles are a group of calcium. iron. The coarse-grained sand and gravel deposits can become potential reservoir rocks. prismatic. six-sided crystals. and aluminum silicates that form long. anaerobic bacteria can cause scale formation in water systems and the formation of hydrogen sulfide from sulfates. dark-colored (black to light green) mineral found in igneous. Hornblende is the most common amphibole. An amphoteric surfactant is in contrast to an anionic. Rs amplitude shadow a decrease in the amplitude of reflections below a hydrocarbon deposit on a seismic profile amplitude time an acoustic wave train display mode in which the amplitude of the acoustic wave train is plotted against time. cationic. amphipathlc slug Injection a type of enhanced oil recovery. current. spread mooring pattern anchor contractor a service company that builds and buries anchors used to attach the guy wires used . amplitude versus offset a seismic exploration technique in which long offsets (source-to-receiver distances) from 1. Anchors are used to secure downhole equipment in wells. Amplitude time is in contrast to intensity-modulated time or variable density. the darker the burn on the seismic recording. An ampere is the amount of current produced by an electromotive force of one volt acting through a resistance of one ohm. intertwining channels separated by sand and gravel bars. 2) The tubing that extends below the working barrel of an insert pump.28 x 1018electrons flowing by a point each second. A volume or slug of alcohol or other fluid that is miscible (mixes) with both water and oil is pumped down injection wells.amortize • anchor contractor 15 ammonite amortize the deduction of an expense over a fixed period of years from the income amp ampere Amp amphbolite ampere the System International (SI) unit for electric current. or power amplitude height measured vertically from base to top A amplitude anomaly a seismic reflection with an unusually high or low amplitude such as a bright or dim spot amplitude log a wireline well log that records the amplitude of the wave train that has passed through the rocks adjacent to the wellbore or casing. 3) An extension below a drillstem test tool that supports the weight applied to the tool to set the packer. Water is then injected into the reservoir to drive the chemicals and oil toward producing wells. magnesium. Straddle packers use steel prongs called dogs instead of an anchor.5 times the target depth are shot. Amt or amt amount AMTV active mud tank volume A-MUD aerated mud An anorthite an annulus anaerobic the absence of free oxygen in contrast to aerobic. analog recording a recording of a variable by recording another variable that has a direct relationship. Anaerobic bacteria obtain their oxygen from the reduction of oxygen-containing compounds. The reflections from a subsurface reflector will have different amplitudes with varying offsets as a function of lithologies. (braided stream) anchor 1) an object or device that secures equipment. Early seismic was analog recorded by burning a trace on paper.

A angular a property of a sedimentary particle such as sand having sharp angles. survey. There are usually 8 or 10 anchors deployed symmetrically by anchor-handling boats. crooked or offset sub) angle valve a valve with a 90° turn in the base angstrom a unit of measure in the metric system equal to 10—8 cm. Angle dropoff is in contrast to angle of buildup. Angle of buildup is in contrast to angle dropoff. An angle sub is run between the mud or turbine motor and the lowest drill collar. or plot.16 anchor pattern • angular unconformity angle-build section the portion of a deviated well in which the deviation angle is increased angle buildup see angle of buildup angle control section the grooved portion of the drawworks drum on a drilling rig that guides the wire rope to a new wrap on the drum (crossover) angle dropoff the change in 7100 ft or 10 m of the inclination of a well section as the inclination is decreasing toward vertical. (angle buildup) angle of deviation the angle between a crooked or deviated hole and vertical (deflection. but no quartz. Andesite has a matrix density of 2. since erosion rounds particles. hole deviation or inclination) angle dropping assembly see pendulum assembly angle of dropoff see angle dropoff angle of incidence. Angiosperm pollen are often carried great distances by the wind and are common in sediments. drift angle. angle of buildup the change in 7100 ft or 10 m of the inclination of a well section as the inclination is increasing from vertical. drift. chemical etching. The angle is positive when the bit points above the well and_negative when it points below the well. reflection. (angle of dropoff) angle of attack the angle between the direction of the well inclination and the direction of the dip inclination angle of attack of bit the angle between the center line of a deviated well at the location of the bit and the center line of the bit. anchor string a short length (string) of casing that is run into the seabed to anchor the wellhead equipment on the seabed (foundation pile or outer conductor) anchor washpipe spear a fishing tool that is attached to a washover pipe. Andesite volcanoes are common along plate margins. low-torque or lowspeed. ancient document an instrument of writing that was recorded in a county or parish courthouse 30 or more years before it was offered in evidence. The washover pipe uses a jet of drilling mud to clean around a tubular fish at the bottom of hole. Flowering plants have existed from the Cretaceous period to the present. Angular particles indicate that the particle has not been transported very far. high-torque positive displacement motor with one or more bends built into the motor transmission or bearing area that is used to deflect a well with an almost constant hole curvature rate between 6° and 20° per 100 ft angle-build rate the change of inclination in a deviation well measured in 7100 ft (radius of curvature) . One of the connecting threads is machined with an angle to the axis of the sub. The spear is then released to stab into the fish to retrieve it. or refraction the angle between a wavefront and an interface angle of twist the azimuth change through which the drillstem must be turned to counter the downhole motor torque angle of wrap the length in degrees that a brake band wraps around a brake flange angle sub a small length of bent drillpipe that is used to kick off a deviated well. An ancient document can include a map. A bent sub can also be used as part of a fishing string to give the right approach angle to the fish for the fishing tool. and their pollen are used to determine the age and depositional environment of sedimentary rocks. Formation fluids flow into and up the anchor pipe (tailpipe) anchor spread the pattern of anchor lines and anchors on a semisubmersible or drillship. ANGL angle angle azimuth indicator an acoustic or electric instrument that is used to determine the angle on the flex joint below a semisubmersible drilling rig or drillship (riser angle indicator) angle-build assembly see fulcrum assembly angle-build motor a high-speed. on a guyed rig. The same anchors are also used for the completion rig and any workover rigs used on the same well. Angular unconformities can form stratigraphic petroleum traps. ANG angular frequency the ordinary frequency times 2ir ip angularity test a test that determines how much a well deviates from vertical (slope test) angular unconformity a buried erosional surface with the rock layers below the unconformity tilted at an angle. The angle sub can have a muleshoe orientating sleeve and key to determine the actual orientation of the bottomhole assembly in the well. (bent. An Cpt Ser™ analog computer service and andesine andesite a dark-colored volcanic rock that is aphanitic (very small crystals) and has plagioclase feldspar mineral grains. anchor pattern the pattern of microscopic irregularities on a metal surface that has been treated with sand blasting. or some other technique to improve its adhesiveness for surface coatings anchor piling a pile that is cemented into a shallow borehole on the seafloor and is used to moor a drillship or semisubmersible anchor pipe the section of perforated pipe below a packer in a drillstem test. A Vi" angle sub will give an angle change of 2c-37l00 ft and a 2° bent sub will give 6°-87l00 ft.70 gm/cc. This gives the sub a Vf-2V-i bend. ANG angular ang angle angiosperm pollen the dust-sized reproductive particles given off by a flowering plant.

The lower the temperature.anh • annular packoff 17 angular unconformity anh anhydrite anhedral a mineral grain that lacks crystal faces or has been rounded by erosion. Anhydrite has a matrix density of 2. annular blowout preventer annular blowout preventer or annular preventer a closing device at the top of the well above the ram preventers on a blowout preventer stack that will close the well with either a kelly. anhy.977 gm/cc. at which equal amounts of the chemical aniline and an oil will completely mix. Anhydrite is gypsum without water in the crystal and readily alters to gypsum. Indirect evidence (trace fossils) such as burrows and tracks are more common. Anisian a global age of geological time that occurred from about 245-240 m. pipe. and an interval transit time of 54 (tsec/ft. ANHY. or anhy anhydrite ANHYC anhydritic anhyd anhydrite anhydrite 1) a common salt evaporite mineral or rock composed of CaSO4. sleeve blowout. The annular preventer uses a reinforced oval-shaped elastomer or hard-rubber packing element that is squeezed with a piston activated by hydraulic pressure from accumulators to close the well. Annelids have existed from the Precambrian Era (?) to the present but are rare as fossils because they lack of hard parts. annelid a worm-like invertebrate with a segmented body and belonging to the phylum Annelida. Annual capital charge is the net cash flow sufficient for an adequate rate of return and the recovery of full capital costs. the lower the aniline point. anh. usually expressed in °F. It is part of the Middle Triassic epoch. Anhy. annual acreage rental see delay rental annual capital charge a method for ecomonic evaluation of a discounted cash flow. (challenge clause) anniversary date the effective date of a lease. or wireline in the well. ago. The aniline point gives an evaluation of the oil's use in an oilbased drilling mud. Examples of anions are Cl~ and SO4" ~. nonionic. y. the more severe the effect. or bag preventer) annular packoff 1) a sealing mechanism that contains the annular pressure between a suspended tubular or hanger and the head or spool through which the tubular passes or the hanger is suspended . The operator then has the right to meet the challenge or forfeit the right to continue to operate. Anhydrite occurs as white to slightly colored beds or seams in sedimentary rocks. anisotropic uneven in composition and/or texture in contrast to isotropic ani anisotropy a substance that is anisotropic and is not uniform in any direction ankle buster a drilling rig with peddle clutches annealing to heat or temper a substance and then cool slowly. Annealing forms a very thin and hard surface to steel that resists corrosion. water-soluble group. CaO is the anhydrite of Ca(OH)2 anhydrous without water ani anisotropic aniline point the lowest temperature. An anionic surfactant is in contrast to a cationic. The lighter or more paraffinic the oil. An anion is in contrast to a cation. anion surfactant an organic molecule with a negatively charged. The closing pressure on the rubber seal can be eased to allow drillpipe to be removed in a process called stripping. or amphoteric surfactant. ahd ANHY. The anniversary date is the date on which payment must be made to the lessor for delay rental or shut-in in order to maintain a lease. annual production decline rate one minus (the production rate at the end of any year divided by the production rate at the beginning of the year). (spherical blowout. Sucker rods are annealed. Anhy. or anhyd 2) a substance formed by the removal of water from another substance For example. The annual decline rate is expressed as a decimal or percentage. or with an open wellbore. d annubar a device that is used to measure fluid velocity. The aniline point is an indication of the character of the oil and the oil's deteriorating effect on materials made of natural or synthetic rubber. An annubar averages pitot tube measurements at four impact pressure points. Annie Oakley clause a provision in an agreement such as a joint operating agreement in which a nonoperator has the right to challenge the operator by offering to conduct operations on a more favorable basis. a matrix velocity of 20. Anhedral is in contrast to euhedral. The annular preventer has a lower pressure rating than the pipe rams and a higher risk of failure under high pressure. anion a negatively charged ion.000 ft/ sec.

whereas. organic-rich sediments can be deposited on the bottom of the basin. ANSI American National Standards Institute Anthr anthracite anthracite the highest rank coal Anthracite has the greatest heat and least volatile content and is formed by intense heat and pressure. Annular velocity is about 100 ft/min and depends on the pump rate and volume of the annulus. titanium. annular space see annulus annular stream pattern a stream drainage pattern that is characterized by several concentric. a doubly plunging anticline dips in opposite directions. A low-voltage direct current of 25-60 volts and several hundred amperes is generated between anodes that are usually permanent steel.C. anticlinorium a series of anticlines and synclines of regional extent antifoam. Anode is in contrast to a cathode. An anomaly is a local variation in a normal or regional pattern. a group of measurements. The anticlinal theory was first popularized by I. antifoamer. b) the tubing and casing. marine.18 annular space • antifoam. and have existed from the Ordovician period to the present. 2) the decrease of the diameter of the original drilled wellbore by well cuttings and/or the drilled formations. Anthrozoans are important reef builders and guide fossils. APR safety valve annunciator an audio-visual alarm or indicator anode an electrode at which oxidation occurs. or they can be bending folds formed by differential movement perpendicular to the bedding. An anode corrodes. (annular space) an or ANUL 2) a ring of interstitial water caused by mud filtrate invasion of a hydrocarbon-bearing formation annulus pressure-responsive safety valve a valve that is sensitive to the pressure in the annulus in a well and will automatically open to relieve excess pressure in the annulus. or heaving formations. or magnetite fittings and the structure. d) settling of solids. It is the positive terminal of an electrolytic cell or the negative terminal of a battery. The annulus pressureresponsive safety valve can be adjusted to any pressure threshold at the surface. (impressed current protection) anticline anticline a large. or antifoaming agent an additive that prevents foaming. The top of the anticline is called the crest. annular velocity the rate at which a fluid such as drilling mud is rising or falling in the annulus of a well. b) landslide. Anodic protection is similar in principle to cathodic protection but does not rely on sacrificial anodes. or c) the casing and the wellbore. and f) mud rings. antifoamer. or a structure that is significantly different than its surroundings. Anticlines are in contrast to synclines. anodic protection a method that retards electrochemical corrosion on large. Anticlines can be either buckling folds formed by tangential compression forces parallel to the bedding with stratal shortening. AV annulus 1) the space between a) the drillpipe and the wellbore. This can include a) cave-in. An annular stream pattern is formed by the erosion of a dome to expose alternating layers of soft and resistant formations. anoxic a chemically reducing environment anoxic basin a water-filled basin in which the bottom waters are oxygen deficient. (hard coal) Anthr anthrozoan an aquatic invertebrate that belongs to the class Anthrozoa in the phylum Coelenterata. Anticlines in reservoir rocks were one of the first types of petroleum traps recognized. and buried structures such as offshore platforms and pipelines. long arch of rocks that have been bent upward. anticlinal nose a plunging anticline without closure (nose or structural nose) anticlinal theory an early and correct theory that petroleum accumulates in the high area of reservoir rocks in anticlines. or antifoaming agent anomaly a general term for something such as a measurement. Anthrozoans include corals. A plunging anticline has an axis that dips in one direction. swelling. Geological examples might include a gravity anomaly of higher or lower gravity values on a gravity survey or a structure such as a dome on a seismic profile. Because of the lack of oxygen in the water. both solitary and colonial. Antifoam is often a . An anticline has rocks becoming older in age toward the core. and the center is called the axial surface. White in 1882. e) salt precipitation. c) creeping. ring-shaped streams.

wide. p^ is pore fluid density. It is computed by dividing the specific gravity of the fluid at 60°F into 141. and temperatures for which the cement is recommended.5. or organic phosphate that greatly increases surface tension. parish. The bearing arrangement can be either a) roller-ball-roller or b) roller-ballfriction. It includes Classes A. Antigall treatment is a coating of iron manganese phosphate or copper sulfate. C. apparent grain density a parameter used on a MID plot. H. API well number a 12-digit number that is assigned to each well drilled in the United States. antiform a fold that is concave upward. p^^ . The average Mid-Continent shale has about 100 API gamma ray units. corrosive environments. and the depth column is 3/4 in. CAPI or gravity) API log grid the standard format used for recording wireline well logs. Each track is 2lA in. I.P. Antithetic faults are in contrast to synthetic faults and are a type of secondary faults anti-top-lease provision a special provision in an agreement such as a farmout that prevents the parties from top leasing the land included under the agreement ANUL annulus ANYA allowable not yet available AOCS American Oil Chemists Society AOF absolute open flow AOFP absolute open flow potential AOGA Alaska Oil and Gas Association AOS automatic oil skinner AOSC Association of Oilwell Servicing Contractors ap appears apatite fission track analysis a method that uses the length of ionization tracks from U238 disintegrations in the mineral apatite that is inversely proportional to the temperature of the mineral to analyze the thermal history of the rock. Light oils range from 35° to 45° and heavy oils are less than 25° API. Polyethylene glycol is commonly used as an antifoam agent in cement. Antiform is in contrast to synform and a neurtal fold.I. Digits 6 through 1Q identify the individual well. to a maximum value that approaches the true dip at an angle near perpendicular to the strike. Fresh water has 10° API. An antisludge agent is a surface-active chemical that prevents the formation of a thick sludge that could reduce formation permeability. wide. API neutron unit a standard unit used for neutron logs that are calibrated in the American Petroleum Institute's neutron test pit at the University of Houston API sand solid particles in drilling mud that are larger than 74 \x. API gravity a scale reflecting the density of a fluid such as crude oil. APO after payout APOA Arctic Petroleum Operators Association app appearance apparent bed thickness the thickness of a sedimentary rock bed not measured perpendicular to the bedding plane in contrast to true bed thickness apparent dip the angle that a plane such as a bedding plane or fault plane makes with horizontal. The depth column has one track on the left and two tracks on the right. water. Aphanitic texture includes microcrystalline and cryptocrystalline textures and is in contrast to phaneritic. AFTA A-PEL aluminum pellets aph aphanitic aphanitic an igneous rock texture with mineral grains too small to be seen by the naked eye.5 and subtracting 131. The tracks can have either a linear or logarithmic scale. the expected API cement class an oil well cement classification by the American Petroleum Institute. antifriction bearings the bearings that rotate in a circle around the journal on a leg of a roller-cone bit to allow the cone to turn. antileasing provision a special provision in a farmout that prevents a farmee from leasing in the area of farmout acreage antisludge agent an additive that is used during acidizing a reservoir containing heavy asphaltic oil. antithetic faults 19 antithetic fault relatively minor fault that is parallel to a major fault but has displacement opposite that of the major fault. aph API American Petroleum Institute A. Apparent grain density is equal to * _ /" f in which pb is bulk density from density log. Digits 3 through 5 are for the county. or natural gas. and J and is based on depths. E. or offshore. and Digits 11 and 12 record a property of the well such as sidetracking. The perpendicular measurement is called true dip. strength and pressures. antigall treatment the conditioning of threads on tubulars such as drillpipe to receive and retain lubricants. Crude oils generally range from 6° (very heavy) to 60° (very light). Average oils range from 35° to 25° API. API gamma ray unit a standard unit of gamma ray measurement that is calibrated in the American Petroleum Institute's test pits at the University of Houston.antiform • apparent grain density silicone. provided that it is not measured perpendicular to the strike or horizontal direction of that plane. alcohol. D. <(>ra is apparent total porosity. B. G. Digits 1 and 2 are codes for the state. F. The apparent dip will vary from almost zero when measured at a low angle to the strike of the plane. °API is the preferred term.

and minimum ultimate production curve. is the resistivity of the formation waters that is usually obtained from water samples in nearby wells or is calculated from the spontaneous potential log. apparent velocity the apparent wavelength times the frequency.0/$m. Appraisal wells are often cored. yellowish.2. F is the formation resistivity factor. Arag or arag arc cutter a downhole assembly used to deviate a well arch 1) a long uplift An arch is an anticlinal fold of regional scale. AR acid residue Ar argon A. but is commonly 1. Va apparent viscosity 1) the viscosity of a fluid flowing through a porous rock that it shares with another fluid (effective viscosity) 2) the viscosity of a fluid measured in an instrument at a stated rate of shear. y. ago.20 apparent liquid density • Archie's equation or formula APR safety valve automatic pressure responsive safety valve APRT advance petroleum revenue tax APRX approximate APT additional profits tax Aptian a global age of geological time that occurred about 115-108 m. Archeo Archie's equation or formula an empirical formula used in well-log analysis to evaluate the hydrocarbon content of a reservoir. and the drilling mud. The ultimate cumulative percent oil production per well is plotted versus the first year's production per well to yield an average. Apparent matrix transit time 1 -• ' time-average relationship and A? —— field-observed relationship in which A? is sonic log interval transit time. approx or apprx approximately APR annulus pressure responsive apr apparent apron ring the lowest section of metal plates on a tank is equal to • At — <$>laAtf 5W is water saturation. $ta is apparent total porosity. ago. aq aqueous Aquagel™ a type of bentonite used to condition drilling mud and to lubricate the bit Aquapulse™ a sleeve exploder that is used as a marine seismic source. aquitard a rock that is impermeable and does not allow fluids to pass. Apparent resistivity differs from true resistivity because of borehole effects. apparent wavelength the distance between similar points on a wave measured at an angle to the wavefront. where 3> is porosity of the reservoir rock. aquasorption process a water washing process in a contact tower that is used to sweeten natural gas aqueous from water aquifer a porous and permeable rock that contains water Aquitanian a global age of geological time that occurred about 25-23 m..68. An ultimate production per well is plotted versus daily production of oil per well during the first year to give an average. It is part of the Lower Miocene epoch. appraisal well a well drilled after a discovery well to gain more information on the producing reservoir such as the elevation of the oil-water contact. tnmaa or t. and minimum cumulative production percentage curve.. or gray and is common in coral and mollusk shells and oolites. It is part of the Lower Cretaceous epoch. adjacent beds. It occurred about 4500-2500 m. It is measured in centipoises (cp) from a direct reading viscometer at 600 rpm and is a function of the fluid's plastic viscosity and yield point. 2) see sand arch Archean rocks formed during Archeozoic time Archeo Archeozoic Archeozoic a subdivision of the Precambrian era of geological time.7 psi and 60°F apparent matrix transit time a parameter used on a MID plot. y. The true wavelength will be smaller than the apparent wavelength and is measured at 90° to the wavefront. F can be calculated from the formula F = 1. A propane and oxygen mixture is exploded by a spark plug in a thick rubber bag that is called a sleeve.0 to 30. y. and m is the cementation factor for the reservoir rock which varies from 1. maximum. It states that: apparent liquid density the mass of gas divided by the volume of gas dissolved in a liquid at 14. Examples are shale and salt layers. Multiple arrays are often used. the invaded zone. A^ is pore fluid transit time and c is a constant equal to about 0. Ru. relative amplitude Arag or arag aragonite aragonite a common mineral that has the chemical formula CaCO3. An appraisal well is a step-out or delineation well. ago. the same as the mineral calcite. maximum. Their properties are similar but aragonite is slightly harder and denser and has a different crystal structure and is less stable than calcite.6 to 2. An aquitard is in contrast to an aquifer. Aragonite is white.^ apparent resistivity the recorded resistivity on a resistivity well log. appd approved apple a small object such as a nut or bolt that falls to the drill floor of a rig apple butter belt dressing apportionment the division of royalties between interest owners of the land apportionment account an account that accumulates expenses for a period with the account being credited for activities on some predetermined basis apportionment rule a rule in some states that royalties from a lease on property that was subdivided after the lease was granted are to be divided proportionately between the property owners appraisal curve a graph used to predict the ultimate recovery of wells producing from the same reservoir but with different initial productions. .

Argon is sometimes found with natural gas. y. EA. AREN or aren arenaceous arenaceous sandy AREN or aren arene see aromatic Arenigian a global age of geological time that occurred about 490-485 m. conglomerates and limestones with relatively large amounts of the mineral feldspar. The height to which the areometer floats depends on the density of the liquid. ARG or arg argillite or argillyte 1) a hard. The grains are angular to subangular and sorting is poor to moderately well sorted. and the metal. (psammite) areometer a tube-shaped instrument that is made of glass with a weighted lower end and a scale printed on its upper end. Ark. . An arkose contains a large percentage of quartz grains but also has more than 25% feldspar minerals and some minor clay minerals and cement. graywackes. One API oil gravity areometer is used to measure crude oils 10°-45° API gravity and another 45°-90°. area of mutual interest a specific area that has been denned by two or more parties where each party. and 2 mm. The formula is accurate only with clean sandstones and carbonates. Archimidean screw a type of artificial lift in which a spiral activated by a rotating sucker-rod string driven by a motor at the surface lifts the oil arc-plasma torch an underwater cutting and welding torch that feeds gas through a nozzle in a copper anode. An area of mutual interest is sometimes confused with a working interest area in which the parties share in the development of the net lease acreage. compacted shale or mudstone that has fewer laminations than shale. AMI area rate clause A provision in some gas contracts that allows for an increase in gas price if permitted by a government regulatory agency. or Ea areawide pricing a regional wellhead price ceiling for interstate gas producers.0. The original definition of aromatic implied fragrant compounds. no fissility that is found in shale and no slaty cleavage 2) a shaly rock that has been naturally cemented by calcite (pelite) argl argillites very fine-grained sediments with a diameter less than 2 \i. It is designed to float in a liquid. ago. Archie who first presented the equation in 1941 and published it in 1942. closed ring. argl argl argillite argon a colorless. The principle aromatic hydrocarbons are the BTX group (benzene. arenite sand-sized sediments with a diameter between 40u. arc weld a method used to join metals by an electrical current discharge in an arc between a welding rod. or seismic option. armor the steel wire surrounding the insulated electrical conductors on a survey cable armature the coils of wire a) into which an electrical current is induced in a generator or b) that produce a torque in an electric motor arm's-length transaction a transaction between unaffiliated companies ARO at the rate of arom aromatics H C H I C H H II c C I H aromatic (benzene) c I c H aromatic a type of hydrocarbon molecule found in crude oils that is formed by an unsaturated. can proportionally share in the costs and ownership of acreage acquisitions with the other parties. joint operating agreement. (hydrometer) ARG or arg argillaceous 21 argillaceous shaly. and subtracting 1. Ar ARK. Areawide pricing was used by the Federal Power Commission in the 1960s. toluene. cumene. E^. which is read off the scale. at their option.5. shaly formations give erroneous results. A mudwater hydrometer is used to determine drilling mud density. The equation is named after George E. The arm is opened by electric motor and held against the wall by spring tension. and ethylbenzene. (granite wash) ARK. fruity smell. The area of mutual interest is often defined in a contract such as a farmout. It is part of the Lower Ordovician epoch. which is an electrode.8 to 2. An arc of ionized gas occurs between the copper anode and the hard metal cathode. area rental monies paid in installments during a period of production licence in the United Kingdom and Norway areal sweep efficiency The fraction of the area that is effectively swept by injected fluids during enhanced oil recovery. and xylene). Crude oils rich in this type of molecule have a sweet. Ark or ark arkosic a term used to describe sandstones.Archimidean screw • aromatic Rt is the true formation resistivity. An arkose is the result of rapid erosion and deposition. The heat generated by the arc melts both the welding rod and the metal to form the bond. Arenites are in contrast to rudites and pelites. or ark arkose ARKIC arkosic arkose a pink-to-buff colored sandstone derived from the erosion of a granite. but is commonly 2. ARKIC arm 1) to prepare a perforating gun ror firing 2) the lever or bow spring on a wireline sonde that is used to either centralize or press the tool to the opposite side of the borehole. styrene. It is measured from the resistivity log. Hydrocarbon saturation is calculated by solving for Su. arenites. The saturation exponent n ranges from 1. odorless inert gas.

22 arpent • ASGMT or asgmt the connections. An example is benzene (C6H6). They include insects. An articluated platform is used primarily for flaring gas and to moor and load tankers. artificial intelligence a computer process that simulates human thinking. articulated pipe drillpipe in 1-ft sections that form interlocking segments with up to 2° flexibility between artesian well . Buoyancy tanks keep the structure floating vertically. The equation implies that the reaction rate doubles for every 10° C (18° F) increase in temperature. The general formula is CnH2n_6. it uses creative solutions. asbestos felt pipe coating material made of asbestos saturated with asphalt asbr absorber ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers ASGAS associated gas ASGMT or asgmt assignment Simple aromatic compounds in crude oil cause fluorescence of the oil. The recharge area for the aquifer is higher in elevation than the wellhead. Arrival time can be with or without corrections. arrival the appearance of a new wavetrain or event on a seismic display arrival time the time difference between the shot and the arrival or appearance of a wave train or event on a seismic display. and d) electric submersible pump. y. The lower end can be fixed with a universal joint to a concrete and steel base on the seafloor. E is the activation energy of the reaction. The array is used to attenuate horizontal waves. The most common methods are a) sucker-rod pump. Most arrays are in line but some are areal. Arrival time can be with or without static and dynamic corrections. 3) a group of shotpoints that are fired at the same time 4) the configuration of electrodes on a wireline sonde used in well logging arrestor see surge chamber Arrhenius equation an equation that relates chemical reaction rates to the temperature. articulate brachiopod a type of marine invertebrate with two shells (bivalved) that are dissimilar. The equation is k = Ae~E/RT in which k is the rate constant. It is part of the Lower Permian epoch. Petroleum exploration with its many factors that affect decisions. fibrous silicate minerals. They are guide fossils for the Paleozoic era. articulated platform an offshore platform with the lower end fixed to the seafloor and the upper end free to move. The articulate type of brachiopods have hingement with teeth and sockets for movement of the shells and have existed from the Lower Cambrian epoch to the present.833 ft array 1) the pattern of a group of geophones or shotpoints 2) a group of 6 to 24 geophones about 100 ft across that are attached to a single recording channel. is a possible application of artificial intelligence. Asbetos is used as a drilling mud additive to improve carrying capacity. Instead of working through programmed steps to solve a problem. c) gas lift. ago. and trilobites. such as drilling an exploratory well. Arthropods have existed from the Cambrian period to the present. arrival time the time that it takes a particular wave phase of seismic energy to travel from the shot to a reflector and back to the detector that records it during seismic exploration. AS after shot A. R is the universal gas constant and T is the temperature in "Kelvin. The process utilizes a knowledge base and can learn from mistakes. (arene or benzene) arom arpent a French unit of length used in southern Louisiana that varies with location but is generally 191. AI artificial island a shallow-water drilling platform made with gravel or boulders artificial lift a mechanical method that is used to assist in lifting crude oil in a well to the surface. arrow plot a type of dipmeter display artesian ground water under hydrostatic pressure artesian well a well in which the fluid flows to the surface under its own pressure. arthropod an advanced type of invertebrate with a segmented body and external hard parts that belongs to the phylum Arthropoda. Artinskian a global age of geological time that occurred about 275-270 m. Ninety-four percent of oil wells in the United States use artificial lift. b) hydraulic pump. Articulated pipe is used in drilling horizontal wells. A is the Arrhenius constant. crustaceans. amplitude of shear wave ASA American Standards Association ASAP as soon as possible asbestos a generic name for a group of naturally occurring.

They have high molecular weights (500-1.ash • asphaltene 23 GAS LIFT SUCKER ROD PUMP ELECTRIC SUBMERSIBLE PUMP artificial lift ash the noncombustible residue left after burning a substance such as a hydrocarbon Ashgillian a global age of geological time that occurred from about 450-425 m. The thrusters have controlled pitch propellers to adjust the position of the drillship. ask system a method used to keep a drillship on station. The system is still used but not in deep water where a hydro-acoustic position system is used. It is found in most crude oils. If the ship drifts off the drillsite because of waves. Asphaltines are soluble in carbon disulfide but not in normal heptane or paraffin naptha.0 00. sulfur. or talc with asphalt that is applied hot to pipes before they are buried to prevent corrosion asphaltene a general term that includes any solid. or wind. y.0 Asph or asph asphalt-base crude oil a crude oil that contains little or no paraffin but has an asphalt residue upon distillation. ago. Asphalt is used in oil-base drilling fluids. and oxygen. Natural asphalt deposits are formed by degradation of crude oil by evaporation. currents. Asphalt-base crude oil is dominated by the napthenic hydrocarbon compounds. Another system uses prepositioned radio transmitters on fixed structures such as production platforms that transmit signals to the antenna on a vessel.0-8.0-85 8.5-11 2. water washing.500) and are composed primarily of carbon and hydrogen with lesser amounts of nitrogen. and/or evaporation. a computer aboard the drillship detects it from the seabed sound transmissions and uses the ship's thrusters to put the drillship back on station. positioning system or stationing) ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASNT American Society for Non-Destructive Testing ASOFR acid sand/oil frac ASOBL associated oil ASP 1) acoustic scope picture 2) apparent spontaneous potential ASPH asphaltic oil Asph or asph 1) asphalt 2) asphaltic asphalt a dark brown to black. The early ask systems used the angle on a taut wire secured by a clump weight. emulsifiers. When burned it leaves a tar-like residue. Transponders or beacons are positioned on the seabed. fluid-loss agents. (dynamic positioning. dark brown to black bitumen that occurs either dissolved or dispersed in crude oil or by itself in sediments. Asphalt has very high molecular weights and melts above 20°C (70°F).0-2. The basic structure of asphaltenes is aromatic rings with 3-10 or more rings per molecule. Asphalt is composed of bitumen and is soluble in carbon disulfide and insoluble in normal heptane.1. The oil is black in color and tends to have low °API and a low pour point. It is part of the Upper Ordovician epoch. solid or very viscous liquid that is composed almost entirely of hydrocarbons. It has a specific gravity between 1. Pure asphalt is formed naturally by a variety of processes that affect crude oil and by refinery processes that remove the lighter fractions from crude oil. clay. Asphaltenes can be precipitated by bubbling gas through an oil . This is used to determine range and bearing. Most of the world's oil is mixedbased or is paraffin-base. (naphthene-base crude oil) asphalt enamel pipe coating made of ground mica. An average asphalt chemical analysis by % weight C H S N 80.0 and 1. and wall-plastering agents. soapstone. lost circulation material. which distinguishes it from heavy oil. Solid asphalt is known as asphaltite. Asphalt in the United States is the same as bitumen in England. Asphalt-base crude oil represents about 15% of the world's oil supply. The signals are picked up by hydrophones (usually four) on the semisubmersible or drillship and sent to a computer for processing.

AID assn or assoc association associated gas natural gas that is in contact with crude oil in the subsurface reservoir. The asthenosphere is less rigid than the lithosphere and seismic waves are strongly attenuated in it. The axial surface or center of the fold is not vertical and will migrate horizontally with depth.24 asphaltic • Atokan the drawworks brake and maintains the mud pumps and circulation equipment. If production of associated gas will not substantially affect the recovery of crude oil. and glance pitch. It is part of the Pennsylvanian period. y. It is often related in volume to an oil allowable. 3390 ft of fresh water. Asphaltic bitumen is soluble in organic solvents. AT 1) acid treatment 2) after treatment a(t) autocorrelation function ATA accrued treasury assets atm atmosphere atmosphere a unit of pressure equal to the pressure of air at sea level which is 14. on an associated gas well that also produces oil. The gas allowable is based on the equivalent volume of oil. grahamite.325 kPa. assem.6959 psi. assigned when earned an agreement in a farmout in which the farmee is not assigned an interest until after the earning conditions such as drilling a well are satisfied.M. Types of natural asphaltites include gilsonite. One limb will be steeper than the other. assgd assigned assign to transfer. (barometric pressure) atmospheric-pressure oil stabilized oil existing under surface conditions of temperature and pressure (60°F and 1 atm). ago. ASGAS associated gas well allowable the amount of natural gas that a government regulatory agency allows a well or leasehold to produce per unit of time from wells draining a free gas cap. It occupies a separate portion of the reservoir and is wet gas. Assessment can be either mandatory or optional. or 760 mm of mercury. asphaltic containing significant amounts of asphalt asphaltic bitumen a low-temperature reservoir bitumen that formed by the degradation of liquid hydrocarbons by evaporation. assignee a person or company who receives an assignment or transfer of interest such as an oil and gas lease assignment the conveyance that transfers an interest in a property or a contract from an assignor to the assignee. asphaltic sands a sandstone that is cemented together with a natural. there is a penalty for noncompliance. An atmosphere is equal to 1. the amount of gas production permitted per time by a government regulatory agency. Resins are similar to asphaltenes. Atmospheric pressure is 14. water washing. black bitumen. asphalt plant a facility that buys basic sediment and water and recovers crude oil from it (recycling unit) ASSE American Society of Safety Engineers Asselian a global age of geological time that occurred from about 290-285 m. and gilsonite. glance pitch. a government regulatory agency can reclassify it as nonassociated gas.6959 psi at sea level and decreases with altitude. The assistant driller often relieves the driller on . Associated gas is in contrast to nonassociated and dissolved gas. assem. 1. (lease crude or stock-tank or stocktank oil) Atokan a North American epoch of geological time. It is part of the Lower Permian epoch. assemblage assemblage a group of fossils that occurs and defines a specific level in the rocks. Stabilized oil exists after the oil has been processed through separators to remove solution gas and water.S.01325 bar. solid. reservoir and can form a tar mat at the oil/water contact. soft asphalt asphaltine a bitumen that melts above 110°C. 101. and/or microbial activity into asphalt and pitch. Asphaltine is black to dark brown in color and is soluble in CS2 and chloroform but only partially soluble in CC14. Asphaltite is soluable in carbon disulfide but not in paraffin naptha and fuses above 230°F. hard. Assigned when earned is in contrast to a present assignment. associated reservoir allowable a special reduced gas allowable. assembly equipment composed of numerous individual pieces that is used for a particular purpose assessment additional capital that is requested from an investor after the initial investment.01 x 105nt/m2 atm atmospheric pressure the pressure exerted by the weight of the column of air in the atmosphere. The fraction that is soluble in CS2 but not in CC14 is called carbenes. Asphaltite is an asphaltene. If it is optional or voluntary and the investor declines. An assignment is assigned from the assignor to the assignee.T. An asymmetric fold is in contrast to a symmetric fold. American Society for Testing and Materials astn asphaltic stain asymmetric fold a fold in rocks such as an anticline in which the limbs or sides are not similar and have different dips on them. ASTM or A. asphaltite a naturally occurring. ass wagon a dolly that was used to move heavy equipment such as pipe on a drill floor ass work heavy work done by hand astern toward or behind the back (stern) of a ship or offshore drilling rig asthenosphere the portion of the earth located just below the ltthosphere starting at a depth of about 60 mi. Asphaltine goes by such local names as manjak. asgmt assignment clause a provision in an oil and gas lease that requires the lessor to give notice to the lessee of any changes in ownership (change of oumershp clause) assignor the party who grants or transfers an assignment or an interest such as an oil and gas lease assistant driller a drilling contractor employee who assists the driller on that tour on an offshore drilling rig.

The clay minerals are light weight. frequency. attenuation the reduction in amplitude or energy of a wave such as a seismic wave attenuator a device used to reduce the amplitude of a wave or signal. and fibrous. AUTH or auth authorized authg authigenic authigenic a mineral that was formed by chemical reactions after the sediments were buried in the subsurface. The attribute. The attic contains the water table that holds the crown block. The bit jars are screwed into them. (sinker bar guide) aulacogen a long-duration. The temperatures and pressures under which authigenic minerals form are not high enough to be termed metamorphic. is plotted at each shot point and contoured. The railing that goes around the attic is called the pigpen. The atoll is surrounded by deep water and does not have a central island. (crown platform or crow's nest) 2) the derrick board on a rotary rig attic man a derrickman on a rotary drilling rig attic oil oil that occurs in the very top of the reservoir.atoll • authigenic clay minerals 25 atoll atoll a relatively large (1 to 80 mi in diameter). It is used to make nonmagnetic drill collars. Because there may not be a well located on the very highest point of the reservoir. An auger drill is often used for shot holes. some attic oil is often left in every reservoir that is drained. 1 PROTON 1 ELECTRON HYDROGEN 2 PROTONS 2 NEUTRONS 2 ELECTRONS HELIUM 8 PROTONS S NEUTRONS S ELECTRONS OXYGEN 32 PROTONS M S NEUTRONS 92 ELECTRONS URANIUM atom atom the smallest particle that has all the properties of an element. atomic number the number of electrons or protons in the atom of an element. All matter is composed of atoms in chemical combinations that form compounds. circular or elliptical reef with a central lagoon. (pafygorskite) attapulgite cement a slurry formed by adding dry cement to water with prehydrated attapulgite It is used as a lost circulation material. The attic is accessed by the derrick ladder. a attributable acreage the acreage that is assigned to a well for the purpose of determining an allowable where there is an acreage factor in the allowable formula attribute a particular characteristic of data. attic 1) a platform that goes around the crown of the derrick on a drilling rig. attitude 1) the horizontal orientation of a line or plane 2) the angular orientation of a camera or the photograph used in aerial photography atto the metric prefix for 10~18.Al)2Si4Oj0 (OH) • 2H2O. Attapulgite is a colloidal clay that is used to increase the viscosity of drilling and completion fluids and develops a gel when mixed with salt water. The nucleus of the atom is composed of protons and neutrons while electrons orbit in shells about the nucleus. Attapulgite has high viscosity in both fresh and salt water. atomic weight the relative weight of the average atom of a element based on the carbon 12 isotope being exactly 12. No air or mud is circulated when drilling. authg authigenic clay minerals clay minerals that have precipitated out of subsurface waters (neoformed clays) or formed from the alteration of a precursor . and both the attic and pigpen are called the duck's nest. auger man a rotary driller auger stem four bars of iron that are fitted to the auger stem of a cable-tool rig to form a heavy steel shaft that prevents deviation of the well. An attenuator is usually calibrated in decibels. in numerical form. tough. attribute map a contoured map based on a seismic attribute. Aulacogens are often associated with a failed arm or an aborted continental pull apart due to plate tectonics. au augite audit a documented investigation auger a drill with long helical grooves that wind up the drillpipe to carry the cuttings to the top of the hole when the auger is rotated. Austenitic is in contrast to ferritic. Attic oil is not drained by wells that drain the reservoir from lower elevations. A atomize to spray a liquid through a small hole causing it to separate into numerous very small droplets attapulgite a group of clay minerals with a chainlattice and a chemical formula of (Mg. austenitic stainless steel A nonmagnetic alloy with over 16% chromium and over 1% nickel (which can be partially replaced by manganese) and iron. Austenitic stainless steel is in contrast to ferritic stainless steel which is magnetic. velocity. The atomic number of carbon is 6. and polarity. austenitic a nonmagnetic state of iron or an iron alloy. deeply subsiding depression bounded by large faults forming a trough or graben in a craton or continental interior. Seismic attributes include amplitude.

automatic catheads catheads with the catline spools mounted on roller bearings around the cat shaft with a friction clutch. The authorization for expenditure lists all the estimated costs of drilling the well with two results: a dry hole and a producer. Authigenic clays decrease the primary porosity in sedimentary rocks. back pressure valve. (in situ) autocorrelation a crosscorrelation in which a signal is correlated with itself. such as feldspar grain in a subsurface rock. It is used to analyze the economic feasibility of drilling the well and to keep costs under control when drilling the well. It is automatic on seismic amplifiers if the gain of each channel is independent of die other channels. This can result in a high water saturation estimate from well logs. Authigenic clays are responsible for formation damage as they can be dislodged from mineral grains and/or dispersed by drilling mud filtrate or other fluids injected into the formation adjacent to the wellbore. The equipment includes a pump. hydraulically. Autocorrelation is used in seimsic signal processing and can be used to determine the kind of deconvolution necessary.26 authority or authorization for expenditure • automatic slips at a later time with the wave form at an earlier time. An authorization for expenditure is also made before any major purchase. AFE (Authority For Expenditure) Dry Holt Drilling Intangibles Site Preparation Drilling Footage Cement and Surface Casing Logging Mud Completed Well Completion Intangibles Cement Perforating Frac or Acid Equipment Casing Tubing Pump Jock Separator Tanks Total Well Cost $_ authority for expenditure authority or authorization for expenditure a form that is filled out before drilling a well. Automatic custody transfer has a field sampling and measuring system for crude oil that works without manual input. It has not been transported. ACT automatic driller or automatic drilling control unit a hydraulic or pneumatic device that is connected to the drawworks brake handle on a drilling rig and maintains a predetermined weight on the bit without input from the driller (drilling control) automatic elimination clause a provision in a unit agreement that automatically eliminates certain lands from the unit area after a specific date unless certain developmental operations are not done (elimination clause) automatic feed control see automatic driller automatic fillup shoe a device with a pressureactivated valve that is used on the first joint of casing to regulate the amount of drilling mud flowing into the casing as it is run automatic gain control a device that regulates the amplification or attenuation of input signal strength coming into an amplifier. or pneumatically. AFE authorized total depth or authorized depth the total depth of a well that is approved by the operator on a drilling contract. They create microporosity which results in a high irreducible water content for the rock and a high water saturation. AD auto automatic autochthonous something that is found in the same place where it was formed. An automated shutdown can be manually reopened. BS&W monitor and oil meter. AGC automatic gas detector a sampling and analytical device that measures gas-cut drilling mud in the mud pits automatic gauge see automatic tank gauge automatic pump accumulator unit see accumulator automatic pump controller see percentage timer automatic rabbit washers used on the sucker rods of a pumping well to clean out paraffin automatic ram lock a mechanical lock that keeps the subsea blowout preventers closed if the hydraulic pressure is lost or released automatic shutdown a system with sensors that can stop a process if abnormal conditions are detected automatic slips a wedge-shaped device that is part of a modern rotary table and is powered by air or hydraulic fluid from a pedal at the driller's position material (transformed clays). automatic choke an orifice operated by power that is used to control the pressure on a flowing fluid automatic custody transfer a system designed to move oil from lease storage to a pipeline. auto-lock safety joint a pipe joint used on a fishing string that disconnects on tension or a quarter reverse turn when the string is caught automated shutdown a system on a producing well that is designed to react to the sensors such as highand low-pressure valves and storm chokes that detect abnormal downhole conditions and will automatically shut in the well. The autocorrelation function measures the statistical dependence of a wave form . They clog and bridge pore throats to decrease the permeability of the rock. Authigenic clays have high conductivity and reduce the resistivity of sedimentary rocks such as shaly sands. Automatic catheads are controlled manually.

automatic tank gage or gauge • azimuth bar on a drilling rig. W CREST axial surface axial plane or surface a surface formed by lines or axes along maximum bending of layers of rocks in a fold. The automatic slips are used to suspend the drillstring in the well.0247 xl023/mole avoirdupois a system of weights in which 1 lb equals 16 oz. AVP actual value profit Av. Two thousand lbs equals a short ton and 2. Auxiliary brakes are used to prevent wear on the main brakes. axial trace the line formed by the intersection of an axial surface on a fold with a topographic surface axial trend the azimuth or direction of a hinge line on a fold axis a line along the maximum bending of rock layers in a fold. Compressive forces are directed along a length of pipe when the pipe encounters a deviation or sticky spot in the well as it is being lowered into the well. AWT aux auxiliary auxiliaries secondary equipment on a drilling rig that is not directly involved in drilling the well. Seven thousand grains equals 1 lb. The axial surface is curved on an asymmetrical fold and is straight on a symmetrical fold. (power slips) automatic tank gage or gauge an instrument on a tank that uses a float on a line to show the height of a liquid in the tank automatic weight-on-bit control a device that uses the rig-weight indicator on the dead line to automatically maintain the constant required weight on the bit during drilling automatic well testing the automatic gauging and sampling of a well. Generators for rig lighting are an example of auxiliaries. Sp. The surface is essentially the center of the fold and symmetrically divides the fold. Tensional forces are directed along a length of pipe when the drill string is caught in a keyscat when tripping out. AV annular velocity AVC al) automatic volume control 2) automatic vent chamber avdp. axial tension outward-directed forces parallel to the long axis of an object. AZIMU or < ) > azimuth bar a reference point used to establish compass orientation on a permanent bench mark avulsion avulsion an abrupt change in the course of a river as it abandons one portion of a channel to erode another channel AW acid water aw salt water activity .240 lbs equals a long ton. Gr. avoirdupois AVG. av or avg average AVL acoustic velocity log AVO amplitude versus offset Avogadro's number 6. The axis separates the two limbs or sides of the fold and is essentially the center of the fold. Av. It is more correctly described as a surface rather than a plane. AZIMU azimuth azimuth 1) the horizontal angle (0°-360°) measured clockwise from true north in surveying 2) the horizontal angle measured clockwise between the face of a deviation tool in a well and magnetic north 3) the horizontal angle measured clockwise from magnetic north in well logging. avdp. axial compressor a type of gas compressor that compresses gas flowing from an inlet to the discharge along a long shaft with numerous short propellors or blades that are rapidly revolving axial load the total load or weight applied to a drilling bit. auxiliary brake a hydrodynamic or electrodynamic brake used to lower heavy loads at slow rates on a drilling rig.215 lbs t. average specific gravity 27 AWG American Wire Gauge AWS American Welding Society AWT automatic well-testing awtg awaiting ax axinite axial compression inward directed forces parallel to the long axis of an object. a. One pound avdp. equals 1.

white metal alloy usually made of tin.28 B • back-off wheel B B 1) formation volume factor 2) turbulence 3) magnetic induction 4) bottom of 5) angle between interface and bed 6) barrel 7) boundstone 8) cation mobility b 1) reciprocal of formation volume factor 2) bubble point 3) bulk 4) bank 5) burned 6) bubble 7) billion 8) bar (pressure) 9) radius of investigation B/ 1) base 2) bottom of BA barrels of acid babbit 1) a material that is similar to lead. 2) a pot with a long handle that is used to melt babbit {babbit ladle) see Babbit metal babbit ladle a pot with a long handle that is used to melt babbit (babbit) Babbit metal a soft. the overpull is increased and the assembly should unscrew near the free point. The stuck pipe then can be pulled with a fishing operation using a washover tool. the joints are all tightened with right-handed torque under tension or overpull. Background gas is the gas that is detected by mud logging when drilling through a homogeneous lithology. The other limb is called the forelimb. (back-in right) back-in option an agreement between two parties with working interests in a well. Backlash is due to the torque on the drillstring. In a blind back-off. A back-in unit is in contrast to a drive-in unit. The first party can then back in and share proportionally the working interest in the well. the well is plugged back and sidetracked. and antimony that is used in friction bearings Babbit metal is named after Isaac Babbit who discovered it. back band the brake band on a bull wheel drum of a cable-tool rig back brake the brake used on the sand-reel hoist of a cable-tool drilling rig backfill to replace soil dug from a ditch backflow fluid flow opposite the normal flow direction. back load to reload supplies from an offshore rig or platform to a supply boat back off 1) to unscrew a pipe coupling 2) to unscrew stuck pipe in a well. back-in farmout or back-in farm out a type of farmout agreement in which the grantor who has a retained nonoperating interest in the earning well can convert it at a later date into a specified undivided working interest back-in interest a carried share in a well that converts to a regular working interest at a specific time. backlash the turning of the rotary table on a drilling rig after the power has been shut off. Background gas is in contrast to zero gas and a gas show. 3) to raise the drill bit a short distance off the bottom of the hole 4) to slack off on a line 5) to let drilling line out of the drawworks back-off joint a section of pipe that has conventional right-hand threads on one end and left-hand threads on the other back-off shot see string shot back-off wheel a manual wrench in the shape of a . such as a seismic reflection event background gas natural gas in the returning. The babbit solidifies and holds the sand line in the rope socket which is used to attach tools. backlimb the shortest limb on an asymmetrical fold in sedimentary rocks. and a string shot is used to break and remove the free section. the other party can drill the well and recover a predetermined amount of revenue from the production. circulating drilling mud. Backflow is used in a well to remove or return treatment fluid from a well and to clean perforations. A left-handed torque is then placed on the assembly. copper. such as payout. Babbit is melted in a babbit ladle and poured into a rope socket. If the stuck pipe cannot be fished. background the noise that is not part of the signal. back-in provision a farmout agreement provision in which the farmor has the option of exchanging a retained override for a portion of the working interest back-in right see back-in interest back-in unit a self-propelled workover rig that is mounted on wheels. and retro-arc basins. such as drilling and completion costs from production. After one turn. (babbit) baby driller an inexperienced driller back the side of the drilling rig facing away from the V-door back-arc basin a basin located between an island arc and a continent. trench. This is done by locating the free point. The cab and mast are mounted on opposite ends so that it is backed up to the well. If one party elects to not participate in the drilling of the well. Back-arc basins characteristically contain volcanic sediments and are in contrast to forearc. The interest of a farmor in a farmout agreement or assignor (the party that turns over their interest) of a lease reverts to a specific share of the working interest for the farmor or assignor after the farmee or assignee (the party that receives the interest in the lease) has recovered specified costs. Slow left-handed torque applied by the pipe tongs with the swivel disconnected is then applied with overpull. The carried party bears no costs until back in. intra-arc.

Occasional crevasse splays can deposit coarse sediments in this environment. The most common type uses spring tension and pressure against a plunger to maintain the pressure. backpressure valve 1) a check valve that controls fluid flow rates to maintain a predetermined. Three types of back pressure valves are diaphragm. constant pressure upstream from the valve. 2) a check valve that is used in the drillstring to allow drilling fluids to be pumped down the well but to prevent fluids from flowing up the inside of the drillstring (drillstringfloat or drillstringfloat valve) backside pumping a method in which a prime mover pumps two wells at the same time with the upstroke of one well being balanced by the downstroke of the other well backsurge tool a downhole tool that is used to clean perforations. Backpressure is the pressure in a wellbore against which the fluid is flowing out of the reservoir and into the well. A plot yields a straight line which is the well's stabilized deliverability. Puy is the stabilized flowing bottomhole pressure. It is usually controlled from the surface with the use of chokes and valves and other techniques to reduce the pressure differential between the reservoir and the wellbore. The torque tongs are pulled by a rope or chain around a cat head. The static formation pressure (Ps) when the well is shut in and the flowing bottomhole pressures (Puj) at several different flow rates are measured. The backup curve has smaller scale and does not print until the primary curve goes off scale. spring and weighted lever. Ps = static bottomhole pressure in pounds per square inch absolute (psia) and Puf = flowing bottomhole pressure in psia.P. The backup tongs are held stationary by a chain or rope. The test can be used to calculate a) the maximum flow rate. backswamp a swampy or marshy area on the floodplains on a river located adjacent to the river levees. It is lowered into the well with atmospheric pressure in the chamber. A backsurging tool is used to create a sudden reduction in pressure in the well to atmospheric pressure.000 - 29 1000- 100 10 FLOW RATE backpressure test MMSCFD 100 backpressure test a test to measure a gas well's deliverability. (overbank) backtank see mud box back twist a turn by a wrench on the drilling line of a cable-tool rig in a direction opposite the line lay or winding. It unwinds the line that tends to twist in the direction of the lay.0 for laminar flow. or BP backpressure equation An empirical relationship between rate and flowing pressure in a normal singlephase gas well. and n is the reciprocal of the mathematic slope which is equal to 0. The backsurge tool consists of a treating packer and an atmospheric air chamber with two valves above and below the chamber. 2) the pressure maintained on a system through which a fluid flows 3) the resistance of exhaust gas to flow through an engine's exhaust pipe 4) the pressure at the outlet of a pressure relief system that is due to pressure in the discharge system. C is a coefficient.backpressure • backup wrench wheel that is used to break out a sucker-rod string when it is pulled from a well (circle wrench or wheeltype back-off wrench) backpressure 1) pressure against the face of the reservoir rock (sand face) in the wellbore. backup line the wireline that suspends the tongs on a drilling rig backup man a roughneck on a drilling rig who uses backup tongs to hold the pipe as another length of pipe is being screwed into or out of it backup post the Samson post on the floor of a drilling rig to which the snub line of the backup tongs is attached backup or back-up tongs a large wrench-like device used on the floor of a drilling rig to hold the drillpipe as it is being made up or broken out of the drillstring. Backpressure is often measured in pounds per square inch absolute (psia) at the surface and added to the weight of a column of fluid in the well. b) the effects of different size production strings on the flow rate. c) the effect of surface backpressure on flow and d) the flow rate at different static pressures. back up or backup 1) to hold a section of pipe as another section of pipe is either screwed on or off it 2) to hold a bolt as a nut is screwed on or off it backup corner the location on a drill floor that is given to a new hand (boll-weevil corner) backup curve a curve in a track on a well log that measures the same parameter as another curve in the same track called the primary curve. Ps is the static reservoir pressure. This reduces the rate of flow from the reservoir to the wellbore. The backswamp is covered with slow-moving or stagnant water during floods and is the site of fine-grained organic deposition.5 for turbulent flow and 1. The lower shock valve is opened to create the backsurge in the well. Ap is plotted on log-log paper versus Q where Ap = Ps2 — Pufand Q = the flow rate in MMSCF/d. back surging a process used in wells to clear out material clogging perforations in the casing. B. backup wrench a wrench or gripping device that holds a pipe or bolt from turning as something is screwed into or out of it . This causes a sudden flow of fluids through the perforations into the well to clean out the perforations. It also reduces the gas flow and the gas/oil ratio and will result in higher ultimate oil recovery. It is Q = C (Ps2-Pu/T where Q is the flow rate in standard volumes per day. backpressure regulator a valve that is operated by a diaphragm to maintain a constant upstream pressure while allowing fluid flow 10.

The bag preventer uses a reinforced oval-shaped elastomer or hard-rubber packing element that is squeezed with a piston activated by hydraulic pressure from accumulators to close the well. The bailer is a long tube with holes near the top and a sealed body. Bacteria remove the isoparaffins from crude oil first. Bacteria can be classified into aerobic bacteria which use oxygen from the air or water and anaerobic bacteria which breakdown chemical compounds to obtain oxygen. If the target is unproductive. A dart-bottom bailer has a check valve on the bottom. sucking sand and fluid into the bailer. and aid in separating the gas. bailout bottle a container of emergency breathing gas that is carried by a diver in case the umbilical hose breaks . The wiper plug seats on the baffle collar when it is pumped down the pipe. depressing the pour point of the oil. (biocide) bacteriostat a chemical or agent that prevents bacterial growth BACW barrels of acid water bad-faith trespasser an operator who drills and produces petroleum from land on which he does not have legal title bad oil 1) oil that has too high a basic sediment and water (BS&W) content to be accepted by a pipeline 2) an emulsion or mixture of oil and water (cut oil) BAF barrels per acre-foot baffle plates that are used in a separator to redirect the fluid flow direction. A dump bailer can deposit the fluids at a specific location in the well and is used to dump cement on a bridge plug. and spiral (spirilla). change the flow direction. The fluids enter the bailer through the ports near the top or through the check valve. The bag preventer has a lower pressure rating than the pipe rams and a higher risk of failure under high pressure. baffle plate a board across a fluid stream that is used to slow the velocity. decrease the fluid velocity. Bactericides used in drilling mud are lime. A hydrostatic bailer is lowered to the bottom of a well with atmospheric pressure in a chamber. bactericide a chemical or agent that will kill both pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria but may not kill bacterial spores. The sand pump has a check valve on the bottom with a piston just above it that is attached to a rod that runs up the bailer. and water baffle collar a small length of steel pipe with a constricted orifice on the inside. shorter molecules from crude oil by bacterial action leaving heavy oil. and down into the well where it is connected to the bailer. in contrast to float. and paraformaldehyde. The elevators hang from the other end of the bail. The line is wound around a bailing drum. The flapper-valve bailer has a hinged metal plate on the bottom that allows sediments to pass up into the bailer but closes when the bailer is raised. or automatic fill-up collars. sodium hydroxide. A baffle collar is used to connect two joints of casing during a cement job. wireline in the well. When the piston is pulled up from the bottom of the well. a port is opened and fill material is swept into the tool and trapped. (annular. On the bottom.30 backwash • bailout bittlee bail 1) to lower the fluid level in a well 2) to use a bailer or sand pump to remove fluids and well cuttings from the bottom of a well 3) a hanger-like device that is made of an inverted U-shaped. it acts as a plunger. oil. and asphalt that is usually sour. pipe. The baffle collar orifice does not have a valve. and to promote the mixing or separation of fluids bafflestone a limestone rock composed of stalkshaped organisms such as bryozoans or coralline algae that acted as baffles for water flow when the rock was deposited bag preventer a closing device at the top of the well above the ram preventers on a blowout preventer stack that will close the well with either a kelly. or with an open wellbore. bacterial degradation removal of lighter. the well can be completed in the bailout zone which does not have the potential production of the target. (bailing bucket) blr 2) see baler bailer crown-block a pulley on the crown block that is used to raise and lower the bailer bailer dart the protrusion on the bottom of a bailer that activates the valve when the bailer is lowered to the bottom of the well bailing 1) the process of using a bailer that is lowered on a bailing or sand line to remove well cuttings and fluids from the bottom of the well. It is designed to provide working distance between the traveling block and the elevators that are used to grip and lift or lower tubular goods in the well. goes up to sheave at the top of the derrick. Bailing is done after drilling every few feet on a cable tool rig. BAIL 2) see baling backwash to reverse the flow of a fluid through a filter to clean the filter bacteria unicellular microscopic organisms that have no chlorophyll and multiply by simple division. Most heavy oil is bacterially degraded oil. (links) 4) the eye on a downhole tool through which the wireline loops bail down to lower the level of a liquid in a well by using a bailer bailer 1) a tool that is run on a bailing or sand line that is used to remove fluids and sediments from a well. rod-shaped (baccilli). They occur in three forms: spherical (cocci). starch. (sand line) bailing tub a tank that is used to recover the produced fluids brought up a well by a bailer bail out to clean out bailout zone a potential producing formation in a well being drilled that is higher than the target to which the well is being drilled. The closing pressure on the rubber seal can be eased to allow drillpipe to be removed in a process called stripping. solid cylindrical steel bar that is suspended from the ears of a traveling block on a drilling rig. Bacteria have existed from the Precambrian era to the present. tar. differential. sleeve or spherical blowout preventer) BAIL bailing bailing bucket see bailer bailing drum 1) the reel on a cable-tool rig around which the bailing line is wound 2) see baling drum bailing line the cable that is used to lower a bailer to the bottom of a cable-tool-rig well during bailing.

balanced turn a section of a deviated well in which the hole is turned in equal amounts to the right and left balancing the adjustment of production from a well. Balanced drilling is in contrast to overbalanced and underbalanced drilling. The balanced cross section assumes an original. A baler was lowered from a baling drum into the well on a rope constructed of fine steel wire. The present bed volumes are measured and the assumption is made that no volumes have been gained or lost from the cross section. Jointed balers were used in crooked wells. A preflush followed by a cement slurry and spacer fluid is pumped down the drillstring. the drillpipe is slowly pulled out of the well to leave a balanced plug. the oil flowed to the settling tanks. The ballast can be steel. Balancing can be done by transferring either cash or petroleum.bajada • balled or balled-up bit bajada see debris apron Bajocian a global age of geological time that occurred from about 175-170 m. A balanced cross section is one that can be restored to represent an undeformed condition. Water ballast is used for stability and to raise and lower the semisubmersible in the water. it keeps the offshore platform in position. ballasted condition the condition on an offshore drilling rig when ballast is in position ballast tank a container for water ballast located in the pontoon or caisson of a semisubmersible drilling rig. The baling tub was a wooden tank about 6 ft in diameter and height. From the baling tub. bald-headed anticline or structure an anticline which is barren of production on the crest of the anticline due to the removal of reservoir rocks by erosion. Computers can be used to adjust the seawater ballast in tanks on an offshore rig to compensate for sea conditions and to sink or raise a semisubmersible to a certain level above sea level. floating ball that is connected to and opens and closes a valve. (buoyancy chamber) ball bearing a hardened-steel ball that is used to convert sliding friction into rolling friction. When the height of the cement column inside the drillpipe and the annulus reach the same level. ago. ballast the weight used by ships and offshore drilling rigs near the bottom of their hulls to make them seaworthy and keep them upright. balled or balled-up bit a drilling bit that has collected a mass of sticky well cuttings on its face. flows out of the drillstring and into the well. balanced-column cementing a method used to deliver a batch of cement into a well by lowering a drillstring filled with cement slurry into the well filled with drilling mud. Production comes from the flanks of the structure. being heavier than the drilling mild. assuming no materials have been moved in or out of the area represented by the cross section and the cross section displays admissible structures. (bailer) baling an old method used to raise oil to the surface 31 bald-headed anticline from a well. (scalped structure) bald-headed derrick a derrick on a drilling rig without a platform or attic at the top baler a long cylinder made of light steel iron that is up to 50 ft long and over 1 ft in diameter with a valve on the lower end. balanced a condition during production from a gas well in which the cumulative gas take of each party is equal to the amount that each party is entitled to under an operating agreement. BU bit . balanced-plug method a method for plugging back a well with cement using only drillpipe. It was used to raise and lower a baler on a rope made of fine steel wire into a well to bring the oil to the surface. The top of the plug can be adjusted to a certain height by reverse circulation. Ball-and-seat valves are used in sucker-rod pumps. finite volume of flat sedimentary rock beds before deformation. causing the bit to lose drilling effectiveness. ball cock a hollow. Balanced is in contrast to inbalanced. lease. The oil and baler were then raised to the surface and the oil was emptied into a baling tub. A valve is then opened on the drillstring and the cement slurry. A ball cock is used to control the fluid level in a container. y. balanced cross section a cross section that reverses the geological history. The seawater ballast can also be used to sink the rig into position on the seafloor and to raise it back to the surface. or reservoir so that each party that has an interest in the production gets their proportionate share. in diameter that was attached to a derrick and driven by a belt from a motor. Ball bearings often rotate in a ball race. balanced drilling drilling with the hydrostatic head generated by the drilling mud in the well equal to the formation pressure. It is part of the Middle Jurassic epoch. On a gravity structure. (bailing) baling drum a light reel up to 18 in. Balers were used to raise oil to the surface in some early oil wells. ball-and-seat valve a type of valve that uses a polished metal sphere and an orifice to allow fluid flow in only one direction. The ball supports the weight of the hook and drillstring below it while allowing them to turn. The beds are then diagrammatically restored to their original thickness and orientation to test the structural history of the area. but is often seawater on an offshore rig. (bailing drum) ball the link that connects the hook and swivel on a drilling rig.

The flow from the main line is diverted through the prover that contains a sphere or piston displacer. Line pressure forces the displacer through the prover. larger in diameter than the perforation. A ball valve is used to regulate and shut off the flow of fluids in a pipe. aluminum. Balling the bit often occurs when using a hard-formation bit with short teeth on a soft formation. It is used to transmit band wheel band wheel (off cable tool drilling rig chart) power from the engine to the walking beam. A ballistic prover is similar to a mechanical displacement prover but uses a smaller volume of liquid and compares flow rates rather than fluid volume. ball joint a connection between two pieces of equipment that can rotate due to a ball and socket joint (flex joint) ballooning the outward bulging of tubulars in a well due to internal pressure. barefoot completion a type of well completion in which the well is drilled to the top of the producing . The band wheel is attached to the engine by a belt and to the walking beam by the pitman which is attached to the band-wheel crank. The ball sealer is at least lA in. equal to 10~5 bar. (globe valve) band a specific range of frequencies or wavelengths. 106dyne/cm2 or about 1 atm (14.5 psi). Reverse ballooning occurs when the tubular is bent inward rather than outward in normal ballooning. bandwidth the specific range of frequencies within which an instrument is designed to operate bank 1) long ridge or mound of sediments formed by currents or waves 2) a concentration of fluid such as oil (oil bank) that moves cohesively through a reservoir BAR barrels of acid residue bar 1) barite 2) barrel bar 1) a general term for a long ridge of sand formed by waves or currents and oriented roughly parallel to the shoreline 2) a unit of pressure that is 105N/m2. 9-11 ft in diameter. A barchan has a crescent shape with the horns and slip face both facing downwind. The bit becomes hard to rotate. The party agrees to maintain and operate the offshore rig with their own personnel. An example of a band is visible light. The System International (SI) unit of pressure is the pascal. ball up see balling the bit ball valve a valve that opens with a quarter turn by rotating a ball with a hole in it that is located in a spherical container. band clutch a mechanical coupling device that allows a rotating part to gradually connect and disconnect with a driven part by using either an internal contracting band or an internal expanding band lined with heat. It can also occur when drilling through soft. wooden wheel. or plastic that are used to close perforations in a well. 3) to move or turn something by using a bar for a lever barchan harchan dune a type of sand dune deposited by the wind in a desert environment. (bit balling or ball up) ballistic prover an instrument used to test and calibrate liquid flowmeters. The ball seats are made of plastic or nylon and can be stainless steel for high temperatures and corrosive environments. rubber-covered balls of nylon. band brake a mechanical device that is used to slow or stop a wheel or axle with either an external contracting band or an internal expanding band lined with heat. sticky formations called gumbo during inadequate drillingfluid circulation or when using excessive bit weight. Friction of the band against a drum causes the breaking. The ball is usually made of chrome steel but can be made of stainless steel for a corrosive environment.32 balling the bit • barefoot completion balling the bit the coating of the bit face with soft sediments. vertical. ball pump a type of gas lift system in which synthetic rubber balls are injected into the lower end of the production tubing string to separate the liquid and gas phases ball race the track in which ball bearings turn ball sealers hard. without any help from the drilling contractor. barefoot charter a type of contract between an operator and an offshore drilling contractor. on a cable-tool rig.and friction-resistant material band pass the range of frequencies that can pass through an instrument or system with little or no attenuation band-reject filter a filter that attenuates a specific range of frequencies band strapping the use of metal bands to attach plastic or metal sheets to cylindrical structures band wheel a large.and friction-resistant material.

constructive delta.915.040 ft3of natural gas. (openbole completion) 33 bar finger sand bar finger sand a long. The bargemaster is in charge of the marine department on the rig and is responsible for the crew. miles bar scale a graphic scale in the shape of a long. S. ramp.615 ft3 or 0. barge a shallow-draft vessel with a flat deck that is usually towed. depending on the "API of the oil. bury. The oil forms a film on the rock surface to limit acid contact. narrow sand body deposited as a distributary mouth bar on a prograding. A barefoot completion is used primarily with hard producing formations such as sandstones. and an openhole gravel pack is often used. barrier beach or island a long. Barite is chemically inert. It has a specific gravity of 4-4. greenish. a phosphate thinner. The barrier reef is separated from the shoreline by a wide and deep lagoon. there is a sand control problem.01325 bar. workover. the bargemaster can be the Offshore Installation Manager. It is part of the Middle Eocene epoch. The BTU content of one barrel of oil is the equivalent of about 6. shoreline sand body not attached to the land on either end and separated from the mainland by a lagoon barrier effect the use of an acid-in-oil emulsion to retard the reaction time of an acid used in acidizing. On a British rig. barrier reef a relatively large. y.14 tonnes (metric tons). y. barrel royalty a payment equal to a specific percentage plus a revenue equivalent up to a specific number of barrels of oil barrel wrench a hand wrench that is used to screw or unscrew pump valve seats in the working barrel of a downhole pump (seat wrench) Barremian a global age of geological time that occurred about 125-115 m. A barrel of average crude oil weighs 0. and reddish ores and crystalline masses. (atmospheric pressure) barred basin a basin with a sill at the entrance that restricts water flow into the basin.13 tonnes. ago. grayish.90 ft of fresh water. flotation. 34. barker a device on the exhaust pipe of an engine that makes noise so that the pumper can tell from a distance if the engine is running barn a unit of area used for capture cross section equal to 10~24 cm2 Barnaby a downhole scintillometer that measures radioactivity and records it on the surface barnburner a super well baroid barite and Aquagel that is used to condition drilling mud for coring operations barometric pressure the pressure exerted by the weight of the column of air in the atmosphere. In relatively unconsolidated producing sands. One gram of material mixed with 350 ml of fluid is equivalent to 1 lb of material mixed with 1 bbl of fluid. and average heavy oil weighs 0. graduated rectangle that is used to show horizontal distances on a map Bartonian a global age of geological time that occurred about 45-41 m. partially subaerial. Barometric pressure is 14. lay. 1. It is part of the Lower Cretaceous epoch.6959 psi. (baryte or heavy spar) bar barite plug a slurry that is composed of barite. The oil must be at least 20% of the emulsion. A barite plug is used to control an underground blowout in which a well is kicking and losing circulation at the same time. 15. ago. One barrel of oil contains about 5.60 million BTUs of heat and weighs about 306 lbs. and is used as a weighting material in cement slurries and drilling mud. and dolomites. bar. . barium sulfate a type of scale composed of BaSO4 (barite) that forms in tubular production equipment and is hard to remove.15 tonnes. Barge types include drilling. the stability and ballasting of the vessel. nonabrasive. The producing formation is then drilled. and crane barges. narrow reef that is oriented parallel to the shoreline. narrow. such as a semisubmersible and its crew barge engineer the person in charge of the equipment on a floating drilling unit such as a semisubmersible barge job a drilling or workover rig mounted on a barge bargemaster the legal master of a floating drilling rig. long. 33. The waters in a barred basin are often restricted and stratified. barge captain the person in charge of a floating drilling unit. The sill can be formed by a reef or tectonic block. and supervision of the loading and backloading. A bar finger sand is generally oriented perpendicular to the shoreline. limestones. and water. Bbl. barrel 1) a common measure of crude oil containing 42 U. barite a mineral composed of BaSO4 that occurs as white. jackup. tow. bbl.97 Imperial gal. gal. or 760 mm of mercury at sea level and decreases with altitude. A metric ton contains about 7. whereas a barrel of average light oil weighs 0.15899 m3.bar finger sand • Bartonian formation and casing is cemented. derrick.6.33 bbl. brl or B 2) the body of a wire rope drum 3) a measure of cement slurry volume that is equal to 42 gal 4) the cylindrical part of a downhole sucker-rod pump in which the piston moves up and down barrel compressor a centrifugal compressor in a barrel-shaped housing barrel equivalent a unit used in the laboratory to test drilling fluids. Only shallow waters can flow over the sill. It is also the mineral barite.

Baseline is often the low-water mark. It is part of the Middle Carboniferous epoch. Basic sediments are usually removed by settling to the bottom of the lease tank before the oil is sold. It averaged $12. The pumper or gauger measures the remaining basic sediment and water content of the oil before it is taken from the lease tanks. quality. base price the crude oil price used for the computation of windfall profits tax. A base royalty is free of the cost of production.82 gm/cc. Basicity is a measure of the liquid's ability to neutralize an acid. and feldspars. and the sediments are removed by settling to the bottom of the lease tank after the crude oil is produced from a well. primarily for overseas transport. base. The base line is the line from which township boundaries are initiated. It is measured by volume on a centrifuged sample of the oil. base load the lowest load level during a daily or annual cycle base load liquefaction plant an installation that uses compression and supercold (—260°F) to continuously make liquified natural gas. base sediment and water see basic sediment and water. Base price is adjusted for oil grade. bsmt. basic sediment and water solid impurities and salt water that are mixed with crude oil. baseline an arbitrary line that marks the inner boundary of a country's continental shelf. The adjusted base price was adjusted quarterly for inflation. basicity the relative strength of a liquid with a pH above 7.55 per bbl. base abstract a complete title opinion that covers from sovereignty to a specific time base allowable the amount of petroleum production permitted by a governmental regulatory agency without a penalty factor BASEC British Approval Service for Electric Cables BASEEFA British Approval Service for Electrical Equipment in Flammable Atmospheres base eighth the Vs royalty that goes to the lessor (mineral rights owner) for leasing the land base exchange the replacement of one type of cation such as sodium on the surface of a clay mineral with another cation such as calcium. basement or basement rocks undifferentiated rocks such as igneous and/or metamorphic rocks that are unproductive and are located below the sediment cover of earth's surface.34 baryte • basin surface below which there is no current exploration. base map a map that shows the accurate location of data points such as wells or seismic shot points along with geographic or survey references. plagioclase. Bases occur from above 7 to 14 on the pH scale. Base pressure is usually at or near atmospheric pressure (14. basalt a common volcanic or lava rock. base square the distance between the neutral axis of adjacent derrick legs on a drilling rig. BM. base basement base a chemical that reacts with an acid to form a salt. and dark to mediumgray in color. but no quartz and has a matrix density of 2. Weathered rocks in the basal conglomerate are derived primarily from erosion of the underlying rock. Gas bubbles are often trapped in the basalt. The basal tar mat is caused by water washing and bacterial degradation of the oil or by de-asphalting.7 psi) and is defined by law or contract. Btn. y. Base square is measured along the derrick floor from inside the derrick legs at a distance of one-fourth the leg angle width.81/bbl. The basement can be the base metal a common. basic sediment solid impurities contained in oil produced from an oil well. see ion exchange base line 1) a surveyed line of accurately determined length and position. The plant makes extensive use of heat exchangers and compressors. chemically active metal such as lead or copper. The principal meridian is the north-south line. Tier 2 oil had a national average of $1520 per bbl. base-mounted reciprocating compressor a compressor that uses pistons to compress air and is mounted on a base rather than a tank base of weathering the boundary during seismic exploration between the surface low-velocity layer or weathering and the underlying higher velocity layer base pressure the pressure at which gas volumes are calculated or a standard volume of gas exists. A base map is often made of transparent material such as film and is a map from which other maps are prepared. Basalt contains ferromagnesium minerals. {base sediment and water or bottom settlings and water) basic size the nominal standard basic sludge basic sediment basin a general term for any large area of tectonic origin with a thick accumulation of sedimentary rocks. Bashkirian a global age of geological time that started about 330 m. Basalt is very fine-grained (aphanitic). dense. and location. The price for Tier 1 oil was based on the price at which upper tier oil from properties that first began production after 1972 would have been sold for in May 1979. Examples of bases include lime and caustic soda. A base metal occurs at the lower end of the electrochemical series. It extends out from a control point to another point. . base royalty the payments made by a lessor (mineral rights owner) on production revenue from a lease. Most of the salt water is removed in a separator. Angles between the ends of the base line and other points are then measured to accurately locate the points 2) an accurately surveyed east-west line used in United States and Canada land divisions. Bas. The maximum acceptable amounts vary from less than 5% to a small fraction of 1%. but are usually less than 1% in most areas. bas or BASLT basal tar mat a reservoir bitumen composed of heavy oil and asphaltic tar layer at the oil/water interface of a reservoir. Tier 3 oil had a national average of $16. or BSMT baryte see barite Bas or bas basalt basal conglomerate a coarse-grained soil zone located on an unconformity. ago.

BAT before acid treatment bat battery batch 1) a specific quantity of material that is made or used in one operation during a process 2) a measure of the amount of crude oil in a pipeline batch cementing a cement job on a well in which the cement is injected in several batches or quantities rather than continuously batch mixer a mechanical blender that is used to mix cement. The bays on a drilling rig derrick have a vertical height of 7 ft. A basin-floor fan is part of a lowstand system tract that is defined by seismic or sequence stratigraphy. Baume gravity has now been superceded by °API. Iron sponge sweetening Bbl or bbl barrel Bbls/acre-foot barrels per acre-foot bbl/d barrels per day bbl/MMscf barrels per million standard cubic feet of gas BBRKW barrels of brackish water BC 1) barrels of condensate 2) bottom choke Be bearden unit of consistency BCD barrels per calendar day BCF. Basket subs are always run with mills and whenever metal or cement is drilled. A baud is equal to 1 bit/sec. It was read off a Baum6 hydrometer. Eddy currents in the circulating drilling mud cause the fragments to fall into the bowl. Be BAW barrels of acid water bay the space between girts on the legs of a derrick. bathymetric map a map that shows the depths of the seafloor.000. ago. It is part of the Middle Jurassic epoch.130. or was corrected to that temperature. A quantity of dry cement and water is mixed in a tank with blades and the rotation of the tank.000 ft thick. The slope gives the base of the jacket a greater area than the deck and makes the platform more stable. Baume gravity or scale a European scale of fluid density in which Baume gravity is equal to (140' + the specific gravity or density of a fluid at 60°F) . As many as three basket subs can be run on a string. or bef billion cubic feet BCFD. a French chemist. A bastard has an irregular shape or size. (boot basket or sub or junk sub) BASLT basalt bastard a piece of equipment that is not standard.000') • BCPMM 35 of natural gas is a batch process. Two types include pneumatic and ribbon blenders. Bcf. usually with contours batter the outward slope on the legs of an offshore platform jacket.basin-floor fan BASIN (10-50. batch process a chemical procedure in which the substance to be treated is put through the process in specific quantities after which the reactant is discarded or regenerated. The batch mixer is in contrast to a jet mixer. irregular. battery 1) any installation of identical pieces of equipment such as a tank or separator battery 2) a device composed of cells that is used to produce and store electrical energy by chemical action bat or bty baud a measure of the ability of a channel to transmit information. (panel) BAYW bay water BB bridged back basin A basin is a geological structure with a unique sequence of rocks that are dissimilar to those outside the basin. Baume gravity is also used to describe the density of acid solutions. BCF/D. or Bctfd billion cubic feet per day BCK bottom choke bem 1) become 2) becoming BCMCF barrels of condensate per thousand cubic feet BCOND barrels of condensate BCPD barrels of condensate per day BCPH barrels of condensate per hour BCPMM barrels of condensate per million cubic feet . Because of the thick sedimentary rocks which range up to 50. There are approximately 600 sedimentary rock basins in the world. batch treatment the injection of chemical corrosion inhibitors at regular intervals into a production system bathayal the ocean environment located between 100-500 fath water depth batholith a large. these areas tend to have significant petroleum accumulations. subsurface intrusion of igneous rocks such as granite or granodiorite Bathonian a global age of geological time that occurred about 170-165 m. A batch process is in contrast to a continuous process. a glass column with graduations from 10 to 1. basket 1) a junk basket or basket sub fishing tool 2) a platform or cage that is suspended from a crane and is used to lift or lower personnel and supplies between a supply boat and an offshore platform 3) a cementing basket 4) the shale shaker receptical that holds the deck with screens mounted on it basket bit a drill bit with a basket located above the bit to catch samples basket sub a short section of pipe that is run just above a bit or mill on a drillstring and is designed to catch large junk fragments in an outer bowl. (sedimentary basin) basin-floor fan a submarine fan deposited on the lower slope or basin floor of a basin. in crude oil at 60°F. The scale was named after Antione Baum6. y. A basket sub is in contrast to a junk basket that uses reverse circulation and catches the fish on the inside of the tool.

and e) prime mover. barrels daily B/D or b/d barrels per day BDA breakdown acid BDC bottom dead center Bdeye bird's eye BDF below derrick floor Bdg bedding BDIAM bit diameter BDO barrels of diesel oil BDP breakdown pressure BDPD barrels of distillate per day BDPH barrels of distillate per hour BDPPD barrels per day per pound of pressure drop B/dry bailed dry Bdst boundstone BDT blowdown test Be Baume beach price the price of offshore crude oil on land after it has been treated offshore bead the molten metal formed by welding beaker sampler a metal or glass bottle that is lowered into a tank to take an oil sample beam 1) the maximum width of a ship's hull or offshore drilling rig (breadth) 2) A walking beam on a sucker-rod pumper or cable-tool rig 3) a focused pulse of energy crank counterbalanced air balance beam-balanced pumping unit beam-balanced pumper. or pumping unit a pumping unit that uses the walking beam to balance the weight of the sucker-rod string. Heavy iron plates (counterweights or beam counterbalance) are located on the opposite side of the walking beam from the sucker rods. c) counterbalance.36 BCS • beam pumping unit beam head the end of the walking beam on a pumping well where the sucker rods are attached beam pumper beam pumping unit beam pumping unit artificial lift equipment that uses a walking beam to raise and lower a suckerrod string in the well to activate a reciprocating pistonplunger pump to lift the oil. The location of the weights on the beam is adjustable. The five major parts of the beam pumping unit the are a) structural members. The walking beam pivots up and down on a center bearing supported by the Samson post to provide a reciprocating action with BCS borehole compensated sonic BD 1) barrels of distillate 2) bedded 3) building derrick Bd or bd 1) bed 2) bedding B. Their positions are adjustable on the opposite side of the walking beam from the sucker rods.D. beam counterbalance the weights on a walking beam on a beam pumping unit. pumpjack. The counterbalance is used to offset the weight of the sucker-rod string.or air-balanced pumper. The beam balanced pumper is used primarily on shallow wells and is in contrast to a crank. d) gear or speed reducer. b) bearings. (counterweights) Mark II beam pumping units (crank and air balanced and Mark II) .

diameter) used to restrict and control the rate of flow during a test or during production. it is called the azimuth 2) a surface or point that is used for support 3) a part on which another part travels or turns. (walking or rocking beam pump unit) beam well an oil well with a walking beam on the pumping unit bean a constriction in a line (usually '/64-1 in. The bear gun fires a IV2 in. (choke. and maximum stroke length. (burping) B electrode the current-return electrode in a resistivity sonde belemnoids a type of extinct cephalopod that existed from the Mississippian to Eocene epoch. Bedding planes occur on the top and bottom of beds. Beans can be fixed or adjustable. It has a mud return line to direct circulation drilling mud coming up the well to the shale shakers and a fill-up connection. uniformly graded. bearing cap the fitting around a bearing that holds it in place bearing raceway the surface of the bearing ring that is in contact with the balls or rollers bearing ring the rotating or stationary ring that contains the balls or rollers that travel or turn on the bearing surface in the ring beat the wells checked by a pumper Beaufort scale a scale based on numbers from 0 to 17 that indicates the wind speed and seastate on the ocean. Some types of beans include bottomhole. are either antifriction or friction bearings. flow-plug. beam balanced. and storm chokes. BED bed form a deviation from a flat surface caused by a fluid flow over loose sediments. A static pen is driven by a Bourdon tube. and stirrup. A beam-balanced pumping unit uses adjustable weights on the walking bean to balance the load and is used for shallow wells. Three common types of beam pumping units include crank counterbalanced. diameter projectile downward through the tool barrel where it is deflected horizontally to fracture the formation. Adjustable beans use a needle.000-6. Higher numbers represent higher wind speeds and seastates. saddle. down to or up to regulate the flow from a well with a choke bear cat a well with a high flow rate bear gun a tool used to fracture a reservoir in a well. The walking beam is connected to the gear reducer and prime mover with the two pitmen and an equalizer. Belemniods had an internal skeleton that resembled a cigar and are guide fossils. They are also classified as sealed and nonsealed. A bed is a stratigraphic subdivision of a member of a formation. A bedding plane is caused by an interruption during sedimentation or erosion after sedimentation. . Bed forms include ripples and dunes. The bellows stretches and compresses similar to a diaphragm to allow a ball to move on and off a seat. unit structural capacity. allowing the cone to rotate. The sucker-rod string and polished rod are attached to the horsehead end of the walking beam with a bridal and carrier bar. Bq BED bedding bed a layer of rocks. or cone-shaped stem with a seat to change the size of the orifice. The prime mover is either an electric or internal combustion motor. Beam pumping units are classified by the American Petroleum Institute by gear reducer torque capacity. If it is measured from true or magnetic north. or is composed of similar. or flow nipple) BN bean a well back. sleeve.000 lbs. A positive or fixed bean has a specific diameter. bellows-type gas or orifice meter a common type of gas production meter that uses two bellows to measure the pressure differential across an orifice. beating 1) the horizontal direction of a point measured clockwise from another point. The brass bellows expand and contract with the pressure and drive a differential pen. Production of oil or gas is often reported in barrels or cubic feet on a certain sized bean. for the downhole pump. 37 becquerel a derived unit in Systems International (SI) for activity of radionuclides. bed load the coarser sediments that are transported by rolling or bouncing along a sediment/water interface such as a stream bed by a current of water (traction load) bedrock the relatively solid rock that underlies soil or unconsolidated sediments bedsheet cross section a very large cross section or vertical slice of the subsurface behind the pipe crude oil or natural gas that is located in a reservoir(s) that has been cased in a well. surface. The pumping unit weights between 2. A Class III lever pumping system has the speed reducer front mounted and the fulcrum at the rear of the beam. bell nipple a device with an expanded or belled top that is used to fit the above-ground casinghead fittings to the casing. The well produces or has produced from another reservoir. Belm belling tool a type of underreamer that is used to enlarge the wellbore at the level of the producing zone. belching intermittent flow on a well. The bearings that travel about the journal on the leg of the rollercone bit. bellows the pressure-sensitive element of a gas lift valve. Types of bearings include outboard. and air balance. The air balance and Lufkin Mark II are this type. smaller units.beam well • bellows-type gas or orifice meter a stroke from 12 to over 240 in. such as a ball bearing or roller. A bed has relatively well-defined top and bottom boundaries and is either relatively uniform in lithology. A belling tool has expandable cutting arms that are used to cut a bell-shaped cavity just below the production string of tubing or casing on the bottom of the well. and the chart is driven by a clock. A Class I lever pumping system has the speed reducer rear mounted and the fulcrum at midbeam. (stratum or layer) 2) The mounting skid or frame and supports on a shale shaker bedding or bedding plane the surface that separates two sedimentary rock layers. The bell nipple is threaded on one end to screw onto the casing. A bell nipple is used above the blowout preventer or marine riser on a well to guide drill tools down into the well.

An example is benzene (C6H6). The principle benzene hydrocarbons are the BTX group (benzene.M. Elevation and identification are embossed and stamped on the disc. The bent sub can have a muleshoe orientating sleeve and key to determine the actual orientation of the bottomhole assembly in the well. A 90° bend is a V4 turn. drill collar. The true flow volume can then be compared to the measured flow volume. belt-drive pumping unit a pumping unit on an oil well that uses a belt between two different diameter wheels instead of a gear box to reduce speed and transmit the power from the prime mover to the pump belt hall or house the wood shed on a cable-tool rig that protects the belt that runs through it from the engine to the band wheel belt or belt-line theory an old concept that the best well location is between two producing wells bench mark a permanent elevation reference mark usually set in concrete or on an iron stake. assignment. bending forces forces that act perpendicular to the layering in sedimentary rock bendover price the dollars per barrel that a refinery will pay for a condensate of certain °API. Beneficial interest is in contrast to ownership by record or legal outright ownership and control. In the United States.38 bell prover • benzene bent joint a joint of drillpipe. downhole mud motor that is used to drill directional wells. Bentonite forms a gel when mixed with fresh water and is used to make common drilling mud. For OPEC. (crooked.000 ppm sodium chloride. Fe+f Fe+022. The standard range of offset angles varies between 0° and 3° with lA° increments. A bent joint is used in fishing operations. Bentonite is best used in muds containing less than 10.19) (Si3s. H H I C H H C I H benzene H benzene 1) a type of hydrocarbon molecule found in all crude oils except those that have been weathered. it is West Texas intermediate. offset or angle sub) bell prover a type of flowmeter prover in which a bell is lowered into a tank filled with fluid. fruity smell. it is Saudi Arabian light crude. Bendover is less than average crude oil posted price. A 180° bend is a Vi turn. toluene and xylene). Alo. Benzene is formed by an unsaturated. closed ring. One of the connecting threads is machined with an angle to the axis of the sub. bent sub a small length of drillpipe that is used to kick off a deviated well. beneficial interest the ownership of an interest by contract. A belly buster is worn by a member of the crew working in a high or dangerous location on a drilling rig. A bent sub is run between the downhole mud or turbine motor and the lowest drill collar. The bell forces a known amount of fluid through the meter. The sensor head is powered by rechargeable or replaceable batteries and can sound a preset alarm. Crude oils rich in this type of molecule have a sweet. Bentonite has become a broad term by usage. It is formed naturally by the weathering of volcanic ash layers. The original definition of aromatic implied fragrant compounds. Mgo. A Vi" bent sub will give an angle change of 2°-3°/100 ft and a 2° bent sub will give 6°-87lOO ft. Wyoming bentonite is almost pure montmorillonite.i)Oio(OH)2r031[Na031]+6^. This gives the sub a V-i-lV-i bend. A high clay yield can be obtained by using only 7%-9% bentonite with water and other minerals. aluminum or bronze alloy disc set in concrete or bedrock by a government agency. inflammable liquid (C6H6) refined from crude oil 3) the term once meant gasoline or petrol . and ethylbenzene. (marker or reference crude) bend a pipe with at least one curve radius that is less than that of an elbow. Belm belemnoids belt a flexible band that transmits power or motion between two wheels or pulleys belt detector an electronic unit that is attached to the belt of a drilling crew member and is used to detect hydrogen sulfide. Simple benzene compounds in crude oil cause fluorescence of the oil. It is used as a lost circulation material. belly band or buster a safety belt that is attached to a secured safety line. styrene. The general formula is Cn H2n_6. BM benchmark crude the crude oil that is used to set the price standard against which other crude oils are compared and their prices set. A bent sub can also be used as part of a fishing string to give the right approach angle to the fish for the fishing tool. (gel) BENT. BENT. A 45° bend is called a V» turn. or bent bentonite BENTC betonitic benthic the ocean bottom environment benthos organisms that live on the ocean bottom bent housing the support for a positivedisplacement. bentonite a clay mineral of the smectite group that has a formula of [(Al. or bent bentonite cement a slurry formed by adding dry cement to water with prehydrated bentonite. Bentonite layers in rock often are used for correlation and make good time lines. Bent. (arene or aromatic) 2) a volatile. and in England it is North Sea Brent. The bench mark used in topographic surveys is a 3-75 in. A slight bend is called a spring. Bent. cumene. A bent housing has a manufactured bend of l°-3°. or tubing with a bend in it. or trust.

caliper. caliper. )8 beta ratio the ratio of the diameter of an orifice on an orifice plate to the internal line diameter that is being tested. It is part of the Lower Cretaceous epoch. A bicone rock bit is used in drilling soft formations that a drag bit could not drill and is made only with milled teeth. BF 1) barrels of fluid 2) buoyant factor bf buff BFIT before federal income tax BFL barrels of fluid BFMW barrels of formation water BFO barrels of frac oil BFPD barrels of fluid per day BFPH barrels of fluid per hour BFW barrels of formation water BFWTR barrels of fresh water Bg gas formation volume factor BGC barrels of gas condensate BGI broken gauge insert Bgp gas formation volume factor at bubblepoint BGT borehole geometry tool BH or bh bottom hole B/H barrels per hour BHA bottomhole assembly BHC 1) borehole compensated 2) bottomhole contribution 3) bottomhole choke BHC ALC acoustilog. caliper.H. gamma ray log BHC ALC GRN acoustilog. The bicone bit was the original rolling cutter bit introduced in 1909. gamma ray through the casing log BHC AL TC acoustilog. direct purchase and spot gas) p 1) thermal cubic expansion coefficient 2) relative bearing 3) wave propagation direction 4) beta particle 5) beta ratio beta particle 1) an electron that travels at the speed of light and is emitted during radioactive decay such as thorium 234. gamma ray. or bhp brake horsepower BHPC bottomhole pressure closed BHPF bottomhole pressure flowing BHPS 1) bottomhole pressure survey 2) bottomhole pressure static BHPSB bottomhole pressure survey buildup BHPSD bottomhole pressure survey drawdown BHPSI bottomhole pressure shut-in BHPSS bottomhole pressure survey static B/hr barrels per hour BHSIP bottomhole shut-in pressure BHST bottomhole static temperature BHT bottomhole temperature. The metals are connected electronically with metal and with a liquid that is corrosive to at least one of the metals. best efforts gas natural gas bought on the spot market (self-help. BHTP bottomhole treating pressure BHTV borehole televiewer Bi biotite BIA Bureau of Indian Affairs bias a systematic distortion of the data in contrast to random error bi-directional meter a meter that measures fluid flow in both directions bicarb boduim bicarbonate bicone bit a roller-cone type of drilling bit that has two cones mounted on bearings. A beta particle has very small mass and a negative charge. The bicone bit was redesigned in the 1920s to have intermeshing teeth that were self-cleaning. caliper. y. gamma ray log BHC-VD borehole-compensated sonic. /3 bev beveled bevel gear one of two wheels that engage with teeth on their working surfaces. (two-cone bit) big-eyed bit a rotary drill bit with one large jet nozzle that uses the hydraulic action of drilling mud to deflect the well big hole a well that uses greater than 10-in. The working surface is not parallel to the axes of the gear. neutron through the casing log BHC AL GR TC acoustilog.Berriansian • bimetallic cell Berriansian a global age of geological time that occurred about 140-135 m. caliper log BHC ALC GR acoustilog. . A bicone bit is in contrast to the more common tricone drilling bit. neutron log BHC AL GRN TC acoustilog. gamma ray. The original cones did not mesh. neutron log BHC ALC N acoustilog. variable density log BHFP bottomhole flowing pressure BHFT bottomhole flowing temperature BHG or BHGM borehole gravity meter or gravimeter BHHP bit hydraulic horsepower BHL 1) bottomhole locater 2) bottomhole location BHM bottomhole money BHO sub bottomhole orientation sub BHP bottomhole pressure BHP. and there was a problem with bit balling during drilling soft shales. caliper through the casing log BHCK bottomhole choke BHCP 1) bottomhole circulating pressure 2) bottomhole closure pressure BHCS borehole-compensated sonic log 39 BHC-GR borehole-compensated sonic. B. Beta particle is the preferred term. diameter casing Big Joe a type of pressure reduction valve billet a solid steel cylinder that is used as a form to manufacture seamless casing bimetallic cell a type of corrosion cell that uses two dissimilar metals. 2) a positron.P. caliper. ago. interruptible.

The other end has a pointer that moves on a scale. (bactericide) BIOCL or biocl bioclastic bioclastic a transported particle of organic origin such as a shell. fatty acids. sodium hydroxide. biological marker or biomarker a compound (chemical fossil) or a property of a compound found in crude oil or sediments that proves a biological origin for that compound. The texture of biosparite skeletal debris can be described as unsorted biosparite or rounded. bio biotite biocide a chemical or agent that will kill both pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria but may not kill bacteria spores. pristane and phytane derived from chlorophyll. Natural gas can also be theimogenic gas. The dominant organism forming the skeletal debris is identified. followed by branched alkanes. and porphyrins. All traces with depth points in a bin are used. bindstone a limestone with tabular or lamellar fossils of encrusting or binding organisms such as algae that are supported by a matrix Bingham plastic fluid a non-Newtonian fluid that will not flow until a pressure or shear stress equal to the yield point has been applied. binning the use of small rectangular areas for common-depth-point stacking. such as coral biolithite. Drilling mud is a Bingham plastic fluid and is in contrast to a Newtonian fluid such as water or crude oil. and paraformaldehyde. biomass organic matter Biomi or biomi biomicrite biomicrite a limestone that contains both skeletal debris and limestone mud or micrite. starch. such as a pelecypod biosparite. Bioh or bioh bimetallic thermometer a temperature sensing device that uses the difference in thermal expansion between two dissimilar metals. Urengoy. are bound together in a spiral or single helical pattern with one end fixed. Biocides used in drilling mud include lime. The biodegradation of crude oil results in heavy or senile oil that is very viscous. (marsh or swamp gas) biogenic theory the generally accepted theory that crude oil and natural gas form from the maturation of organic matter (biotic theory) Bioh or bioh bioherm bioherm a mound or lens-shaped deposit formed by the remains of organisms such as corals or shells that grew in that location. After the yield point has been reached. Examples are normal alkanes from plant waxes. t ' biostrome . The dominant organism forming the skeletal debris is usually identified. It usually escapes into the atmosphere but has been trapped in large deposits below the permafrost in Siberia.000 ft. the largest gas field biolithite a limestone deposited by biological organisms that formed a framework such as a reef core. the stress and deformation is linear with a constant plastic viscosity. commonly iron-nickel alloys. BIOCL or biocl biocoenose the environment of life. Biogenic gas is dry gas that is normally about 999% methane and has a distinctive. Biosp or biosp Biost or biost biostrome biostratigraphic a rock unit or layer that is defined and identified by its fossil content ^ IJL: ".40 bimetallic thermometer • biostratigraphic in the world with 285 Tcf of recoverable biogenic gas. They are often identified by the organism that formed the framework. Biomi or biomi Biosp or biosp biosparite biosparite a limestone that contains both skeletal debris and calcite cement. Biocoenose is applied to fossil assemblages. very light carbon isotope composition. Biodegradation sometimes may occur with anaerobic bacteria. along with the optical activity or rotation of petroleum exposed to light. and then by cyclic alkanes. biodegradation the action of aerobic or oxidizing bacteria. Thanatocoenose is the environment of death and can be different than biocoenose. such as a crinoid biomicrite. The normal alkanes are first attacked by bacteria. The strips of metal. bioerosion the breakdown of rocks due to biological activity such as boring clams bioherm biofacies biofacies a particular aspect or portion of a rock layer such as a formation that is defined and identified by its characteristic fossil content biofacies map a map showing the aerial or lateral distribution of biofacies in a rock unit such as a formation biogenic gas methane (CH4) produced by bacteria (fermenters) from organic matter in the absence of oxygen and sulfates at shallow depths from a few feet below the surface to about 1.

or on or off. The tricone bit with three cones is most common. The person acts as a liaison and makes sure that the job is done right.22 gms/cm3 and a cell dimension of 10. gas bubble. yes or no. (balling the bit or balling up) bit body the part of a roller-cone bit that consists of the shank.biostrome • bit breaker box or bit box biostrome a layered. 2) to follow another company around and lease where that company is leasing 3) an old term for a geologist 4) a person who helps a landman locate people bird-dog fee the bonus paid to a guide that helps a landman find people bird dogging the activities of a bird dog birdfoot delta a constructional type of delta with several sediment lobes protruding into the basin. The jet bit has fluid courses through the body of the bit or between the cones that are equipped with jet nozzles. A polycrystalline diamond bit (PCD bit) is a drag bit with blanks of man-made polycrystalline diamonds. Extended nozzle bits have elongated fluid paths to reduce the distance between the nozzle exit and the bottom of the hole. On a cable tool rig a percussion bit is used. Biotite occurs as thin. bit breaker box or bit box a metal holding device in the shape of a heavy plate that fits into the bowl of a rotary table and is used to screw (make up) or unscrew (break out) the bit from the drillstring by rotating the drillstring.Fe)3(AlSi3Oi0)(OH)2]. The tricone bit has three legs welded to a shank. the bit legs (the structural support for the cones). The Mississippi River delta is a modern example. The percussion bit is a pointed or wedge-shaped weight that pulverizes the rocks on the bottom of the well as the bit is raised and lowered. Birds are evenly spaced along the streamer to control depth. mud crack. Biot or biot bioturb bioturbation bioturbation the disturbance and mixing of sediments by burrowing animals and/or plant roots. Bdeye biscuit cutter 1) a short coring barrel used on a cable-tool rig 2) a clumsy derrick man who drops pipe 3) a drill bit Bit or bit 1) bitumen 2) bituminous bit 1) the cutting tool used in drilling. Bit balling often occurs when using a hardformation bit with short teeth on a soft formation. The legs hold journals around which bearings rotate to allow the cone on each leg pin to turn. On a conventional tricone bit. The rotary bit is turned by the drillstring or downhole motor to chip and flake the rocks at the bottom of the well. (black mica) Bi. Diamond bits are used for drilling through hard rocks and coring. or when using excessive bit weight. black flakes with one perfect cleavage direction and is common in igneous and metamorphic rocks as well as in both sands and sandstones. usually eight. The drilling fluid jets out the nozzles and impacts directly on the teeth of the cones of a roller-cone bit. A byte is the number of bits. and magnesium [K(Mg. Some are full bore openings and others are ported. such as corals or shells that grew in that location. three. Biotite has a density of 3. or other disturbance. bit balling the coating of the bit face with soft sediments. The most common rotary bit is the rock or roller-cone bit that has two. The bit body also includes the lubricant reservoirs and the watercourses.05 A. bird cage or birdcage 1) the slatted or meshenclosed platform used to raise and lower the crew between an offshore rig and crew boats 2) to flatten and spread out cable or wire rope strands 3) a cable or wire rope that has its strands flattened and spread out birdcaged wire cable or wire rope that has its strands spread out in the shape of a bird cage due to a sudden release of a heavy load that it was lifting bird dog 1) a representative of the company that has employed a geophysical crew. The bit breaker is sized . Roller-cone bits are either a) milled tooth-steel teeth or b) insertbutton bits. and the journal pins that attach the cones to the body. Biost or biost Biot or biot biotite biotic theory the generally accepted theory that crude oil and natural gas form from the maturation of organic matter. It is made of a forged or cast nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy of a carburizing grade. was precipitated from water in the limestone in a cavity caused by an animal burrow. (drill bit) 2) The smallest bit of information that a computer can distinguish between two choices such as 0 or 1. Rotary cone drill bits are good from 8 to 200 hours of rotating and wear out after an average of 24 hours of rotating. Drag bits are rotary bits that have blades that tear into soft formations. Regular bits have an opening in the center of the bit body for drilling fluid. there are nozzles located between the cones. extensive deposit formed by the remains of organisms. during inadequate drilling-fluid circulation. bird's eye a spot or irregular patch of sparry calcite in limestone. iron. bioturb bird 1) an airborne magnetometer 2) a pressuresensitive hydrofoil that is used on a hydrophone streamer for marine seismic exploration. which reflects light from its crystal faces. The sparry calcite. or 41 bits four rotating cones on the bottom of the bit. aluminum. On a rotary rig a rotary bit is used. (biogenic theory) biotite a common mineral that is composed of a complex silicate of potassium. It can also occur when drilling through soft sticky formations. that represents one character. Diamond bits have no moving parts and have diamonds that are imbedded into the matrix on the bottom and sides of the bit.

bit bituminous containing oil or yielding oil when distilled. BHHP bit leg the part of a body on a roller-cone drill bit that holds the pin and journal around which the cones rotate. 2) the solid hydrocarbons that occur in sedimentary rocks. bkdn breakdown BL 1) blue 2) black 3) barrels load 4) bent legs bl 1) blue 2) black black box a device whose function is to directly locate subsurface petroleum. BITM. whereas the bit is deflected updip with a dip of less than 45°. Bit or bit bituminous coal a common. With a hard-rock-layer dip of greater than 45°. hardness. The bit matrix is often powdered and fused tungsten carbide. Bitumen is fusible below 150°C and is inflammable. (pin) . and pump data. (breakout box or breaker plate) bit deflection the deviation in the direction of a drilling bit from the direction of the well. contractor. Bitumen in England is known as asphalt in the United States. and asphaltines. intermediate-rank coal that is between lignite and anthracite (soft coal) bituminous sands. The record includes the number. fluorescent-dyed iron particles is applied to the cleaned and dried joint. weight on bit. BITROP rate of penetration of bit bit shank the threaded cone-shaped top of the bit that is screwed into the drillstring. sizes of nozzles. or very heavy oil as the cementing material or binder bit walk the deviation of a well caused by righthanded rotation and dragging of the bit on the right side of the well bit weight the compressive force applied on the drilling bit by the drill assembly. or carbon disulfide. and volatility. Promoters have always tried to sell black boxes throughout the history of petroleum exploration. and dull grading of bit when pulled. Reservoir bitumen forms from degraded hydrocarbons in the reservoir and can be graphitic or asphaltic. BITM bitumen bit matrix the material on a diamond bit that is used to hold the diamonds on the bit. sandstone. well location. shale.42 bit deflection • black-light inspection bit stabilization the downhole assembly required to keep a bit rotating about its own axis and the well on course bit sticking the adherence of the bit or the bit stabilizer to the sides of the wellbore bit sub a short section of pipe with two box ends that is used to connect the bit with the drill collar on the drillstring bit supplier a service company that sells drilling bits through a sales representative. drilling fluid weight and viscosity. The joint is then inspected with a fluorescent or black bit breaker according to the size of the bit. rig number. or limestone a sedimentary rock that has solid or very heavy hydrocarbons such as bitumen. size and types of bits. 3) a term used interchangeably with both liquid and solid forms of petroleum and includes crude oil. Bitumen is in contrast to kerogen in sedimentary rocks that is not soluble in organic solvents. There are three legs on a tricone bit. Native bitumen is formed directly from organic matter in sediments and is also called kerobitumen. Sometimes several recommended bit programs can be obtained from bit suppliers before a well is drilled. hours run. undergauge bit geometry the configuration of a drilling bit such as tricone or flat-faced bit hook a fishing tool used to straighten a bit in a well bit hydraulic horsepower the hydraulic horsepower equivalent of the gallons per minute times the pressure drop across the nozzles on the bit. Bit weight is typically between 3000-6000 psi and can be over 50. Bit. It is composed of C22 and heavier molecules. BITMS. The bit record header includes the operator. Bit deflection is often caused by a dipping hard-rock layer. chloroform. drillstring characteristics. asphalt. pump pressure. An example is ozocerite. It has a variable color. bit dresser 1) a machine that repairs and gauges bits 2) a person on a cable-tool rig that repairs bits bit floundering a decrease in penetration rate due to a decrease in well-cutting cleaning efficiency at extremely high bit weight bit gauge a circular ring that is used to determine if the outer diameter of a drilling bit has been worn smaller than its allowed specifications and is. The bit supplier keeps extensive records on bit performances and can make bit recommendations. rotary speed. footage and drilling rates for each bit. asphalts. Bitumen is an old term that was used to describe oil seeps. bit mechanical horsepower the horsepower on a drilling rig required to rotate only the bit BITMS bituminous bit port a nozzle through which the drilling mud flows on a bit bit record a document kept by the driller concerning the performance of the bits used in drilling a well. therefore. mineral waxes. depth out. bitumastic material a coating made of asphalt and filler that is used to prevent corrosion on metals bitumen 1) organic matter that can be extracted from sedimentary rocks with organic solvents such as benzene. and strokes per minute. A solution of very fine. the bit is generally deflected down the dip of the layer. black gold crude oil black light an ultraviolet light black-light inspection a method used to inspect tool joints.000 psi.

The blank is made with a layer of man-made polycrystalline diamonds that are cemented to a tungsten carbide cylinder called a carbide stud under high temperature and pressure. This is due primarily to the formation and expansion of solution gas bubbles in the oil when the core is brought to the surface and pressure on the core is reduced.Black Magic • blender light. After the stand is lowered. y. Gas. 2) an asphalt-based cijide oil 3) a dark crude oil. pump. . The iron particles will collect along any crack. A screw or bucket conveyer is used to bring the gravel to the blender where it is mixed with a centrifugal pump. Blast joints usually have flush connections. BL&AW barrels load and acid water blank 1) a dry hole 2) the cutting edge on a polycrystalline diamond bit. The blast joint is designed to protect the tubing from external erosion such as occurs adjacent to the perforated interval in a dual-completion well. (weeping core) bleed line a line attached to a blowout-preventer stack. ago. or 30 ft in length and is made from 43 a special alloy with heat-treated joints. Bid or bid 1) boulder 2) bladed 3) bailed BLDG building bldg 1) bleeding 2) building bldg drk building derrick bldo bleeding oil BLDR boulder bleached oil crude oil that has been decolorized by sunlight BLED bleeding oil bleed to slowly vent a fluid from a line bleed down to slowly reduce pressure from equipment or a well by venting a fluid bleeder line a drain on the bottom of a stock tank that is used to remove basic sediment and water bleeder valve a small valve that is used to vent fluid or take a sample from a line. blanket lease a drilling contract that covers a large area blanket sandstone a relatively uniform layer of sandstone that covers a large area of the subsurface blank flange the solid disk that fits in and closes a companion flange that forms a projecting rim on an opening such as a pipe (blind flange) blanking plug a plug designed to stop fluid flow blank jet a nozzle on a roller-cone bit that is purposely plugged blank liner a liner or the lowest string of casing on an open hole completion that is without perforations blank off to case oil sand with casing or liner that is not perforated blank pipe a pipe without perforations blank rams see blind rams blaster a device that sends an electric current through a blasting cap to detonate an explosive blasting explosive fracturing in a well using nitroglycerin blasting cap a detonator that is electrically activated blasting oil nitroglycerin blast joint a hard section of tubing that comes in sizes of 10. such as proppants. It is used during coring. or tank bleeding the separation. The bleed line is used to vent produced fluids after the blowout preventers have been thrown when abnormal high pressures are encountered during drilling. the slips have been set. by settling. mud. Liquid additives and solids. The plug is threaded for drill collars or drillpipe and has a small opening fitted with a valve. and the well is then opened up. A blank has greater abrasion resistance than natural diamonds. A diesel engine powers the mixing paddles in the mixing tub and the auxiliary equipment. The process can be repeated several times. followed by oil. (drill blank) blank casing casing (pipe) without perforations blanket gas the gas above a liquid in a container. 20. are added in metered volumes to the mixing tank. black water water with corrosive products (iron sulfide) due to bacterial action blade the cutting edge on a drilling tool blading off the leveling and cleaning of a site by a bulldozer bland unreactive drilling mud. It is part of the Ordovician period. and sediments rapidly flows up the well and into the pits. usually black but sometimes greenish or brown crude oil with an initial producing gas/oil ratio of less than 2000 SCF/STB. blender 1) a truck-mounted unit that is used to proportionately mix materials with well-stimulation fluid and pump the mixture to the pumping unit. 2) equipment used to mix gravel and a carrier fluid for a gravel pack completion in a well. The bleed plug is screwed into the top of a stand with the valve closed before the stand is lowered into the well. oil-based drilling mud which hardens to a consistency of cement and is used to block the flow of water but not petroleum black mica see biotite black oil 1) a very dark. The well is shut in for a period of time to allow gas pressure to build up. (periodic flowing or rocking a well) bleeding core a fresh core in which the crude oil is coming out of the pores. and the elevators removed. of the solids from the liquid in a cement slurry bleeding a well a method of cleaning an oil well of sediments and drilling mud that have accumulated in the well. in comparison to a light oil or condensate Blackriverian a North American age of geological time that occurred about 460 m. bleed off to release pressure on a fluid bleed plug a fitting used to prevent mud flowback when tripping in on a drilling rig. the bleed plug valve is opened and the plug removed. The stock tank gravity of black oil is usually less than 45° API. (iron-particle inspection) Black Magic™ a heavy. Blanket gas is used to pressurize the liquid and protect it from contamination or explosion. Black oil is sometimes called low-shrinkage crude oil or ordinary oil.

Most expire in five years. is usually in the form of a limited partnership with the promoter being the general partner. The zone below the producing zone is perforated. . Blind shear rams used primarily in subsea systems. registered with the Security and Exchange Commission. or cement slurry that is pumped down a producing well with treating fluid to prevent coning or channeling block and tackle a system of sheaves or pulleys and wire rope that act as a unit to raise or lower equipment block diagram a method of illustrating a portion of the earth's crust in three dimensions. b) does not give reflections on reflection seismic. (blank or master rams) blind shear rams a closing element in a blowout preventer that has a cutting edge to shear any tubular in the well. block valve a valve in a pipeline used to plug a section of the pipeline blend sample a sample taken from a tank after the contents of the tank have been mixed BLC barrels of liquid condensate big 1) bailing 2) bailed 3) bleeding blind to close a line blind back-off to unscrew stuck pipe in a well with a right-handed torque under tension or overpull blind box a wireline fishing tool that is designed to clean the top of a fish to be caught with a socket. and the producing zone is perforated. but frontier or deep blocks can have 10-year terms. block line see drilling or hoisting line block squeeze a type of cement squeeze job used in a well to isolate a zone for perforating. block agent material such as plastics. block tree a strong and compact type of Christmas tree well-completion fitting in which the valves are machined from one block of steel. fracturing. Blind rams can be used only when no pipe is suspended in the well. pulleys. blind drilling drilling through a formation that causes lost circulation with no returns to the surface blind fault a fault with a fault surface that does not reach the earth's surface blind flange the solid disk that fits in and closes a companion flange that forms a projecting rim on an opening such as a pipe (blank flange) blind hole a well that has a lost circulation problem blinding the clogging of screens by particles blind layer 1) a rock layer that does not give a primary reflection on a seismic record (hidden layer) 2) a rock layer that cannot be detected by seismic refraction methods because it is either a) a low-velocity layer located below a high-velocity layer or b) too thin to give a distinct arrival (hidden layer) blind-pool drilling fund a type of drilling fund in which monies are raised from investors in order to explore and drill in an area of interest. A rotary drilling rig has a crown and traveling block. Blind rams are sometimes called the master valve. blocked up to complete leasing in an area block guide the vertical or near-vertical steel track located in the derrick of a semisubmersible or drillship along which the traveling block moves up and down. The zone above the producing zone is then perforated and squeezed off. blind rams a closing element in the blowout preventer that uses steel plates with flat rubber surfaces that fit together to close and open the well. or stimulation. The block guide is used to prevent movement of the traveling block as the floater rises and falls with the ocean waves. Blocky cement is formed by relatively large. bitumens.44 blend sample • blocky cement are used for hoisting The mechanical advantage of a block is determined by counting the number of lifting lines and subtracting 2% for friction. 2) an area composed of several leases 3) an offshore oil and gas concession area defined by its latitude and longitude In the United States. Instead of having specific prospects. gel. a block is typically 9 mi2 and is awarded to the highest bonus bid with a fixed royalty by the Mineral Management Service. c) does not give a good signature on a well logging tool. blind sidetrack an uncontrolled sidetrack blind zone a subsurface layer that a) cannot be detected on seismic refraction. The fund. /C blocky cement a type of natural cement found in limestone. The diagram is in the form of a block with the surface of the earth as the top and a cross section of that portion of the earth for the sides. block lease an oil and gas lease that covers several individual leases that form a block The lessors have agreed in the lease that a well drilled anywhere on that block will satisfy the delay rental and drilling requirements of all leases in that block. and cement is squeezed under high pressure. The cement is drilled out of the hole. the money is raised and then land is leased and drilled in the area of interest. or d) does not yield well cuttings to the surface when drilled blk or bl black BLK or blk block blky blocky blksh blackish BLM Bureau of Land Management bind blend BLO barrels of load oil block 1) the metal framework that contains sheaves. Block trees are often used in offshore wells and are in contrast to loose-valve trees. A blind box is similar to a die collar but the internal cutting edges are not spiraled. or wheels that rotate on a common axis and m blocky cement TTv.

and well cuttings are blown out 2) a large diameter. The stack is located below the drilling platform and is attached to the conductor pipe or surface string at the surface of the ground or in the cellar. the blowout preventers are thrown to prevent a blowout. blowout preventer stack (off rotary drilling rig chart) blowout or blow-out preventer a ram or closing element designed to close the top of the wellbore and to provide a controlled release of wellbore fluids. A diverter is used to send the fluids down the blooey line to the blooey pit. through-bore diameter. The annular preventers close around any pipe in the well or over an open well. abnormally high-pressure reservoir in the subsurface. BLOUT 45 blowout drill a training exercise conducted and timed by the tool pusher on a drilling rig. A basic arrangement of preventers consists of an annular preventer. Pipe rams are metal blocks with inserts machined into them that are designed to close around pipe in the well. blooey or blooie pit the earthen escavation adjacent to an air drilling rig that receives the well cuttings from the blooey line bloom the fluorescence of crude oil under a black light BLOPD barrels of load oil per day BLOPH barrels of load oil per hour BLOR barrels of load oil recovered BLOUT blowout blow a line down to reduce pressure on a gas line to melt any frozen obstruction and then to increase the pressure blow a well clean to open the valves on a recently completed gas well to blow out any debris or completion fluid blowby 1) the flow of gases around the piston and piston rings into the crankcase of an engine 2) the escape of free gas with the liquid from a separator blowdown 1) the venting of a fluid in a container 2) the fluid that is vented 3) the pressure difference between the set and resealing pressures of a pressurerelief valve blower a blowing gas well blowing disposal of casinghead or solution gas into the air blowing a well periodic opening of the valves of a well. A blowout along the outside of the casing string in a well is called broaching. and/or water) from the well. blind rams. lowpressure pipe that is used to conduct fluids coming up the well from the drilling rig during a kick. oil. and the driller orders the blowout preventer closed. drilling mud. Bushings or sleeves in the lowermost section of the preventers prevent excessive wear of the preventers from the rotation and tripping of the drillstring. The derrickman goes to the accumulator. water. The blowout alarm is rung without warning the driller. A blowout can be caused by drilling into an unexpected. It is a function of the weight of the circulating drilling mud in the well to keep the fluids in the rocks. manifold. Forty-four percent of the blowouts occur during tripping out.000-15.blooey or blooie line • blowout-preventers control panel interlocking blocks of sparry calcite between the detrital particles. and . and 9% while freeing stuck pipe. often violent.000 lb/in2. The panel also has gauges for accumulator. pipe rams. The blowout preventers are mounted on the seafloor for offshore drilling and activated by hydraulic or electrohydraulic power. The drill is timed from the sound of the alarm to the closing of the blowout preventers and recorded in the drilling report. The blowout preventers are arranged vertically in a blowout-preventer stack. Shear rams use steel wedges used to shear off any pipe in the well. flow of fluid (gas. drilling spool with choke and kill line connections. The driller pulls the kelly out of the rotary and shuts off the mud pumps. The blowout drill is usually run when the kelly is about two-thirds in the rotary. Crew members go to the blowoutpreventer control panel. choke manifold and the driller's side of the rig at ground level to operate the remote blowout-preventor controls. Each preventer has an opening and closing line. (periodic flowing) blowing flow a type of gas flow with a spray of liquid blowing the drip 1) to open the valve on small chamber on a pipeline to drain off the condensate or drip gasoline 2) to vent the gas from a pipeline to clear it of condensate or drip blow job to clean with steam blown and saucered a deal that has been put together and is ready to be signed blowoff cock a valve that either allows or stops the flow of a fluid from a container or a pipe blowout or blow out uncontrolled. If fluids enter the well (kick). and a casing-head connector. Blind rams are metal plates with flat surfaces that close an open well. and type of preventer. 41% during drilling. The preventers are activated hydraulically from pressure stored in an accumulator. Blowout preventers are also used in some workover operations. Blowing a well allows rapid flow of oil and/or gas up the well to clean the accumulation of sediments and liquids out of a well. panel air. blooey or blooie line 1) a surface pipe on an air drilling rig through which the air. The working pressure is generally 3. Blowout preventers are categorized by the American Petroleum Institute according to working pressure. blowout-preventers control panel a console located on the drilling rig floor that contains the fourway control valves that activate the different preventers in the blowout-preventer stack.

and closing devices. Body foam is in contrast to surface foam. The federal government also regulates the sales. (shell test) body waves the P. such as pipe. Body test pressure.46 blowout-preventer drill • boiler house or boilerhousee Bnd or bnd 1) band 2) banded bndry or BNDRY boundary bnish brownish BNO barrels of new oil BO 1) barrels of oil 2) backed off B. which is higher than the rated pressure for the equipment. bob-tail or bobtail rig a small drilling rig BOCD barrels of oil per calendar day BOD 1) barrels of oil per day 2) basic oxygen demand B oD relative oil volume body the viscosity of an oil body foam a foam consisting of a liquid with spherical bubbles distributed throughout the liquid that will not rise to the surface. formation volume factor for oil at initial reservoir conditions boiler a pressure vessel that has a heat source used to generate steam from water in the vessel boiler fuel steam generation fuel for industrial or electric-utility boilers boiler house or boilerhouse to falsify a report (doghouse) annular pressures with a regulator for controlling pressure to the annular preventer as well as a bypass control. (BOP stack) blowout-preventer test tool a tool that seals the wellbore below the blowout-preventer stack to pressure test the stack and its accessories blow the cobs or soot out to run a motor at excessive speeds blow wild to blow out or have uncontrolled flow from a well BLOYR barrels of load oil yet to recover BLPD barrels of liquid per day blr bailer BLRT bailer test blsh bluish bits bullets BLU blue blue pattern a dipmeter interpretation characterized by decreasing formation dips with increasing depth and the same azimuth. blue sky exploratory well a wildcat well blue sky law a state law in the United States that regulates the sale of securities such as those that relate to oil and gas. body yield strength the tensional force necessary to cause a tubular such as casing to exceed the elastic limit BOE 1) blowout equipment 2) barrels-of-oil equivalent Bo. The various closing elements can be connected with spools. The blowout preventer stack generally weighs 20-25 tons. including a control panel on the drilling platform. The blowout preventers can also be thrown from another remote location on the rig. The liquids are then sent to a fractionater to be separated into various fractions. each positioned vertically on top of each other. blowout-preventer drill see blowout drill blowout-preventer pump a pump on a drilling rig that is designed to provide hydraulic pressure for the accumulators that operate the blowout preventers blowout-preventer stack a vertical assembly of several rams or closing elements used to shut the well. blind. or shear. such as the annular preventers. On an offshore rig. body member a wellhead housing designed to confine well pressure body test a high-pressure test designed by the American Petroleum Institute to evaluate pressure equipment such as blowout preventers and wellheads. Crude oils with low gravities and high viscosities can form body foam. (abbreviated abstract) bob-tail or bobtail plant a gas plant that is used to remove liquid hydrocarbons from natural gas. The stack is located in the cellar. and a wellhead connector. There is also a red and green pattern. blue whistler a blowing gas well BLW barrels of load water BM 1) basement 2) barrels of mud 3) bench mark Bm basement bm ascending-wave particle-motion amplitude BMMCF barrels per million cubic feet BMUD barrels of mud BN bean bn brown . Body waves are in contrast to surface waves. several ram blowout preventers. a drilling spool. back out Bo 1) oil shrinkage factor 2) oil formation volume factor B ob oil formation factor at bubblepoint bob 1) the pumping of a beam well 2) a gauging bob or weight bobcat a machine with a short wheelbase that is used to move earth bob tail or bobtail 1) the cable-tool drillstring used to complete a well after a rotary rig has drilled to the top of the pay zone 2) a truck without a bed 3) anything that is shorter than normal bob-tail or bobtail abstract a set of summaries of all recorded instruments concerning the title to a tract of land. and below the drilling platform. they are located on the sea bottom.and S-waves that travel through the earth during seismic exploration and earthquakes.O. Individual rams. There are at least two different locations to throw them. can be activated by hydraulic pressure stored in the accumulators. The stack typically includes an annular blowout preventer. is used. An offshore double stack will have blowout preventers both on the seafloor and on the offshore drilling rig. kill and choke line connectors. attached to the top of the surface-casing string. A bob-tail abstract is in contrast to a verbatim abstract that has complete copies of all the recorded instruments.

steel-walled sampler for formation fluids in a well under pressure A spring is attached to a lower and upper valve and a tripping arm. storage. (bonus exhaustion rule) bonus allowable an extra saltwater injection well granted in an allowable by a state agency bonus bidding a method of competitive bidding for leases. (peapicker or weevil) boll-weevil corner the location on a drill floor that is given to a new hand (back-up corner) boll-weevil hanger a tubing hanger boll-weevil plug a retrievable plug that is attached to the drillpipe and is used to test the blowout preventers. scraper traps.boiling point • boot acreage boiling point the lowest temperature at which a liquid starts to boil boll weevil an inexperienced worker on a drilling rig or lease. bond 1) to join together 2) the adhesive that joins two materials 3) the linkage that joins atoms. that is paid by one party in an exchange of properties such as a farmout 2) a vertical pipe on a lease stock tank that is used to maintain hydrostatic pressure on the oil and to allow gas to escape before the oil enters the pipeline gathering system (conductor pipe) 3) the protective shield on a seismic hydrophone. boomer 1) a mechanical device used to tighten chains that secure a load in place (load binder) 2) a transient field worker 3) a strong seismic reflection off a massive reflector 4) A shallow marine seismic system that uses a magnetostrictive source. It is the net earnings per average dollar invested. The plug seats in the casinghead housing and is sealed by pressure from above. and the lease goes to the highest offered bonus. Bonds are either ionic or covalent. booster jar a fishing tool accessory that is used to intensify the effect of a mechanical or hydraulic jar used to loosen a fish in a well. capscrews. by the lessee for signing a lease bonus allocation rule a bonus allocation that is paid by the lessee against the gross income for the property in order to compute the percentage depletion allowance. and studs bomb a thick. The leases have a fixed royalty. The bonus allocation in not a deductible expense. bonding the condition of the adhesion between cement and casing or wellbore Bond number the gravitational forces divided by the capillary forces The Bond number is about 10~6 in waterfloods. A booster compressor is used for air drilling deep or large diameter holes. and control equipment. They are discharged through a transducer into the water. The booster station can also include separators. boll-weevil stunt a dangerous mistake on a drilling rig bolting threaded fasteners such as nuts and bolts. the mineral right owner. NB bone a difficult formation to drill bone dry gas that contains no water vapor bonnet 1) an end connection such as a cap that is designed to retain pressure 2) the valve part that packs off and supports the valve stem 3) the steel retaining cover on a swivel. or other device 4) an oil conductor used in settling tanks to place liquids in the tank with little disturbance near the bottom of the tank 5) a gas separating chamber located on the top of a vertical flow treater boot acreage extra acreage earned by a farmee in a farmout besides the earning well drilling and spacing unit boot basket . On a gas pipeline. (intermediate pump station) boot 1) a bonus. A boll weevil is known as a green hand in England. housing cap bonus a payment to the lessor. The booster jar is run on the fishing string above the jar. The bomb is activated by dropping a metal bar or by a preset clock mechanism. The stations are often located from 80-150 miles apart on the pipeline. When the tripping mechanism is released. the expansion of the fluid in the booster jar amplifies the force of the shock. A fluid such as nitrogen is compressed in the jar as the fishing string is raised. The cement bond index is the attenuation in the zone of investigation (db/ft) divided by the attenuation in a well-cemented section (db/ft) on a cement bond log. 47 boom a steel arm used to support the line used in a hoisting system Boomer a marine seismic source that uses capacitators charged to a high voltage. The book rate of return is calculated by dividing the book profits or earnings by (the net cash flow minus depreciation and any unusual items such as write-offs). often in the form of extra acreage or monies. bonus exhaustion rule see bonus allocation rule book rate of return an accounting rate of return that is used to evaluate corporations. connector. The bomb is run on a wireline and also measures and records pressure. (jar accelerator or intensifier) booster station a pumping installation on an oil pipeline that is designed to keep the oil flowing. compressor stations are used. bond index a measure of the quality of the cement bond in a well. booster a compressor or pump that is used to raise the pressure of gas or oil in a pipeline booster compressor a compressor that is used to increase the air volume and pressure going into the inlet of a regular compressor.

The borehole gravimeter is sensitive . It can be used in both an open and a cased hole. The amplitude of the reflected wave is displayed on a cathode ray tube with the picture split vertically on magnetic north and photographed. borehole farmin or farmout an agreement between two companies whereby a well is drilled between producing wells. shape. The borehole televiewer emits a pulsed. or pelecypod boring rod a 15-18-ft section of solid wrought iron about 1 in. borehole gravimeter or gravity meter a wireline instrument that is used to measure gravity at various levels in a well. boring pore a pore space in a rock. bryozoan. A boot basket is in contrast to a junk basket that uses reverse circulation and catches the fish on the inside of the tool. borehole geometry tool a wireline device that measures the inclination and azimuth of a well. and commercial applications. As many as three boot baskets or subs can be run on a string. number of joints used. Eddy currents caused by the circulating drilling mud cause the fragments to fall into the bowl. The drilling section would include the number of crew.48 boot basket or sub • bottom casing packoff to the density of the rocks surrounding the wellbore and is used to determine the horizontal extent of the reservoir rock and the possible location of potential reservoir rock such as dolomite that was not encountered in the wellbore. Inclination is measured with a pendulum. distance drilled. borehole direction the azimuth of the wellbore borehole directional survey downhole measurements of the inclination and azimuth at specific depths in a well. but occurs in the vicinity of the wellbore. (basket or junk sub) BOP blowout preventer BOPCD barrels of oil per calendar day BOPD or bopd barrels of oil per day BOP elevator a lifting mechanism that is used to move the blowout preventers into storage when not being used on an offshore drilling rig BOPH or boph barrels of oil per hour BOPPD barrels of oil per producing day BOPPH barrels of oil per producing hour BOP stack see blowout-preventer stack Bor or bor bored border price the official price of natural gas sold at the United States-Canada border as determined by the Canadian government bore 1) to cut a hole 2) the inside diameter of a pipe. Bottled gas is used in rural areas for home heating and cooking and has industrial. that was created by a boring organism such as a sponge. borehole effect the distortion on a well log caused by the size. usually limestone. The tool can either be single or multishot. and stoppages. Both the gyroscopic and magnetic multishot surveys are recorded on film. The geological section included a description of formations drilled. A borehole directional survey is more commonly called a directional or deviation survey or drift log. piston. or well 3) a fluid opening or passage borehole the hole drilled by the bit. (wellbore) borehole compensated sonic log a sonic log that uses two transducers above and below the receiver pair on the sonde. (gas liquids or liquified petroleum gas) bottleneck an area of pipe with a reduced diameter that was caused by stretching of the pipe bottlenecking the stretching of pipe due to tension bottle test a test used to determine what quantity of a chemical will break an oil-in-water emulsion bottom 1) the sinking of a barge in shallow water to provide a drilling platform 2) to complete drilling a well bottom assembly see bottomhole assembly bottom casing packoff a mechanism used to contain the annular pressure between a suspended tubular boot basket or sub a short section of pipe that is located just above a bit or mill on a drillstring and is designed to catch large junk fragments in an outer bowl. delays. or other characteristics of the borehole and the filter cake. BHG borehole survey see deviation survey borehole televiewer a wireline device that is lowered down wells to transmit an image of the borehole. hours worked. agricultural. Boring rods were used on very early versions of the cable-tool rig and were later replaced by manila rope. The borehole geometry tool measures azimuth with a magnetic compass or gyroscope. (seisviewer) borehole volume the volume of a well calculated from a caliper log borer an old term for a driller borescope a long optical instrument with a light that is used to inspect the inside of pipe boring journal an old term for a driller's log made by a drilling master. Boot baskets or subs are always run with mills and whenever drilling through metal or cement. Compensated logs are adjusted for the borehole effect. The survey can be either magnetic or gyroscopic and single or multishot. By alternately pulsing the transducers and averaging the measurements. (drilling rod) borings well cuttings BOS brown oil stain bot 1) bottom 2) botryoidal bottle the dry storage silo used to store dry or liquid drilling-mud chemicals bottled gas propane gas (less commonly butane gas or propane-butane mixture) that has been compressed into a liquid. borehole effects are reduced. The well is drilled depending on the granting of increased well density on the acreage and does not earn any acreage. narrow beam of ultrasonic energy that is reflected off the borehole and is recorded to produce an ultrasonic image of the borehole. A borehole televiewer is used to detect and study fractures in reservoir rock surrounding the wellbore and to inspect the casing in a well for corrosion or faulty joints. in diameter that was used to connect the tools to the walking beam of a the cable-tool rig. cylinder.

BHCK bottomhole or bottom-hole circulating pressure the pressure on a fluid at bottom of a well while circulating a fluid. b) a pendulum bottomhole assembly for reducing the deviation of a well. performs certain tests. and the bit sub and bit. or three bores. A bottom-discharge bit is used in soft formations. b) steerable. bottomhole or bottom-hole pressure test a measure of reservoir pressure. low "API oil bottomhole or bottom-hole letter an agreement between the operator of a well and another party. either as a dry hole or producer. or after flow has stopped and the pressure has built up (static bottomhole pressure). The operator will drill a well and share the information from that well with the other party in return for cash or acreage in what is called bottomhole contribution or support. The well is shut-in and the bottomhole pressure increase with time is monitored. such as articulated. bottomhole or bottom-hole pressure gage or gauge a pressure sensor that is run on a wireline to measure flowing or shut-in pressure in a well. (bottom assembly) bottomhole or bottom-hole back torque the torque on a drillstring caused by the twisting of the drillstring bottomhole or bottom-hole choke a restriction (orifice or choke) that is anchored in the lower section of tubing in a well. psia. bellows. The pressure that exists when the fluids are not flowing will be formation or reservoir pressure. The plug is often used to isolate a depleted or waterbearing zone. (faceejection bit) bottomed to drill a well to total depth. BHCP bottomhole or bottom-hole contract a legal agreement providing for the payment of money or other benefits upon drilling a well to a specified depth bottomhole or bottom-hole contribution or support the cash or acreage contribution made in a support agreement between two parties. The pressure is measured by a bomb lowered on a wireline and is reported in units of psi. shocks. A storm choke is a bottomhole choke that automatically closes if a designated flow rate is exceeded. If the well is being drilled and is filled with circulating mud. either flowing or shutin. c) packed with stabilizers for a straight hole. The bottomhole choke controls the pressure and restricts the flow up the tubing to regulate the rate of flow and the gas/oil ratio. usually the casing-tubing annulus. the pressure on the fluids at the bottom of the well is taken either while the fluids are flowing (flowing bottomhole pressure). such as a desander or desilter bottom hold-down a sucker-rod pump anchor located at the bottom of the pump bottomhole or bottom hole the lowest point of a well bottomhole or bottom-hole agreement a type of support agreement in which one party contributes either cash or acreage in exchange for information on a well drilled to certain depth by another party. The bottomhole agreement is formalized in a bottomhole contract or letter. b) interwell permeability (kh) c) skin effect and d) condition ratio. the pressure will be hydrostatic pressure due to the weight of the overlying drilling mud. (production packer) bottomhole or bottom-hole plug a bridge or cement plug that is used near the bottom of a well to shut off that portion of the well below the plug. The pressure measurement is made with a pressure gauge run on a wireline. Bottomhole pressure is often taken under several different flow rates to calculate maximum productivity. Bottomhole assemblies are also described as a) specialized. Bottom dead center is in contrast to top dead center. or a quartz crystal resonator. The bomb contains a pressure gauge and is lowered on a wireline. depending on the number of tubing string. reamers. bottomhole or bottom-hole assembly the lower part of the drillstring extending from the bit to the drillpipe. BHP bottomhole or bottom-hole pressure bomb a downhole device used to measure pressure in a well at a specific depth. BDC bottom-discharge bit a type of rotary coring bit in which drilling fluid passes through longitudinal holes in the wall of the bit onto the face of the bit. bottomhole or bottom-hole location the location of the lowest part of the well with reference to a surface location bottomhole or bottom-hole orientation sub a small section of drillpipe in which a free-floating ball will roll to the low side to open a port and indicate the orientation of the sub. bottomhole pressure buildup test a test on a well to determine a) static bottomhole pressure. (btmd) bottom flooding liquid coming out of the bottom of a hydrocyclone. If the well is completed and producing. BHO sub bottomhole or bottom-hole packer a mechanical device that is used near the bottom of a well to prevent flow up the annular space between two tubulars. two. at a specific depth in a well. The pressure is scribed on a chart with a clock drive. bottomhole or bottom-hole pressure pressure at the bottom of the well. and c) oriented or nonoriented. bottomhole or bottom-hole gas separator see bottomhole separator 49 bottomhole or bottom-hole heater a heater used on the bottom of the well to heat and recover viscous. .bottom dead center • bottomhole or bottom-hole pressure test or hanger and the spool or tubing head adapter over the suspended tubular or hanger bottom dead center the location of a piston in an engine's cylinder at the lowest position in the cylinder during a stroke. The bottomhole assembly can be a) slick with no stabilizers. hole openers. or d) a fulerum for increasing the deviation of the well. This is in contrast to a dry hole letter in which the other party will contribute only if the well is a dry hole. subs such as stabilizers. The assembly can consist of drill collars. The bottomhole packer can have one. The pressure-sensitive element can be a coiled Bourdon tube. and shares the information on that well. or atmospheres. One party makes the contribution to another party that drills a well to contract depth.

It is divided vertically into units that are labeled a. ande. b. cement slurry can pass through it. The e unit on the top is very fine-grained. d. Fluids flow through a tortuous path in the separator causing the gas to separate from the liquid and flow into the tubing-casing annulus. bottomhole or bottom-hole sample a sample of the produced fluids taken from the bottom of a shutin well. (bottomhole or downhole gas separator) bottomhole or bottom-hole support see bottomhole contribution bottomhole or bottom-hole temperature the temperature in a well at a specific depth. A bottomhole sample is in contrast to a separator or surface sample. The separator is attached to the bottom of the tubing below the standing valve and is the only fluid entry into the pump. poorly sorted. The bottom wiper plug is pumped down the casing ahead of the cement and is used to wipe drilling mud from the casing walls. bottomhole or bottom-hole well a well drilled to a very hard subsurface rock bottom-intake electric submersible pump an electric submersible pump that has the pump and motor positions reversed with the pump on the bottom bottom lease an oil and gas lease on acreage that has another lease (top lease) that will become effective when the current bottom lease expires bottom loading pressure the pressure on the pontoon of a semisubmersible when the pontoon is in the submerged position bottom out to drill to total depth in a well \ bottom plug see bottom wiper plug J bottom sample a sample of crude oil taken) from near the bottom of the oil in a storage tank \ bottoms and bottom settlings the solid anq liquid residue in crude oil that accumulates on the bottom of a storage tank 7 i— SHARP BASE SCOUR MARKS Bouma sequence bottomset beds Bouma sequence the vertical sedimentary sequence deposited by a complete turbidity current is coming to rest. bottom settlings and water see basic sediment and water bottoms up 1) one complete circulation of the drilling fluid in a well 2) to maintain circulation of the drilling mud after drilling in order to wash the well cuttings out of the well bottom up to verify the total depth of a well bottom water water in the pores of rock immediately underlying a gas or oil reservoir bottom wiper plug a hard-rubber wiper plug used in a cement job. The valve is normally closed against a spring-loaded seat and opens at a specific pressure differential that can be adjusted with the spring. c. (subsurface sample) bottomhole or bottom-hole separator a downhole device designed to separate oil and gas before they are pumped up the well. and massive with possible graded bedding. which are distinguished by their sedimentary structures and grain size. and even c units can be missing from a sequence. The bottomhole separator device is used to increase the efficiency of the pump and prevent gas lock.50 bottomhole or bottom-hole pump • bounce off the engine bottomset horizontal sedimentary beds deposited in deep water off a delta. but not for isostasy (density of subsurface rocks) 2) an unusual area of higher or lower values on a map of Bouger gravity values Bouger correction a correction that is made to gravity values or readings for the attraction caused by the rock located between the gravity measurement station and the elevation of the datum which is usually sea level boulder a sedimentary particle having a diameter greater than 256 mm. Bottomset beds are deposited in front of prograding foreset beds by fine-grained sediments settling out of water. BLDR boulders driller's term for alternating hard and soft formations in a well PELITIC E D C B A PARALLEL LAMINATIONS CURRENT RIPPLES PARALLEL LAMINATIONS GRADED bottomhole or bottom-hole pump an electric. It is usually taken after the well has been shut in for a period of time to allow the fluids in the well to come to thermal equilibrium. The plug has a hole in it covered by a diaphragm that is designed to rupture so that when the plug seats in the float collar. has parallel laminae and is composed of hemipelagic or pelagic muds. hydraulic. It is a potential reservoir rock. The a unit on the bottom of the sequence is coarse-grained. or sucker-rod pump that is used in artificial lift to raise oil and other produced fluids from the bottom of the well to the surface bottomhole or bottom-hole regulator a valve that is anchored in the lower tubing string of a well and functions similar to a bottomhole choke. bounce off the engine to start a pumping well (kick the well off) . (bottomplug) boud boudinage Bouger anomaly 1) a gravity measurement that is corrected for topography (elevation) and latitude. b. The a.

self-threading fishing tool that is used to screw externally onto a fish . which is corrosion resistant. The law shows that when the pressure of a gas changes. The z factor can be used to apply this law to a real gas. A valve then is opened to connea the two chambers and the pressures are recorded to calculate the sample porosity. boundary pressure the average fluid pressure at the oil/water or gas/water contact 51 boundstone box die log to draw horizontal lines through the inflection points on well log curves to define bed boundaries and vertical lines through the maximum deflections of the curves to box in individual beds on a well log Boyle's-Charles' law a law of physics that combines both Boyle's and Charles' laws to explain the relationship between temperature (70. This law assumes an ideal gas.bounce the bit • Brach or brach bounce «he bit to tap the bit on the bottom of the drillstring into the bottom of the well boundary agreement an instrument that states the exact location of the boundary between two lands and the owner's agreement to that location. The organisms form an intergrowth or framework that binds the rock. Box and pin is in contrast to a pin-andpin coupling. A Bourdon tube is a metal tube that is slightly flattened and curved into a C-shape. A boundary agreement is used when there is a boundary dispute and a survey plat might be needed. Boyle's law a law of physics that relates the volume to the pressure of a gas It states that: P. bowl the support device that holds the slips in a master bushing on the rotary table on the floor of a drilling rig bow tie a seismic reflection pattern with three reflection branches box female threads on a tubular or rod. On a sucker rod. box tap a female.R. building rig brace a steel structural member that braces a girt between the legs of a derrick brace angle the two steel supports for the Samson post on a Class III lever type of beam pumper Brach or brach brachiopod boundstone a type of limestone formed by shells of organisms still in their original growth positions. In the Boyle's law single-cell porosimeter. Bpd. (rod coupling) box and pin a type of coupling used to join tubulares and rods. one chamber contains the sample and the other chamber is empty. pressure (P). The gas pressure is increased in the empty chamber. Some Bourdon tubes are coiled. and volume (V) of an ideal gas.The z factor can be used to apply this law to a real gas. The box has a slightly larger diameter than the sucker rods and are classified by the API as T./V2 or PV = a constant. a known volume of gas is compressed to a specific pressure in a sample chamber with the rock sample. Boyle's law porosimeter a device commonly used to determine the porosity of a rock sample such as a core./P2 = V. the box is an annealed or shot-peened steel cylinder with female threads that couples with the male or pin end of another sucker rod. It is used when the tubulars or rods have male threads on one end and female threads on the other end. BP 1) back pressure 2) bridge plug 3) bull plug 4) boiling point bp boiling point B. Fluid pressure in the tube will straighten the tube. and S for heavy loading. The end of the tube is usually attached to a pointer on a gauge face. and the pressure is read on a circular scale. there is a corresponding change in volume of the gas and vice versa. or bpd barrels per day BPF bullets per foot BPH barrels per hour BPI bytes per inch BPLO barrels of pipeline oil BPLOD barrels of pipeline oil per day BPLOH barrels of pipeline oil per hour BPM barrels per minute BPO before payout BPSD barrels per stream day BPV back pressure valve Bq becquerel BR 1) building rig 2) building road 3) broken rollers B. In the Boyle's law double-cell porosimeter. B or Bdst bound water water that is chemically attached or absorbed on mineral grains and is not free to flow Bourdon tube an instrument that is used to measure fluid pressure. tapered. Limestone deposited on a reef flat is boundstone. It states: P^V^/T^ = P-^-JTi. The volume of gas is measured at both atmospheric and the elevated pressure to determine the sample porosity. P is the pressure of a gas and V is its volume. back pressure BPCD barrels per calendar day BPCL base production control lever BPD.P.

They are forced into the formation by produced formation fluids that are then pumped into the tubing string. If a packer is used in the well to isolate the formation to be treated. The cement is then squeezed by pressure through the perforations. The water contains between 1 and 35 ppt salt. (anastamosing stream) brainstorms engineers BRAK or brak brackish brake a device (mechanical. Brachiopods have existed from the Cambrian period to the present and are important guide fossils. brak. A bradenhead is used to confine gas between the tubing and casing. braided stream a stream formed of numerous. orbrks bradding a condition on a drilling bit in which the teeth have dulled and the relatively softer inner portion of the teeth have flowed over the harder case area.52 brachiopod • brake flange brachiopod a bottom-dwelling marine invertebrate belonging to the phylum Brachiopoda. This differentiates them from the clams or pelecypods that have two similar shells. (brake rim) brace brace (off rotary drilling rig chart) brachiopods . the process is called bullheading. The drillpipe is run in the well until just above the casing perforations. bradenhead method or squeeze a method of squeeze cementing. (stuffing-box casinghead) bradenhead gas casinghead gas that is produced from a well that has a bradenhead (casinghead) used primarily on flowing or gas-lift wells bradenhead gas well a well that is producing gas from a gas reservoir that has been sealed off from an underlying oil or gas reservoir in that well bradenheading or braden heading a method used in a well to pump treating fluids into a formation. intertwining channels separated by sand and gravel bars. Bradding is caused by too much weight on the teeth. or hydrodynamic) that slows or stops the velocity of a mechanism brake band the flexible steel band that holds the brake blocks and tightens over a drum to apply the braking force brake block the asbestos or similar resistant section of lining on the band of a band brake. The coarse-grained sand and gravel deposits can become potential reservoir rocks. The treating fluids are pumped down the tubing string. Other methods are packer squeeze and hesitation. Several brake blocks form the brake lining that generates the friction on a drum when the brake band is tightened to cause the braking force. electrodynamic. Bracb or brach brackish a mixture of fresh and saline waters. brake fever the condition of a roughneck who persists in using the driller's brake brake flange the surface of the drum to which the brake lining is applied to cause the braking force. Brachiopods have two shells (bivalved) that are not the same in size or shape. bradenhead a steel cap screwed on the top of the well casing. A cement slurry is pumped down the drillpipe and the pipe rams are closed. BRAK.

The drillpipe is laid on the pipe rack. or bhp brake lever a lever on the floor of a drilling rig that is used to activate the drawworks brake brake lining the series of brake blocks on the brake band that are tightened around the drum to cause friction and generate the braking force brake rider a driller who uses the drawworks brake excessively brake rim the surface of the drum to which the brake lining is applied to cause the braking force (brake flange) brake shoe the heat and friction-resistant material on a band brake that comes in contact with a brake drum or clutch drum brake thermal efficiency the brake work divided by the heat input brake tie-down chain a chain located on the floor of a drilling rig that is used to secure the brake lever on the drawworks to hold the traveling block at a certain height brake weight a driller braking capacity the load that a drawworks brake and auxiliary brake on a drilling rig can hold branch more than one seismic reflector observed for the same subsurface point. unscrew. B. and stack them in the derrick 2) to separate gas from a liquid 3) the formation of gas bubbles in a liquid 4) to begin at a certain level of responsibility as a member of a drilling rig crew 5) to loosen a pipe joint 6) the rising of oil to the surface of an oil/emulsion drilling mud 7) an oblong wellbore crosssection caused by spalling of fractured rock into the well. The breakout block is sized according to the size of the bit.P. branched-chain paraffin a type of hydrocarbon molecule that is saturated with single bonds and is formed by a straight chain similar to a paraffin but with a side chain. breakout block a metal holding device in the shape of a heavy plate that fits into the bowl of a rotary table and is used to screw (made up) or unscrew (broke out) the bit from the drillstring by rotating the drillstring. (laying down or breaking down the pipe) 2) the fracturing of a formation in a well breakdown pressure the highest pressure. The breakout cathead is located opposite the driller's side of the drawworks. applied to a frac fluid during a hydraulic fracturing job before a subsurface formation takes fluids at a high rate and start to fracture breaker plate see breakout block break formation to drill through a formation breaking down the pipe see break down breaking strength the minimum stress that will rupture a substance under atmospheric pressure and room temperature (rupture strength) break it up to make an analysis of crude oil break out or breakout 1) to pull tubulars or rods from a well. BHP. (isoparaffin) brass an alloy with 60% or more copper and zinc BKD building road BRDGE bridge breadth the maximum width of a ship's hull or offshore drilling rig (beam) break 1) to start 2) a change in the drilling rate due to penetration of a softer or harder subsurface rock layer 3) the destruction of foam break circulation to start pumping drilling mud down the drillpipe to restore circulation after the well was shut in breakdown an equipment failure break down 1) to unscrew the drillstring into separate joints after either completion of drilling the well.. Indicated horsepower minus friction horsepower is equal to brake horsepower. A branchedchain paraffin is in contrast to a normal or n-paraffin that forms a straight chain. measured at the surface. The wellbore is elongated parallel to the a or minimum stress direction of the compressional forces that caused the shear fracture. The breakout cathead usually has a stronger clutch and jerk line than the spinning cathead. An example is isobutane. It is used as a power source with the tongs to unscrew (break out) joints of pipe. A branch can be caused by a buried focus. . a mechanical failure.H. or during a change in drillpipe sizes. (bit or bit breaker box or breaker plate) breakout cat head or cathead a hub that is attached to a rotating shaft (catshaft) such as on the drawworks of a drilling rig. Brake horsepower is measured on the drive shaft of the engine by a brake or dynamometer.brake horsepower • breakout cat head or cathead 53 braided river brake horsepower the actual horsepower of an engine delivered at the output end.

pig hair. ground neoprene. Brf barrels of reservoir fluid brg bearing brhg branching bridge 1) an obstruction such as soft material that swells or caves in to block a well. asbestos. b) drillable (made of soft metal) and c) retrievable (lowered on tubing or wireline) BP bridge up see bridge over bridging the plugging of a well bridging agents or material material that is added to drilling mud or cement slurry to remedy a lost circulation problem. The greater the interfacial area. (lead tongs) breakover a change from one drilling mud type to another (conversion) breaks Small faults in rocks break tour to begin the 24-hour cycle of tours by the drilling crew of a drilling rig after it has been rigged and is ready to drill breathe or breathing the flow of vapors and air in and out of a storage tank due to daily heating and cooling breather tubes outlet pipes on a storage tank that allows air or vapor to escape as the tank is being filled or the liquid is expanding by heating breather or breathing vent a small port in a storage tank that allows for the flow of air and vapor in and out of the tank due to cooling and heating. In coming out of the hole. some of which are larger than sand in size. coal. cottonseed hulls. whereas the conglomerate particles are rounded. the lead-tong or breakout man uses the breakout tongs which act as the torque tongs and are connected by rope or chain to the breakout cathead to grip the pin end of a pipe joint for breaking out the pipe. with greater than 35 ppt salt. or BRECC breccia breccia a clastic. ground. (lost circulation material) breakout man the crew member on a drilling rig that operates the breakout tong breakout oil oil that has separated from an emulsion mud breakout tongs the large. angular particles. Brec or brec breccia pore a type of pore found in limestones that is formed by the spaces between large. As little as 2% gas can cause a bright spot. the breakout tongs grip the box end of the pipe and are used as backups for the makeup tongs. the lighter the emulsion color. (bridge over or up) bridge over 1) the collapse of the sides of well around the drillstem 2) to plug a well at a specific depth in the well (bridge or bridge up) bridge plug an expandable tool with slips. Oilfield brine is the saline water often produced with oil from an oil well. possibly trapping the drillstring 2) the plugging of an orifice by material inside the orifice. leather. except the breccia particles are angular. brec. A bright spot is caused by an abnormally large reflection coefficient on an interface. Bridging is in contrast to arching that occurs outside the orfice.54 Breakout man • Brine storage pit to isolate producing formations in a well or to plug and abandon a well with cement. Laminated plastic. brine disposal well a well used to inject oilfield brine (salt water) into a subsurface reservoir brine storage pit a surface depression that uses either evaporation and/or seepage to dispose of oilfield brine or salt water . sedimentary rock containing very unsorted. bright spot an intense seismic reflection on a seismic record. breathing loss gas lost by circulation Brec. When going in the hole. Breccia is similar to conglomerate. whereas emulsions are murky and opaque. brimstone sulfur brine very saline water. Relatively pure water or oil is clear and bright. cellophane. Brecciolas are deposited by gravity slides and turbidity currents. the salt content of ocean water. The most common salt in oilfield brine is sodium chloride (NaCl). and wood shavings are common bridging materials. a plug mandrel and a rubber seal that is run in a cased well to close it at a specific depth. A shale overlying a sandstone reservoir saturated with gas can cause a bright spot. angular pieces brecciated intensely fractured and broken into angular particles brecciola a sedimentary rock composed of angular rubble particles of carbonates interstratified with dark marine shales. wrench-like device that is suspended from the mast or derrick above the drill floor of a drilling rig. The reflection is between 20-25% of the seismic energy compared to a typical reflection of 4-6%. shredded redwood and cedar. Three type of bridge plugs are a) permanent. A bridge plug is used bridle bridle bridle 1) the wire rope or cable that connects the horsehead to the carrier bar and polished rod on a beam pumping unit 2) the end of a survey cable to which a sonde is attached brightness an emulsion indicator. The vent can have a flame arrestor on it. BRECC.

B. B. It is equal to 252 cal. and put a well on production BRIT or brit brittle British thermal unit a unit of heat measurement often used to evaluate natural gas.000 Btu/bbl of light oil. Pipeline natural gas has between 900 and 1.bringing bottoms up • bryozoan 1 MILE 55 Sife isr^^l bright spot bringing bottoms up to circulate well cuttings to the surface of a well after drilling has stopped bringing in a well to drill. one average barrel of oil equals 6.031 Btu/ft3and wet natural gas averages 1. A substance is said to be brittle if it ruptures below the yield point and ductile if it ruptures above the yield point. The bromide value is a measure of the unsaturatedness of an oil bronc or bronch a relative inexperienced or newly promoted drill-rig worker bronchitis the problem with a driller when he has inexperienced rig workers or bronchs bronze an alloy of tin and copper broomstick charge an explosive charge that gives off a directional impulse used in seismic exploration Br. BTU.700.U. An L-spread has the shotpoint located to the side of one end on the line of spread. The heating value of gas is expressed in Btu/ft3and in Btu/gal for liquids.t. brute stack stacking of seismic traces before normal moveout corrections have been made. Brittle deformation is in contrast to elastic deformation.040 ft3of average natural gas. A British thermal unit is the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 lb of water.u. Btu . complete. whereas a T-spread has the shotpoint located opposite the center of the line of spread. On a Btu basis. Bry bryozoa bryozoan a small aquatic invertebrate belonging to the phylum Bryozoa.T.649 ft-lbs or 1060 J. broken 1) a sandstone with thin shale layers 2) a pipe or tubing that has been loosened with pipe tongs 3) a formation with a mixed composition broken thread a thread tooth used in a connection that is fractured or chipped broke out to be promoted to a new job broker a person who purchases leases either as an investment for himself to be sold later or as an agent for a company that desires to keep their lease purchases secret bromine value the number of centigrams of bromine absorbed by one gram of oil under specific conditions. 1° F.200 Btu/ ft .. Brk or brk break BRKN or brkn broken brks brackish BRKW brackish water brl barrel brl/a barrels per annum brn brown broach to break through to the surface around the casing in a well broaching the uncontrolled flow of formation fluids along the outside of a casing string up to the surface broadside a type of arrangement used in seismic reflection shooting in which the shotpoint is located a significant distance from the geophone line of the spread. Dry natural gas averages 1. The Btu content of crude oil depends on °API of the oil and averages 5. It is often used to determine the strike and dip of beds.sh. brown shale bit bright brtl brittle Brunton compass a pocket compass with sights and a mirror that is used by a geologist in the field.110 Btu/ft3. 777.. Some live in colonies and secrete .or BThU brittle deformation the permanent fracturing of a substance A rock is brittle if it fractures at less than 3-5% of strain. A brute stack is used early in seismic processing to estimate velocities.

or Bsctfd billion standard cubic feet per day BSD barrels per stream day BSE backscattered electron bsg bushing B.T. b bubblepoint curve a line drawn along the bubble point of a pressure or temperature-versusconcentration plot or temperature-versus-pressure plot. btw between BTX benzene.t. . bubble flow a flow regime with gas bubbles dispersed in a liquid bubble hole a well that produces gas during a drillstem test bubblepoint 1) the temperature and pressure at which solution gas will first bubble out of crude oil in a subsurface reservoir 2) the minimum temperature at a certain pressure or the minimum pressure at a certain temperature. Several bubble-cap trays are arranged vertically in bubble towers.56 BS • bubblepoint curve Btu or BTU regulation clause a gas purchase contract provision that allows the purchaser to refuse gas with a yield of less than a minimum number of Btu/ft3. at which bubbles form in a liquid 3) the temperature at which solution gas bubbles out of oil on the surface. B.u. The bubble effect is caused by oscillation of an air bubble as it pulses by contracting and expanding. Bryozoans have existed from Ordovician period to the present and were important reef builders during Paleozoic era. Bubble towers are used both in refining and in absorber towers. toluene.U. Btm. BSCFD. The tray contains a cool liquid. or BTU british thermal unit Btu or BTU adjustment clause a provision in a gas pipeline contract that provides for an adjustment in the gas price for the Btu content of the gas above or below a specific amount DISTILLING COLUMN.S. (bubble tray) bubble effect a secondary emission that occurs when using a marine seismic source such as an air gun. xylen bty battery BU balled up bu buff bubble bucket a sample container that is used to receive the fluid from a drillstem test bubble cap a concave-down metal cap that is located over an orifice on a horizontal bubble-cap tray.. or btm bottom btm ch bottom choke btm chk bottom check btmd bottomed BTS blankets to surface Btu. the tray contains a cool liquid and rising gases are forced to bubble through the liquid. SIDEDRAW bubble tray tower bubble-cap tray A horizontal metal tray with bubble caps mounted over orifices on the tray. Oil with a BS&W content above a certain amount can be automatically transferred back to treatment facilities. BSCF/D. gang a production crew BSI British Standards Institution BSKT basket BSMP bit samples BSMT or bsmt basement BSPF bullets shot per foot BSR bottom sinulating reflector Bsto or bsto barrels of stock tank oil BSULW barrels of sulfur water BSW barrels of salt water BSWPH barrels of salt water per hour BT broken teeth Bt total formation volume factor b(t) noise BTG bourdon tube gauge BThU British thermal unit BTM. bryozoans a branchwork of calcium carbonate. A bubble-point curve shows where bubbles first form in a liquid. Gases rising through the orifice in the tray are forced to bubble through the liquid as they rise. Bty BS 1) basic sediment 2) bottom sediment 3) base sediment BS&W basic sediments and water BS&W monitor an instrument used in a leaseautomatic-custody-transfer (1ACT) system that measures and records the basic sediment and water content of oil being transferred to a pipeline. B.

The build rate is usually expressed in 7100 ft and is typically V/t37100 ft. When saturation pressure is reached in the well. Buckle folding results in horizontal shortening. (guard electrodes) 57 buckle a bend or kink buckle folding folding in sedimentary rocks caused by forces parallel to the layering in the rock. The production rate is stabilized and held constant. A buildup test can determine whether skin or borehole damage exists. bubble tray see bubble-cap tray Bubl bubble buchwash basic sediments or bottom settlings bucking or bucking-current electrodes the electrodes in a wireline well-log sonde that focus the current from the measuring electrodes into a horizontal sheet that extends out into the formations surrounding the wellbore. when dissolved in water. The build angle is approximately 3°/100 ft. (building rate) buildup the part of a well where the inclination increases buildup test a test run on a well to determine its effective drainage radius and obtain information about the permeability of the producing formation. or 10m. The build curye extends from the kickoff point to the end of curve. 2) an error in a computer program bug blower a large fan on the floor of a drilling rig that is used to provide some relief from insects bug hole see vug bug picker Someone who works with microfossils bug roost a bed bugs 1) a seismograph crew 2) bacteria build-and-hold wellbore a deviated or horizontal well in which the inclination increases to a specific angle and then maintains that inclination to the target build angle 1) to increase the inclination of a well. (cap. buck up to tighten a threaded connection such as between pipe joints budget the planned allocation of monies for an investment such as drilling a well buffer a substance that. Positive is used for increasing angle whereas negative is decreasing angle. This increases ultimate oil production. Bubble pulses are caused by a marine seismic source such as an air gun and can be filtered out by seismic processing. bubblepoint pump a type of downhole oil pump that is sensitive to solution gas bubbles forming in oil. bubble tower a vertical tank that uses bubble-cap trays to pass gas through a liquid. solution gas locks the pump until the pressure builds up to above saturation pressure. building pits to make an excavation and surrounding embankment for the mud pits on a drilling rig building rate see build rate build radius the radius of curvature on a circle that duplicates the build curve of a deviated hole build rate the curvature of a build curve or rate of angle increase in a deviated hole. The well is shut in for a period of time and the rise of bottomhole pressure is recorded. An absorber tower or glycol dehydrator is a bubble tower. The part of the bulb that protrudes out beyond the stem is called the overhang. buckled pipe a tubular such as tubing that is bent into a helix. The bucking electrodes are often 5-6 ft long compared to the central or guarded electrode that is 3-6 in. see helical buckling buckling stress the force that causes pipe to bend. Buckling stress can be caused by either a sharp deviation in a well or by compressive axial stress that causes helical bending. bubble pulses the pulses caused by the oscillation of a high-pressure gas bubble in water. long. resists a hydrogen ion concentration or pH change when an acid or base is added buffer capacity the ability of a solution to maintain a specific pH bug 1) a microfossil. 30m. build curve the portion of a deviated or horizontal well in which the well is deflected from vertical to the desired inclination angle.bubblepoint pressure • bulk density bubblepoint pressure the lowest pressure at which crude oil in a subsurface reservoir is saturated with solution gas A slight decrease in the pressure will cause bubbles of solution gas to form in the oil. 2) The rate of increasing change of inclination of a well measured in 7100 ft. hat or head) bulk density the combined density of rock and fluids in the pore spaces . for conventional directional drilling and 27ft for shortradius horizontal drainholes. Buckles number water saturation times porosity. (bulk volume of water) buckling the twisting of a tubular. bulb bulbous BULB STEM ROOT bulb on a salt plug bulb the enlarged upper section of a salt stock or plug that was formed by salt swelling sideways. Buckled pipe is the result of a compressive axial load on the tubular. A bubblepoint pump maintains a backpressure on the producing formation in excess of the bubblepoint pressure to prevent solution gas bubbles from forming.

BV or Vb bulk-volume gas the percentage of gas in a unit volume. BVW bulk-volume oil the percentage of crude oil in a unit volume. bound to the rock surfaces by capillary action. Bulk mud is in contrast to dry mud that is stored in sacks. 7-8 ft in diameter with a shaft of 10 in. BP bull rope the rope that connects the bull wheel and band wheel on a cable-tool rig bull scout the oil scout that is elected to be in charge of the scout checks or meetings. The bull wheel is located on the drill floor of a cable-tool rig on the side opposite the Samson post. fuel. bulk volume the percentage of a particular substance in a unit volume. It was powered in early days from a bull rope attached to the band wheel. BUILT bullet perforator a type of tubular perforator that is lowered into a well to shoot high-velocity projectiles called bullets into the casing or liner and cement to perforate the well. The perforator is electronically detonated from the surface and can fire one. A bulk-volume meter is used to calculate the porosity of the sample. and cannot be produced. burrfree. (chain tongs) bull wagon a casing wagon bull wheel the large wooden spool. several. bulk storage trailer a large trailer that is used to store dry cement on site for a cement job. cable-tool bull wheels were connected to the band wheel by a chain drive with a clutch.58 bulkhead • bully The bull gear is powered by the engines and drives the connecting rods. Later. Bulk modulus is the reciprocal of compressibility. needle. The bull scout assigns scouts to their districts to be covered. A packer is used to isolate the formation to be treated. 2) A sidewall coring projectile. BVG bulk-volume hydrocarbon the percentage of crude oil and natural gas in a unit volume. bully an oilfield worker . (bulk volume of water) BVW bulk volume water-minimum or bulk volume water-irreducible the percentage water that is irreducible. in diameter that is used to hold the cable on a cable-tool rig. or all the bullets. Bullets range in diameter from V+-*/\6 in. bullnose a plug that fits into a subsea production flowline and allows a line to enter the flowline. hemipherical face that cuts a nonrecoverable core bulkhead an interior wall. but shaped explosive charges are more commonly used today in perforating. bulldozer a powerful tractor with a blade on the front bullet 1) a perforating gun projectile. bull gear the large circular gear on a mud pump bull plug a threaded pipe fitting or nipple with a rounded. Cement flow up the annulus is prevented by a packer. (czar) bull's eye diapir a subcircular diapir BULLT bullet bull tongs a tool consisting of a releasable chain and handle that is used to grip and turn pipe or fittings larger than can be handled with a pipe wrench. Bullet perforating was introduced in the 1930s. or cement slurry from a supply boat or barge to the platform bulk modulus the ratio of change in pressure on a body to fractional volume change. bullheading 1) a method used in a well to pump treating fluids into a formation. drilling mud. The fluids are forced into the formation by produced formation fluids that are then pumped into the tubing string. 2) to pump heavy drilling mud into the kill line and annulus of a well to control the well bullhead squeeze a technique that uses hydraulic pressure applied to a well to force cement slurry through perforations in a pipe. the process is called bradenheading. volume elasticity. BVM bulk-volume meter an instrument that measures the bulk volume of a sample such as a core by immersing it in a fluid and measuring the displaced fluid in a calibrated tube. closed end that forms a cap. bulk volume of water see bulk volume water. usually on a ship or offshore drilling rig bulkhead deck the highest deck on a ship or offshore drilling rig to which the watertight bulkheads extend bulk hose a flexible rubber hose on an offshore drilling platform used to raise bulk supplies such as water. The bullnose is removed once the line is secured. If a packer is not used. BVWmin or BVW^ bulldogged a fishing tool used to attach to fish or junk on the bottom of the well. BVH bulk-volume matrix the percentage of rock in a unit volume. The tool is designed so that it will not unattach from the fish or junk. mushroom. BVO bulk-volume water the amount of formation water in a unit volume. The trailer is moved on location and filled several days before the job. A bull plug is used to close a pipe. and come in various shapes described as punch. and steelflo. incompressibility modulus or modulus of incompressibility bulk mud drilling mud or slurry that is mixed with water or oil. bullnose bit a drag bit with a convex. The treating fluids are pumped down the tubing string. The bull plug on the bottom of a logging tool uses an O-ring seal.

burner tip 1) a point where natural gas on a burner is burned 2) the gas price at the end user burning disposal by fire of casinghead or solution gas (flaring) 2) excessive erosion on a drilling bit due to insufficient drilling fluid circulation burning point the lowest temperature at which the surface of a particular crude oil will ignite and steadily burn when an open flame is held at its surface burning shoe a rotary shoe used in fishing operations that is designed to grind up and pulverize junk (milling shoe) burn-out pit a surface depression that is used to dispose of materials by fire. (ballast tank) buoyant weight the effective weight of something submerged in a fluid. weights. cutting paraffin. strokes. bump oflf to disconnect a rod-line well from a central power unit bump-off post a device on a jack well that allows the jack well to be disconnected without affecting the other wells on the central jack plant bung down to drill a well bunker heavy fuel oil. It is equal to the weight of the fluid that is displaced by the object. concave-upward reflector that focuses the reflections to a subsurface point before the reflections reach the surface and are recorded. (belching) . and is designed to deliver a heavy. The sub is located between the jars and the fishing tool on a fishing string. (burn-out pit) burn shoe a short cylindrical section of pipe that is used on the bottom of the drillstring to mill or grind away stuck pipe or junk in a well burping intermittent flow on a well. One or more are used on the bottomhole assembly just above the drill collars on a semisubmersible or drillship to compensate for heave. Bur or bur 1) burrow 2) burrowed bur a rotary drilling bit burdens the overriding royalties. The rod slides up and down in the pipe with a stroke length of 18-36 in. This results in branches where more than one reflector is observed for the same subsurface point. Buoyant weight is equal to the weight of the object in air minus the weight of the fluid it displaces. and a displacement fluid down the casing string during a cement job until the top plug lands on the bottom plug indicating that the slurry has been pumped out of the casing. ago. or paraffin from the well. Bumper subs come in various lengths. buried hill a basement or hard. bunkhouse the building used to house the crew and supplies on a drilling rig buoyancy 1) the ability of a substance or object to float on a fluid 2) the upward-directed pressure on an object that is partially or entirely immersed in a fluid. and fishing and often has a sinker bar above it. Granite-wash reservoirs can occur on buried granite hill. (burn pit) burn pit a surface depression that is used to dispose of waste oil and materials by fire. carried interests. downward blow to a tool that is attached to the bottom of it. The graphite (C) can often be seen coating the sediment grains.bump a well or bump down • burping 59 DERRICK BIT bull wheel bump a well or bump down to have the downhole pump on a pumping well to hit the bottom of the well It is caused by too long a sucker-rod string. sedimentary-rock hill covered by softer sedimentary rock in the subsurface. The bumper jar is used in swabbing. y. The bumper sub is a cylinder with compressible fluid and a piston with a 5-ft stroke. buried-focus effect a condition in seismic exploration caused by a subsurface. mud. The bumper sub is also used to free stuck pipe. the oil was thermally cracked into thermal gas and graphite. production payments. It is part of the Lower Miocene epoch. and diameters. An increase in cement pump pressure occurs when the top plug bumps the float collar. bumping the plug to pump cement slurry. burn a bit to drill too fast burned-out reservoir rock a reservoir rock that contained crude oil but was naturally subjected to excessive temperatures (generally above about 300°F). bumped a cement plug that has hit the float collar near the bottom of a casing string during a cement job on a well bumper jar or sub a downhole fishing device that consists of pipe with a solid metal rod in it. and compaction anticline traps can occur in sedimentary rocks over buried hills. and lessor royalties to which a working interest is subjected Burdigalian a global age of geological time that occurred about 23-17 m. a top plug. Bumping a well can be done on purpose to clean out any sand. bumper sub a short section of pipe that acts like a shock absorber on a drillstring. It is described by numbers such as #6 bunker fuel oil. 3) the ability of a fluid to support an object buoyancy chamber a container for water ballast located in the pontoon or caisson of a semisubmersible drilling rig. Water ballast is used for stability and to raise and lower the semisubmersible in the water.

98°F. or chisel-shaped pellet that is cold-pressed into a hole drilled in the face of a steel cone on an insert or button roller-cone bit. Butane is often separated from natural gas and used as an additive to gasoline. a specific gravity at 60°F of 0.1 Btu/ft3.H 1 butane (normal and isobutane) button bit (Hughes Tool Co. or liquified under pressure and used as a part of liquid petroleum gas. & critical temperature of 3Q5. It is one of the paraffin series of hydrocarbons. conical. or resist wear or corrosion 2) a pipe fitting that is used to connect two pipes of different sizes. butene an olefin or alkane with the chemical formula C4H8 (butylene) butterfly valve a type of quick-opening valve that uses a disk or wafer on a pivot in a chamber to open button bit a type of roller-cone bit with tungsten carbide buttons or inserts on the cone faces.5844. The button does the crushing and chipping" of the rock on the bottom of the well.9°F. The button. whereas the spherical buttons are used in harder rocks. (msert bit) button hole a small hole in tubing thai allows natural gas from the tubing to flow up the casing-tubing annufus button pole an extension on a gin pole buttress sand beach sands deposited on an unconformity by transgressing (rising) seas. disk-shaped microresitiviry pact electrode H 1 H H 1 1 W 1 H H. (fishtail or wafer valve) Butterworth™ tank cleaning system rotating nozzles of high-pressure.5631 and a gross heat content of 3252. butt-welded pipe a tubular that has one longitudinal seam formed mechanically to make the welded . provide a guide. Isobutane has a molecular weight of 58. often in limestone. N-butane has a molecular weight of 58. formed by the burrow of an animal in the sediments burst pressure the net outward-directed pressure on the inside of a pipe burst pressure rating or strength the maximum pressure that the inside of an object such as drillpipe can bear before failure. (compact or insert) 2) a block that is nailed to the drill floor and is used to hold the bit when the drillstem is screwed into it 3) a small.-C-H H C-. bushing 1) a removable sleeve or lining that is used on a pipe or opening to limit its size.124. The button bit is commonly used in drilling hard rocks and in coring. a boiling point of 311°F.) butane a gas (C4Hl0) found in some natural gases Butane has two isomers: isobutane and1 n-butane. bsg bust the failure to tie or return a survey loop back within acceptable standards butterfly valve H 1 •C —c 1 1 H H I ^ ^ ^ ^ — ^ H H 1 | ^ • H 1 •C \ and close The butterfly valve is used to turn the flow on and off.C— 1 1 H 1 H. a boiling point of 10. It has larger external threads and smaller internal threads. Chisel-shaped buttons are used in softer rocks. a critical temperature of 274. hot-water jets that are used to clean gas from oil tanks button 1) the tungsten carbide.65°F.7 Btu/ft3. and a gross heat content of 3262. (internal yield strength) bury threads to screw a connection together until the male threads are covered by the shoulder on the female connection and cannot be seen bus or bus bar numerous electrical conductors that are arranged together to collect electric current from several sources and distribute it.124. Buttress sands can be potential petroleum reservoir rocks. a specific gravity at 60*F of 0. bit crushes the rock by Compression and produces relatively fine cuttings compared to those produced by a steel tooth or milled teeth roller-cone bit.60 burr • butt-welded pipe burr a local area of roughness or a sliver on a surface produced by mechanical damage burrow pore a pore. A bus is a solid metal conductor that is designed to carry a heavy electrical current. spherical.

(butene) buy-back crude the proportion of crude oil belonging to the national government in a sharing agreement. A byte commonly takes 8 bits of memory.y. (participation crude) BV bulk volume BVG bulk-volume gas BVH bulk-volume hydrocarbon BVM bulk-volume matrix BVO bulk-volume oil BVW bulk-volume water ^. bypassing or by-passing the flow of fluid such as water around relatively impermeable reservoir rocks. (imbition) bypass valve a valve that allows fluid to flow around an area or piece of equipment in the line byte the computer memory needed to store one character. bulk-volume water-irreducible BVWmln bulk-volume water-minimum BW barrels of water B w water formation-volume factor B^g wet-gas formation volume factor BW/H barrels of water per hour BW/D barrels of water per day BWL barrels water load BWOL barrels of water over load BWPD or bwpd barrels of water per day BWPH barrels of water per hour BWPMM barrels of water per million cubic feet BWTR brine water b. Computer memory is measured in kilobytes or megabytes. . leaving oil behind.butylene • byte 61 buttress sands junction The edges were heated in a furnace to welding temperature before welding. butylene an olefin or alkane with the chemical formula C4H8.. billion years bypass a pipe connection that goes around a flow control mechanism such as a valve A bypass is used during adjustments or repairs. A character is a symbol such as A or 2.

about 183 m. Almost all wells were drilled with cable-tool rigs until the period 1900-1930 when the rotary rigs were introduced. The band wheel turns and is attached to the walking beam by a pitman. CSPS cable-tool drilling the original method of drilling a well by pounding the bit. and calf wheel. bull wheel. 2) the electrical conductors that connect the geophones with the seismic recording truck. but can drill to 7. There was typiclly a two-man crew on the rig. The derrick.500 ft and do 10. The derrick has a crown block at the top that is used to raise and lower equipment in the well. but it does minimize formation damage. It uses special tools from a fishing tool service company. was 72 ft high with a base of 20 ft. vertical wooden wheel.000 ft. Cable-tool drilling is still used today and is normally limited to 3. the well cuttings are bailed out of the bottom of the well with a bailer on a bailing or sand line.62 C • cable-tool rig C 1) Celsius 2) centigrade 3) coal 4) center 5) capacitance 6) concentration 7) conductivity 8) coulomb 9) coefficient 10) specific heat 11) waterdrive constant 12) calculated 13) coil 14) carbon 15) cubic 16) phase velocity 17) curvature 18) components 19) cored c 1) coarse 2) core 3) capillary 4) contact 5) critical 6) conversion 7) compressibility 8) electrochemical 9) correlated 10) capacity 11) constant 12) casing 13) compressional wave 14) shaliness exponent 15) coal 16) heat capacity 17) centiCa calcite CA elevation correction Ca apparent compressibility cabbages bearings located on the pitman of a beam pumping unit cable 1) a rope made of strands of steel wire. but soft and unconsolidated rocks often cave in or allow water to flow into the well. walking beam. with a cable tool drilling rig chisel edge. engine. If there is no water in the well. At regular intervals (3-8 ft).000 foot workovers. 100 fath. single-tube. boiler steam engine with a heavy flywheel.000-5. Cable-tool rigs were effective in medium to hard rocks. The cable-tool rig has a derrick. (cut and strip) cable hander a crossbar that rests on the rotary table and uses a clamp to support the weight of a survey cable during fishing operations cablehead a quick-connecting end of a logging cable that contains electrical and mechanical couplings cable suspended unit an electric submersible pump suspended by a cable in a well. 3) the electrical conductors and supporting members that are used to lower and raise a well logging sonde in a well 4) a rope made of fibers 5) a nautical unit of length equal to 600 ft. (churn or rope drilling) cable-tool rig an older type of drilling rig that pounds a hole in the ground by raising and lowering a wedge-shaped bit on the end of a drilling line. band wheel. A cable-tool rig can drill about 25 ft/day and rarely more than 60 ft/day. or about 0. up and down on the bottom of the well to pulverize the rocks at the bottom of the well.1 nautical mi cable clamp a rope socket cable crew ten or more jug hustlers that work on a seismic crew planting and moving the geophone arrays cable electrode an electrode in a flexible insulator that is run between the sonde and the logging cable for electrical contact with the borehole fluid cable-guide method a fishing method for conductor cable or sand line in a deep open hole or for a radioactive instrument. A cable is in contrast to a wire rope that has a fiber core such as hemp with strands of steel wire wound around it. which often number 24 or 48. a large. water is dumped into the well. The cable has as many pairs of wires as geophone groups. The method is about onetenth as fast as rotary drilling and does not effectively control abnormal high pressures in subsurface fluids. Usually less than 25 ft of water are kept in the well. which was originally a locomotive. a heavy weight. This causes . which was originally wooden. The engine. was connected by a belt to the band wheel.

cable tools the equipment used to drill a well with a cable-tool rig. Calc. calc . As the well is drilled deeper. Unitized cable-tool rigs that are lighter and more portable with telescoping double pole masts are now used. By 1890. which is about 20 ft long and located on the end of the drilling line in the well. Inc. The end of the bit has a wedge or chisel shape with a taper of 25°. CAL or Cal caliper log CAL computer analyzed log cal 1) calcite 2) caliper survey 3) calorie 4) caliper log calendar month one of the 12 months of the year calendar quarter three consecutive months that start with the first day of January. A cadastral map can also show physical and cultural features. Drilling line is let into the well by a temper screw attached to the walking beam. cab over a truck with the engine over its front wheels cackle berry a dynamite charge cadastral map a large-scale map showing property and political boundaries. The cable-tool bits are solid steel that vary in length from 3-4 ft and weigh from 140-200 lbs. most of the equipment had been standardized. Higher angles are used for softer formations and flatter angles for harder formation. The drilling line. CT (standard tools) cable wiper a device that consist of loops of cable that is designed to be attached to a casing string as it is run in a well to remove the mud cake. A caisson is used in Arctic waters were there is moving ice.cable tools • calcareous 63 cable tool drilling rig (Texaco. caisson completion system an offshore Christmas tree that is installed entirely below the mudline cake consistency the texture of the filter or mudcake in a wellbore. The bits have two V-shaped notches for watercourses. tough. originally hemp rope. or calc calcite calc calcareous calcarenite a limestone containing predominantly sand-sized particles or particles from 0. and the rig was known as a standard cable-tool rig that was commonly used up to 1925. jars. Cake consistency is described by such terms as soft. Two types of cable wipers are rotating and reciprocating. is wound around the bull wheel. The common cable-tool rig was used in the 1870s and 1880s. The calf wheel is a more powerful winch system that is also powered from the band wheel and is used to set casing in the well. although some very shallow rigs were mounted on wheels. cake thickness the thickness of the filter or mudcake made of the solids in drilling mud that are plastered to the side of the wellbore. April.) the walking beam to rise and fall. is composed of the bit. Cake thickness is usually measured in Vyi of an inch. more rope is unwound from the bull wheel. The drill string. hard. or October calendar year twelve consecutive months that start with January 1 and end with December 31 CA1C. The steam engine has been replaced by the multicylinder internal combustion engine with a speed-reducing intermediate shaft. but now steel cable. The cellular base of an offshore gravity structure and the buoyancy chambers on a semisubmersible are caissons. 2) a water-tight chamber made of concrete and/or steel. firm. value. The last standard cable-tool rig was retired in the late 1950s. cadastre or cadaster an official registration of location. July.062 to 1 mm in size. The rig is dismantled when moved. the drillstem. very large leg. or rubbery. which causes the drilling line on the other end to rise and fall in the well. Clear calcareous containing some CaCO3 or limestone. It is used to delineate ownership of the land. and a rope socket. and ownership of real estate that is used for taxation cage the container for the ball valve in a sucker-rod pump cable tool drillstring CAI 1) conodont alteration index 2) color alteration index caisson 1) a type of offshore production platform with one.

or calc calcium carbonate the primary constituent of limestone. calciclastic a rock composed of clastic limestone particles calcified alga or algae see calcareous alga or alga calcilutite a limestone containing primarily silt. The calf line was wound around the calf wheel. Ca. (lime) calcium chloride a white salt (CaCl2) that is used as a desiccant. or yellow. calibration tank a tank in which liquid flowmeters are calibrated (prover tank) caliche a very hard crust formed in arid-climate soils and composed primarily of calcium carbonate. see calcium mud calc OF calculated open flow calc sh calcareous shale calc ss calcareous sandstone calctc calcitic calculated absolute open flow the theoretical maximum producing capacity of a gas well. cche caliper an instrument used to determine the inner diameter of a tubular such as tubing or casing caliper log a wireline well log that records the diameter of the wellbore. or six spring arms that expand and contract to fit the size of the wellbore as it is brought up the hole.and clay-sized (mud) particles (less than 62 mm). a common sedimentary rock. two. Calcite has a hardness of 3. (actual calendar day allowable) calf line the cable used on a cable-tool rig to raise and lower casing in the well. The . and to increase the density of drilling fluid calcium hydroxide the active ingredient [Ca(OH)2] of slaked lime and the main constituent of wet cement (lime) calcium mud a water-base bentonite drilling fluid in which the bentonite has been altered to a calciumbase clay by the addition of lime to form lime mud or gypsum. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is also a common scale that forms in pipes. Calcite is formed both organically and inorganically. The mineral effervesces in cold. calcium-treated mud water-base drilling mud that contains calcium oxide (lime) or calcium sulfate (gypsum) to retard hydration of shales and clays. and an organic filtration control agent.64 calcareous alga or algae • caliper log calcium reduces swelling and hydration of the clays. tropical seas or intertidal areas. Calc. as an accelerator in cement. CGS calendar day allowable the amount of gas and/or oil permitted to be produced from a well. as a drying agent for gas. Calcium replaces sodium on the clay. cal. the motion of calcareous alga or algae a type of aqueous plant that secretes mud-sized needles of aragonite (calcium carbonate) and lives primarily in shallow. It is a common cement in sedimentary rocks. It is used to drill thick anhydrite deposits and to counteract sloughing shales and salt water flow. stated on a per day basis. It was used along with a multiple sheave crown block and the traveling block. Calcareous algae are important contributors to both sand. calibration the adjustment of an instrument to a standard calibration loop see test loop calibration pill see test pill calibration survey a short run by a sonde before the well log is make to make sure that the logging equipment is accurately running and the results are replicable calibration tail a short form on a well log with information on log calibration. colorless. Caliche is opaque.and mud-sized carbonate particles in tropical seas. a specific gravity of 2. Calcium muds are called lime or gyp muds. or white and can contain gravel and finer grains. Clcrd calcisiltite a limestone containing particles that are primarily silt-sized calcite a common mineral composed of CaCO3. In the deep ocean it is composed of microfossil shells of formainifera or coccoliths. In shallow waters. the ooze is composed of both shells (microfossils) and inorganically and organically precipitated calcium carbonate. CAOF calculated gas saturation a ratio of the volume of gas under reservoir conditions to the volume of the reservoir rock. The calf wheel was powered by a chain and sprocket from the main shaft. leasehold. three. CALC. The lime mud has up to 120 ppm soluble calcium and is composed of bentonite. lime. Coralline algae are a type of calcareous algae that are encrusting. thinner. The tool has one. calf wheel the reel on a cable-tool rig that is located on the walking beam side of the drill floor and winds the calf line used for running casing. calcium sulfate a salt composed of CaSO4 that is used to control alkalinity in drilling mud and can form as scale in pipes. and the clays form aggregates. reddish-brown to buff. It is the cause of water hardness and is a unit or standard of water hardness. (calcified alga or algae) calcareous dolostone a calcareous sedimentary rock containing 50%-90% dolomite calcareous ooze a very fine-grained. The calibration tails are made before and after the logging survey. The rock limestone is composed primarily of calcite. Stromatolites are a type of algae that build large.72. and is commonly white. or field by a government regulatory agency (allowable). caustic soda. Calcium sulfate is the composition of the mineral anhydrite. The gyp mud contains up to 1200 ppm calcium similar to lime mud except the lime is replaced by gypsum. dilute acid. white deposit of calcium carbonate deposited on the ocean bottom. It is usually calculated from a four-point test. Clclt calcimetry the analysis of the carbonate content of a rock calcimicrite a limestone composed of particles less than 20 JL in size J calcirudite a limestone containing particles that are primarily larger than sand-sized or particles larger than 1 mm. four. Calcareous algae have been important on reefs throughout geological time. laminated calcareous structures in shallow water. In one type of caliper log tool. domal.

lodging. Canadian rig a drilling rig that is similar to a cabletool rig. cal calorific value the heat value of a substance calorimeter an instrument that is used to determine the heat content of a substance. After the mast or derrick is raised. CALP caliper log CAL Systems™ Computer Analyzed Log Systems calyx drill a type of rotary drill that has serrated cutting edges for soft formations and an adamantine cutting edge for hard formations. Middle Cambrian and Lower Cambrian global epochs. y. CAL. ago. The caliper log is used to a) calculate hole volume for cement. in diameter. 2) to seal core samples in a can Canadian pole a wooden rod that was used instead of rope on a cable-tool drilling rig. or subsurface buoy) call-on oil an option to buy oil during a period of time call-on production the right of a company through an agreement such as a farmout to purchase the gas and/or oil produced at a specified rate or at current rates Callovian a global age of geological time that occurred about 165-160 m. y. The Cambrian is subdivided into the Upper Cambrian. cam an eccentric plate that is mounted on a shaft called the camshaft. The engine and derrick are pinned and then put in place after which the mast or derrick is raised. A calorimeter is used to determine the Btu content of natural gas. The rig is assembled with the mast or derrick horizontal. The rotary beams are installed.5CC at 1 atm pressure. CALM catenary anchor leg mooring calorie the metric unit of heat energy. 2 2 £ in. It is part of the Upper Cretaceous epoch. The catline boom is used for lighter lifting. Areas of thick mudcake on the side of the wellbore indicate permeable zones and areas of caving or washout are seen as enlargements. except that it uses wooden rods that were screwed together instead of manila drilling line cancellation decree a court order that voids a lease C&A compression and adsorption plant C&C circulating and conditioning candela the System International (SI) unit for luminous intensity. The change in resistivity is calibrated to hole size. horizontally on the ground. and either —V round or hexagonal. In another version. One calorie is required to raise the temperature of lg of water from 14. and Trempealeauan.call-back marker • cantilever derrick or mast rig three or four spring-driven arms is transfered to a rheostat. Corrosion. The mast or derrick is then pivoted to a vertical position using the traveling block and drawworks on the rig. and the catworks and rotary are raised into position with the traveling block. and food can 1) to close a tank. and e) to determine hole stability. cal. The drill can be used for both drilling and coring. ago. Camb Cambrian Cambrian a period of geological time about 570500 m. three flexible springs are conected to a center rod that telescopes into a cavity with an electrical coil in the tool. It contains the North American epochs Dresbachian. cd candela per square metre a derived unit in System International (SI) for luminance. Franconian. the traveling block is used to raise the drill floor into position. d) locate packer seats for openhole drillstem test. c) locate filter cake and permeable zones. ago. (section gauge) CAP.1855 J. It is part of the Middle Jurassic epoch. 65 camp boss a drilling crew member in charge of the crew's administration. orCALP call-back marker a buoy that is attached to the sea floor and can be released by a sonic signal (recall. and then pivoted vertically into position by using the rig's drawworks. A calorie is equal to 0. pop-up. On each end was a metal strap that held a pin or box joint which allowed the rods to be screwed together. The current generated by the movement of the center rod is used to measure the well diameter. (jackknife derrick or mast) cantilever derrick or mast rig a drilling rig in which the derrick or mast is assembled from the bottom up. The cantilever .0039685 Btu or 4. When the cam shaft is turned. It is the oldest period of the Paleozoic Era. The drilling structure is made of prefabricated units that are pinned together with large pins. the cam imparts an alternating motion to a piece of equipment that is in contact with the cam surface. Camb camera an impression block used in fishing Camneld bushing a fishing tool that is a combination spear and washover pipe Campanian a global age of geological time that occurred about 80-72 m. b) determine hole volume to calibrate other logs. cd/m2 C&K lines choke and kill lines C&P cellar and pits C&R combination tools or methods canted leg a leg on an offshore jackup rig that is designed to slant outward from the rig to give the rig more stability cantilevered mast cantilever derrick or mast a steel tower that is used on a cantilevered or jackknife derrick rig. The rods were about 18 ft long. y. scaling and holes can also be located in tubular goods by some caliper logs.5 to 15.

the relative size distribution of the pores. head. Nc capped-in royalty see shut-in royalty capping the impermeable cap rock that forms a seal on a petroleum trap capping a well closing in a well to prevent loss of natural gas. Capping a well can be either a) closing the blowout preventers on a well during a blowout . which is more favorable for tax purposes. the amount of oil that a well. Capillary pressure is measured in a core by a) a porous diaphram. (jackknife derrick or mast rig) can't stain water a well that does not produce even a trace of crude oil CAODC Canadian Association of Oilwell Drilling Contractors CAOF calculated absolute open flow cap 1) capacitor 2) capacity 3) capture 4) bulb. capital need per unit produced the money invested in exploration and drilling per barrel of oil daily production capital string the deepest and last length of casing that is often run down through the producing zone. production string. and the amount of irreducible fluid saturation. capacity allowable a type of allowable. c or cap 3) the net amount of fluid actually delivered at the outlet port by a rotary pump per unit time. Capacity is usually expressed in US gallons/minute. the minimum pressure needed to force the oil into the rock. ranging from 23/8-95/8 in. The assets can be evaluated by physical inspection. C capacitance probe a sensor that determines the dielectric constants of oil and water in an oil/water emulsion to determine their relative amounts capacitor a device that stores an electrical charge on an electrical circuit. or field is permitted to produce per period of time by a government regulatory agency. A capacitor consists of two conducting plates separated by an insulator. or hat CAP caliper log capacitance a measure in farads of how much electrical charge can be stored on a capacitor. Capital expenditures include geological and geophysical costs. The ability of a capacitor to store electrical charge is called capacitance and is measured in farads (F). and is the longest string of casing in the well. the greater the pressure needed to inject the mercury. Capillary forces can cause a fluid to flow into a porous rock. The capillary pressure is plotted against wetting fluid saturation. The casing adjacent to the producing zone can then be perforated or shot with holes to complete the well. capillary number the ratio of viscous forces to capillary forces. leasehold. capital investment funds spent to acquire an asset(s) capitalize to deduct monies paid out during an investment such as drilling a well from income over a period of time greater than one year. or production casing or inner conductor) CAPL Canadian Association of Petroleum Landmen rig is the most common type of drilling rig on land. pay. Capital string protects the hole. equipment costs. b) mercury injection. long.66 can't stain water • capping a well capillary pressure the pressure differential between two immiscible fluids. Capillary number is equal to viscosity times velocity divided by the interfacial tension. oil. This will determine the displacement pressure. and lease bonuses. Capillarity affects the recovery of oil from a reservoir as it hinders the oil from flowing through the pores of the rock. and to be held by the rock. capital expenditures monies spent in drilling and completing a well that cannot be deducted under federal income tax law. Capillary pressure is caused by the interfacial surface tension and is related to the curvature of the surface. oil or gas is forced under increasing pressure into a reservoir rock that is 100% saturated with natural wetting fluid such as water.. capital assets the money value of tangible assets. The mercury-vacuum capillary pressure curve is used to determine the pore-size distribution in a rock. and typically is 5Vi or 75/a in. The smaller the pore throats. Capital string has the smallest diameter. (condenser) cap capacity 1) the ability of a reservoir to take water 2) the maximum production rate. or d) the dynamic method. that is used for a waterflood or enhanced oil-recovery project capacity index a measure in barrels per hour per pound increase of bottomhole pressure of an injection well's ability to take water cap a well to place and close a valve on the wellhead of a well that is blowing out capillaries small pores in a rock that can retain liquids by capillarity capillarity the attraction of the surface of a liquid to the surface of the solid with which it is in contact. to move through it. Capacity is expressed in millidarcy-feet (md-ft). The pores of the rock are filled with water held by surface tension. Capitalize is in contrast to expense. In a mercuryvacuum capillary pressure curve. and protects the downhole equipment. Pc capillary pressure curve a record of capillary pressure versus water saturation in a rock. The monies are recovered by the slower and less desirable depletion or depreciation methods. mercury is injected under increasing pressure into a reservoir rock from which all fluids have been removed. (flow. 4) permeability multiplied times pay thickness of a petroleum reservoir. capillary fringe the portion of the zone of aeration just above the water table. Smaller pores and pore throats increase this effect. The curve is plotted from results of a test used to determine the characteristics of pores in a reservoir rock In one test. c) the centrifugal method. (surface tension) capillary condensation the formation of pendular water rings around contact points of sediment grains capillary forces the interfacial forces between immiscible fluid phases. isolates formation fluid. Capital assets is in contrast to intangible assets. prevents fluid migration.

U. Cavities are common in caprock. oolitic and pseudo-oolitic. (sigma unit) C. A rimmed platform or shelf has a grainstone bar along its deepwater. micrite. Chlorine has a high capture cross section. On shallow salt stocks. or permafrost. sonic. Types of carbonate textures include rhombic. density. Cap rock is composed primarily of granular anhydrite with gypsum. Car or crbnt carbonate-analysis log a computer log that has a computed porosity and sometimes a secondaryporosity index and a movable-oil index. capture the absorption of a neutron into an atom. and elements in minerals lower. and occasionally sulfur. Carbonates are potential reservoir rocks. slabby. The anhydrite is thought to have been formed as an insoluble residue precipitated from groundwater reacting with halite. If hydrogen sulfide is present. CCD carbonated waterflooding a waterflood process in which water that is nearly or fully saturated with carbon dioxide is injected into the subsurface reservoir. capture unit a measurement of macroscopic capture cross section equal to KT'cm"1.000-ft thickness. argillaceous rocks. the chemicals will turn brown. CARB or carb carbonaceous carbene a component of bitumen that is soluble in carbon disulfide and benzene but not carbon tetrachloride. usually measured in barns (10~24cm2). dolomite. less dense salt dome capsule detector a capsule that is filled with chemicals used to detect hydrogen sulfide on a drilling rig.C / H C H I C-H x earbocyclic compound (cyclohexane) carbocyclic compound a hydrocarbon with the carbon atoms bonded in a circular structure. carbonate compensation depth the depth in the ocean above which carbonate deposition exceeds solution and below which carbonate solution exceeds deposition. extracts lighter hydrocarbon fractions from the oil to form a miscible front. carbide blade bit a rotary bit that has several tungsten carbide steel cutting edges and is used for drilling hard formations carbide cable bit a percussion type of bit that uses tungsten carbide button inserts to drill the cable-tool well. primarily limestone and dolomite. 67 H H H-C H H C-H I H. subcrystalline. The capsule is broken and attached to clothing with a string. This effect is used in well logging. The carbonateanalysis log is derived from a laterolog. (CO2 augmented waterflooding) carbonate platform of shelf an extensive shallowwater area where both inorganic and organic limestones are deposited. carbon black very fine particles of amorphous carbon. Carbene is an asphaltene. grainy. The other minerals are thought to have formed from the alteration of anhydrite. Deposition on the carbonate ramp will cause it to evolve into a carbonate platform or shelf. negative gravity anomaly produced by the underlying. ago. Two types are cycloalkanes with single bonds and aromatics with some double bonds. sucrosic. Car carbonate Caradocian a global age of geological time that started about 460 m.margin on the side that faces the waves. microsucrosic. hydrogen lower. carbonaceous 1) a rock that contains significant amounts of carbon 2) a sedimentary rock that contains organic matter. CPRK cap rock or caprock effect the positive gravity anomaly produced by the dense caprock that is superimposed over the broader. limestone. CARB or carb carbonate a rock formed from CO3. cap rock or caprock 1) impermeable rock that forms the seal on top of an oil or gas reservoir. the anhydrite grades upward into gypsum and limestone with possibly some barite and sulfur. that a neutron has to pass through to be captured by a particular atomic nucleus. The unit of measure is usually capture or sigma units (lO^cm" 1 ). capture cross section 1) nuclear capture cross section is the effective area.000 ft in the Atlantic Ocean. Capture cross section is used in pulsed neutron logging to identify elements.000 ft in the Pacific Ocean and as shallow as 11. It occurs as deep as 20. It has an average thickness of 300-400 ft with up to 1.cap rock or caprock • carbon black or b) placing and closing a valve on a well that is blowing. microlaterolog. Permeabilities are mostly below 1CT4 darcys (cover or roof rock or seal) 2) the insoluble top layer of a salt plug in a salt dome. About one-fourth of the world's sedimentary rocks are carbonates. Carbon black can form naturally by thermal decomposition of hydrocarbons. and sidewall neutron log. Caprock is commonly shale or evaporites but can also be cemented rocks. The atom becomes energized and releases gamma rays of capture. Carbonate sediments such as chalks and calcareous oozes are not deposited below the carbonate compensation depth. Carbon black is important commercially and can be made by the incomplete combustion of gas or by burning sour . (limestone platform of shelf) carbonate ramp a sloping area of the seabed where both inorganic and organic limestones are deposited that is located between the beach and deep water. X capture gamma ray energy (gamma ray photon) that is emitted when the nucleus of an atom captures a thermal neutron. Measurement of capture gamma rays is used in neutron and pulsed neutron logging. y. 2) macroscopic capture cross section is the effective cross-sectional area per unit volume of material for the capture of neutrons. The bit is used for drilling shallow gas wells. It is part of the Upper Ordovician epoch. and helps drive the oil toward producing wells. chalk. The carbon dioxide comes out of solution.

A Ca/Si ratio is also measured to identify the rock matrix. With brown lignite coals. odorless gas (CO) that is toxic Carbon/Oxygen log® a well log of the neutron spectroscopy type that uses a pulsed-neutron sonde. from chemical or fertilizer plants or from power plant stack gas.68 carbon dioxide • carried to the casing point or through the tanks young sediments has a high carbon-preference index. light oil and gas were generated. between 1. Organic matter in carrier bar . The carbon-preference index of immature crude oil is greater than 1. such as a promoter. When the carbon dioxide is injected.) The costs are borne by the other participants (carrying parties) such as the investors. Maturation of the organic matter reduces the number. carbon monoxide a colorless.01. who is free of drilling and completion costs on a well up to a point (installation of casing or tanks.1. and hydrocarbon saturation of the formation. It is subdivided into the upper Carboniferous. and completion. The Si/Ca ratio for limestone is 1. y. such as casing or installation of the tanks.38. After the point is reached. By recording the gamma rays produced by bombarding the formation with 14-MeV neutrons. The C12/C13 ratio is most commonly measured to determine if there has been any biological or chemical fractionation of the carbon isotopes. The costs are borne by the carrying party. and Lower Carboniferous global epochs.9 and 1. Carbon dioxide has a molecular weight of 44. a critical temperature of 87. and for sandstones. The carbon dioxide can be separated from the produced fluids during the flooding and recycled. and/or operating the well or lease either up to a certain point. The C/O ratio depends on the lithology. carried interest or carried working interest a fractional interest in a lease which is free of all costs of drilling and completing a well up to a certain point. Carman a global age of geological time that occurred about 230-220 m. carbonic acid. no oil or gas was preserved. carbon dioxide flooding. injection or miscible flooding an enhanced oil recovery process in which carbon dioxide gas is injected into the reservoir. carbon log a wireline well log of pulsed neutron type. for shale. and c) indicate porosity. gas. drilling. and in small amounts in air. porosity. The carried party's expenses are paid by the other parties who own the working interest in the well. Middle Carboniferous. CWI carried interest system an arrangement in which a company pays all or part of a partner's cost in exploring. through the tanks. carbon plant an installation that burns natural gas with an insufficient air supply to produce carbon black carbon-preference index a ratio between the amount of normal alkanes of odd and even numbered carbon atoms between C24 and C34 in organic molecules and hydrocarbons. In areas of bituminous coal. the carried interest usually becomes a working interest and shares in the costs. testing.827. carried to the casing point or through the tanks a participant (carried party) in drilling. 1. the reservoir is repressured with water injection. The carbon ratio is made by dividing the percentage of fixed carbon by weight into the percentage of the sum of fixed carbon and the volatile matter of the same analysis. Carboniferous is used in Europe and is divided into the Mississippian and Pennsylvanian periods in the United States. and the carried partner will repay the expenses if oil or gas is found carried party an interest in a well or lease that is not responsible for the costs of drilling.1. ago. First. the carbon/oxygen and the silicon/calcium ratios can be determined.9°F. and a specific gravity at 60°F of 0. that can cause metal corrosion. (CO2 flooding. ago. It is used to determine hydrocarbon saturations and lithologies. in almost pure carbon dioxide reservoirs in the subsurface.5 and 1. It is found as a relatively inert gas in natural gas. odorless gas (CO2). carbon-ratio theory a theory that relates the thermal history of an area to the rank of coals. The carbon measurement is combined with a similar oxygen measurement for a C/O ratio. y. to either C13 or C14 (a radioactive isotope). Mature crude oil ranges between 0. It is used as pigment for printing inks and paints and as a strengthening agent for rubber. The carbon/oxygen log can be used in both an open and cased hole. injection or miscible flooding) Carboniferous a period of geological time about 365-290 m. The amounts are measured by gas chromatography. Carbon dioxide mixes with water to form a weak acid. In areas of anthracite coal. CPI carbon ratio the ratio of C12. lighter hydrocarbons from the oil transfer to the carbon dioxide to form a miscible front which is soluble with the oil.2. the most common carbon isotope. or during the life of the well. completing. heavy oil was generated.8. Carbon ratios from 50 to 60 are best indicative of light and medium oil deposits. The first carbon dioxide slug is followed by alternating slugs of water and carbon dioxide to push the oil toward producing wells. It is part of the Upper Triassic epoch. b) identify rock matrix composition. The carbon-ratio theory was suggested by David White in 1915. such as to casing point. Carbon dioxide is used for inert gas injection in enhanced oil recovery. carbon dioxide a colorless. or during the life of the well. The carbon dioxide can originally come from carbon dioxide wells. a boiling point of -1093°F. Carbon in the formation responds by inelastic collision to the high-energy neutrons to produce a distinctive MeV gamma ray. The carbon log can be run in a cased hole and is used to a) indicate hydrocarbon saturation.

carrier rig a self-propelled workover rig. Seamless casing is made by piercing the center of solid. pulsed neutron and carbon/oxygen logs. Casing weight ranges from 9Vi to 200 lb/ft. A carrier system includes permeable beds. Casing is made of at least eight API grades of steel with minimum yield strengths. and an engine. depending on which end the mast is mounted. completing and/ or operating the well or lease. and c) to prevent fluids from zones other . It is made either as a dry-hole or bottomhole contribution. Casing is graded according to the operating pressure and corrosiveness of fluids that it is designed to withstand. A cased hole is in contrast to an open hole. b) weight per unit length. case hardened a hard. Diameters range from 4V2 to 36 in. and unconformities. CH or OH cased-hole log a wireline log run in a well that already has casing cemented in Some cased-hole logs are gamma ray. and also is responsible for paying for the interest of any carried parties carrying rental see delay rental carryover free liquid escaping with the gas from a separator Carter coordinates informal land subdivisions applied by the petroleum industry to Kentucky and Tennessee and some other eastern states lacking townships and ranges. cash-contribution clause a provision in a joint operating agreement that awards a party money for drilling a well or some other operation specified on a lease cash-flow analysis the comparison of monies spent and made during the economic life of an investment. round bars of steel at high temperatures. carrot the crumpled piece of casing or liner that is blown but by jet perforating carry to alternately drill and case a well carrying fluid 1) the fluid. The rig can be either a drive-in or back-in unit. The engine is used for both moving the rig and for the hoisting system. carrier fluid see carrier fluid carrier-mounted rig an air or mud drilling rig that is mounted on a wheeled carrier. cash consideration the money paid for a promise or act during an oil or gas transaction cash contribution cash payment required in a support agreement by one party to another party for drilling a well in return for information on that well. such as drilling. range. There are three API ranges of casing lengths. Casing is denned by API standards for outside diameter. compensated neutron. and end finish. and e) grade of steel. The coupling can be either long or short.carrier • casing carrier the elutant that moves the vapor sample through the packing in a gas chromatograph. grade. thin skin on iron or steel. The carrier-mounted rig is rated for moderate depths and usually has a telescoping mast that is raised by hydraulics.Length 3 is greater than 34 ft and averages 42 ft. Casing is used a) to stabilize the sides of the well. d) length of joint. The other method is volumetric or in-kind balancing. fractures. Hydrogen and helium are common carriers. and each section is 1 minute square. completing. water. hoisting equipment. Length 2 ranges from 25 to 34 ft and averages 31 ft. usually oil. Casing comes furnished with a screwed coupling and threaded connectors. c) coupling size. faults. and operating a well cash-flow profile a graph that shows projected expenditures and income over time cash-flow stream a model that shows how monies are spent and made during the economic life of an investment such as drilling a well casing casing thin-walled steel pipe that is usually seamless but can be electric welded or rivited and ranges in length from 16 to greater than 40 ft. It is based on latitude and longitude. The carrier rig includes a mast. CC cartridge see sonde carved-out interest an interest such as an overriding royalty or oil payment created by the owner of a larger interest such as a working interest in a well or lease carved-out overriding royalty interest a nonworking interest in a well that is created from a working interest. The interior remains softer. The working interest owner transfers the carved-out overriding royalty interest and retains the working interest. cascade the step-like arrangement of baffles in separators case to run and cement casing in a well cased or cased hole a well in which casing has been run and cemented. or gelled fluid that transports the proppants during hydraulic fracturing 2) the fluid that transports gravel during gravel packing carrying party an interest in a well or lease that is responsible for the costs of drilling. foam. Length 1 ranges from 16 to 25 ft and averages 22 ft. It is specified by a) outer diameter and wall thickness. weight per foot. Casing is used to complete a well by running a string of casing into the well and cementing it. cash balancing a method in which an underproduced party in a gas well can be compensated 69 for underage in a gas balancing agreement by monetary consideration from the overproduced party. Each subdivision is 5 minute square. A cased-hole log is in contrast to the more common openhole logs. carrier system the secondary migration route for hydrocarbons from the source rock to the reservoir rock in the trap. b) to prevent pollution of fresh water reservoirs.

to prevent loose earth from caving into the well. c) multizone. retaining element. baskets. down through the surface and intermediate casing to the top of. casing cutter a fishing tool that is attached to a sub on a drillstring and is used to cut a hole in casing. The casinghead valves and bleeders are used to relieve gas pressure. is smallest in diameter (e. and the mechanical locator uses feelers or fingers to identify collars. (swage npple) casing bowl 1) a patch made to repair casing or attach casing to another casing string in a well. Two casingheads are used if there is an intermediate casing string. A threaded casing hanger or mandrell uses male or female threads to hold the casing. thread protectors. The production casing. depending on local conditions. stage cementing collars.g.000150. hanger-packer mechanism. casing hardware equipment run in or on casing to aid in running the casing string and promote a good primary cement job.) and is often used to isolate layers of salt or abnormal high-pressure zones in the well. csg hd (starting head) casinghead gas natural gas that bubbles out of crude oil on the surface due to the decrease in pressure between the reservoir and the surface. Casinghead gas is wet gas containing liquid hydrocarbons that can be removed from the gas by reducing the temperature or pressure on the gas with an absorption plant. A casing free pump is in contrast to a parallel free pump. (collar log) casing completion a well completion in which casing is set in the well.0 sec/ft. (collar locater) CCL casing collar log a record of the location of casing collars on a casing string in a well made by a casingcollar locator. and bleeders. pick-up or lay-down liners.. casing elevators a heavy clamp-like device that hangs from the traveling block and is used to run casing. The log is used for accurate depth locations in a well. 13% in. Casing has a matrix velocity of 17. The intermediate or protection casing string is smaller in diameter (e.. The collar locations are used as reference depths in the well for correlation of other logs and well completion.) and is run from the surface to depths usually between 200-1.000 lb/in2. steel adaptor or flanged fitting that is bolted or welded to the top of the surface casing and is part of the wellhead. The casinghead is used to attach the casinghead spool and blowout preventers. Liners are made of casing but do not extend to the surface as a casing string does. Casing elevators are either the a) collar-type or b) slip-type.g. CSG. It is used to prevent fresh water from flowing into the well. C. . The casing crew can come with specialized equipment such as hydraulic tongs. centralizers. Casing hardware includes guide and float shoes. or oil string. Casinghead gas is in contrast to nonassociated gas produced from a gas well. or through.70 casing adapter • casinghead gas casing coupling a collar with a box end or inside threads (female) that is used to connect joints of casing casing crew a specialized crew of one to five members that is used to assist the drilling crew in picking up. The largest diameter casing is hung from the lowest hanger. One casinghead is used with only surface and production casing. The casing used in seismic exploration shotholes comes in 10-ft lengths. (casing or external patch) 2) a section of casing with a slip and seal assembly that is cemented in to repair a casing leak or fracture casing burst pressure the minimum pressure on the interior of casing that will cause the casing to fail casing cementing see cement job casing-cement temperature the temperature of the cement slurry at a specific time during a cement job casing centralizer see centralizer casing clamp a collar that is bolted around casing being held in slips to prevent the casing from slipping casing collar the shoulder on the ends of casing that contains the threaded connection casing-collar locater a device that uses either magnetics or a scratcher to locate the casing collars at the end of casing joints in a well. orcsg casing adapter a beveled fitting that is used on the top of a string of casing to prevent tools and pipe from hanging up on the casing when they are run in the well. casing free pump a type of hydraulic pump used on oil wells in which the power fluid goes through one string of tubing and the production comes up the tubing-casing annulus. b) perforated. packoff shoes. Types of casing completions include a) permanent. the producing zone. The casing bowl is applied with a casing-patch tool and is made of neoprene or lead. 75/s or 5'/2 in. It grips the casing with slips and packing rings. The casing-collar locater is used to make a collar log. Usually two or more strings (lengths) of casing are cemented into the well. cs. The casinghead consists of a body.000 ft/sec and an interval transit time of 57..g. valves. The hanger-packer is fixed to the end of a casing string or another casing head and seals the annular space between the casing strings while suspending the smaller diameter casing string in the well. c. 95/s in. casinghead or casing head 1) the top of the casing in a well or the surface of a well 2) a heavy.and gas-exclusion. Surface casing is large in diameter (e.) and extends from the surface. The casing cutter is a heavy tube that is held by slips as rotating knives are forced outward to cut the casing. The amount of gas that bubbles out determines the producing gas/oil ratio of the well which is expressed in standard cubic feet (SCF) of gas at 60°F per barrel of stock tank oil. d) sand-exclusion. running.500 ft. casing hands a team of service company employees that are trained to run casing on an offshore well casing hanger a bracket support that is designed to fit on a wellhead and suspend the casing string in the well. (separator gas) CHG or CH than the producing zones from entering the well. and cementing plugs. and e) water. Csg. and to attach the blowout preventers to the top of the well. and casing stabbing board for the job. The yield strength of casing ranges from 40. A releasing device retracts the knives so the tool can be recovered. The magnetic casing collar locator uses the deformation of a magnetic field between two opposed permanent magnets. and laying down casing in a well.

CP or csgpt casing-point election or option a time in a farmout agreement during which the farmer can elect after the earning well has been tested to accept either a) a working interest or b) a convertible overriding royalty casing pole a 6-foot wooden wrench that was used to make up casing casing potential profile a record of the electrical potential of a casing string in a well that is used to detect corrosion.casinghead gas clause • casing protector casinghead gas clause a provision in a lease that provides for a royalty for the casinghead gas that is produced and sold or stripped of liquid hydrocarbons casinghead gasoline liquid hydrocarbons of very light crude oil composition that occur as a gas under subsurface reservoir conditions (high temperature and pressure) and condense into a liquid upon production at surface conditions. An oil-base mud is run in the well ahead of the cement. Condensates have very high °API that range between 45° and 60° and are very valuable commercially. Retrograde gas is the perferred term for casinghead gasoline. a percentage evaporated at 275°F of not less than 90%. retrograde gas. It is put on the uppermost joint of casing after a cement job. c) based on detailed lease provisions concerning casinghead gas and the extraction of casinghead gasoline from the gas. The casinghead spool has a seal. 2) the fluid left above the cement slurry in the annulus between the borehole and casing to protect the casing from corrosion by formation fluids and to control pressure casing packer test see hook-wall packer test casing patch a patch made to repair casing or attach casing to another casing string in the well.a) an annual amount of money per year. casinghead housing or spool a short forged steel pipe with a flanged top with smaller outlet flanges or flanged connections and either a) female casing threads or b) slip-on well casing connector used to suspend the surface casing that suspends and seals the top of the casing string. casing pickup sling cable or wire rope that is designed to fit around tubular goods for loading. or b) between the casing and the drillstring. Two common casing programs are: 13% in. The Natural Gas Processors Association has defined casinghead gasoline as having a vapor pressure between 10 and 34 psi. Gas condensate typically grade from colorless to light-colored liquids with tints of red. and positioning tubulars casing point 1) the time at which a well has been drilled to the objective depth or target formation and well logs. raw. and the blowout preventers are attached to it. or white oil) casinghead-gas royalty the payment (royalty) made for casinghead gas that is produced. The mud does not solidify. or wild gasoline. A casing program includes the casing diameter in inches. intermediate head spool. and tubing head spool on it. they are landed in additional casingheads that are flanged at both ends. If condensate is recovered on the lease with standard field separator equipment. gas distillate. 75/s 5 or 5J/2 casing protector 1) a threaded cap made of steel or plastic that is screwed onto and is used to protect the threads on the ends of casing 2) a rubber doughnut that fits around drillpipe to reduce wear on the casing. and other tests have been run to evaluate the well. casing pressure the pressure a) between the casing and tubing when the casing and tubing are sealed at the top of the well.. Casing protectors are usually located 3 ft above the . drillstem tests. and a production string. casing jack a screw or hydraulic tool used to straighten collapsed casing in a well by applying tension to the casing. distillate.P. or blue. surface string. and an end point in distillation of not higher than 375°F. intermediate strings. The damaged casing is cut and removed from the well. 2) the depth to which casing is set in a well. b) payment based on a fraction of the gas produced or. (casing bowl or external patch) casing-patch tool a tool that is used to patch damaged casing. casing mill a pilot or section mill that has hard cutting edges on it to grind a hole in casing casing overshot see casing-patch tool 71 casing pack 1) a method used to cement casing that can later be removed from the well with minimum difficulty. saved. 95/s 7 5 10% in. The exciter coil produces a magnetic field which creates eddy currents in the casing that attenuate and shift the phase of the magnetic field recorded on the pickup coil to show wall thickness and splits. One type uses a spear on drillpipe and a slip and spider located higher on the drillpipe to hold the casing. Casing pressure is measured at the surface after the well has been shut in. green. and the depth in ft. As other casing strings are run in the well. condensate. or csg press casing program or programme the predetermined plan for casing in a well. the hole size in inches. gas condensate. C. Natural gas that contains gas condensate is called wet gas. and the casing can later be cut and removed above the section that was cemented. Another type welds the casing on a casing head and then uses a slip and spider located higher to grip the casing. and marketed from an oil well. The casing-patch tool is lowered into the well where rubber or lead on the end of the tool is used to seal against the top of the cut casing remaining in the well. It provides for a conductor. The royalty can be. moving. (drip. The electromagnetic casing inspection log tool has two radial coils. The casing patch is applied with a casing-patch tool and can be made of neoprene or lead. natural. A tool measures the casing-wall thickness either electromagnetically or mechanically. CHH casing inspection log a record of the location and extent of casing damage in a well. A decision by the operator is made at the casing point to either complete (case) the well or plug and abandon. drips. CP. it is often combined and recorded with the crude oil. a percentage evaporated at 104°F of 24% to 85%.

The casing pump is run on a sucker-rod string and has a barrel that is usually between 3-43/4 in. casing seat the location of the bottom of a string of casing in a well. Casing protectors are not used in open holes.72 casing pump • CAT1 rotating the string and grip the inside of the casing. The rollers are usually tapered on both ends to prevent binding. Tapered slips are activated by . A casing string can be several hundred or thousand feet long. casing scraper a tool that is run on a work string to scrape the cement off the inside of a casing string after a cement plug has been drilled out casing scratcher a ring with flexible steel wires that is run on a casing string to remove the mudcake in preparation for a cement job. tapered. y. cast the color of oil fluorescence casting 1) to pour molten metal into a mold 2) an object that has solidified in a mold cast iron an alloy of iron with 2%-i% carbon. surface casing. casing strength the a) yield strength. (pipe rubbers) casing pump a large-volume. and production or oil string casing. A casing scratcher is either reciprocated or rotated. Casing standoff can be expressed as a percentage. There is also a differential or automatic fill-up type. and d) to provide a path for produced fluids up the well. downhole. ago. differential sticking of the drillstring. The slips hold as long as tension is maintained. and measure of the length of each joint of casing made when the casing is delivered to a rig casing tongs a large-diameter power tong that is suspended above the drill floor and is used to make up and break out casing on a drilling rig. For casing with 75/a-133/s in. It guides the casing around any irregularities in the borehole as the string is lowered in the well. and channels provide circulation. a hinged-type bushing is used. and c) burst strength of casing casing string a length of casing that is made of numerous joints of casing of the same outer diameter that are screwed together and lowered into the well as a section in one operation. (casing sucker-rod pump) casing roller casing roller a long. casing spider a heavy metal block with a tapered hole to hold slips that fits around and hold casing. casing sucker-rod pump see casing pump casing swage a pointed tool that is used with a jar to open collapsed casing in a well casing tally a count. Gray cast iron contains carbon or graphite in the form of flakes. in diameter. Casing up to 75/s in. visual inspection. (drive shoe) casing slip a wedge-shaped device that fits into the casing bushing to hold casing when it is being worked on casing spear a fishing tool that is used to retrieve casing in a well. The casing roller is run on a drillstring below a bumper sub and jars and rotated to roll out collapsed casing in a well. lost returns. outside diameter can be run through the rotary table. pollution of fresh water reservoirs. c) to prevent the collapse of the well. The pump is held in position by a packer located either on the top or bottom of the working barrel. the split master bushing is replaced with a one piece casing bushing. The casing shoe has an orifice in the end to allow drilling mud to flow into it as it is lowered and cement slurry to flow through it during a cement job. conductor casing. It is part of the Devonian period. The tool is lowered in the casing on a fishing string. For casing greater than 13% in. CS casing shoe a short. intermediate or protection casing. b) to support the blowout preventers. b) collapse strength. hollow steel cylinder with a rounded bottom that is screwed into the bottom of a string of casing before it is lowered into a well. It contains both the lead and backup tongs. whereas white cast iron contains carbon or graphite in the from of carbines and has no color. The diameter of the tongs are adjustable to several sizes of casing. The casing pump is a larger version of an insert pump and has a much larger volume than an insert or tubing sucker-rod pump. A float shoe has a check valve that prevents slurry backfill into the casing during a cement job. other casing and liner strings and the Christmas tree. Longitudinal rollers are located on the body and ports. casing-tubing annulus the space in a well between the outside of the tubing string and the inside of the casing string casing wagon small carts that are used to move casing from the pipe rack to the derrick floor on a drilling rig Cassadagian a North American age of geological time that started about 380 m. The casing spider is used as casing joints are being attached or removed from the casing string as it is raised or lowered into a well. outside diameter. Fractures in white cast iron are metallic white. outside diameter. steel tool with a series of rollers on the side. Types of casing strings include drive pipe or casing. A guide shoe does not have a valve on the orifice. casing standoff the minimum radial clearance of casing in a well divided by the displacement of the casing center line from the center of the well. Casing is used a) to provide a path for the drilling fluids up and down the well. sucker-rod pump that is used to pump crude oil up the casing. CT A ™ casing attenuation thickness tool joint on alternate tool joints.

Mechanical catheads are used on the drill floor for making-up and breakingout pipe. The breakout cathead Is located opposite the driller's side of the drill floor. CRT cathodic protection a method used a)to reduce seawater corrosion on large marine structures such as offshore platforms and b) to reduce corrosion on well casings and production facilities from saltwater exposure. CP cathodoluminescence an analytical technique used to delineate irregularities in the chemistry of mineral grains and differences in natural cements in sedimentary rocks. and attapulgite 5-99 mEq/100 g. The catline can also go through a catline sheave on the crown block for hoisting such as lifting logging tools to the drill floor. A sheave at the end of the boom is used with the catline for light lifting. whereas the makeup cathead is on the driller's side. or caterpillar a tractor used to clear land and skid rigs. Cat is also a term for certain diesel and natural gas prime movers. A beam of electrons that is directed by a magnetic field is sprayed onto the inside of the luminescent screen to create the image. The clay is then transferred to a solution of potasiBm or calcium and the amount absorbed is measured. It is expressed in milliequivalents per 100 g. Catheads are located on the drawworks of a drilling rig. catline or cat line a VA or VA in. Cathodic protection reverses the electric current which flows away from the corroding metal. cat head. The cathode is the electrode at which reduction occurs. or amphorteric surfactant. cat a knot used to attach the drilling line to a rope socket catagenesis the thermal alteration of organic matter in sedimentary rock. CEC cationic membrane a membrane such as clay minerals that passes cations but not anions cationic surfactant an organic molecule with a water soluble group that is positively charged. In the passive method. In the active or impressed current system. the more unstable the clay mineral. catch a sample to obtain a set of well cuttings from a well being drilled. Cation exchange capacity is measured by dispersing a known weight of clay in a solution of magnesium chloride to exchange the cations with magnesium. The cathode does not corrode and is in contrast to anode. Catagenesis temperatures occur between those of diagenesis (near surface) and metamorphism (deep) and range from about 50° to 200°C (122° to 392°F). It includes the temperatures which generate crude oil and thermal gas from organic matter. The protected equipment is set up as the cathode. Bentonite has about 70-130 mEq/100 g. cation exchange capacity a measure of the amount of cations that can be exchanged in the interlayer sites of a clay mineral. cathode ray tube an electronic device that is used to display information or a picture on a television screen or computer terminal. nonionic. The higher the cation exchange capacity of the clay mineral. An electron beam is used to activate a thin section of the rock. or cathead spool a hub or spool-shaped rotating drum located on a winch shaft (catshaft) that is used to wind a rope (catline) for pulling or hoisting. cathead a derrick up to pivot a derrick into a vertical position by using a cable attached to the cathead on the drawworks catheader the crew member on a rig-erecting crew that uses the cathead cathead man or cat head man the crew member on a drilling rig that uses the cathead when pipe is being run or pulled. The cathead man is third in rank on the drilling crew and is more experienced than the roughnecks. and a metal bar or plate as the anode. CCD catch-all clause a provision in an oil and gas lease that protects the lessee from errors in the description of the land under the lease by including all the land owned by the lessor in that area. The friction cathead is used to move heavy objects. catline boom a metal pole that is suspended out from a mast or derrick on a drilling rig at about the height of the monkeyboard. a sacrificial anode of zinc. A catonic surfactant is in contrast to an anionic. a DC electrical current at low voltage and several hundred amperes is caused to flow between the cathode and anode to neutralize the electrochemical corrosion on the structure. (katagenesis) catalyst a substance that promotes a chemical reaction but is not affected by the reaction catalytic combustion detector the original "hot wire" mud log detector that uses a wheatstone bridge circuit. Manila or a wire rope wound around a cathead and used for pulling or hoisting.CAT or Cat • catline boom CAT or Cat catalytic Cat. catcher a trap-door device used in a junk basket to retain junk during fishing operations catcher sub a short section of pipe on a drill or fishing string that triggers a hydraulic device when a ball is dropped or lowered on a wireline in the string catching the dog loafing on the job catchpot a container used on a pipeline to remove condensate and debris 73 cathead cathead. Luminescence differences depend on concentrations of excitor and inhibitor ions in the rock. or magnesium corrodes instead of the structure. The catline is used on the floor of a drilling rig to pull on the manual pipe tongs. cathode the positive terminal of two electrodes in an electrolytic cell. cation an ion with a positive charge Examples of cations are Na+ and Ca+ + Cation is in contrast to an anion. (cover-all clause or Mother Hubbard clause). The well cuttings are usually collected at regular intervals from the shale shaker. . aluminum. cat.

cavern pores catwalk on stock tanks catwalk 1) a flat. CAV cavernous Cav or cav 1) cavern 2) cavernous cav cavity cave catcher a basket that is attached to the tubing in a well and is designed to catch sloughings off the sides of the well. Caustic soda is used to adjust the pH of drilling mud. gamma ray. (cavey) Cayugan a North American age of geological time that ended about 405 m. A slug of polymer-thickened water is then injected into the reservoir to produce a more uniform sweep of the surfactants and oil. ago. caus caustic caustic sodium hydroxide. CB 1) core barrel 2) changing bit 3) counterbalance 4) core bit 5) centerline bradenhead 6) center of buoyancy cb carbonized CBBL core barrel CBG coal bed gas CBL 1) cement bond log 2) acoustic cement bond Cbl cobble CBL-GR acoustic cement bond. narrow walkway such as that connecting tanks or installations (walkway) catworks or cat works the gear and chain linkage that is used to drive the catheads on a rig. CVGS. neutron log CBL N acoustic cement bond. The surfactants and oil flow better through the reservoir because of reduced interfacial tension. that extends out from the ramp on a drilling rig. The alkaline chemicals react with oil in the reservoir to form surfactants. and acids from solutions that are passed through it. person-sized pores. CAV. These are usually found in limestones and are due to solution. sulfides. cavey a formation that caves or sloughs into wells drilled through it. (umbrella) cave-in the collapse of rocks from the sides of a well bore. caus caustic consumption the amount of caustic lost during an enhanced oil recovery project due to reaction with minerals in the formation caustic flooding an enhanced oil recovery process in which alkaline chemicals such as sodium hydroxide are injected into the reservoir. y. spontaneous emulsification and changes in wettability. The catwalk is used to pull equipment such as tubulars up through the V-door onto the rig. caustic treater a vessel with sodium hydroxide. cavity an enlarged wellbore due to sloughing of a soft formation such as shale. 2) the elevated. gamma ray log CBL GRN acoustic cement bond. (cavy) caving collapse of well walls into the hole (stuffing) cavings particles of rock from the sides of the wellbore that have fallen into the well. Cvgs.74 catshaft • CCD catshaft the axle on a drilling rig that has a cathead on each end that are used for pulling a rope. (alkaline flooding) caustic soda sodium hydroxide (NaOH). or cav cavern pore a pore large enough for a person to enter. Cav. variable density log CBM conventional buoy mooring CBND cement bond log CC 1) casing cemented 2) carter coordinates CC or cc cubic centimeter C-C thru-tubing caliper log Cc compaction constant C-Cal contact caliper CCD 1) catalytic combustion detector 2) carbonate compensation depth . neutron log CBL-VD acoustic cement bond. They become mixed with well cuttings from the bottom of the well and can be a complication in making a sample log. steel surface. Cavitation can damage a pump with shock waves and high velocity microjets created by the asymmetrical collapse of the bubbles. or cvgs cavitation the formation of partial vacuums due to the rotation of an impeller blade. (cavein). The catshaft is the uppermost revolving shaft that goes through the drawworks. see sloughing cave-ins see covings cavernous a rock formation that contains large. Caustic soda is used to remove mercaptans. (pot belly) cavy a formation that caves or sloughs into wells drilled through it. This is followed by injection of fresh and then saline waters to drive the oil toward producing wells. It is part of the Upper Silurian epoch. The catwalk is elevated 3 ft above the ground. 4-6 ft wide and 4050 ft long.

setting time. .CCF CCF cumulative cost per foot cche caliche Cck casing choke CCL casing collar locater CCM condensate cut mud CCOR conventional core C. cellar deck the deck below the rotary table on an offshore drilling rig. Types of cement additives are accelerators. and ground in a mill. The scale is named after Anders Celsius. It is done after correction for normal moveout and statics. critical compression ratio ccw counterclockwise CD 1) contract depth 2) calender day 3) compensated density log 4) cone dragged cd candela CD. blended with gypsum.P. and other substances which harden after mixing with water. to cause the cement to expand. Most cements precipitate from interstitial water. Additives can be used to alter the cement viscosity. density. E. diesel oil. caliper. and to bridge lost circulation zones. Cement is made of a blend of limestone and clay or shale with iron and alumina often added.DA. minilog C DLC N compensated densilog. Celsius temperature scale the scientific scale that used to be called centigrade. Calcium chloride is added to reduce setting time. caliper. retarders.R. and J. latex. expanding. gypsum to increase setting time. The classes are based on the recommended depths. caliper log C DLC GR compensated densilog. extenders. compressive strength. (cementing or cement job) CMT. resin or plastic. silica. a Swedish astronomer (1701-1744). The cellar also collects water and other fluids off die rig for later disposal. C cem cemented cement 1) minerals that naturally grow between clastic grains in sediments to bind the grains together to form a sedimentary rock. gamma ray. gamma ray log C DLC GRN compensated densilog. 2) a liquid that hardens into a solid. cooled. barite and hematite to increase weight. F. cellar 1) a pit dug below the platform of a drilling rig to give space to mount the blowout preventers on top of the well below the drilling platform. Cement additives are used to change the cement's density. The cellar deck is the lower deck on a semisubmersible drilling platform with two decks. The most common of these are calcite. and permafrost cement. and iron oxides. Heavy oil or asphalt can also act as cement. The cell can be used to store oil or ballast water. To convert Celsius to Fahrenheit multiply by 9A and add 32°. lime. and bentonite and pozzolans to decrease weight.C. API classes of cement include A. and particle dispersing. corrosive environment. When mixed with water. The Celsius temperature scale is based on a 0° freezing point for fresh water and a boiling point of 100°. refractory. 3) to pump wet cement (slurry) between the casing and well walls during a cement job. cored C. Other cements include opal. The upper deck is called the Texas or main deck. To convert Fahrenheit to Celsius subtract 32° and multiply by 5 /<>. The additives can be either chemical or nonchemical. neutron log C DLC M compensated densilog. Canadian Diamond Drilling Association CDF cumulative distribution function CDG curved drilling guide CDL compensated density log C DLC compensated densilog. pressures. corrected depth Cd. pulverized into clinkers. or to accelerate or retard the setting time and increase the final strength. B. Cmt or ant cement additive materials added to cement to change the properties of the cement. A backhoe is used often. G. weighing agents. Cementation occurs by deposition or precipitation of minerals called cement between the sedimentary grains. and authigenic clay minerals. It is fused (between 2600°-2800°F) in a rotary kiln. CDP gather is used to check the correlation of the traces and to evaluate the stack. cementation the natural process that transforms sediments into consolidated sedimentary rocks. siderite. CDPS common depth point stack CDP stack common-depth-point stack CDR continuous drilling rate CDRTM compensated dual resistivity cdsr condenser ce effective compressibility CEC cation exchange capacity CEE International Commission Rules for Approval of Electrical Equipment C8 octane cell the ballast tank or storage compartment at the base of on offshore gravity structure. Cement is used to bond the casing to the well walls and is called a slurry in its wet form. dolomite. H. neutron log CDM continuous dipmeter survey cd/m 2 candela per square meter CDN compensated density neutron CDP 1) common depth point 2) conductivity derived porosity 3) central delivery point CDP gather the display of seismic data used in stacking with the seismic traces that are thought to be the same arranged side by side. caliper. gypsum. quartz. critical compression pressure C. and to reduce the cost of the cement. lost-circulation control agents. fluid-loss control agents.C. The cellar is about 10 ft square and 6 ft deep. pozzolan-lime. D. Cement is a mixture of powder consisting of alumina. strength. chalcedony. Some specialty cements include pozzolanic. dispersants. 2) the portion of a well located below the producing zone • cementation 75 cellar contractor a service company that digs the cellar or pit to hold the blowout preventers before a large drilling rig is brought onto the site.D. C. it is called a neat slurry. and temperatures. and antifoam agents. flow properties and dehydration rate.

cementing plug a solid spacer made of an aluminum body encased in molded rubber used in a cement job The bottom plug is pumped down the well before the cement slurry and seats on or bumps the float collar. cementing pump the pump used to drive cement down the casing during a cement job cementation factor an empirical number used in the Archie formula for well-log analysis It generally ranges from 1. The factor is influenced by the rock geometry that controls the shape of the conductive solution in the pores.0 for reservoir rocks. The cementing head holds one or more wiper plugs that can be selectively released into the casing. The cement bond log cannot identify channels and is adversely affected by high-velocity formations. The cementing service also has engineers to design and supervise the cement program. the acoustic wave travels primarily through the rock formation with significant loss of energy. CBND or CBL cement channeling an undesirable effect caused when cement slurry does not rise uniformly up and around the casing during a cement job. float equipment. If the casing is poorly cemented or lacks cement in what is called a holiday. cementing up the forcing of cement slurry up the space behind casing during a cement job . temperature. The attenuation of the sound waves is proportional to the quality of the cement bond. Casing collars or stop rings hold the basket. cementing head. (metalpetal basket) cementing head the connection between the cement pump truck and rig pump lines and the casing head. (porosity exponent or shape) m cement basket see cementing basket cement bond 1) the clinging of casing and/or a rock formation to cement 2) the binding of casing to the well walls by cement cement bond log or survey a log that is derived from the acoustic log to show where and how well the cement has set behind the casing in a well. Liners can be used to fill in between the petals. Channeling leaves spaces called holidays. and is commonly about 2. and pressure of the sample are also recorded. cement consistometer see consistometer cement density the specific gravity of a cement.3 for unconsolidated sediments. operates the cement pumps. cement permeameter a permeameter that determines the permeability of set cement by the flow rate of water through a core sample under differential pressure The curing time. cement hardening test a test that times how long cement remains pumpable after being mixed. The basket is designed to support the column of cement slurry as it cures and is often used above lost circulation zones. Drilling mud and cement can flow up the annulus but not downward. Portland cements are about 3-15cement dump bailer a cylinder with a valve that is used to release small batches of cement slurry into a well during secondary cementing cemented up cement on the inside of a tubular such as casing cementer 1) see cementing service 2) a service company employee who is a member of a well cementing crew. Cementing time extends from the start of mixing to the complete circulation of the cement slurry into place. A cement bond log is often combined with a collar log for location. Cement filter cake is emplaced as a wet slurry during a cement squeeze job to plug the perforations. to pass through. pumping trucks. is 1. and maintains the equipment for a cement job on a well (cement man) cement evaluation tool a type of cement bond log that uses eight ultrasonic transmitters to determine the radial pattern of cement behind the casing and the bonding of the cement to the casing and rock. the acoustic wave travels primarily through the steel casing at a different velocity than through the formation and with very little loss of energy. along with a laboratory and technicians to test the cement slurry and additives. (cementer) cementing time the time needed to complete a cement job on a well. (cement pumpability or thickening test) cementing service a service company that supplies the cement and additives along with bulk hopper trucks.0 to 30. connecting lines and personnel for a cement job on a well. The bottom plug has a diaphragm that ruptures for the cement slurry. A more advanced type is called the variable density log. Cementing heads vary in design. The top plug is then pumped down with a displacement fluid behind it until it bumps the bottom plug. The sonic wave train is recorded as a series of waveforms or a variable density log of semiparallel black and white lines. CMT cementing barge a flat-bottomed boat with equipment used in cementing operations for offshore wells cementing basket an expanding metal cone that is used to prevent the downward flow of cement in a well. A cement bond log measures amplitude in millivolts and arrival time. CET™ cement truck cement filter cake a type of perforating plugging material consisting of solid cement filling the perforation tunnels or holes in the casing or liner. If the casing is well cemented.76 cementation factor • cementing up cementing see cement job. The basket is made with flexible spring steel petals that face upward. The amplitude of the first arrival of the compressional wave is measured to determine bond quality.

Degrees centigrade equals (degrees Fahrenheit minus 32°) times 5/<>. prevents water from flowing vertically in the space between the casing and rock walls of the well. ago to the present It is subdivided into the Tertiary and Quaternary periods. A centipoise is equal to 0. (cement hardening or thickening test) cement retainer a tool that is used in a highpressure. A floating drilling rig is at rest when the center of gravity of the rig and the center of buoyancy lie in the same vertical line. A plug-back job puts a plug of cement on the bottom of the well or at a certain level to prevent water from flowing up the well and reducing the effective depth of the well. CB center of gravity the point at which a body is balanced when suspended. cement squeeze job to temporarily prevent the flow of cement up or down the well.L or CIL centerline fracture an induced fracture down the center of a core center of buoyancy the geometric center of the upward thrust generated in the fluid displaced by a floating object. Degrees Fahrenheit equals (5/s> degrees Centigrade) plus 32° centimeter one-hundredth of a meter of length in the metric system. A multistage cement job is used to avoid fracturing the formation when cementing long casing strings. cement squeeze a process of forcing liquid cement (slurry) by pressure through holes or perforations in the casing or liner to seal an area behind the pipe cement thickening test see cement pumpability test cement time see waiting on cement Ceno Cenozoic Cenomian a global age of geological time that occurred about 100-92 m. Primary cementing is the first cementing that protects the casing. C. Either the pipe is moved up the hole 500-1.3937 in. cement slurry a liquid cement and water mixture The cement slurry is pumped between the casing and well walls to set casing in a well during a cement job. or with a dump bailer on a wireline. Water has a viscosity of 1.005 centipoises at 20°C. A single-stage cement job is done through the casing using top and bottom wiper plugs.. A plugback plug is used to seal off a lower portion of a well. or eg center spear a fishing tool used to fish cable. (cementer) cement mill a mill with a large grinding surface that is used to grind cement. y. One centimeter is equal to 0. and isolates the producing formation. C. c centigrade temperature scale the metric temperature scale which has 0° as a fresh water freezing point and 100° as fresh water boiling point.cement job • centipoise DISPLACEMENT FLUID 77 CEMENT OR SLURRY GUIDE SHOE cement job cement job to pump wet cement (slurry) down a well to fill the space between the casing and the rock walls. A loss circulation plug is used to seal a thief zone.8 and 22 lbs/gal. Secondary cementing is any cement job that occurs after primary cementing. centipoise a unit of dynamic viscosity in CGS units A centipoise is 1/100 of a poise and is one gram per sec-cm. A cement plug can be put in position as a balanced plug. Centigrade is now called Celsius. A directional plug is used to deviate a new well from the old well. The slurry has a density between 10. An abandonment plug is used to seal a dry or depleted well. Usually a roller-cone bit is more efficient. ago It is part of the Upper Cretaceous epoch.000 ft after each batch or a multistage tool that is opened hydraulically by special plugs is used.G. The cement retainer is a close-tolerance tool that is not retrievable but is made of drillable metal. (cementing) cement man a service company employee who is a member of a well cementing crew and operates the cement pumps and maintains the equipment for a cement job on a well. CG. y. a two-wiper plug. cement pumpability test a test that times how long cement remains pumpable after being mixed. Cenozoic or Cenaeozic an era of geological time from about 67 m. cp . Ceno cent centralizers center irons the steel shaft on which the walking beam of a cable-tool rig or pumping unit pivots centerline the line running from bow to stern down the middle of a ship or offshore drilling rig. (rope or wicker spear) centi the metric prefix for 10~2. cement-mixing hopper a large.000672 lb/ft-sec. The center spear is composed of a solid metal bar with a barb on the bottom or with barbs along its length. Squeeze cementing uses pressure to force the cement through holes or perforations in the casing. metal funnelshaped device that is used to add dry cement and other ingredients to a cement mixer cement packer a cement plug around the bottom of tubing in a well cement plug cement that bridges a wellbore and is used to form a seal.

A centrifuge called a shake-out or grind-out machine is used to determine the basic sediment and water content of crude oil. centripetal stream pattern a stream drainage pattern that is characterized by streams flowing into a central depression. and maintain constant flow. Centripetal patterns can be found on karst limestones with sinkholes. portable. Up to 10 impellers can be used in one frame. Inc. There are usually six or eight spring blades that are bowed outward on the centralizer. offshore platform that contains the separation. A reciprocating pump is used for the mud pumps. The centrifugal test uses a shake-out or grind-out machine. gas. They are less expensive. often one-cylinder. (central power or central pumping power) central oil-treating station a separator facility that is used to treat oil emulsions from several leases central power or central pumping power see central jack plant central processing platform being towed (Texaco. Centrifugal compressors are widely used in gas gathering. The oil. whereas if they are mounted in parallel. and the produced water is disposed of in the sea. Centralizers are made in different sizes. freshwater-making units. cs centr centrifugal central facility a field operation such as separators or stock tanks that serves several leases centralize to position a tool or tubular in the center of a wellbore centralizer centralizer an attachment with two hinged steel bands with connecting bands that is put on casing as it is run into th. centrifuge a high-speed. treatment.) . Centrifugal pumps can be either radial flow or axial flow and are compact. The platform also contains turbinepowered generators. and compression facilities for several offshore fields. If they are mounted in series. desilter. Centralizing springs are similarly used to keep tools central in a well. they increase the compression ratio. and water are separated. cent central Jack plant an engine. they increase capacity. This is in contrast to reciprocating pumps that use pistons to generate high pressures but relatively low volumes. and degasser units as well as supplying mud to the mud pumps for supercharging. Centrifugal force pulls matter away from the axis of rotation. It controls the computer. Two types are spring-bow and rigid. desander. The gas enters in the eye of the impeller and is accelerated outward to impart kinetic energy and pressure. A centistoke is equal to a centipoise per unit density in g/cc. centistoke a unit of kinematic viscosity in the CGS system. An additional pressure rise can also occur in the diffuser located after the impeller. rotating device that uses centrifugal force to separate liquids and solids of different densities. The gas is compressed and dehydrated.78 centistoke • centrocline central processing or producing platform a fixed.e well. Shackle rods connect the band wheel on a vertical shaft with the pumping wells. A centrocline is in contrast to pericline or quaquaversal. The centralizer is designed to keep the casing string central in the well while cement slurry is pumped between the casing and the well walls. CPP central processing unit the part of a computer where the arithmetic and logic processes are done and instructions are decoded and performed. centrifugal force the force that is caused by rotation. centrocline a structure in which the sedimentary rock beds dip down toward a central point. Several frames can be used in a series for high pressures in multistage compressors. instrument-air compressors. centrifugal test a test that uses a centrifuge to determine the basic sediment and water content of crude oil. and gas-flaring facilities. Hydrocyclones used to separate coarse solids from drilling mud are an example. Centrifugal pumps can be found on a drilling rig mixing and pumping mud to the mud pits. and quieter than reciprocating pumps. CPU centrate clarified liquid from a centrifuge centrifugal compressor a compressor that uses blades (impellers) to accelerate gas radially. The produced fluids flow to the central processing platform through submarine pipelines. that turns a horizontal band wheel used to power several pumping wells that surround it. centrifugal pump a rotary or impeller type of highvolume pump for liquids that uses an electric motor to rotate blades (impellers) in a casing to spin the liquid out of the pump. A central jack plant can be connected to 10-25 pump jacks or outpost wells that are powered by belt-driven eccentrics. smaller.

CT E ™ cement evaluation tool CF 1) casing flange 2) cubic feet 3) completion factor Cj shape factor cf 1) casing flowing 2) compare 3) cubic feet Cf formation compressibility CFB cubic feet per barrel CFD. It usually involves payment of delay rentals or commencement of work on the well or lease within a certain period of time after the cessation of production. Cephalopods include the nautiloids and ammonoids that were important during the Mesozoic time. Many have either internal or external skeletons or shells and are guide fossils. ethane. (report of title or memorandum of title) certification of abstract certification by an abstractor that the abstract has a complete summary of all instruments affecting title to the land as shown in records up to the date of certification certified petroleum geologist a geologist whose ethical and professional qualifications have been reviewed and accepted by a committee of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. cessation of production a permanent or temporary end to oil and gas production from a well. Each is given an identification number. Cephalopods have existed from the Cambrian period to the present. dp cubic feet per pound CFR Code of Federal Regulations CFS or cfe cubic feet per second CFT cubic feet CG 1) Corgun 2) connection gas 3) coarse grained 4) center of gravity C. or eg center of gravity eg or eg. The abstractor issues an opinion on the owner of the lands. certificate of production a form or declaration that the operator of a new well files for record in a government agency to testify that production in paying quantities has commenced. cfD. cfd. and butane. cessation of production clause a provision in an oil and gas lease that explains how the lessee can maintain the lease if production is interrupted. A certificate of production is required in certain states to extend the lease or interest in the well. or cf/d cubic feet per day CFE core flow efficiency CFG cubic feet of gas CFGPD or CFG/D cubic feet of gas per day CFGPH or CFG/H cubic feet of gas per hour CFGPM or CFG/M cubic feet of gas per minute CFGPS or CFG/S cubic feet of gas per second CFH or cfh cubic feet per hour CFI carbonate fabric unit C15+ the saturate fraction of crude oil and sediment extract C5 pentane CFL cut fluorescence CFM or cfm cubic feet per minute C4 butane C4 fraction the hydrocarbons in crude oil and natural gas that contain four or less carbon atoms in their molecules These include methane. propane.Ceph or ceph • 79 centrifuge Ceph or ceph cephalopod cephalopod a highly developed marine invertebrate belonging to the class Cephalopoda of the phylum Mollusca.G. The certificate must be granted prior to entry. certificate of conformance a certificate that a well has been plugged and abandoned in compliance with the appropriate laws and regulations certificate of fitness a document certifying that a mobile or fixed offshore drilling vessel meets the technical requirements for United Kingdom or Norwegian North Sea waters. outstanding encumbrances. conveyances of minerals. The C4 fraction is in contrast to the pentane-plus fraction. and liens of record. unreleased oil and gas leases. Permanent cessation results in plugging and abandoning and the termination of an ordinary oil and gas lease. (affidavit of production) certificate of title an abbreviated abstract on the title of land. Temporary cessation could be due to workover operations. Ceph or ceph ceramic bean a ceramic insert of a specific size that is used in a choke valve to control the flow from a well certified capacity the maximum amount of natural gas that a pipeline is legally allowed to transmit certificate of clearance a permit for the transportation of oil or gas by a regulatory commission certificate of compliance and authorization to transport oil or gas from lease a regulatory commission form that is executed by an operator to certify that the operation of the wells complies with the regulations of the commission The certificate authorizes a purchaser to transport oil and gas from the lease. coring Cg or cg gas compressibility or gas coefficient of isothermal compressibility . Modern examples include squids and the pearly nautilus.

or cglt conglomerate CGR 1) condensate-gas ratio 2) corrected gravity C-GR or c-gr coarse grained Cgr/gal grains per gallon concentration CGS calculated gas saturation cgs the cm-gm-sec system CH 1) casinghead gas 2) cased hole Ch chlorite ch 1) chert 2) choke Cj. (holiday) 2) a trough Cgl. The permeability in some chalk reservoirs is enhanced by natural fractures. transverse pins. b) caprock. The tool joint is loosened with the pipe tongs. chained out of the hole a method of breaking out pipe on a drilling rig. The rotating horsehead doubles the load on the unit and increases the production rate. The horsehead is eggshaped and pivots near the center of the horsehead. changing tour a crew change on a drilling rig channel 1) a cavity on the outside of the casing caused by a poor cement job. chaining a string of charged particles between two electrodes. The chance of success can be determined by multiplying the risks assigned to each chance factor for that well. The operator then has the right to meet the challenge or forfeit the right to continue to operate. c) mature source. Foraminifera (forams) are single-celled animals and their tests (shells) generally range in size from 25 to 64 (JL Coccolithopores are also single-celled animals with plates (coccoliths) generally less than 20 \L in size. chainman a surveyor's assistant who uses a chain to measure distances such as the length of a seismic spread chain of title a complete record of transfers or links that goes from the patent to the present on a tract of land chain slinger the backup man on a drilling crew chain tongs chain tongs a tool consisting of a releasable chain and handle that is used to grip and turn pipe or fittings larger than can be handled with a pipe wrench. {bull tongs) Chal or chal chalcedony chalcedony a mineral that is cryptocrystalline (crystals too small to be seen by the naked eye) and composed of quartz. cgl. d) migration.25 that has been assigned by a geologist to a proposed well to represent the probability of success that the well will be a producer when drilled. CLK. high productivity index wells to obtain the lowest flowing bottomhole pressure for gas lift. capacity of hole C/H cased hole chain a unit of length used for public land surveys in the United States that is equal to 66 ft or 4 rods. Chain drives can also be double or triple roller chains depending on the number of connected rows of links. Some of the more important chance factors are a) reservoir. chamfer the tapered or conical end of a threaded pipe or coupling chance factor a geological condition that must have occurred or be present for a petroleum deposit to exist. Chamber lift is used in low bottomhole pressure. A chain drive is used to connect chain gears or wheels with teeth. chance of success a decimal number such as 0. Chalks originally have high porosities (25%^i0%) but have low permeabilities due to small pores and pore throats. The spinning chain is connected to a pulling line from the cathead and the tool joint is broken out by spinning the stand with the chain. or cglt • channel Chalcedony is white to light gray.80 Cgl. . The spinning chain is then wrapped counterclockwise around the stand. and white to light gray or buff in color. A cable sling is mounted on the front of the horsehead to suspend the polished rod hanger. The chance factor is expressed as a probability and is used in a risk analysis of a prospect. Pipe rams are most commonly changed. and has a conchoidal fracture. The rock is usually soft. or chk challenge clause a provision in an agreement such as a joint operating agreement in which a nonoperator has the right to challenge the operator by offering to conduct operations on a more favorable basis. Chal or chal chalk an extremely fine-grained limestone composed primarily of microfossils (foraminifera tests or coccoliths). Chk. Chalk is used as an oil-wetting agent in drilling fluid. (composite risk factor) change house a shelter used by the crews on a drilling rig to change clothes change of ownership clause a provision in an oil and gas lease that explains what notice the lessee must give the lessor if the ownership changes. (Annie Oakley clause) chamber lift a type of intermittent gas lift that uses either a) the tubing-casing annulus or b) a bottle on the end of the tubing string to accumulate fluids between cycles. One acre is equal to 10 square chains. very hard. (assignment clause) change rams to replace the rams in a blowout preventer with another size or type rams. earthy. chain breaker a rotary driller chain drive a mechanical power transfer system that uses a roller chain with links made of side bars. and e) geometry or trap. cgl. Chancellor rotating horsehead a pumping unit with a horsehead that rotates to increase the maximum stroke length by about 50%. with a chemical formula of SiO2. Chaining can cause short-circuiting and can occur in a water/oil emulsion. and rollers.

Anhydrite and gypsum grains are most susceptible. Braided channels are intertwining. small mixing system. on the insides of a meander. or swing gauge or valve) cheese paraffin chelating the attachment of a group to a central metallic agent such as iron with two valences to form a heterocyclic ring. ago. sand. The charcoal is then brought into a laboratory and the liquid is heated off the charcoal. (snipe) check an area of six townships checkerboard a lease pattern that looks like a checkerboard. Braided rivers tend to fill with coarse sediments such as gravels and sands. y. channel job a faulty cement job channel pore an elongated pore that has developed without regard to the texture or fabric of the rock channel sands the sands deposited by a river in a channel. 4) a path of informational flow in a computer channel deposit the sediments that fill a river channel. nonreturn. It is part of the Oligocene epoch. chase pipe to lower a drillstring a few feet in the well and then suddenly stop it with the drawworks brake in order to clean out the pipe chase threads to straighten and clean the threads on a pipe chasing the dog loafing on the job chat a driller's term for conglomerate Chattian a global age of geological time that occurred about 33-25 m. Two common types of river channels are meandering and braided or anastamosing. The barrel has a water inlet. Meandering rivers tend to fill with sand and finer grained sediments. Channeling can trap (bypass) oil in less permeable zones. Every other lease is held by one party with a 100% working interest with only the lease corners touching. The phenomenon is called wave guide effect or normal mode propagation. Chkbd checkerboarding leasing or farming out land in a checkerboard pattern checkerboard working interest an arrangement in which a farmee receives a 100% working interest in certain acreage. chemical compaction the reduction in volume of a sedimentary rock due to pressure solution of grains at the grain-to-grain contacts. temperature (T). and the farmor retains a 100% working interest in the balance check shot survey a method used to determine seismic velocities over various intervals in a well. Chazyan a North American age of geological time that occurred about 475-460 m. chargeability the operator that is charged with the ownership of a particular lease of federal lands charged shallow formation with an abnormal high pressure caused by fluids flowing up from a deeper reservoir charging pumps the air or electronic pumps that pressure the gas in the accumulators Charles' law a law of physics that relates the volume 00. The test is standardize^ by the American Gas Association and the Gas Producers Association. quartz is intermediate . lien. channel fill the alluvial sediments such as gravel. silt. and sometimes length.channel deposit • eroded by a river. chemical compaction 81 The law states that Yyv2 = TXIT2 and T/V = a constant. Meandering river channel deposits bend back and forth in aerial view. heat. check valve a type of valve that allows fluid flow in only one direction. It is a problem in primary production from water drive reservoirs and during waterflood and enhanced oil recovery. character the part of a seismic event that is recognizable character log an acoustic wave train display. channeling the flow of fluids such as water through more permeable zones in a reservoir. and geophones are positioned in the well. or assessment on an interest in the land 2) an explosive used in seismic exploration It is usually described by weight. channel wave a seismic wave trapped in a subsurface rock layer. ago. Chautaguan a North American age of geological time that occurred from about 380 to 365 m. The check valve is usually opened by pressure on a spring behind the gate. The display can be either in a) intensity modulated-time mode or b) amplitude-time mode. It is part of the Ordovician period. and pressure (P) of an ideal gas. It also states that Pi/P2 = TXIT2 and TIP = a constant. Channel sands can be deposited either in a point bar. Chemelectric™ treater or dehydrator a horizontal separator that uses chemical demulsifiers. Mud treating chemicals are mixed with water in the chemical barrel and added to the circulating system of a drilling rig. charge 1) a tax. and electrostatics to separate emulsions chemical barrel a small tank that holds 1-5 bbl of fluid. 3) a series of devices that are interconnected so that data can flow from source to recorder Seismic systems are often 24 channels so that information from 24 groups of geophones are recorded simultaneously. (oneway. The source is usually on the surface. condensed and measured. charcoal test a test that is used to determine the condensate or natural gasoline content of wet gas by adsorption of the liquids on activated charcoal in the field. ago. The channeling can occur in the shape of fingers. CHB chloroform bitumen cheater a length of pipe that is put on the handle of a wrench to increase its length and improve leverage. type. The rock layer is bounded both above and below by reflectors with a reflectivity of near unity. y. It is part of the Devonian period. A sequestering agent uses chelating to separate the iron cation from the anion by chelating to prevent the formation of iron hydroxide during acidizing. and outlet. or in reaches between meanders. and clay that were transported and deposited in a channel by a river. are oriented perpendicular to the (paleo) shoreline and have a fining-upward grain size. y.

The chemical propellant is packed inside the tool which is lowered on wireline. It is part of the Devonian period. A chenier beach is very long and narrow. Chemical flooding includes surfactant. and alkaline flooding. (swivel joints) chief computer the person on a seismic crew who does the preliminary evaluation and possibly some interpretation of the seismic data. chenier beach a beach ridge of sand located on peat or clay. y.82 chemical consolidation • chimney Chemungian a North American age of geological time that ended about 380 m. chemical feeder pump a small pump that is used to inject an emulsion breaking chemical into the flow lines from wells. y. Chemical remanent magnetism is in contrast to thermal and detrital remanent magnetism. The tool is activated by electrical signals that direct a high pressure and temperature propellant out through holes to cut drillpipe or tubing. ago. chief mechanic an employee of the drilling contractor on an offshore drilling rig who supervises the engineering department and maintains the rig machinery chiller a type of heat exchanger that uses a refrigerant to cool fluids chimney a geochemical zone over a hydrocarbon deposit The area is identified by very strong soil and rock alteration. The chief computer works directly under the party chief. chevron fold a fold in sedimentary rocks in which the fold limbs are straight with uniform thickness but there is a angular hinge line with thickening. A chicksan is designed to give a bend to the piping system and swivels on internal threads with ball bearings. Chert occurs both as nodules in limestones and dolomites and as extensive. layered deposits (bedded chert). a hard rock to drill. Chert forms either inorganically by precipitating out of ground water or organically by deposition of siliceous microfossils such as radiolarians or diatoms. high soil gas. rutile. chicksan a high-pressure swivel joint used in a piping system. Normal alkanes from plant waxes and fatty acids and porphyrins. The chimney is caused by light hydrocarbons leaking from a subsurface reservoir. chemical remanent magnetism magnetism in a rock generated by mineral grain growth below the Curie point. It is used on cement or frac jobs. and phytane derived from chlorophyll are examples of chemical fossils. chert clause a drilling contract provision that allows for the conversion of footage rates to day rates when chert. cht. chemical consolidation a method of sand control that uses injected resins to bind unconsolidated pay sands in a well chemical cutoff a technique used to cut pipe in a well by high-pressure jets of a corrosive fluid on the pipe chemical cutter chemical cutter a downhole tool that uses acid to cut stuck pipe in a well. closely spaced inserts and was very durable. CRM chg or chng changing CHH casinghead housing if magnetic susceptibility chicken hook a steep pole with a hook that is used on a drilling rig to release the safety latch on the traveling block's hook to remove the swivel chicken-wire anhydrite a sedimentary rock composed of large recrystallized anhydrite (CaSO4) nodules. and a very strong reduction zone. The injection is done in several stages with each chemical or water injected during that stage called a slug. chemical dehydration a process that uses a surfaceactive agent to produce an unstable emulsion in a separator to separate oil and water. followed by water to drive the slugs. The jet cutter is similar but uses a jet charge instead of chemical action to cut the tubular.or ch chert bit the first tungsten carbide insert bit introduced by the Hughes Tool Company in 1949. chemical flood an enhanced oil recovery process in which water mixed with chemicals is injected into a depleted oil reservoir. The impurities between the nodules have a chicken wire pattern when the rock is slabbed. . (accordion or zigzag fold) CHF casinghead flange CHG casinghead gas and zircon. chert a hard and extremely fine-grained or amorphous rock composed of SiO2. (micellar flood) chemical flooding enhanced oil recovery processes which involve injection of water with chemicals into a subsurface reservoir. is encountered in the well Chesterian a North American epoch of geological time that occurred about 340-330 m. stressed vegetation. pristane. then a surfactant slug that reduces surface tension. and pyrite are least susceptible to chemical compaction. CHRT. The first slug injected is usually a water preflush. then a fresh water buffer. It is part of the Mississippian period. in contrast to the oxidizing or weakly reducing area surrounding it. then a polymer slug that drives the surfactant. polymer. The chemical feeder pump can be powered from the pumping unit. ago. The chemicals are designed to reduce the surface tension of the remaining oil and to push it toward a producing well. chemical fossil a compound found in crude oil or sediments that proves a biological origin for that compound. Cht. The chert bit had short.

65 (Mg) to 3. or cb choke bean the replaceable orifice on a positive choke. Adjustable chokes use a needle. Cb. Chlorites have a low cation exchange capacity and are relatively stable. This can reduce the permeability of a rock. Because they have a high iron content. (e) penninite. Chtz Chk or chk chalk chk choke Chkbd checkerboard chky chalky CHL chlorinlog Chi. The electrical connections between the elements are made by an evaporated metal that is engraved on the circuit by a photographic process.2) silicon chip. and (f) corrensite. Chokes can be fixed or adjustable. The microprocessor is a single chip that contains all the arithmetic and logic units of a computer. miniature transistors and other circuit elements on a single. Chlor.20 A. of drilling. (scotches) choke a constriction in a line (usually VM-I in. (flow beam) choke extractor a wireline tool that is used to pull side-door chokes when the pressure in the tubing is less than the pressure in the casing-tubing annulus. This log has been replaced by the neutronlifetime and thermal-decay-time logs. ck. gamma ray log Chlor or chlor chlorite chloride stress cracking the stress fracturing caused by corrosion of ferrous-based alloy steels when exposed to chlorine ions in water chlorinlog. Chl. The mineral has a density of 2. small (less than V4 in. The chlorine log was originally sensitive to chocks blocks or triangular-shaped objects that are put in front or in back of wheels to prevent a truck or trailer from moving.42 (Fe) gms/cm3and a cell dimension of 14. and a spring-loaded ball. flow-plug. The largest cuttings are sampled and are assumed to be from the last one or two strokes of the drill bit and represent the last 1 in. chlorites react with acid such as HC1 to form a gelatinous flocculant or iron hydroxide. (integrated circuit) chip coring a method of obtaining well cuttings with accurate depths during cable-tool drilling. flow bean. an equalizing sub. The log is made by counting the rate of gamma rays in a certain energy range made by the capture of thermal neutrons from a source by chlorine atoms. chl. diameter) used to restrict and control the rate of flow during a test or during production. two choke cups. or chl log chlorite The chlorite clay mineral family includes the species (a) amesite. Some types of chokes include bottomhole. chk. (d) clinochlore. (c) chamosite. The choke extractor has a sub for attachment to a pulling tool. or cone-shaped stem with a seat to change the size of the orifice. A chelating or sequestering agent is used to prevent this. Fe+2. Production of oil or gas is often reported in barrels or cubic feet on a certain sized choke. A sand pump is used to remove the well cuttings. sleeve. Chlorite is associated with and resembles the micas. a fishing neck. CH. chl. (bean. Chlorine occurs dissolved in salt water. surface. (b) antigorite. or chl log chlorine log CHL GR chlorinlog. Fe+3)6AlSi3O10 (OH)6. A fixed or positive choke has a specific diameter orfice. The component design on the chip is made by a computer. choke-flow connection the valve or valves on a blowout-preventer stack that connect the well with the chokeline that leads to the choke manifold and mud tanks on a drilling rig . CHL. and the chlorine log is used to locate saltwater-bearing zones. The clay minerals are rich in iron and magnesium and have the chemical formula (Mg. and storm chokes. chip hold-down effect the effect of high drillingmud weight and pressure holding the well cuttings on the bottom of the well and slowing the drilling chisel tongs tongs with inserts shaped like chisels for better pipe gripping Chit or chit chitin • choke-flow connection 83 shales but a shale-compensated chlorinity log is now available. or chlor choc chocolate chock chitinozoan chitinozoan an extinct marine microfossil of an organism with an uncertain affinity They are shaped like flasks and existed from the Ordovician period through the Devonian period. chlorine log. Chlorites originally form in low-grade metamorphic rocks or from the alteration of black mica and ferromagnesium minerals.chip chip an electric circuit consisting of numerous. or flow nipple) CK. or chlorine survey a neutron-gamma ray type of wireline log that is run to determine the amount of chlorine present in a formation.

Chromates are used with lime as anodic corrosion inhibitors. It is operated from a control panel on the drill floor. ion exchange. they can be either wet trees which are exposed to seawater. whereas some are assembled with individual valves (loose-valve tree). Column (liquid-solid) chromatography uses a glass column packed with activated. or dry trees which are contained in an air-filled chamber. partition. casing and tubing head spools. The Christmas tree consists of a casing head housing. and lines on a drilling rig. the components of a sample in solution or mixture by passing it over or through a substance. or electrochromatography. The components in the sample have different mobilities as they pass over or through the substance and are physically separated. Gas chromatography uses a high-molecular weight stationary liquid phase in the column to partition the gas phase. reserve pit. mud tank. chokeline valve a valve on the blowout preventer stack of a drilling rig that is used to control or stop the flow of fluids through the chokeline to the choke manifold choke manifold a series of automatic valves. choke panel a device located on a drilling rig that is designed to control an orifice or choke that can regulate the back pressure of drilling mud on the formation face in the well chord one of the vertical elements on the leg of a jackup rig MASTER VALVE TUBING HEAD CASINGHEAD Christmas tree standardized by the American Petroleum Institute after sizes and ratings set forth by the American National Standards Institute. The chokeline controls the rate of drilling fluid flow out of a well when the blowout preventers are closed and a kick is being circulated out of the well. The flanged or studded fittings on the Christmas tree are chromatogram chromatograph an instrument used to analyze the components of a substance by chromatography. manifold pressure. but all have at least one master valve to control the flow of the well. Most trees are machined out of a solid block of metal (block tree). Gas . (vertebrates) CHP casinghead pressure Chp chalcopyrite Christmas tree surface completion equipment over a well that flows to the surface under its own pressure and is used to control the flow from the well. gauges. The liquid phase is a solvent such as hexane. powdered silica or alumina. On the top is a swab valve and a pressure gauge. To the side of the flow cross or tee is the flowline valve. Christmas trees vary in construction. The control panel has gauges that show drillpipe pressure. and production valves and chokes. and choke positions. less commonly. It is located on the ground next to the blowout preventer stack and is connected to the blowout-preventer stack outlet. The choke manifold can direct the flow to the burning pit.84 chokeline • chromatography PRESSURE GAUGE chokeline a pipe on the ram preventers of a blowout preventer stack that conducts fluids from the annulus of a well to the choke manifold. Liquid chromatography is used to separate oils and extracts from sedimentary rocks into their components. chromatogram the record from a chromatograph OIL CHROMATOGRAM OF UNALTERED OIL chordate chordates animals that have backbones. Chordates are in contrast to invertebrates that are common as fossils in sedimentary rocks. The choke manifold is used to circulate a kick out of a well after the blowout preventers have been thrown and to circulate heavier drilling mud into the well to control it. Most Christmas trees are single-wing but some are double-wing when the well is a dual completion. On the seafloor. chokes. oil wells in the early stages of field development. or mud conditioning equipment. Flowing wells that use Christmas trees include all gas wells and. chromatography a process used to separate by adsorption. (production tree or tree) xtree chromate a compound that contains chromuim. Gas lift wells also have Christmas trees. The Christinas tree has a hollow passageway that connects to the top of the tubing in the well.

the mud returns to the mud tanks. Each unconformity is represented by a hiatus. chrone the time equivalent of a chronzone chronostratigraphic analysis a method to analyze the history of deposition and erosion of sedimentary rock units in a basin by prograding depositional units called clinoforms. or circ 1) circulation 2) circulate 3) circulated circle-A pump a type of downhole pump that is used to lift viscous fluids such as heavy oil. and the weight of the drilling mud is gradually increased on a schedule. contour interval CIBP cast iron bridge plug CID cubic inch displacement Cincinnatian a North American epoch of geological time that occurred about 455-425 m. a vertical slice similar to a cross section. The mud jets out through the nozzles on the drill bit and returns to the surface in the space called the annulus between the drillstring and the walls of the well. Churn flow occurs between slug and annular flow. A circle jack has one wrench that is attached to the floor and another wrench that is jacked up along the rack. After going through the shale shaker. A circular chart is in contrast to a strip chart. and a parameter such as gas flows is recorded with time. Circulating is done by pumping drilling mud out of the mud tanks with mud pumps and down the inside of the rotary hose. a gap in the time record.I. CIRC. The electrons in the current will flow from a negative power supply terminal.chrone • circulating ditch chromatography is used to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the organic components of crude oil and to detect oil and gas seepages. Circ. The horizontal axis is distance. to a positive power supply terminal circuit diagram a plan using symbols to show an electrical circuit or path circular chart a circular piece of paper with a scale radiating out from the center. semicircular rack that is bolted to the floor of a cable-tool rig and is used to make and break pipe connections. It is part of the Ordovician period. circulating ditch an obsolete term for the mud tanks . the desander. or cht chert CHRTY or chty cherty Chtz chitinozoa churn drilling see cable tool drilling churn flow a type of rising fluid flow consisting of unstable and distorted bubbles in a liquid. It consists of a sliding sleeve or side pocket mandrel. (back-off wheel or wheeltype back-off wrench) circuit an electrical current path. and the desilter. ago. Circulation of drilling mud while drilling is suspended is necessary to prevent the drillpipe from becoming stuck and to remove the well cuttings from the bottom of the hole. (viscous fluid pump) circle flood a type of waterflood pattern in which the production wells are drilled in a circle around a water injection well circle jack a large. Circ. The vertical axis on the section is geological time. The chart is rotated. The circulating differential fill collar or shoe uses a differential pressure aaivated valve to allow the casing to fill with well fluids as it is run in the well. circulate to cause drilling mud to flow on a complete trip through the mud or circulating system on a drilling rig. and drillstring on a rotary drilling rig. 85 Youngest Diachronous Oldest chronostratigraphic section chronostratigraphic section a section. Cht. CHRT. y. CO circulating device flow-control equipment that is run on production-injection tubing to provide fluid communication between the tubing and the tubing annulus. CIP 1) cement in place 2) closed-in pressure CIPA California Independent Producers Association CIRC. chronazone the basic time-stratigraphic unit of rocks deposited during a specific time such as between the first and last appearance of a fossil or a particular part of a sequence. swivel. CI correlation index CI or C. (jack and circle) circle wrench a manual wrench in the shape of a wheel that is used to break out a sucker-rod string when it is pulled from a well. Depositional history of sedimentary rocks is related to times of higher sea level and erosion or to times of lower sea level and deposition. of sedimentary rocks and unconformities in a sedimentary rock basin with prograding depositional units called clinoforms. or circ circulate-and-weigh a technique used to control high subsurface pressures during drilling. The sedimentary rocks are divided into depositional sequences which are bounded by unconformities on both the top and bottom. (concurrent method) circulate out to circulate drilling fluid in a well to remove cuttings and gas. A chrone is the time equivalent of a chronzone. The pump is either a tubing or stationary barrel type with top or bottom holddown. similar to a stratigraphic cross section. circulating differential fill collar or shoe a short section of pipe that is run either on the bottom (shoe) or between joints near the bottom (collar) of a casing string during a cement job. Circulation is restarted immediately after a kick. through a conductor such as a copper wire.

Dune or beach sand is an example of a clastic grain. ago. Ore. The mud goes through the desander. drillpipe. siltstones and shales) to die thickness of nonclastic rocks (limestones. . (cycle time) CIS customer instrument service city gate the point where gas ownership is transferred from the pipeline to the local distributor CK or ck choke CL caliper log Q 1) love wave velocity 2) condensate or natural gas liquids content Cl or cl clay Cl 1) chloride 2) chinozoisite CL. water. Clapper valves are used in bailers to remove fluid and debris from the bottom of a well. through the blowout preventers. swivel. The circulating ports can be opened or closed by manipulating the fishing string. Cladding is necessary when H2S. or suspended solids from a fluid. usually expressed in gallons or barrels per minute. CP circulating sleeve a device on a tubing string that is manipulated by a wireline tool to open or close ports between the tubing and annulus. clapper valve a valve that uses a hinged lid to allow fluid flow only in one direction. that is being pumped down a well circulation time the time that it takes the drilling mud to make a complete round trip from the mud tanks through the circulating system. dolomites and salts) in a sedimentary rock unit. The mud then returns to the surface in the annulus (space between the wellbore and drillpipe). Circulation can be either normal circulation in which the fluid is pumped down the center of the drillstring and back up the annulus or reversed circulation in which the fluid is pumped down the annulus and back up the center of the drillpipe. and the excess cement is circulated out. clastic limestone a limestone composed primarily of broken and rounded shells (coquina) clastic ratio a ratio of the thickness of clastic rocks (conglomerates. The packer is then released and picked up above the upper perforations. The circulating sleeve can be used to turn on and off production from several levels in a well. back to in the mud tanks. and nozzles in the drill bit onto the bottom of the well. and cement is pumped into the channel. or air down the well and back up.86 circulating fluid • clastic ratio circulating fluid the drilling fluid. water. to control high pressures. Two clamp hubs are used on the ends of the items and are held together by the clamp with two or four bolts. y. clamp a mechanical device that is used to hold something in place clamp connection a pressure sealing device that is used to join two pieces without bolted flange joints. while the tubing still has a full inner diameter. It is part of the Eocene epoch. drill collars. foam. center line C/L center line clabbered the flocculation of drilling mud due to contaminants. CIRC. kelly. (sliding sleeve or sliding-sleeve npple) circulating squeeze a squeeze cement job on a well with two producing zones that has communication behind the pipe between the zones due to channeling in the primary cement job. The drilling mud will have a high gel strength and will be very viscous. circulating temperature The temperature of a liquid being circulated at a specific depth in a well. (gelled-up) cladding the coating of steel pipe and equipment with a thin sheet of corrosion resistant material. sandstones. Water is circulated to clean the channel. it goes through the mud-return line and through the shale shaker to remove the coarse well cuttings. or circ circulation rate the volume of drilling mud. Circulation time is twice lag time. The valve can be combined with a shut-in valve. circulation the flow of drilling fluid. circulating system the system on a rotary drilling rig that pumps. clarification to make clear. desilter. CLAG cleaning agent treatment Clairborne a North American age of geological time that occurred about 50-45 m. CO2> or other corrosive gases are expected to be encountered during drilling or production. (rotating head) circulating out the kick the close a well and circulate the lighter drilling mud out while circulating heavier drilling mud into the well circulating pressure the pressure on a fluid at a specific depth in a well that is required to circulate that fluid at a specific rate. drilling mud. The circulating sleeve protrudes out from the tubing. Tubing with a packer is run and set between the zones. circulating sub a tool that provides for circulating drilling mud around and through a fishing string to prevent string sticking. circulating valve a valve that connects the drillpipe with the annulus a short distance above the drillstem test tool to allow the circulation of drilling fluid to remove any combustible test fluid from the drillpipe before the tool is withdrawn from the hole. The mud is then ready to be pumped back up the suction line to the mud pumps. A clastic grain is rounded by erosion during transportation. and to keep the hole clean. The mud pumps (mud hogs) suck drilling mud from the steel mud tanks and pump it through the rotary hose. and degasser to remove the rest of the well cuttings and dissolved gas and back into the mud tanks. A low squeeze pressure is then applied. das clastic clastic grain a sedimentary particle that has been transported and deposited as a whole particle. foam. drilling mud. Next to the rig. and onto the surface. Circulation through the sub can be by perforations or by side ports called circulating ports. stores and conditions the drilling fluid which is usually drilling mud. or air that is circulated down a well on a rotary drilling rig circulating head an attachment used on the top of a drillpipe or tubing to connect with the circulating system. The removal of oil from water. The upper zone is perforated first.

and mixed layers). Clay gouge is formed by the grinding action of fault movement on rocks and subsequent mineral decomposition. They are composed of about 90% water and 10% of one of the gases methane. Natural clathrates usually contain ethane or isobutane or. a cause of formation damage claystone a massive mudstone that contains more clay than silt but lacks the laminations and fissility that are characteristic of shale. aluminum silicate mineral with a layered crystal structure. Clathrates have a specific gravity between 0. Potassium salts can be used as a drilling-fluid additive to inhibit clathrate formation.98. three of which are shared. vermiculite. chloroform. water. and chlorite. resulting in reduced permeabilities clay control methods used to isolate or stabilize clay minerals in a formation. decrease the porosity and permeability of a rock and increase irreducible water content. clay plug the fine-grained. (fault gouge. and other materials from the well .clastic rock • cleaning a well 87 clastic ratio map clastic rock a sedimentary rock composed of particles of other rocks that were broken down by weathering and transported and deposited by erosion Examples of clastic rock include sandstone. whereby all the oxygens are shared and a layer of loosely bound atoms or molecules can be exchanged. isobutane. wax. Clay minerals can trade (exchange) cations (positive charges) in their interlayer sites. propane. organic-rich sediments that fill an abandoned river channel or ox-bow lake occupying an abandoned meander clay stabilizer an additive that is used to prevent the breakup of clay mineral platelets. ethylene dichloride. siltstone. A clathrate is a solid crystalline compound similar to snow. Methane snow is a clathrate formed by water and methane. or selvage) clay mineral a hydrous. Gas dehydration is used to depress the dew point of produced natural gas and prevent clathrate formation. very fine-grained rock fragments found along a fault surface. They are common in permafrost areas and in seabed sediments. because of their size. Clathrates are melted from pipes by heaters. shale. The smectite-type of clay mineral has the greatest cation exchange capacity. naphtha.96 and 0. clathrate ice with gas molecules trapped in the cagelike ice crystal structure. Clathrates also form in and block gas wells and lines and foul heat exchangers when gas is cooled. reducing or destroying the rock's permeability in a process called formation damage. Clay minerals. Cations and fresh water can cause some clay minerals to swell (swelling clays) or disperse. and breccia. clay gouge soft. or hot water or by adding methanol or ethylene glycol. trichloroethylene or xylene. usually acetone. They can also contain octahedral layers of aluminum or magnesium surrounded by six oxygens. forming a fault seal. unconsolidated. Smectite is the clay used in drilling mud to increase viscosity and density and to build the filter cake on the sides of the well. tetrachloroethylene. en clean drilling drilling with circulating drilling mud cleaned core a core that has had the formation fluid extracted with solvents. clay extender a high molecular weight organic compound such as polyvinyl acetatemaleic anhydride copolymer that is added in low concentrations to drilling mud to increase viscosity and initial yield. hexane. methane or nitrogen. gouge. steam. and c) HC1 acid damage (chlorite and Fe illite). (gas hydrate or hydrate) clay a particle size less than Viw mm in diameter Cl orcl clay blocking a type of formation damage caused when low-salinity water enters the formation causing clay minerals to be displaced and dispersed from pore walls and to bridge pore throats. A clean core is in contrast to a native-state or restored-state core. The methods retard the breakup of clay platelets that could cause clay to flow through the formation and clog pore throats. less often. reducing or eliminating formation permeability. Clay minerals usually occur in extremely fine-grained sizes in sedimentary rocks and can be either allogenic (originally deposited with the other sediments) or authigenic (formed by chemical reactions in the subsurface). toluene. smectite. The amount a particular clay mineral can exchange is called cation exchange capacity. illite. n-butane. conglomerate. carbon dioxide or hydrogen sulfide. b) swelling (smectite. clean gas natural gas that has had the solids such as rust and dust removed by filters cleaning a well a workover process on a well to remove sediments. This can cause the clay mineral to detach from mineral grains and clog pore throats in sedimentary rocks. Clay minerals are composed of tetrahedral layers of silica surrounded by four oxygens. Authigenic clay minerals include neoformed clays that have precipitated out of subsurface waters and transformed clays that have formed by the alteration of a precursor mineral grain such as feldspar. Some problems with clay minerals include a) migration of fines (kaoline and fibrous illite). Cist Clear calcarenite Clclt calcilutite Clcrd calcirudite Clcsp calcisphere CLDL chloride detection log clean a sandstone or carbonate rock with little or no clay-sized particles or shale. scale. The four common types of clay minerals are kaolinite. Gouge can act as a permeability barrier. ethane.

or other deposits that have caused a decrease in a well's efficiency cleanout acid a mixture of HC1 acid and surfactants that is circulated down a well to remove unwanted material cleanout bailer a device lowered on a sand line on a cable-tool rig to remove fluid from the well cleanout box or cleanout door an opening in the side of a tank that is used to clean the sediments out of the bottom of the tank cleanout cost the costs incurred in a workover to maintain or restore the productive capacity of a well cleanout crew a workover crew that removes sand and paraffin from wells cleanout machine a reverse circulation drilling rig that is used to drill the pay zone after the rotary rig drills down to the top of the pay cleanout string a string of six to twelve drill collars and small drillpipe or tubing with a bit that is used to drill out cement above a stage tool cleanout tools bailers and swabs used to remove sand. A worker is attached to the climbing device by a tail rope and safety harness. device equipment that is used to prevent a fall by a worker from a drilling-rig mast or derrick. ago. cable. their orientation to each other. clinograph an instrument that measures and records inclination Clinton flake a small particle of cellophane that is used as a lost-circulation additive for cement Clintonian a North American age of geological time that occurred about 420 m. (dry oil) clean out to workover a well by removing sand. A clevis can be found on the brake and clutch linkages and on hydraulic and air cylinders on a drilling rig. clearance volume 1) the space left between the traveling and standing valve in a downhole. y. or acidizing treatment clean oil crude oil that contains less than a specified amount of basic sediment and water. granular nodule made by heat treatment of cement components in a kiln. The climbing device moves freely up and down the cable unless the worker falls. The cleavage is described by the number of planes. clingage the oil remaining on the sides of a measuring or prover tank after the tank is drained clinker a hard. Clearance volume is measured when the pump is at the bottom of the stroke. It is part of the Silurian period. 2) the space remaining in a compressor cylinder at the end of the discharge stroke measured in cubic inches clearing account an account that accumulates expenses during a period with the balance allocated to other accounts on some predetermined basis clearing its throat a well that is allowed to blow to clear out drilling mud. or linkage. and their degree of perfection. A counterbalanced climbing device has a weight on it equal to the weight of a worker. . or other obstruction that build up and obstruct production in wells cleanup a swab job cleanup trip a lowering of the drillstring into the well solely for the purpose of circulating drilling mud and cleaning the well cuttings from the bottom of the well clearance 1) the difference between the diameter of a wellbore and the downhole tool 2) the maximum distance between the surface of a gun and the surface of a wellbore core. y. The specified amount is defined by contract and is usually 1%. A clevis is used to connect a chain. climbing. scale. waxes. (shackle) CLF cyclic load factor Cliftonian a North American age of geological time that ended about 415 m. A climbing device moves up and down a steel cable that is attached to the top and bottom of the derrick and runs next to the ladder. ago. normally pressured formation cleavage the breakage of minerals along smooth planes that are controlled by the crystal structure of the mineral. Gas from the subsurface blows out the mud clear the well to pay for drilling a well clear-water drilling fluid water that ranges from fresh to saturated brine and comes from a consolidated. cementing. It is part of the Silurian period.88 cleaning solution • Clintonian cleaning solution an acid solution that is used to clean up the producing formation in a well before a fracturing. It is ground with calcium sulfate to make Portland cement. suckerrod pump. scale. Clvg CLEAVAGE ONE DIRECTION CLEAVAGE TWO DIRECTIONS AT RIGHT ANGLES CLEAVAGE THREE DIRECTIONS NOT AT RIGHT ANGLES cleavage clevis and pin cleave to break clevis a U-shaped piece of metal with a bolt or pin through the end. at which time the device catches the cable to stop the fall. waxes.

(stranding machine) closing ratio the ratio between pressure in a well and the pressure necessary to close the rams in a blowout preventer closing unit the pumps. cloud on a title a claim that could impair an owner's title to property if it is upheld in court cloud point the temperature at which a precipitate first forms in a fluid as it is cooled. Closed bottom pressure is measured in psi. The air or friction type is commonly used in drilling and uses air pressure to cause a gripping surface to close around a power input shaft. clutcher a rotary driller clutch stomper a rotary driller Clvg cleavage CM molarity concentration cm centimeter CMC l)sodium carboxymethyl cellulose 2) critical micelle concentration CMDP correlation method of direct prospecting Cmeg/1 milliequivalents per liter concentration Cmg/1 milligrams per liter concentration cm3 cubic centimeter CM-GR coarse to medium grained CMHEC carboxymethyl hydroxyethyl cellulose CML channel master log CML N channel master. closed or closed-in pressure the pressure at the wellhead after the well has been closed (shut-in) for a period of time. cemented CN compensated neutron log Cf. and drillsites closest to a producing well have the least risk close sand a very fine-grained sandstone closing machine a machine that makes wire rope by braiding wires into strands and strands into rope. usually 24 hrs or longer. The mechanical type is either a jaw or gear type. 3) the cumulative error in a survey loop closure pressure the pressure that holds rock fractures closed closure stress the pressure which propellents must withstand to hold open fractures caused by a hydraulic fracturing job. usually 24 hrs or longer. Cmt. accumulators. Closure stress is related to overburden and pore pressures. (shut-in bottombole pressure) closed gas lift or closed installation a type of gas lift in which the tubing is hung with a packer and a standing valve is used. psia. Closed gas lift is in contrast to the open and semiclosed types. The cloud point is 2°-5°F above the pour point of the oil. or atm. or cmt cement cmtd or cmtd. lines. it is the temperature in which the oil first appears cloudy. normality concentration en clean enen concentric CNG compressed natural gas C9 nonane CNL compensated neutron log CNS compensated neutron sonde . Four-sided closure is necessary for an effective trap. Closure is a measure of the maximum vertical height of petroleum that the trap is capable of holding 2) the property of a potential petroleum trap to prevent leakage of petroleum out of one or more sides of the trap and to hold petroleum. valves.CLK • CNS 89 CLK chalk CLKY chalky cln 1) crystalline 2) clean clng cleaning CLOS closed close a well to stop the flow of a well by any means closed-in well a well that has been temporarily shut in but is still capable of production closed or closed-in bottom pressure the pressure at or near the producing formation in a well after the well has been closed (shut-in) for a period of time. neutron log CMPL completion log Cmpt compact cm/sec centimeters per second cm2 square centimeter CMT. clr 1) clear 2) clearance clrg clearing CIS chlorine log system dsd closed Clslt calcisilitite Cist claystone clucking right along a flowing well that is producing clump weight a heavy weight that is used with each guyline on a compliant offshore platform to dampen the wave effect Clus cluster clutch a coupling device that enables a rotating part to gradually connect and disconnect with a part that is driven. and other equipment that are used on a drilling rig to activate the blowout preventers closing-unit pump the hydraulic fluid pump used on an accumulator that stores and supplies the power to close the blowout preventers on a drilling rig closure 1) the vertical distance between the top of a reservoir rock and the spill point of a trap. (shut-in pressure) closed structure a dome closed traverse the closeness of a survey going into a well compared to a survey coming out of the well close in to temporarily shut in a well that is still capable of producing close nipple a short pipe that is threaded along its entire length closeology a simplistic concept which states that leases closest to a discovery well are worth the most. For crude oil. usually due to the formation of solid paraffins.

sedimentary rock that is formed predominantly (greater than 50%) of carbonaceous material from plant remains altered by subsurface heat and time in a process called coalification. (town gas) coal gassification a process that uses heat and steam on coal to produce a gas similar to natural gas coal oil kerosene made from distilling either coal or crude oil coal rank the degree of thermal alteration or maturity of a coal. It can occur in drilling mud between clay platelets. in sequence. The liquid drops are separated out by gravity. The methane is adsorbed to the surface of the coal and the amount of adsorbed gas can range up to 700 ft3/T of coal. single-celled animal (Coccolithophore) that floats in the ocean. single-celled animal. COCORP Consortium for Continental Reflection Profiling . A reduction in pressure caused by drilling a well into the coal and dewatering the seam will cause the methane gas to be released. (flocculation) coagulent an additive that promotes clotting coal a combustible. or plastics. bituminous (high. coarsening upward sequence coarsening upward sequence a vertical sequence of sedimentary rocks that becomes coarser in grain size upward in contrast to a fining upward sequence coastal plain an extensive. and can be identified only under a scanning electron microscope. Submerged pipelines are coated with cement to decrease buoyancy. bituminous coal (soft coal). Coalsecence causes oil/water and water/oil emulsions to be easier to separate by gravity. and metaanthracites. Coagulation can result in gelation and the precipitation of colloids. planktonic. whereas. A coastal plain is formed by deposition of sedimentary rocks prograding (depositing) out into the ocean. medium. Humic coals are derived primarily from woody organic matter. Coccoliths range in size from 25 to 64 u. and low volatile). and anthracite (hard coal). Cannel coals have large amounts of spore and resin material. boghead coals have significant amounts of algal organic matter. semianthracites. As heat is applied to woody material.•. fabric. coal seam a bed of coal that is thick enough to be mined coal-seam gas see coalbed gas CO&S clean out and shoot end control cntr center cntrt contorted Cnty county CO 1) cleaning out 2) crude oil 3) circulate oil 4) carbon monoxide 5) company Co 1) water-saturated formation conductivity 2) oil compressibility 3) liquid coefficeint of isothermal compressibility co oil compressibility C/O carbon/oxygen COAC cleanout acid coagulation the attraction and aggregation of finely divided. and production can actually increase during the first few years as the wells are dewatered. mostly marine. decreasing volatiles. Coal gas has a low heat (Btu) content.•. peat. C or c coalbed or coal-bed degassification field a field that produces methane gas from a subsurface coal seam. and increasing heat content. fiberglass. The wells tend to have a long economic life. it becomes. coating the thick surface around a pipeline that prevents corrosion. Cbl orCOBL COBL cobble coccolith a plate composed of CaCO3 from a very small. The methane flows through fractures in the coal. flat area adjacent to an ocean margin. The coating can consist of bitumen. paper. Chalks are composed of coccoliths. Relatively pure deposits of coccolith fossils form the rock chalk. The maturity increases from lignites to sub-bituminous. The test (shell) is composed of numerous plates called coccoliths.'•:. Coccolithophore a very small. suspended particles into lightly bonded groups. lignite. The wells will also produce considerable water which is usually fresh or brackish.050/ft3. : • •':. (coal seam gas) CBG coalesce the combination of smaller globules in an emulsion into larger globules by molecular attraction. The progression from lignite to anthracite involves increasing carbon. anthracites. . coalbed or coal-bed gas or methane gas formed by biochemical and physical processes during the coalification of plant material into coal. cobble a particle size 64-256 mm in diameter. if . Coccoliths are abundant microfossils in sedimentary rocks from the Jurassic peroid to the Holocene epoch. Sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide are never present. Coalbed methane is predominantly (80%-99%) methane gas (CH4). Carbon dioxide and water vapor are the main impurities. Btu content is usually 950-1. Coccolithophores have existed from the Cambrian peroid to the present but are most common in rocks from the Cretaceous peroid and the Cenozoic era. coalescer 1) an additive that causes substances to come together such as coalescing an emulsions 2) a vessel containing an extensive surface made of wettable packing that causes drops of liquid to form from a gas or liquid.90 cntl • COCORP coal gas methane gas formed by the heating of coal. Higher temperatures and coal rank produce more methane.

An injector head with friction blocks pushes or pulls the tubing in or out of the well with a typical speed of 60-100 ft/min. blowout preventers. COGA Coastal Oil and Gas Association cogeneration the production of two forms of energy from one fuel. and d) shear waves converted from compressional waves. small-diameter steel tubing wound as a continuous length on a hydraulically powered tubing reel. coherence the capacity for correlation between arrivals of seismic energy at different detectors cohesion the attractive force between similar molecules in the same substance coil a spiral of pipe or tubing. pipe. The coiled tubing unit usually is used on producing wells that need pressure control. title 25 code of the east only a binding legal contract can be depended upon in an oil deal code of the west a man's handshake or word is good for an oil deal coef coefficient coefficient of isobaric thermal expansion the fractional volume increase of a fluid per degree increase in temperature at a constant pressure. and cementing. The tubing is made of low carbon steel alloy with very low sulfur and chromium. (endless tubing.000 ft. Cold is in contrast to hot cold dip a method of sealing cores in a strippable. coeval at the same time or period COF calculated open flow COFCAW combination forward combustion and waterflooding coffee grinder an old term for a rotary drilling rig cofferdam the watertight space between two liquid containers. The reel can store up to 16. and slip rams. COH coming out of hole coherant noise noise that is organized. copper. and repetitive.00096/°F in crude oils with most occuring between 0. It ranges from 0. predictable.00040 and 0. it goes through a counter which is attached to a level wind assembly and a pipe straightener. A limited amount of drilling can be done with a downhole hydraulic motor. (transmissibility coefficient) coelenterate an aquatic invertebrate that belongs to the phylum Coelenterata which includes the corals. and d) elastic collapse.00065. A coil is often used to radiate or transfer heat coil area the outer surface or heat transfer area of a pipe coiled tubing high-strength. (compressibility or gas compressibility) coefficient of isothermal compressibility of oil the fractional change of crude oil volume as pressure is changed above the bubble point and at a constant temperature. Four types are a) yield strength collapse pressure. acid. They are characterized by a radial symmetry. lubricator. or other fluids. b) direct and near surface waves. The blowout-preventer stack usually consists of four rams including hydraulic cutter. and hydraulic crane. Cogeneration is used for heavy oil steamfloods where natural gas is burned to generate both steam and electricity. tubing injector head. which is generally 5°F lower than the pour point cold-work to form metal without using heat colessor's agreement or colessor's ratification agreement an agreement by one owner that confirms a lease executed by another concurrent owner of the lease coll collecting collapse job a fishing operation to remove collapsed pipe from a well collapse resistance or pressure a measure of the amount of external pressure that a pipe can withstand. The unit usually has a crew of two. The collapse . ductile steel tubing with an outer diameter of 1V4 in. coiled tubing unit a well service unit that uses flexible.code of federal regulations. plastic coating for shipping and storage cold stacking the mothballing of a drilling rig for an indefinite time in contrast to warm stacking cold test the temperature at which oil becomes solid. Other equipment on the unit includes a circulating system for nitrogen. b) plastic collapse. collapse strength the minimum external pressure that will collapse a tubular such as casing. initiating flow. As the tubing feeds off the tubing reel. c) diffractions. blind. The coefficient of thermal expansion for steel is 6. jellyfish. CFR. (compressibility or oil compressibility) coefficient of transmissibility the flow rate of water in gallons per day through an area of a subsurface aquifer that is 1 ft wide and equal in height to the thickness of the aquifer with a unit hydraulic gradient.00036 to 0. well stimulation. A cofferdam is designed to prevent the liquids from mixing if the side of one container is ruptured. and hydroids. c) transition collapse. The electricity is sold to help offset the costs of the steamflood. Coiled tubing is in contrast to other types of well service units that use joints of relatively stiff pipe. being common. Coelenterates also includes sea anemones. Coherant noise in seismic includes a) multiples. Coelenterates have existed from the Cambrian period to the present. or reeled pipe unit) Col or col color col column Col ASTM color by the American Standard Test Method cold an electrical circuit that is not on. Coiled tubing is used for cleaning out sand or paraffin in tubing. title 25 the regulations that govern the leasing of Indian land controlled by the Bureau of Indian Affairs.9 x 6 91 coefficient of isothermal compressibility of gas the fractional change of gas volume as pressure is changed at a constant temperature. and nickel for ductibility in lengths up to 19. title 25 • collapse strength code of federal regulations. The coiled tubing greatly reduces trip time compared to solid tubing.000 ft of tubing with an outer diameter of Yt-lYt in. continuous tubing.

(coupling or tool joint) coir collar-bound pipe drillpipe that is caught in a well by debris or sediments packed around the pipe collars collar clamp a device with rubber gaskets that is temporarily used to seal a leaking pipe collar collar locater see casing-collar locater collar log a record of the location of casing or tubing collars in a well made by a collar locater. Vermont. There were columnar section a rock column showing all the different rock units such as formations that occur in a locality or region. gamma ray log . True colloidal suspensions have particle sizes ranging from 5 to 200 \L. (liquid-solid chromatography) can be either a) elastic (failure occurs before deformation). inertial weld. or methanol. such as bentonite. or alumina to separate crude oil and extracts from sedimentary rocks into their components. The liquid phase is a solvent such as pentane. or 27/s in. Tennessee. pumps. whereas weak rocks such as shales are weathered back. Collar pipe is about 30 ft long and has a uniform inner and outer diameter. Colloids are easily put in suspension but settle out of suspension slower than clay-sized material. tanks. that gives the mud gel strength. The rocks are horizontal and their ages and their range of thickness is given. Colloidal fraction is in contrast to the inert fraction. powdered silica. It is threaded either internally (box end) or externally (pin end). Individual parcels of land with irregular boundaries were granted in the townships. or by screwing on. Those that are used on casing on a cement job are called baffle. float. and Maine. The components are separated or partitioned by their mobility through the column. Resistant rocks such as sandstone protrude out of the column. (drill collar) collecting system the pipes. The collar log is used for accurate depth locations in a well. benzene. and the outer diameter is slightly smaller than the size of the hole being drilled. and differential or automatic fill-up collars. The word is derived from the Greek word for glue. Individual rock layers are drawn as they would weather in a cliff of rocks. West Virginia. The rock units are ordered vertically by age with the oldest on the bottom and the youngest on the top. The collar is used to couple the tubular with another tubular. (casing collar log) collar pecker or pounder a worker who hammers the collar of a pipe so that it can be screwed tighter or unscrewed collar pipe a heavy. The inner diameter is 2V* in. colloid very fine-grained material that is in suspension in a fluid. or b) plastic (deformation occurs before failure). Usually 2-20 drill collars are located on the drillstring. colloidal 1) particles that are too small to be seen with an optical microscope 2) a suspension that is intermediate in properties between a liquid and a solid colloidal fraction that part of drilling mud. and then combining colors color imaging the assignment of a color to various ranges of a seismic attribute such as amplitude or interval velocity on a seismic section color stability the resistivity of crude oil to color change that comes from exposure to light and age coir collar column chromatography a chromatography technique that uses a packed glass column of activated. large-diameter pipe that is used to add weight to the bottom of the drillstring just above the drill bit to control drilling and to prevent bending by stiffening the drillstring. Colloclasts are the result of algae or bioturbation. (geological column or section or stratigraphic section) COM or com common Com compensated Com-a-long an open-jawed wrench or spanner Com AVL compensated acoustic velocity log Com AVL-G compensated acoustic velocity log. collar a short metal cylinder that is attached to the end of a tubular such as drillpipe or casing by either flash weld. and valves that are used to transport and control the flow of oil and/or gas from the well to the pipeline or main storage tanks collection bank the bank that holds the lessor's executed lease and draft until the lessee pays the bank the monies due collet connector a mechanically or hydraulically operated system that is used to connect the marine riser to the blowout preventers on a seabed colloclast an irregular or lobate accretion of calcilutite or calcisiltite. coin colonial YOUNGEST I 1 I rlOO 50 FEET OLDEST columnar section colonial survey an early system of mapping in the United States that was used for Kentucky. color 1) paint-band identification of pipe classifications 2) a show of crude oil in well cuttings color composite image a colored image used in remote sensing that is made by transmitting each band from a black-and-white multispectral image through a different color filter. toluene. heptane.92 collar • ComAVL-G 6 mi2 townships.

come in to start production come on stream to start a well producing or to activate a piece of equipment or installation 93 come or coming out of the hole to pull equipment such as a wireline tool. The stratigraphic element is formed by reservoir rock deposition or erosion. The combination rig came into use during the 1920s and can also be used as a workover rig. The cable-tool part can also be used to drill the reservoir rock to alleviate any formation damage problems. The oil and/or gas produced should either a) repay the costs of drilling and completing the well(s) and cover the operating cost of the well(s) plus profit. commercial quantity there is no consistent definition for commercial quantity. dryness. b) pay the costs of operating the well plus profit. work on the water well for the drilling rig. or the drillstring out of the well come to see you to have a well kick or blowout COMM commercial commence or commencement the date at which a well is spudded. combination plant a device that uses both compression and adsorption to remove liquid hydrocarbons from natural gas combination string 1) a length of casing that changes from casing joints of high tensile strength near the top of the well to casing joints of high collapse and internal yield strength near the bottom of the well 2) a length of pipe made up of smaller lengths of pipe of several different diameters that have been screwed together combination trap a type of geological trap that uses both structural and stratigraphic elements to trap petroleum. such as chert and limestone.ComAVX-N • commercial well Com AVL-N compensated acoustic velocity log. combustion the burning of material by very rapid oxidation The oxygen comes from the air. tubing. commercial well a well that is capable of production in paying quantities. less commonly. combustion zone the reservoir rock where the oil is combusting during a fire-flood-type of enhanced oil-recovery project COM D or Com Den compensated density log come working for a percentage of the action rather than a salary come-along a device used for tightening or pulling chains or wires. This is in contrast to a completion lease in which the well must be completed to extend the primary term of the lease. or gravity) that force the oil through the reservoir rock and into the wells. commencement provision an oil and gas lease clause that provides for the extension of a lease if a well is being drilled on that lease during the expiration of the primary term. The hole must be started with a rig capable of drilling to contract depth. (drilling operations clause) commercial butane a natural gas product that is composed predominately of butane and/or butylenes. commercial production oil and/or gas production from a well in sufficient quantity to make a profit after operating costs commercial propane a natural gas product that is composed of at least 95% propane and/or propylene. commercial deposit an oil and/or gas reservoir that contains enough petroleum for production in paying quantities. neutron log comb combination combination collar a cylinder that is used to couple tubulars that has a right-handed thread on one end and a left-handed thread on the other combination driller a driller who can use both a cable-tool and rotary rig combination drive two or more reservoir drives (solution gas. Commercial clays are in contrast to natural clays. such as shale and sandstone. It could be large enough deposit of crude oil and natural gas to economically justify (make a profit) the development and production of the petroleum. The cable-tool rig part is used to drill hard rocks. commence or commencement lease an oil and gas lease which will remain valid as long as drilling a well begins during the primary term and drilling operations are being carried out with reasonable diligence. Commercial propane is defined by the Natural Gas Processors Association as having a vapor pressure of not more than 215 psig at 100°F and must pass other tests on sulfur and corrosive compounds content. The rotary rig part is used to drill the softer rocks. combination gas wet gas combination lease a lease that is producing or is capable of producing from both an oil and a gas reservoir combination logging tool several logging tools joined together to make several measurements on a single logging run combination outfit or rig a drilling rig with both rotary and cable-tool equipment. free gas cap. A commercial well is a well that a reasonably prudent industry . The production is either enough to a) eventually repay the cost of drilling and completing the well and cover the operating costs of the well plus profit or. This could start with dirt work. The relative importance of the types of drives will change with oil production and time. and residue left after evaporation. A prudent person experienced in this area would expect a profit after costs. water. or b) pay the costs of operating the well(s) plus profit. commercial clays clays such as attapulgite and Wyoming bentonite that are sold for the purpose of making drilling mud. A come-along has either a lever attached to short lengths of chain with hooks. commencement of drilling the first operation on the drilling site prior to drilling the well. or two jaws attached to a ring. The structural element is created by the deformation (folding and faulting) of the reservoir rock. or erecting the rig. Commercial butane is defined by the Natural Gas Processors Association as having a vapor pressure of not more than 70 psig at 100°F and at least 95% of it must evaporate at a temperature of 34°F.

common reflector point the original phrase for common-depth-point common reservoir a subsurface oil and/or gas deposit that is continuous. commingle to mix fluids from more than one source. The gas produced from that area is obligated to a pipeline and/or user under the conditions. cp compaction anticline a domal structure formed by compaction of sedimentary rocks over and along the flanks of harder rocks of limited aerial extent such as a buried reef. Up to 180 traces can be used. commingled well a well that produces from two or more different producing reservoirs. . The gas or oil is mixed as it is brought up the well in a single string of tubing. specified in the gas contract.400% stack. Common-depth-point was originally called common reflector point. and their thickness decreases more along the sides. and/or oil/water contact. The number of seismic profiles stacked is identified with a number or percentage such as 24 stack or 2. Commingling can be the mixing of production from different reserviors in the same well or production from different wells. creating a compaction anticline on originally horizontal sedimentary rocks. 24. Stacking eliminates random noise and reinforces weak reflectors. A commingled well is in contrast to a multiple completion well in which the oil or gas from the different producing reservoirs is not mixed as it is brought up the well in separate strings of tubing and stored in separate tanks. It includes not only the gas from existing wells but any new reserves found by extension of existing reservoirs and new reservoir discoveries under the committed area.94 commingle • compaction anticline One to two pounds of calcium chloride are used per gallon of acid. spherical. commodity charge a rate or charge for gas that is actually taken by the gas purchaser commodity value of natural gas a value for natural gas that is computed by comparing it with competing sources of energy common carrier a person or company engaged as a public utility for hire in the transportation of petroleum such as a pipeline company. The common-depthpoint stack often uses 12. common-depth-point-stack a seismic exploration method in which the same subsurface reflector is recorded on numerous seismic profiles from different offset distances between source and detector. or 48 traces. the parties are accommodated ratably according to their amounts tendered. conical. Because the sedimentary rocks are thicker to the sides of the harder rocks. A common carrier is in contrast to a private or contract carrier. The traces are summed algebraically into a single trace. The overlying sedimentary rocks compact and decrease in thickness more than the overlying harder rocks. Community property is in contrast to separate property that was acquired before marriage or by inheritance. Chisel-shaped compacts are used in softer rocks. The transporter is obliged by law to service all interested parties without discrimination. or chisel-shaped pellet that is cold-pressed into a hole drilled in the face of a steel cone on an insert or button-roller cone bit. Compaction decreases the porosity and increases the density of sedimentary rocks with depth. If the pipeline capacity is reached. including price. compaction the decrease in volume of sedimentary rocks caused by increasing overburden pressure of overlying rocks during burial. A common reservoir has a single pressure system and has one gas/oil. The traces are corrected for statics and normal moveout and then superimposed or stacked. bedrock hill or cuesta. commissioner's well a single well drilled in Louisiana on a unit that was created by the Commissioner of Conservation committed area the surface area that is covered by a gas contract. field. The compact does the crushing and chipping of the rock on the bottom of the well. (button or insert) Cmpt or cpct compacted zone the part of the producing formation that lines the perforation tunnel. their total compaction is more. which is called the multiplicity factor. common pool see common reservoir common purchaser an oil and gas carrier that is required by law to purchase without discrimination from all parties in a specific area. completed compact the tungsten carbide. A compaction anticline member would complete if he/she were drilling and completing with his/her own money without any support. gas/water. commutator 1) the bars that are connected to the armature coils of an electric motor that collects or distributes current to the brushes 2) a device that changes alternating current to direct current and vice versa COMP or comp 1) completion 2) completing 3) completed Comp. Compaction is accomplished primarily by squeezing the fluids out of pore spaces which decrease in volume. the common carrier must offer ratably to all shippers in proportion to the amounts they offer. or reservoir. If the transportation capacity of the carrier is exceeded. (common pool) communitization see pooling or unitization community lease the result of pooling of several separate tracts of land to form one drilling and spacing unit community property an ownership of property acquired during marriage that is shared between husband and wife. whereas the spherical compacts are used in harder rocks. The sediments are compacted by the process of perforation which usually is made by detonating a shaped explosive charge. common cement Portland cement that is either API Class A or ASTM Type 1 common-depth-point a reflector in the subsurface from which reflections from different offset distances are recorded on several different seismic profiles. channel sandstone. It is used for common-depth-point stack in seismic exploration. (horizontal or roll-along stack) CDP stack common ion effect the use of a calcium salt to retard the reacting time of acid used in acidizing.

The compensated neutron log is used for a) porosity. companion flange a type of small-diameter pipe coupling or connector with one part convex and the other concave. b) correlation. The log is recorded as either density or porosity (assuming a limestone matrix) in Track 2. The radioactive sources in the tool are connected by cable so that they can be fished with a slickline if the drill collars become stuck. neutron porosity. and f) bit selection. Two types are passive with a hydro-pneumatic spring and active with a power-assisted hydraulic system. The rugosity of the well is compensated by using the two detectors. compensator a drillstring or heave compensator. (dualspacing formation density log) CDL. and 20-45 in. COM D. compensated neutron log a type of well log that is used to determine the porosity of each formation in a cased or open well and is adjusted for irregularities in the wellbore. Two detectors measure the number of gamma rays and/or slow neutrons that are emitted from the formation to determine the hydrogen content of the rocks. and the photoelectric factor with a tool built into a drill collar. The compaction constant is 1. CDN compensated dual resistivity log a log similar to a dual induction log but made by an electromagnetic propagation tool built into a drill collar. c) gas effect. The compensated dual resistivity log is boreholecompensated and makes two resistivity measurements at two depths of investigation (35-65 in. The two detectors compensate for rugosity of the well walls. drillship. {dual-spaced neutron log) CNL Compensated Spectral Density™ log a wireline well log that measures both compensated density by recording the Compton scattering cross section of gamma rays and lithology by recording the photoelectric cross section. orders needed supplies and services and has an office on the rig where he is on call 24 hours a day. compaction fold see compaction anticline company maker a field or trend discovered by a company which gives the company reserves and production needed for cash flow sufficient to secure that company's financial outlook company man or representative an on site representative of the operating company on a well being drilled who is directly responsible for drilling operations. or Com Den compensated log a wireline well log that has been corrected for unwanted effects or rugosity. The company man verbally reports to the operator each morning and works with the toolpusher. The company man is either employed by the operating company or is a self-employed consultant. (rig manager) compartment an enclosed or semienclosed space in a semisubmersible. The compensation royalty is paid instead of a production royalty. The log determines the bulk-volume density of each formation in the well. Companion flanges fit in each other and are held by bolts and nuts. Rock atoms cause Compton scattering and the returning gamma rays are counted on two detectors at different distances from the source on a skid pressed against the side of the well. Newer density logs also measure the photoelectric adsorption cross section of the formation which is used to identify the lithology and correctly estimate the matrix density. By knowing or estimating the matrix and fluid densities. (compaction or plains type fold or draped anticline) compaction constant a number that is used to compute the porosity of rocks from their interval transit time on a sonic log. (compensatory royalty) 2) payment (royalty) made by an operator to the mineral rights owner for not fully developing a lease.0 for a completely compacted formation and less than 1. d) crossplots for lithology. Cc compaction correction an empirical correction applied to uncompacted sand and abnormal highpressure zones when computing sonic log porosities compaction drive a minor type of reservoir drive which is caused by the compaction of the reservoir rock with decreasing reservoir pressure. He oversees the well drilling. The sonde bombards the rocks with gamma rays from a cesium source.6 for an uncompacted formation. The ratio of detector responses allows conversion to a linear porosity reading that is good for both highand low-porosity formations. or oil that occupies the pore space. e) tie-in log for perforating. COM D or ComDen compensated density neutron log a log that measures compensated density. the porosities of each formation can be calculated. such as variations in wellbore diameter or mudcake. or barge COMPD or comp'd completed compensated density log see compensated formation density log. gas. Hydrogen is an element in the water. A compaction drive can be present in chalk and unconsolidated sand reservoirs. The compensation is usually made by using two detectors in the sonde. CDR compensated formation density log a well log that measures the density of rocks adjacent to the wellbore and is adjusted for irregularities in the well bore. The compensated neutron log bombards each formation in the well with high-speed neutrons from a radioactive source such as a mixture of plutonium-beryllium or americium-beryllium located in the tool.). All . CSD™ compensation royalty 1) a payment (royalty) made to a lessor in lieu of drilling an offset well in order to prevent drainage of land by a producing well that has been drilled on an adjacent tract of land.compaction constant • compensator 95 compaction anticline in sedimentary rocks can form a petroleum trap.

competitive lease the method used to grant leases on United States onshore federal lands over known geologic structures. e) water with 2% to 4% KCl. and production of a well. completion factor a measure of the formation damage in a well. exploration. drill. depths to the tops of formations in the well. testing. b) treated. and 0 nitrogen. A completion card usually includes the name. to bring the well into production from one or more zones. crown block. The lease has a maximum of 640 ac. spud date of the well. equipped. compensatory royalty see compensation royalty compensatory royalty clause a provision in an oil and gas lease that allows for a royalty payment to be made to the lessor on oil and gas production from a well on an adjacent tract of land in lieu of drilling an obligatory offset well on the lease competent formation a rock layer that will not flow or change its thickness with stress such as folding competitive bids the method used to sell leases on known geologic structures on federal land. completion interval the portion of the reservoir that is in fluid communication with the well through perforations in the casing completion lease a type of oil and gas lease in which a well must be completed during the primary term of the lease to extend the life of the lease. A completion efficiency of 200%-300% is characteristic of a good well stimulation job. and to prevent corrosion of equipment. Two types are a) casing pack and b) packer fluid. The award is made to the highest peracre cash bonus in a sealed bid. produced water (salt water). or traveling block. and treats the well. A drillstring compensator can be either deadline. where q is the production rate at a fixed drawdown of the actual well and qi is the theoretical production rate at a fixed drawdown of the well with no formation damage. and produce oil and gas from that tract. gravel pack with liner. after drilling and evaluating the well. A completion fluid is selected to control subsurface pressures. and cemented casing with perforations. Completion fluids include a) water-and oil-base muds. completion report a report that is required by many states to be filed with the conservation commission present drillstring compensators are based on airspring tensioning. The government retains the right to reject an inadequate bid. individuals. The compensator is also used during wireline operations. Cards are also printed for proposed but abandoned well sites. Completion usually starts with setting pipe. depending on where it is mounted. to prevent formation fluids from flowing into the well. to minimize any formation damage. The lease goes to the highest bonus offered. Completion factor is equal to qlqt times 100. d) refined oil such as diesel oil. c) lease crude oil. The compensator reacts to the difference in the suspended drillstring weight and a set tension level. Completion can also include well stimuation and production testing. cemented liner with perforations. Competitive leases have a 5-year primary term with $2/ac annual rental and a sliding scale royalty from \2Vz% to 25% based on production volume. total depth drilled. complemental abstract a title opinion that adds to the information in another title opinion of overlapping time frames complete a well to install the production and treating equipment necessary to produce crude oil and/or natural gas from a well complete date see completion date completed well 1) a well that was drilled. completion techniques and initial petroleum production. or miniaturized. The oil-base and oil emulsion muds are for well pressure control. and is capable of producing commercial amounts of oil and/or gas 2) a well drilled to a depth below which commercial oil and gas is not likely to exist 3) a well drilled to a reasonable depth sufficient to prove or disprove the existence of oil or gas at that location 4) a dry hole complete payout period the time when the gross income from the mineral interests of the well(s) equals all the costs of drilling and completing (both tangeable and intangeable) plus the operating costs up to that time complete voidage replacement a pressuremaintenance method in which the fluid produced from the reservoir equals the fluid injected into the reservoir completion a single operation involving the installation of equipment in and on a well. (flow efficiency) completion engineer a petroleum engineer who specializes in completing a well. completion log a well log run in a cased hole to evaluate the cement job behind the casing. A completion lease is in contrast to a commence lease in which the well only has to be started in order to extend the primary term of the lease. A well completion can be conventional. The lease grants the lessee the right to explore.96 compensatory royalty • completion report (barefoot). Tracts are nominated by interested companies. screen liner uncemented. The most common completion techniques are open hole . location. CF completion fluid the liquid that is kept in the well as it is being completed. Competitive leasing is in contrast to simultaneous leasing and over-the-counter application. completion contract a type of drilling contract in which the operator will pay either on a footage or day-work basis but does not have to pay until the drilling contractor has completed the well completion date the day in which a well is either a) plugged and abandoned or b) completed. or larger casing. The cement-bond log is the most common. tests. COMP or comp completion card a card compiled by a commercial firm that details information on the drilling. The completion fluid can be left in the annular space between the tubing and the casing. The sales are advertised and sealed bids are accepted. as evidenced by releasing the rig or filing an official completion report (complete date) completion efficiency the actual well production divided by the amount the well would produce without either stimulation or damage. or the Bureau of Land Management. intervals completed. Completion efficiency is expressed as a percentage or decimal. in which the tubing is run into 4'/2 in. The completion engineer oversees the installation of the production equipment and perforates.

completion rig a rig that is a swabbing unit and is also equipped to do minor drilling. initial production test data. They are transported offshore on deck barges and lifted into place by derrick or crane barges. shafts.25 that has been assigned by a geologist to a proposed well to represent the probability of success that the well will be a producer when drilled. and gas composite stream the flow in a line of a) both crude oil and natural gas or b) two different liquids compositing mixing compound 1) a mechanism that is used to transmit power from a prime mover to several sources while 97 varying the amount of power going to each source. rotary table. lease name.2 for real gas. location. (P-. (supercompressibility or gas deviation factor) z compression the state of stress in an object due to inward-directed forces compressional packer a conventional packer that seats and expands tightly against the casing as the tubing is lowered compressional wave an elastic wave that travels through the body of the medium with the particles of the medium moving in the same direction as the wave propagation. resulting in considerable vertical exaggeration compressibility the change in fluid volume when pressure on the fluid is changed.7 to 1. diesel. A completion report can include the name and/or number of the well. and other power sources by means of clutches. resulting in an increase in temperature compression plant an installation that uses compression and cooling to remove liquid hydrocarbons from natural gas compression pressure the increase in pressure caused by a compression stroke in an engine. and g) an optional mud weight record composite mud recap a report that summarizes the daily mud-check reports after a well has been drilled composite risk factor a decimal number such as 0. and the well log. compressor compressed section a section such as a cross section or seismic section in which the horizontal scale has been significantly reduced. The composite risk factor can be determined by multiplying the risks assigned to each chance factor for that well. f) an optional drilling rate record. The velocity of a compressional wave varies with the elastic constant and density of the medium. storage. b) a borehole compenesated sonic log. CaCO3 is an example. and belts and pulleys. comp nat completed natural component 1) the lowest number of independently variable constituents in a system. The completion rig is used when the well is near total depth. gas compression. 4) a lubricant used on pipe threads COMPP completed as producer compr or compr. see coefficient of isothermal compressibility of oil and gas compressibility factor a number that is the ratio of the actual volume of gas at a specific temperature and pressure to the volume of that gas calculated by the ideal gas law at the same temperature and pressure. They are usually plotted as a function of temperature and pressure for a given gas specific gravity. . filter and exhaust. or longitudinal wave) c compression cup a small container that uses either a spring or screw cap to force grease onto a shaft bearing for lubrication compression ignition the start of a fire or explosion in a mixture of compressed gases. pressure. The compressibility factor is also plotted as a function of reduced temperature and pressure. primary. complexing agent a chemical that will bind dissolved iron into complexions. Complexing agents are often used during an acid job to prevent the dissolved iron compounds from reprecipitating and having the gelatinous hydroxide affect reservoir permeability. The factor is 1. The compressional wave is the wave that is primarily used in seismic exploration. records of fracing or chemical treatments. perforation information. compliant platform an offshore platform that is anchored to the seafloor. chains and sprockets. On a drilling rig. Articulated platforms and guyed towers are examples. (module) composite log 1) several well logs that are the same or different types from one well that have been spliced together to make a continuous record 2) a log composed of a) a lithological description of the formations including paleontolgy. (chance of success) composite sample 1) a sample taken from the top.00 for an ideal gas and varies between 0. name and depth of the producing reservoir(s). The compressibility factor is expressed as z and compensates for the volume and electrostatic repulsion of the gas molecules when computing gas volume using the ideal gas law. and are installed on an offshore platform. date of first production.completion rig • compression pressure of that state after the completion of a well. records of casing and cementing. 2) to connect two or more engines or motors 3) a substance formed by the chemical union of two or more elements in a fixed proportion. rather than use a large rig to complete the well. Compressional wave is in contrast to shear and surface waves. Natural gas. The compound is enclosed in heavy-gauge metal and the chains are run in an oil bath. d) a caliper log. but its upper end is free to move within a restricted area. middle and bottom of a storage or stock tank 2) a sample with all the original fluids such as water. oil. and water would be a three-compound system 2) self-contained units that have been assembled onshore. completion date. Some common components used are wellhead. the compound is used to transmit power from the diesel or electrical prime movers to the drawworks. and the target is ready to be drilled. oil and gas separation. crude oil. platform power generation. pumps. and mud. The compressibility factor has been determined for a large number of gases over a wide range of temperatures and pressures. e) formation identifiaction. barged offshore. c) a gammaray log. The completion rig is used to save money.

compr or compr.000 psi). compr sta Com-Pro log™ a computer processed interpretation log compr sta compressor station Compton scattering the inelastic scatterings of gamma rays colliding with an orbital electron of an atom which yields some of the energy to the electron. Higher compression engines tend to have better fuel efficiencies. 2) the ratio of the absolute discharge pressure to the absolute intake or suction pressure in a compressor. and d) centrifugal or dynamic with turbines. A truck with compression and refrigeration equipment condenses the natural gasoline out of the gas. compressive service drillpipe drillpipe that is designed to be limber enough manage a curve in a deviated well. Memory is the space in a computer where the data is stored as it is being processed. Floppy disks are 3V2-. if a lessee refuses to join. Track 3 could be a hydrocarbon analysis with water Compression pressure is usually stated in pounds per square inch. Track 2 might include formation characteristics with a gamma ray and apparent grain-density plot. A program is a set of instructions for the computer. compression wave see compressional wave compressive forces or stress forces that are directed inward.700 psi). whereas programs are called software. The depth track is. Intermediate pump stations keep the gas flowing. three-. electric motor. compressor clearance the ratio. usually ammonia or propane.100-26. Analog computers. Some states allow for the risk of drilling the well in the computation of compensation. The effect depends primarily on the density of the electrons and occurs mainly at intermediate gamma ray energies of 100 kV to 2 MeV. by convention. Reservoir rocks generally have a compressive strength 8-180 MPa (1. Booster and . the proportional costs of that lessee's drilling will come out of the lessee's share of production. The digital computer uses numbers expressed as digits. compression ratio 1) the ratio of the volume of an engine's cylinder at the start of the compression stroke to the volume of the engine's cylinder at the end of the stroke. is made by evaporation of the liquid during the rarefaction stage of compression by a compressor. The computer accepts data and programs.or nonpositive-displacement and can raise the pressure in steps with a two-. or gas engine. and well testing. Stations can also have separators. Compressor stations are spaced at regular intervals. Compressional refrigeration is in contrast to absorption refrigeration. operational status of equipment. CPC computer program the instructions that guide a computer during a task. A hard disk is a computer memory device mounted in the computer made of an aluminum disk coated with iron oxide. plastic disks with a magnetic coating. correlations. They are written on and read in disk drives. The computer itself is called hardware. and selection of data. and control equipment. The energy to drive the compressor comes from steam turbine. It is read and written on by a read-write head. storage. Compressive strength is often expressed in pounds per square inch (psi). (compression strength) compressor a device used to increase the pressure and decrease the volume of gas. expressed as a percent. or multistage compressor. compulsory pooling a state law that requires a lessee in a majority interest in a unit to include lesser lessees in pooling to form a unit. or 8-in. usually binary. usually every 40-50 mi along the pipeline. compression strength see compressive strength compression testing or test-car method a method that is used to test the condensate or natural gasoline content of natural gas. CR compression refrigeration a mechanical refrigeration system in which the refrigerant. use quantities such as lengths. An inlet compressor starts the gas flowing through the pipeline. The size and number of compressors in each station varies widely. The computer has both read-only memory (ROM) that contains permanent computer instructions and random-access memory (RAM) that can store data.500 psi) and sandstones 60 MPa (8. b) rotary screw. gas turbine. Four types are a) reciprocating with pistons (both single and multiple stage). In some states. or resistances to represent numbers. computer production control a computer process that controls and/or monitors field conditions and activities such as lease production. (forced pooling) compulsory unit a unit or area of land created by order of a government-agency compulsory unitization the forced combining of mineral rights of large tracts of land on a producing reservoir by a government administrative agency in order to coordinate pressure maintenance. Compressive forces or stress are in contrast to tensional forces or stress. on the far left of the log. the older type. Carbonates average 100 MPa (14. but stiff enough to transmit torque and resist buckling compressive strength the maximum compressional or inward-directed forces that a body can resist before failure. (software) computing center logs well logs that have been processed in a central computer facility. scraper traps. voltages. Compton scattering is used in density logging. A single-stage compressor can compress air to a maximum of 110 psig. 5V4-. Compulsory pooling is usually initiated by a petition to the regulatory agency. Compressors can be positive. electric machine that uses stored information and instructions to make rapid calculations. waterflooding. of the volume of gas in a compression cylinder at the end of a compression stroke to the volume of gas displaced by one piston stroke compressor station an installation on a gas pipeline at which the pressure of the gas is raised or boosted by compressors to keep the gas flowing.98 compression ratio • computing center logs intermediate pumping stations are used on oil pipelines. or any other method that will maximize the ultimate recovery from that reservoir computed log analysis a computer analysis of digital well logging data computer an automatic. c) sliding vane.

and produce oil and gas in a certain area. To prevent this. Natural gas that contains gas condensate is called wet gas. They require a minimum exploration expenditure and are limited to blocks or tracts. or white oil) COND or cond condensate gas reservoir a reservoir that contains fluids only as a gas phase under initial reservoir temperatures and pressure. concentric tubing a macaroni string run inside larger production tubing concentric-tubing workover a workover on a well using relatively light and small equipment that is run through the production tubing in a smaller diameter tubing string concession a legal agreement by a government to a foreign oil company giving that company the right to explore. gas condensate. (circulate and weigh) COND condensate well COND or cond condensate condemned land that has been determined by geological data and/or dry holes not to have commercial production condensate liquid hydrocarbons of very light crudeoil composition that occur as a gas under subsurface reservoir conditions (high temperature and pressure) and condense into a liquid upon production and surface conditions. condensate reservoir see condensate gas reservoir condensate stabilization the removal of lighter hydrocarbons. 2) a metal ion corrosion cell with different concentrations of metal ions producing the potential difference concentric operations well service operations with small-diameter tubing run in normal tubing or in a well without tubing. drill. Concrete is different from cement that contains no fillers and is used in wells. liquid hydrocarbons (condensate) separate from the gas in a process called retrograde condensation.000 SCF/bbl. (equity crude or oil) conch conchoidal conchoidal a smooth. The concession provides for royalty payments to the government if petroleum is produced. (casinghead. a percentage evaporated at 104°F of 24%85%. from condensate after it has been separated from gas. raw or wild gasoline. gas distillate. a bulk-volume analysis. green. As the initial reservoir pressure is decreased by production and the reservoir temperature remains relatively constant. On the bottom. such as propane and butane. Condensates have very high °API that range between 45 and 60 and are very valuable commercially. Concessions were originally granted for a long time with payments necessary only on the production of oil and gas. Track 4 might be a porosity analysis. A concrete gravity platform is more expensive than a jacket and is used only when there is need for oil storage facilities. it is often combined and recorded with the crude oil. natural. the wet gas that is produced is often stripped of condensate and the dry gas is reinjected into the reservoir (cycling) to maintain reservoir pressure. it is heated by an indirect heater or steam . Gas condensates typically grade from colorless to light-colored liquids with tints of red. it wets the reservoir rock and cannot be produced. drip. (gas condensate or single-phase reservoir) condensate ratio the volume of condensate liquids divided by the residue gas volume expressed in barrels per million cubic ft (bbl/MMcf). The formation gas/oil ratio of a condensate gas reservoir is between 5. Concrete legs support a steel deck with modules and contain the risers. cold condensate enters the top of the vessel where it flows down the rings or trays to the bottom.000 and 10. Cone or cone concurrent method a method used after a kick when the blowout preventers have been thrown to control abnormally high. drips. The unstabilized. concrete cells or cylinders located on the base. If the condensate separates from the natural gas in the subsurface reservoir. concrete perforated wall platform a type of offshore gravity platform that has an outer wall of concrete with holes to dampen the force of waves on the central core. retrograde gas. concession crude the proportion of production that is allotted by contract to the operating company by a country. and track 5. The central core supports a concrete deck. The condensate is stabilized using a vertical vessel with ceramic rings or trays. Modern concessions are often are sold or auctioned and have an exploration period of about 5 years. If condensate is recovered on the lease with standard field separator equipment. a percentage evaporated at 275°F of not less than 90% and an end point in distillation of not higher than 375°F. The Natural Gas Processors Association has defined casinghead gasoline as having a vapor pressure of 10-34 psi. The low oxygen concentration is the anode.con • condensate stabilization saturation. concrete gravity platform a type of fixed production platform with large. or blue. distillate. Concentric operations are normally conducted with a small rig or hoisting unit with the Christmas tree in place. conch concrete a blend of cement with fillers such as sand and gravel. Conchoidal fracture is characteristic of glassy texture. taking some of the heavier hydrocarbons with them. concretion a roughly spherical or nodular rock formed by cementation of sediments about a central 99 nucleus that was often organic matter or a fossil. subsurface pressures by immediately circulating drilling mud and gradually increasing the mud weight on a schedule. con consolidated CONAT concrete articulated tower Cone or cone concretion cone concentrated concentration The relative amounts of solute and solvent in a solution concentration cell 1) an oxygen corrosion cell with different oxygen concentrations producing the potential differential. The cells hold ballast water to keep the platform in position and are also used as storage tanks. curved type of fracture surface. Retrograde gas is the preferred term for condensate. These lighter hydrocarbons can vaporize in a stock tank and be lost.

or condt conductor 1) a material such as a copper wire. the conductor pipe extends from the cellar deck to about 200 ft below the mudline. The ability of a condenser to store electric charge is called capacitance and is measured in farads. Condition ratio is equal to the production rate at a fixed drawdown of the well divided by the theoretical production rate at a fixed drawdown of the well with no formation damage. cooled. Condt. Lean gas or lean gas and water is then injected to drive the oil toward a producing well.000 years).000 are generally classified as condensate wells. three cones (tricone). and d) to prevent washout of unconsolidated sediments a well cave-in. An example of a condensed ring is bicyclodecane. condenser 1) heat exchanger equipment that uses either water or air cooling to condense a vapor into a liquid 2) a device that stores an electrical charge on an electric circuit. conical-shaped block of metal that has teeth cut into it (milled-teeth or steel-tooth bit) or tungsten carbide pellets inserted into the drilled holes (insert or button bit). Conductor pipe is also used to a) seal off shallow fresh-water zones from drilling mud. marine. continuous drift log Condr or condr conductor Condt or condt conductivity conductivity 1) the ability of a substance to transmit an electrical current. The stabilized condensate is removed from the bottom. and in areas of soft sand formations it can be set down' to 1. The lighter hydrocarbons are vaporized and rise to the top of the vessel where they flow out of the vessel. Conductivity is the inverse of resistivity. The original cone steel has a Rockwell hardness of 35-40. In some states. A conductor is in contrast to an insulator. C. and four cones.100 condensate water • cone of depression conduction the movement of electromagnetic energy through material by molecular interaction Con Dr. but is carbonized at 1700°F for 24 hours to a hardness of 60 for the milled-teeth and 45 for the insert bit. or pentane. it is defined by the well's gas/oil ratio. (standpipe) conductor line an electrical wire that goes down a well with the wireline and is used in well logging and perforating (electric line) conductor pipe a vertical pipe on a lease stock tank that is used to maintain hydrostatic pressure on the oil and to allow gas to escape before the oil enters the pipeline gathering system (boot) Cx methane cone 1) the solid. A conductor pipe can be drilled into the seafloor from a semisubmersible or drillship. Conductivity is measured in a well by an induction logging tool and is recorded in units of mho per meter. Conductor casing is required only where surface soils are relatively incompetent. condensate water water vapor that is mixed with natural gas in the subsurface reservoir but condenses as a liquid under surface conditions when the natural gas is produced condensate well a well producing from a condensate gas reservoir. and sent to storage. condensed section a sequence of thin. A condenser consists of two conducting plates separated by an insulator. OD) that is cemented into the well. (enriched gas injection or process) condition 1) to mix additives to drilling mud and/ or circulate the drilling mud in a well to make the well conditions uniform throughout the wellbore 2) to prepare a well conditional landowner a Louisiana landowner whose title ends at a certain time after the occurrence of a certain condition conditioning survey a gamma-ray survey of radioactive tracer released in a well to determine where water is flowing into the well and the tracer is being diluted condition ratio a measure of the formation damage in a well. cdsr condensing gas drive an enhanced oil-recovery method that uses miscible displacement and involves injection into an oil reservoir of natural gas that either a) naturally contains lighter hydrocarbons or b) has been enriched on the surface by addition of propane. c) to protect against shallow gas zones. Wells with producing gas/ oil ratios between 15. The conductor pipe is used to secure the blowout preventers and wellhead equipment before drilling the surface casing hole. A condensed section is defined in seismic or sequence stratigraphy and usually occurs in transgressive and distal highstand system tracts during periods of maximum sea-level rise and transgression. COND condensation 1) the process of forming liquid or solid from vapors by cooling and/or reducing pressure 2) the liquid formed by cooling and/or pressure reduction condensed ring several hydrocarbon rings that share common carbon atoms.000-150. through which an electric current can flow. 2 ) the time rate of transfer of heat through a substance. Noncritical condensing gas drive does not go to complete miscibility. The cone rotates on bearings around a journal on a leg of a roller-cone bit. Rocks generally range from 3 to 15 meal/ cm/sec/°C. (cone shell) 2) the shell of a hydrocyclone 3) the liner surrounding a shaped explosive charge cone bit a roller-cone bit cone of depression lowering of the water table in the shape of a cone centered about a well that is pumping water coils. (productivity factor) CR . The transfer of the intermediate components from the displacing gas into the residual oil swells the residual oil and makes it less viscous. whereas critical condensing gas drive goes to miscibility. b) to supply a route for drilling fluids to circulate back to the mud pits. On a jackup rig. The bit is rotated on the bottom of a drillstring on a rotary drilling rig to flake and crush rocks and cut the well. butane.500 ft. Roller-cone bits are manufactured with two cones (bicone). hemipelagic or pelagic rock beds that were deposited very slowly (<l-10 mm/1. Condr or condr 2) conductor pipe conductor bracing supports for marine conductors that are located at intervals between the seafloor and the deck on an offshore platform conductor casing or pipe the first string of largediameter casing (185/o-30 in.

y. It is part of the Devonian period. Fl —_-_^-_ • • • ^ ^ ^ — ^ • . ago. • —r—l—r-H—r- 4 4 coning coning the drawing up of underlying waters or oil/ water contact into an oil reservoir in the shape of a cone. or congl congressional townships the rectangular survey system established in the United States by the National Land Act of 1785. Cgl. Softer formations uses larger offsets. The rounded particles in a conglomerate indicate they were transported a great distance by an erosional process before they were deposited. Conewangoan a North American age of geological time that ended about 365 m. some of which are at least pebble-sized. sedimentary rock containing rounded particles. and the apex of the cone supports the platform.WATER. CONG. conical angle the angle on the cone of a roller-cone bit conical-tower platform an arctic. clastic. Cone offset is the horizontal distance from the axis of the bit to the axis of the journal. The base of the cone rests on the seafloor.:-: • • • • / . cgl. in which the reservoir is swept with injection fluids during enhanced oil recovery 2) a measure of how well a computer model matches the characteristics of a real reservoir conformity a bedding surface in a succession of rocks that separates slightly older from slightly younger rocks and there has been no evidence of erosion CONG or cong conglomerate congeneration the simultaneous generation of two types of energy. congl conglomerate conglomerate a poorly sorted. conf confirmed confidence envelope an enclosed interval with a stated probability or degree of confidence that it contains the parameters that it is intended to estimate confidentiality of information clause or provision a term in an agreement in which the drilling party consents to drill a tight hole until the other party agrees to release the well information configuration see array confined aquifer an aquifer bounded above and below by impermeable rocks confirmation the telephone and following electronic notice of the results of a test well confirmation well a well that is drilled after a discovery well to prove the aerial extent of the producing formation found by the discovery well conformable two adjacent and parallel beds of rock between which there was no erosion or significant interruption during deposition conformance 1) a measure of the uniformity. cglt. ago. heavy rod that is dropped from a certain distance into the seafloor to measure sediment penetration for offshore construction cone-roof tank a liquid storage tank with a roof in the shape of a cone that points upward cone shell see cone cone skidding the freezing or locking of a cone on a roller-cone bit. . cong. (water coning) Coning can also occur by drawing down the gas/oil contact around a well. Coniacian a global age of geological time that occurred about 90-85 m. Because the cone will not turn. Electrical energy and steam for use in steam injection are cogenerated by burning natural gas for steam flooding. The shape results in a minimum area of exposure to shifting ice at sea level. except breccia has angular particles. : • • . It is part of the Upper Cretaceous epoch. • • • • • • WATER TABLE \ / cone of depression cone offset the amount in which the lines drawn through the center of the three cones on a tricone drilling bit fail to intersect the center of the Bit. A cone-shaped packer is seated on the shoulder of the well to form the seal for the test.• • • • •.cone offset • conjugate fractures 101 * /" . Coning is caused by too rapid production. y. Conjugate fractures are oriented at angles of about 60° and 120° from each other. The offset is designed to give more drag to the cones and cut the well more efficiently. It is based on 6-mi townships that are located by north-south lines called meridians and east-west lines called base lines Each township is divided into 36 sections that are 1-mi2 in area. (rat-hole method) cone penetrometer a long. It is similar to breccia. a flat surface is ground in the cone by friction with the bottom of the well. The anchor pipe does not touch the bottom of the well. conjugate a system of faults.••V. cone packer method a method used to run a drillstem test on a section in well that has a smaller hole diameter than the hole above it due to coring. both in areal and vertical extent. offshore production platform made from concrete in the shape of a long cone. o/wca^TACT/ • • • j j i • .OIL . fractures or folds that were formed at the same time by the same deformational episode conjugate fractures two sets of shear fractures caused by compressive stress.

(drilling party) consent well a well in which all parties in an operating agreement participate in contrast to a nonconsent well conservation the prevention of waste consistency the viscosity or thickness of a nonreversible fluid such as cement slurry at a specific pressure and temperature over a specific time interval. and t = time. A constructive delta is in contrast to a destructive delta that is dominated by erosion from waves and tides. and the slurry consistency is measured by the torque on the paddles and reported in Bearden units of consistency (BJ units. D = decline as a fraction of production rate. Loose sediments become consolidated into sedimentary rocks by the process of cementation and compaction. = QTf" where Q. The conodont colors are then compared to standards. A consenting party is in contrast to a nonconsenting party. hub. The dollar is not discounted for time. A dollar made or paid out today is worth the same as a dollar made or paid out in the future. toothlike fossils and microfossils composed of calcium phosphate. Some common types are threaded. Constant percentage decline is the most commonly used method to duplicate a well's decline curve. (exponential decline) CONL contact log CONN or conn connection connate water 1) original waters in sedimentary rocks from the time of sediment deposition 2) subsurface water that has been out of contact with the atmosphere for a great period of time 3) water in the pores of subsurface rock that is very saline 4) formation water held in the pores of the rock by capillary action connected well 1) a gas well that is connected to the pipeline 2) an oil well that is connected to a refinery by pipeline connecting rod the metal shaft in an engine that connects the piston with the crankshaft connection 1) the location where wires in an electrical circuit meet 2) a pipe or fitting that is used to join pipe with a tank or another pipe. The equation for constant percentage decline is: Q.7182). Qt = initial production rate. e = base of the natural logarithm (2. consol or con consortium a group of companies that have organized for a common purpose such as exploration and drilling conspic conspicuous constant choke-pressure method a technique used to control a saltwater kick in a well by adjusting the size of a choke to maintain constant casing pressure constant composition expansion see flash vaporization constant dollar a method used to analyze the economics of an investment such as drilling a well by keeping the value of a dollar the same throughout the life of the project. CONN or conn connection gas the natural gas that flows into the well when the mud pumps on a drilling rig are turned off while making a connection connectors devices used on risers to connect and disconnect the riser and to lower a marine riser package to subsea equipment Cono or cono conodont conodont small. Cono or cono Conodont Alteration Index a maturity scale that is based on the darkening of Paleozoic era conodont fossils. It is measured with either a pressurized or atmospheric pressure consistometer. constant percentage decline an oil well production decline rate or curve that is a constant percentage such as 10% per year. (river dominated delta) consumer gas the natural gas that is sold by an . CM cons considerable consenting party a company or individual that agrees to join in and share the costs of any operation under a joint operating agreement. consol consolidated consolidated relatively solid or firm rock. with 1 being the lowest maturity and 8 being high-grade metamorphism. The conodonts are removed from carbonate rocks with acetic or fosmic acid. They existed from the Middle Cambrian epoch through the Triassic period and are good guide fossils. Consolidated is in contrast to unconsolidated sediments. consistometer a pressurized or atmospheric pressure instrument that uses a stirring apparatus to determine the thickening time of cement slurries. The scale ranges from 1 to 8. The average rate versus cumulative production is a straight line on regular coordinate paper. The DISTRIBUTARY CHANNELS constructive delta constructive delta a river delta in which river sediment deposition is dominant and the delta has prograded far out from the shoreline with characteristic distributary lobes.102 CONL • consumer gas chamber rotates at 150 rpm during the test. flanged. The pressurized consistometer is constructed with a rotating cylinder to contain the slurry and stationary paddles and is enclosed in a pressure chamber. = production rate at a certain time. Consistency is measured in poises and can be expressed as Bearden units of consistency in accordance with American Petroleum Institute specifications. Conodont are of unknown function but are thought to be the jaw structure of extinct worm-like animals. and clamp.

The gas usually flows down through an adsorption power and up through an absorption tower. Contb contribution contiguous leases land that shares part or all of a side. The continental shelf slopes less than 1° and averages 50 mi in width. The evidence for continental drift was in the similarity of fossils and rocks between continents that are far apart today. A reservoir is considered to be water-wet if the contact angle of water is less than 70°. Continuous flow gas lift is in contrast to intermittent gas flow. The continental shelf extends from the beach to the shelf break (a sharp change of slope) at water depth of about 450 ft. Absorbers are designed as either packed or tray-type towers and include absorption plants for removal of liquid hydrocarbons and glycol done by an absorber. The oil could be diesel oil. COST continental shelf. Contamination is in contrast to liberated gas. The wetting phase contact angle is less than 90°. continuous flowmeter a fluid velocimeter that is run through production tubing and positioned by centralizers to measure flow velocity in casing with . contiguous zone 1) the part of the ocean and seabed that extends out from a country's territorial waters 2) the ocean and seabed that is adjacent to offshore tracts or concessions that have been granted by a country continental apron see continental rise continental borderland a complex type of continental margin in which the seafloor is composed of ridges and basins that extend from the shoreline to the continental slope continental drift a relatively old theory (first suggested by Alfred Wegener in 1912) that all the continents were joined in one supercontinent (Pangaea) that broke up during the Mesozoic era. neutral if it is between 70° and 110°. Touching corners does not qualify as contiguous. whereas the nonwetting phase contact angle is greater than 90°.000 ft. The cost of the well can be shared by the parties that share the well information. CONL contactor or contact tower a vertical vessel that is used to bring a gas in contact with a solid or liquid. The continental fragments drifted across the surface of the earth into their present positions and are still moving today. and oil-wet if it is greater than 110°. The continental margin extends from the shoreline down to either a) an average water depth of 200 m or b) the abyssal ocean floor. continental margin the seafloor surrounding the continents. It is the area of most offshore petroleum exploration drilling and production. Continental rises are located everywhere except where an ocean trench is located off the continental slope. The mud must be treated with additives. An adsorption power is used for dehydration of natural gas. {continental apron) continental shelf a relatively flat platform covered with shallow water that surrounds the continents. slope and rise continental rise an enormous wedge of gently sloping (1:40 to 1:2000) sediments located at the base of the continental slope in water depths of about 5. An absorber or absorption power uses absorption to remove liquids from a gas stream. continental offshore stratigraphic test a drilling program on a portion of the continent margin that is going to be offered for lease bids. A contact tower can be either an absorber or adsorber tower. contact line the gas/oil or oil/water contact in a reservoir contact log any wireline well log made by a sonde which is held against the wellbore well with a skid or pad.00013. contamination gas or oil hydrocarbons in circulating drilling mud that is not from a subsurface formation. or an special inert mud must be used to avoid contamination. Ctc or c contact angle the angle formed by the meeting of two immiscible fluids on a solid.Cont • continuous flowmeter 103 interstate pipeline to a utility company for resale to consumers Cont 1) content 2) contact caliper log cont continued contact the surface that separates rocks of different compositions. The well or wells are stratigraphic test wells into which seismic lines are tied. Contain or contam contaminated contaminant 1) a substance that mixes with another substance and has an undesirable effect 2) a gas that occurs in natural gas that is corrosive such as hydorgen sulfide or carbon dioxide contaminating formation a subsurface formation that changes the physical properties and chemistry of drilling mud as it is being drilled. continental slope the ocean bottom slope of 3°6° leading from the continental shelf down to the continental rise continuing interest a mineral rights interest that last for the term of the lease continuity an unbroken electrical circuit continuous drilling provision a clause in a farmout agreement where each new well will be spudded within a certain time following the completion of the proceeding well continuous flow gas lift a type of gas lift in a well in which the gas is continuously injected and the flow up die well is uninterrupted. The continental shelf covers 5Vi% of the earth's surface. Anhydrite and gypsum will contaminate water-base drilling mud. The theory has been supported by the recent development of the seafloor spreading and plate tectonics theories.

7? in which q is production rate and ± is time. The drilling contractor is paid to the contract depth. An injector head with friction blocks pushes or pulls the tubing in or out of the well. The lease is held after the primary term expires as long as no more than 60 days elapse between the abandonment of one well and the spudding of another well. On a structural map. Continuous process is in contrast to a batch process. 200-. contour interval the difference in value between two adjacent contours. Two axes of the gyroscope are held by spinning. 300-. Contours separate larger from small values. and 400-ft contours. or composition CONTR or contr contractor contraband oil petroleum that was produced or transported in excess of that allowed by a government regulatory agency contract a written. acid or other fluids. enforceable agreement or covenant between two or more patties that obligates each party contract area all the lands. A contourite can winnow bottom sediments. As the tubing feeds off the tubing reel. The coiled tubing greatly reduces trip time. The . tubing injector head. The reel can store up to 16. the contour lines are lines of exact elevation contours of the top of a subsurface rock layer. or isoporosity maps also use contours. Other equipment on the unit includes a circulating system for nitrogen. and cementing. blind. The horizontally aligned north position is sensed by an accelerometer and the gyroscopic axis. Other maps such as isopach. CD contract landman or leaseman a person who is employed under a specific contract to acquire oil and gas leases contract of association a legal agreement between a government and a party to explore an area. (unit area) contract carriage a provision that a pipeline will transport natural gas to an end-user contract depth 1) the minimum depth to which an earning well must be drilled in order to satisfy the earning requirements in a support or farmout agreement 2) the depth to which a well must be drilled to fulfill a drilling contract. blowout preventers. On a topographic map. The blowout-preventer stack usually consists of four rams including hydraulic cutter. The unit usually has a crew of two. and hydraulic crane. The continuous tubing unit is frequently used on producing wells that need pressure control. hydraulic motor. An example would be a 100ft contour interval on a topographic map with 100. well stimulation. the contour lines are lines of exact elevation of the ground surface. or reeledpipe unit) continuous-velocity log see sonic log contour or contour line a line of exact value on a map. lubricator. Contours of elevation are referred to a reference level called the datum such as sea level. and slip rams. and gas leaseholds and interests intended to be developed and operated under a joint operating agreement. it goes through a counter which is attached to a level wind assembly and a pipe straightener. contour map a map of the land surface. continuous tubing unit a well service unit that uses flexible.I. small-diameter steel tubing> wound as a continuous length on a hydraulically powered tubing reel. (coiled tubing. lithofacies. oil. contourite a deep ocean current that follows the contours of the ocean bottom such as along the base of the continental slope.104 continuous guidance tool • contract of association a spinner. Continuous treatment is in contrast to batch treatment. A limited amount of drilling can be done with a downhole. continuous production decline rate minus . Oil is the continuous phase in a water-in-oil emulsion and water in an oil-in-water emulsion. continuous operation clause or continuous drilling operations clause a provision in an oil and gas lease that allows the lessee to hold the lease after the primary term of the lease has expired as long as drilling or reworking operations are continuing. continuous phase the fluid that completely surrounds the globules of the dispersed phase (suspended phase) in an emulsion. thickness. It makes a continuous record of flow versus depth. sea bottom. (nominal decline rate) continuous reeled tubing see coiled tubing continuous rod a sucker-rod string that has no joints continuous treatment the uninterrupted application of a corrosion inhibitor to produced fluids. endless tubing. initiating flow. or subsurface rock unit that uses contours to show variations in such attributes as elevation. (external phase) continuous process a chemical procedure in which the substance to be treated is continuously put through the process and the reactant is regenerated. CI or C.000 ft of tubing with an outer diameter of Vt-VA in. continuous guidance tool a gyroscopic directional measurement instrument used in a cased hole. Continuous tubing is in contrast to other types of well service units that use joints of relatively stiff pipe. The difference in values between two adjacent conturs is called the contour interval. pipe. Continuous tubing is used for sand or paraffin clean out in tubing.

The well is drilled in an area that has no production (new-field). and/or production on that lease contractor's hole a job done in a hurry contract pressure the minimum gas pressure that is required in a pipeline contract for the operators of a well to deliver to that pipeline. (wildcat well) control manifold the valves and pipes that distribute the hydraulic pressure from the accumulator to the various closing elements on a blowout-preventer stack control panel the console on a rotary drilling rig that is used to activate the various preventers on a blowout-preventer stack. The well is then filled with oil. control head see surface control head assembly controllable pitch propeller a propeller on a drill ship or semisubmersible whose blade angle can be adjusted. cp controlled acidizing treatment a type of acid job that is used to concentrate acid on the producing 105 formation in the well. The propeller is used in a dynamic positioning system. Acid is then pumped down the tubing in enough volume to displace the oil in the tubing and in the annular space around the producing formation. and the tubing had to be pulled to retrieve the valve. conventional bit a roller-cone or drag bit in contrast to a jet bit conventional farmout an agreement in which the farmee receives a convertible override for 25% carried to the casing point. such a the drilling floor. the more accurate the interpretation. CRO convection the movement of a fluid due to density differences. controlled exploratory well an exploratory well that can be either a new-field or new-pool wildcat. a packer seated just above the producing formation on the tubing string is used to concentrate the acid on the producing formation. the closer the control. One party gives support in the form of cash or acreage contribution to another party to drill a well to a specified depth in return for information on that well. rotary. control pod an assembly of subsea valves and regulators that are used to direct hydraulic fluid to various components of a subsea blowout-preventer stack when activated from the surface control room operator an employee on a semisubmersible who supervises the ballast control room that stabilizes the rig. The override is converted to a working interest after payout. (support agreement) contribution clause a provision in a joint operating agreement that if any party in the joint operating agreement receives a contribution in the form of monies or acreage for drilling a well. The control casing head is used to prevent oil from flowing out the well. conventional gas lift valve a gas lift valve mounted on a tubing-retrievable mandrel or tubing pup joint. and the remote control panel is located at a convenient location. The casing outlet is then closed. Conventional gas is in contrast to unconventional gas. or the well is drilled to test a new reservoir rock (new-pool) that has no current production in an area that produces from another reservoir. In another method.contract operator • conventional recovery party bears the entire cost of exploration and a portion of the development costs for any fields found in exchange for a portion of the production profits. and the acid is pumped under pressure out into the producing formation. The operator also monitors marine traffic. Temperature often controls the density. (dog house) control casinghead a fitting on top of a well that fits around the drilling line on a cable-tool rig. One method uses a tubing string that is landed just below the producing formation. The conventional gas lift valve was the first type of gas lift valve. The primary control panel is located at the accumulator. The controlled acidizing treatment is in contrast to the uncontrolled acidizing treatment. Generally. conventional gas natural gas that can be produced under current technology at cost plus profit at current market prices. and the weight distribution during loading and unloading. the rig alarm system. Contract pressure is usually 700-1. and circulating equipment on an offshore drilling rig. drilling. (tubing-retrievable gas lift valve) conventional mandrel a short tubing joint (pup) with a lug for fixing a conventional gas lift valve (tubing retrievable or standard mandrel) conventional mud drilling mud consisting of only clay and water conventional recovery oil production from primary production and waterflood . contract price the price paid by an oil company purchaser or refinery for crude oil. contributor a person or company who gives or agrees to give money for drilling a well control 1) the location of data points such as wells and seismic lines that are used in making a subsurface map or prospect. A contribution letter can be either a dry-hole or bottomhole contribution. Contract price is usually posted each month. A conventional farmout is in contrast to a third-for-a-quarter. contrast the ratio of maximum to minimum brightness on a remote sensing image contrast enhancement an image processing method used for remote sensing that increases the image ratio contrast by expanding the range of digital values recorded to the full range of available digital values contrast ratio the ratio of reflectances on a remote sensing image between the brightest and darkest part contribution agreement a contract between two parties in order to drill a well. There are at least two. the other parties in the joint operating agreement will be notified and share in that contribution contribution letter a request by one party that another party contribute money or acreage if the first party drills a well and shares the information. contract operator a contractor that has been designated by the working interest owners of a lease to manage the exploration.000 psi. 2) the data upon which a map or seismic section is made control agent sealing agent control cabin the enclosure where the driller operates the hoisting.

000 psia for retrograde gas and wet gas. convergent margin the boundary between two plates of the earth's lithosphere that are coming together. tropical waters of normal salinity. can be converted into a share of the working interest after the farmee's payout. Coq or coq coquina coquina or coquinoid limestone a limestone composed primarily of broken and rounded shells. Cor coralline algae or alga an encrusting algae that secretes a coating of calcium carbonate cordage 1) the fiber or steel rope used in drilling 2) the ropes used on a ship Cor Det electromagnetic corrosion detector core 1) a cylinder of rock with a l3/4-5V4-in. an overriding royalty interest converts at payout to a working interest. and .000-10. Important types include the tabulates (Ordovician to Jurassic in age).000 psia for volatile oils. For example. hetrocorals (Mississippian period). Convergence presure is used to correct K factors. convertible interest an interest that is usually nonoperating in an oil and/or gas well(s) that changes at a specific time such as payout to a different interest that is usually operating convertible override farmout a type of farmout agreement in which the farmor assigns the farmee oil and gas leases for an area in return for drilling a well(s) on those leases. convey to transfer conveyance the assignment or transfer of a right such as a mineral right convolution the change of wave shape as it passes through a linear filter. diameter (whole or full-diameter core) and lengths of 20-90 ft that is drilled by a rotary coring bit from a well. Cores are used to determine the permeability. whose costs and results are shared by several parties. The type of corals that form reefs are colonial and live in symbiosis with algae.0 when plotted against pressure on a log-log scale. The cost is often shared proportionally according to each parry's acreage in the study area. fluid content including hydrocarbon saturation and type. pore-size distribution. Modern reef corals grow only in shallow. The farmor retains an overriding royalty. Corals are identified by the symmetry and pattern of septa or walls in the coral. mineralogy. 5. at the option of the farmor. convergence pressure the pressure at a specific temperature at which the vapor-liquid equilibrium ratios (K factors) for the various components of a system tend to approach 1. A process called deconvolution restores the waves to their original shape. which. A mathematical operation is used to describe the effect of a linear system on an input waveform. A convergent margin is characterized by compression with subduction such as an ocean trench and/or mountain range. The convergence pressure is approximately 10.106 conventional sales contract • core COOR or coord coordinate coordinated survey a large-scale geophysical survey. Corals have existed from the Ordovician period to the present and are important framework builder for reefs. COP AS Council of Petroleum Accountants Societies cop floating asphalt in Texas waters copolymer a molecule formed by joining two or more unlike polymers copper sulfate electrode the nonpolarizing electrode that is most commonly used to test the electrical potential of a metal structure to evaluate its potential for corrosion coprolite fossilized excrement of vertebrate animals Coprolite is in contrast to the smaller fecal pellets. (clastic limestone) Coq or coq COR carbon/oxygen ratio Cor coral cor 1) corner 2) corrected conventional sales contract a gas contract in which the producer sells all the gas produced from specific wells or a field to a buyer. and 5. 2) to change a producing well into an injection or service well converted wave a wave that has been transformed from one type to another. The rocks in the earth's crust act as filters such that waves used in seismic exploration are changed as they pass through the subsurface rock. A convergent margin is in contrast to a divergent margin. A conventional sales contract is in contrast to the warranty contract where the producer sells only a specific amount of gas which can come from any source. porosity. COOH 1) coming out of hole 2) came out of hole cook to naturally expose organic matter in sedimentary rocks to temperatures sufficient to generate crude oil and/or thermal gas cooking time the time that sedimentary rocks spent at temperatures sufficient to generate hydrocarbons cook-out samples to dry out well cuttings corals coral a marine invertebrate that secretes a shell of calcium carbonate and belongs to the class Anthozoa in the phylum Coelenterata. A PS wave is a P-wave that was converted to an S-wave when it was reflected. and scleractinians (Triassic to present). conversion the replacement of one drilling mud in a well with another (breakover) conversion cost the cost of changing a producing well into an injection well for waterflood or enhanced oil recovery convert 1) to change an interest of one party in a well into a different interest at a specific time.000 psia for typical black oil. usually offshore. rugose (Ordovician to Permian).

Fiber-core wire ropes use hard-twisted manila or sisal that is impregnated with a lubricant. capillary pressures. Wireline cores are 1 and Vi to 2 in. formation factor. Core dip can be either a hot dip called Core Gel™ or a cold dip. It is composed of a) a cutterhead. and sedimentary structures. CBBL or CB core bit a hollow bit that is used to cut a core sample in the well. Core flushing is caused by two processes. rather than API pin connections. The inner core barrel holds the core. long. in contrast to the full diameter core. A wireline retrievable core bit and barrel are pulled through the drillstring. core barrel 1) the cylinder that is located above the core bit and receives the core sample. (core head) CB core box a wooden box that is used to ship and store cones. Core Gel™ a hot dip used to seal cores in a plastic coating core grabber an assistant to the geologist or engineer in charge of coring on a well coregraph a log which shows the results of the analysis of rock cores. wettabilities. Routine core analyses includes porosity. Rarely is there 100% core recovery. CFE core flushing the displacement of formation fluids from a core as it is being cut or brought to the surface. The circulating drilling mud flows between the inner and outer core barrel and out the center of the bit. Special core analyses are oil-water relative permeabilities. Drilling mud circulates down between the two barrels to the cutter head. The fiber core gives the drilling line flexibility. 3) the main memory of a computer. and caught on the shale shaker core extractor a jack used to eject a core sample from a core barrel core fisher see core picker coreflood a laboratory test in which enhanced oil recovery fluids are injected into a full-sized core of reservoir rock to determine the suitability of the reservoir and the injection fluids for enhanced oil recovery core flow efficiency the ability of a perforation to transmit fluid divided by the ability of an ideal or drilled perforation to transmit fluid. The results are compared to the gamma ray log from the well to accurately position the core. The original core bits had drag-type teeth. and d) a core catcher with fingers. c) rubber sleeve. in diameter less than the hole being drilled. As the core is being cut. Oriented cores are taken with reference to magnetic north. core drill to drill using a core-barrel assembly to obtain a core sample from a well core-ejector diamond bit a diamond bit that is similar to a core bit except that it cuts smaller diameter and shorter-length cores that are ejected. The sponge insert core barrel is used to retain formation fluids. mud filtrate penetrates the core and displaces formation fluids. A core catcher is used on the bottom of the core barrel. fluid content and type. Core bits have threads for connection. Two common types of core barrels are a) wireline and b) full core or conventional. 2) a sidewall core projectile. Some types of core barrels are a) steel. core dip a method that seals a core with an impervious coating of removable plastic for shipping and storage. horizontal permeability. c) a floating inner barrel. and gamma-ray logging. and many have a safety joint so that the inner barrel and core can be pulled if the outer barrel becomes stuck. cleaned or restored-state depending on preservation. cation exchange capacities. Cores can be described as native-state. It is 15 ft long and uses either roller-cone or diamond cutting edges. A rubber sleeve core barrel is used for soft or fractured formations. 107 Roller-cone core bits are sometimes used today and were used on the superdeep Russian well on the Kola Peninsula. The core barrel is 2-3 in. The full-core or conventional core barrel is run on a drillstring and comes lengths between 10-60 ft but is commonly 30 ft long in sections that can be added together. in diameter and 1-2 in. d) pressure. grain density determinations. The core is received and held in a core barrel located above the rotary coring bit. The wellbore is 6V4 in.85. and e) sponge insert. When the core is brought to the surface. The coregraph usually illustrates permeability. Supplementary routine analyses can include vertical permeability. porosity. and resistivity index determinations. and top and bottom. lithology. The mud returns up through fluid channels along the sides of the bit to the annulus. The core box is at least 3 ft long and is marked with the core number. or or c 2) the process of drilling a core from a well. The wireline retrievable core bit is shorter and smaller than the conventional core bit. core head see cutterhead core hole a well drilled with a slim-hole rig. The core is usually called memory. Perforating guns have a typical core flow efficiency of 0. carried up the well by the circulating mud. in diameter or less. fluid saturation. free gas expands in the core and also displaces formation fluids. b) an outer barrel. core analysis the examination of a core. The core is usually taken using a rotary coring bit that is hollow and is usually either embedded with small diamond chips or has tungsten carbide inserts with diamond surfaces. coregamma surface logger a device that measures the natural radioactivity of a core as it is passed along a conveyer belt through the instrument. and lithology determinations. The cutterhead is a hollow core bit that is usually called the core head. A wire-core drilling line has greater strength. in diameter. core catcher a ring with inward-bending metal strips that is used in a core barrel to retain the core when it is cut from a well cored center the uneven wearing down of teeth or diamonds in and around the center of the drill bit. b) plastic or fiberglass. The most common type has the surface embedded with small diamond chips or tungsten carbide inserts with a diamond surface and no moving parts. 4) the fiber or wire-rope center of a drilling line.core analysis • core hole sedimentary structure present and fabric of the rock. The wireline core barrel is retrieved through the bit and drillpipe by an overshot on a sand line.65-0. Sidewall cores are only about Vi in. the box number. The bit eventually tries to cut a small core. The core barrel uses a stabilizer directly above the bit. Well logs are .

Correlation is made with the use of marker beds. key horizons. b) diamond. The core-plug drill is used to cut plugs for porosity and permeability measurements from full-diameter cores and other rock samples. sedimentary structures. and some salt deposits also are naturally radioactive.108 core log • correlation log Corod™ a continuous sucker-rod string with no joints CORP corporation corr 1) corrected 2) corrosion corrected oil crude oil whose gravity (°API) has been corrected to 60°F correction deed an instrument filed for the purpose of amending or clarifying an instrument that was previously recorded correction factor a multiplier that is determined by a prover. (rabbit) core picker a cylinder with flexible internal springs that is used to retrieve a dropped core. core-pusher plunger a plunger that is used to eject a core sample from a core barrel core saw a diamond-impregnated wheel used to slab cores core shell the lining of a core barrel core slicer a downhole tool that cuts a core with a triangular cross section from the wall of a well Coriband™ a computer-processed log that applies a statistical analysis of frequency crossplots to complex lithologies. and data such as porosity. and fossils and microfossils. and raising and lowering the drillstring a short distance. core fisher core-plug drill a small. labeled. It is hoped that the well will penetrate a portion of the producing field that might extend under that corner of the lease. The core is broken off in the core barrel by alternating with higher rotary speeds. The core is retrieved and placed in trays. and sonic log data and shows porosity. neutron. A differential caliper log is located in Tracks 2 and 3coring the process of taking a core from a well. coring reel drum a relatively small drum that is used with small-diameter wireline to lower and retrieve tools such as a deviation tool in a well coring time the time. and described on the rig floor. and fluid saturation versus depth core marker a metal marker that is inserted into the inner core barrel before coring. 2) matching of phases on seismic records to show that events are the same reflectors. Three elements. and d) sidewall. Volcanic ash. and a slower rotary speed is used. Lower values means the fraction is rich in paraffin hydrocarbons. the higher the index. The correlation index varies between 0 and 100 and is computed by the formula: CI = (48.680 + K) + (4737 x G) -456. Track 3 has fluid analysis. diamond-bit hand drill that is usually air cooled. napthenic-paraffinic. and Tract 4 has formation analysis. only shales have significant natural radiation. Correlation between well logs are made to draw cross sections of the subsurface. necessary for coring a well corkscrew the condition of a tubular that is twisted into a helix CORL correlation corln coralline corner post a derrick leg corner shot a well drilled in the corner of a lease that is adjacent to a producing field. grain density. The log is made from resistivity. Track 1 has a secondary-porosity index and average density of solids index. and high values means greater concentration of naphthenic and aromatic hydrocarbons. Coring is expensive because it involves rig time. Before coring. The conventional and diamond core is taken with a core barrel and drillstring. and napthenic. water saturation. thorium and uranium. usually expressed in minutes per foot of core. correlation correlation 1) the matching of rock layers. physical similarities of rocks. When the core is extracted from the barrel. sealed. the hole is circulated to remove cavings and loose material. and sent to the laboratory. and formation analysis. the core marker falls out to show that the barrel is empty. Four types of coring are a) conventional. inspected. The correction factor is applied to a meter to yield a volume that is corrected to base conditions of temperature and pressure. Kis the average boiling point of the fraction in "Kelvin. correlation length the depth interval in which correlation of dipmeter curves from each arm are made. correlation log a wireline well log that records the natural radioactivity (gamma-ray emissions) of rocks in the well. and G is the specific gravity at 16°C. The correlation length varies 1-30 ft. correction lease a lease that is executed to correct an incorrect provision in the previous lease correl correlation correlate to match rock units run in a core hole. Of the most common sedimentary rocks. although a core is not necessarily taken. The more napthenic the oil. paraffinicnapthenic. secondary porosity. density. granite wash. CI 2) a crude oil classification by the US Bureau of Mines based on the paraffin and napthene content of the oil. c) wireline. 3/4-in. fluid analysis. account for most of the gamma . Less weight is applied to the bit during coring than drilling. permeability. Types include paraflnnic.8. The core is then wrapped. CORL or correl correlation index 1) a method used to define the chemical nature of various distillate fractions in a crude oil. Track 2 has water saturation. potassium. core log a record of core lithologies.

and transportation of petroleum. from . and iron derivatives. Corrosion can be by either inorganic or organic bacteria. The sonde contains a scintillation crystal as a radiation detector. cost center a geological or legal unit to which cost and revenue are identified cost crude oil 1) the portion of oil production that pays for the cost of drilling and completing the well 2) oil produced from the operator's wells cost depletion a method of accounting in which the depletable basis of a lease or equipment is amortized over the life of production. usually a metallic oxid corset a steel cover used to protect the top of the conductor pipe on a jackup rig corundum a very hard mineral composed of A12O3 COS carbonyl sulfide cos cosine COST continental offshore stratigraphic test cost the monies spent on a project./lOO ft on a well log. oxygen scavengers such as sodium sulfite. The log is used for a) shale location. carbon dioxide. correlative rights the multiple ownership of hydrocarbons in a common reservoir correlogram a correlation display using a seismic trace-type curve that is half of the autocorrelation function corrosion the chemical consumption or wearing away of equipment. The correlation log can be run in either an open hole or cased well and can be run in both salt and nonconductive muds. First. storing. the reservoir is repressurized with water injection. The correlation scale is in contrast to a detail scale. CPF cost per unit of daily production the total capital and operating costs for discovering and producing oil and gas per unit of volume produced in bbl/day or Mcf/day. or miscible flooding an enhanced oil-recovery process in which carbon dioxide gas is injected into the reservoir. The correlation log is recorded in Track 1 and is usually run with porosity and/or resistivity logs. and d) bit selection. copper carbonate. hydrogen sulfide. and production costs. Corrosion is caused primarily by oxygen. Corrosion fatigue is the primary cause of sucker rod parting. The carbon dioxide can originally come from carbon dioxide wells. (carbonated waterflooding) CO2 flooding. b) lithology identification. b) crevice. c) correlation. or miscible flooding 109 rays emitted from the sedimentary rocks. corrosive product the result of corrosion. corr corrosion agent a substance that causes corrosion such as hydrogen sulfide or oxygen corrosion cell the flow of an electric current between a metal structure and a surrounding electrolyte. It is calculated on costs specified by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. (gamma ray and natural gamma ray log) correlation rights theory the legal premise in some states that all land owners overlying a producing formation have proportional rights to that formation correlation scale a scale of either 1 or 2 in. h) cavitation. injection. A corrosion cell will cause the metal to corrode. and hydrogen-sulfide scavengers such as zinc compounds. COSUNA correlation of stratigraphic unit of North America cosurfactant a surfactant such as tertiary amyl alcohol that is used to increase the effectiveness of another surfactant for enhanced oil recovery COTD cleaned out to total depth cotd coated cotd gn coated grains Cotg or cotg coating cotton picker a clumsy oilfield worker CO2 carbon dioxide CO2 augmented waterflooding a waterflood process in which water that is nearly or fully saturated with CO2 is injected into the subsurface reservoir. Well logs on a correlation scale are used for correlation between logs for the purpose of drawing cross sections. Chromates. whereas sweet corrosion is caused by carbon dioxide and fatty acids. extracts lighter hydrocarbon fractions from the oil to form a miscible front. and i) stress. and lime are used to reduce the effects of sodium and calcium salts on metal. The first carbon dioxide slug is followed by alternating slugs of water and carbon dioxide to push the oil toward producing wells. and helps drive the oil toward producing wells. cost per foot dollars expended to drill a well divided by the footage drilled. injection. These include filmforming amines. Cost depletion is in contrast to percentage depletion. dianodic zinc-phosphates. It does not include deductions for royalties or taxes. Sour corrosion is caused by hydrogen sulfide. Electrochemical corrosion produces a measurable current. The most common corrosive gases encountered during drilling are H2S and CO2. lighter hydrocarbons from the oil transfer to the carbon dioxide to form a miscible front which is soluble with the oil.correlation rights theory • CO2 flooding. d) galvanic. (corrosion control agent) corrosive agent the substance causing corrosion corrosive gas a gas that dissolves in water or other liquids and attacks metal. cost of finding the amount of monies spent on exploration and drilling to produce 1 bbl of crude oil or 1 Mcf of natural gas cost of service the cost of natural gas which is used to calculate the buyer's regulated resale rates. exploration. corrosion control agent see corrosive inhibitor corrosion coupon a metal strip used to check corrosion rates corrosion fatigue the failure of metal that has been weakened by corrosion or chemical degradation. and chlorides in petroleum drilling and production. corrosion inhibitor an additive to drilling mud that is designed to inhibit corrosion. c) pilling. It can occur during drilling and production or during treating. The CO2 comes out of solution. When the carbon dioxide is injected. development. Types of corrosion include a) uniform. These can include acquisition.

any production from a well drilled on any of the leases. The violation of a covenant will cause a specific legal action.110 coulomb • CR course departure the distance between two points in a deviated hole projected onto a horizontal plane course length the measured length between two survey points in a well course vertical depth the difference in vertical depth between two points in a deviated hole C/OUT cleaning out cov covered covalent bond the chemical linkage between two atoms formed by the sharing of electrons. The carbon dioxide can be separated from the produced fluids during the flooding and recycled. and differential or automatic fill-up collars. A coulomb is equal to 6. (counterweight) CB 2) to offset a weight countercurrent stripping the injection of natural or inert gas into a production system to flush out oxygen counter flush see reverse circulation counterpart leases oil and gas leases of different ownerships that outline a block of acreage which includes all the separate tracts of land. (carbon dioxide flooding. float. Counterweights on the walking beam are used for shallow wells and they can be adjusted by moving them along the beam.25 X 1018 electrons. The covenant can either be specifically written (express covenant) or does not appear in detail (implied covenant) on the instrument. It is located on a rotary crank on a crank-balanced pumper and can also be located on the walking beam on the end opposite the well on a beam balanced pumper. injection or miscible flooding) coulomb a derived unit in System International (SI) for electric charge. cover-all clause a provision in an oil and gas lease that protects the lessee from errors in the description of the land under the lease by including all the land owned by the lessor in that area. On some pumpers. A counterbalance is used on most pumpers to balance the weight of oil and sucker-rod string on the upstroke and the sucker-rod string on the downstroke. covenant a written promise. (collar or tool joint) 3) the larger-diameter end of a sucker-rod that holds female threads that receive the pin with the male threads of another sucker rod. It is either threaded internally (box end) or externally (pin end). Casing collars are either long or short. the rotary counterbalance can be adjusted by shifting their position on the crank arms. (box) coupon a small. Covalent bonds are in contrast to ionic bonds. The lessors have pooled their royalty interests and will share. A covenant is a mandatory obligation in contrast to an option. It is calculated by A x s. inertial weld. The use of a counterbalance allows a smaller prime mover and gear reducer size. proportional to their surface acreage contributions. The water molecule (H2O) has covalent bonding. counter-regional fault an antithetic fault that has become a growth fault counterweight see counterbalance coupling 1) a mechanical device that is used to join two parts 2) a short metal cylinder that is attached to the end of a tubular such as drillpipe or casing by either flash weld. 1) casing pressure 2) cement through perforations CPA 1) Canadian Petroleum Association 2) critical path analysis CPC 1) casing pressure closed 2) computer production control cpct compact CPF 1) casing pressure flowing 2) cost per foot 3) closed power fluid CPG Certified petroleum geologist CPI 1) carbon preference index 2) corrugated plate interceptor 3) computer-processed interpretation CPM cycles per minute CPP 1) casing potential profile 2) central processing platform Cppm parts per million concentration Cpr pseudoreduced compressibility CPRK cap rock CPS 1) cycles per second 2) centipoise per second 3) counts per second CPSI casing pressure shut in CPU central processing unit CR 1) compression ratio 2) cold rolled 3) cored 4) condition ratio chemical or fertilizer plants. Those that are used on casing on a cement job are called baffle. catchall. (inclusive. C counterweights counterbalance 1) an offset weight used for stability. or be manufactured from power plant stack gas. or by screwing on. The coupling is used to couple the tubular with another tubular. metal strip that is exposed to test an environment for corrosion or scale course the borehole axis over an interval length in a well . or Mother Hubbard clause) cover rock see cap rock cow sucker an old term for a heavy piece of metal that was used on the end of a drilling line to lower it into a well when no tools were attached CP 1) casing point 2) cathodic protection 3) casing pressure 4) controllable pitch 5) circulating pressure Cp sonic compaction correction factor cp 1) centipoise 2) compaction 3) controllable pitch Cp 1) rock pore compressibility 2) gas heat capacity at constant pressure CP or Cp specific heat at constant pressure CP.

The unit has a short walking beam and is in contrast to the beam-balanced type. (rotary crank) crank-balanced pumper. pump jack. (crank counterbalanced beam pumper. pressure. An electric surge or outage can cause a crash. crane machinery that uses a moveable extension or horizontal beam to lift and move heavy objects crane barge a barge that has a high lifting-capacity crane on the stern. it will be lost. A crane barge is used to raise modules onto offshore platforms. pump jack. shortchained hydrocarbons such as gasoline by using heat. (derrick barge) crank or crank arm the steel arm on each end of the crankshaft located on the speed reducer of a beam pumping unit. pump jack. crash flooding the rapid filling of flotation tanks with water to tilt an offshore platform that has been floated out into position crater 1) to fail or cave-in 2) the depression around walking beam pitman Samson post crank counterbalanced pumping unit . and/or chemicals 2) a natural process in which high temperatures form condensates. and graphite (C) from crude oil. crash the failure of computer hardware or programs such that the computer becomes inoperable. thermogenic gas.• crater 111 CR Rayleigh wave velocity Cr cordierite cr 1) core 2) creek CRA 1) chemically retarded acid 2) complex reservoir analysis crack a valve to barely open a valve in order to vent a small amount of liquid or gas cracker a length of Manila or hemp rope that was used between the tools and the drilling line on a cable-tool rig to give the line elasticity in order to bounce the bit off the bottom crackers a bottomhole assembly on a drillstring with single joints of drillpipe between the drill collars to produce a more flexible assembly cracking 1) a refining process used to break longchained hydrocarbons into more valuable. or pumping unit see crank-balanced pumper crank end the inlet end of a reciprocating compressor crank pin the pin that connects the crank to the pitman on a beam pumper crankshaft the rotating shaft that converts the rotary motion of an engine into the reciprocating motion on connecting rods into rotary motion on an engine. or pumping unit) crankcase The crankshaft housing on an engine crank counterbalanced beam pumper. lightliquid hydrocarbons. If the information entered in the computer has not been backed up. The crank connects the crankshaft to the pitman arm with a wrist pin. The crank rotates and has a counterbalance on the end of it. or pumping unit a type of beam pumping unit in which two rotating counterweights heavy metal castings are located on the crank to balance the weight of the sucker-rod string. Kerogen and asphaltenes can also be cracked to form smaller bitumen molecules.

crevice oil crude oil in the fractures of shale crevice corrosion a local concentration of metal corrosion on a crack or pit crew boat a light-weight. When a seismic wave strikes a layer between two rocks at the critical angle or greater. Sgc critcal micelle concentration the surfactant concentration above which micelle concentration increases rather than monomer concentration. CMC critical path analysis the charting of all the activities and their interrelationships that are necessary for the development of a large project such as an offshore field. Crd. gas. swell. high-speed boat used to the shuttle crew between an offshore platform and land . crbd crossbedded crbnt carbonate CR/CT ratio residual carbon/total carbon ratio Crd. critical gas saturation the minimum gas saturation in the pores of a rock at which gas will flow through the rock. It is the youngest period of the Mesozoic Era. ago.C. Each activity has a time in which it must be completed to keep the project on schedule. Crinoidal limestones can be very thick. Once the critical flow is reached.Crin creinoidal limestone a limestone containing crinoid fossils. C.P.. the flow velocity remains constant and is unaffected by pressure changes. critical compression ratio the lowest compression ratio that a fuel will ignite in an engin. The process is called heave. critical depth the minimum depth of a reservoir rock necessary to have closure on a particular trap critical dip the minimum dip in the opposite direction of the regional dip that is necessary to form closure on a subsurface trap critical distance the distance from the seismic source that the head wave emerges on thesurface. C. Some coarse. or liquid and solid. Crinoids existed from the Ordovician period to the Recent but were most common during the Mississippian and Pennsylvanian periods. but they tend to be relatively thin. such as gas and liquid. or squeeze.C. A calcareous stem that was attached to the seafloor held the body in place. with little or no geological support. critical flow the maximum velocity of a fluid through an orifice. or optic wave that strikes an interface will be reflected. Cret crevasse a break in a river levee crevasse splay sediments deposited to the side of a delta through a break in a river or distributary channel levee. critical compression pressure the lowest pressure at which a fuel will ignite in an engine. electromagnetic. Cratons include both shields and platforms. a well caused by the flow of oil. y. it will travel parallel to the layer. the seismic wave will be reflected. The Cretaceous is subdivided into the Upper Cretaceous and Lower Cretaceous global and North American epochs.R. and/or water from a well during a blowout craton the stable land area of a continent. or crd cored creaming the rising or falling of dispersed-phase globules in an emulsion CREC cushion recovery creekology an old theory. well-sorted sand can be deposited in that environment that are potential reservoir rocks. that oil is found by drilling in creek beds creep the gradual deformation of a material such as a metal or plastic under constant stress during a long time creeping formation an anhydrite. At an angle less than the critical angle. sodium or potassium salt layer or a shale that slowly advances into the well bore because of pressure or chemical reactions. cren crenulated CREST AXIS crest crest 1) the top of a fold 2) the uppermost surface of salt on a diapir such as a salt stock or plug 3) the top or ridge of a thread Cret cretaceous Cretaceous a period of geological time about 14067 m. A crevasse splay has the shape of a small delta to the side of the channel in the overbank or interdistributary bay environment..! Crinoids have small disk-shaped or globular bodies covered with calcareous plates and numerous arms that come out from the body. can coexist CRIM complex refractive index method Crin crinoid crinal crinoidal crinoid a marine animal belonging to the class Crinoidea in the phylum Echinodermata.112 craton • critical path analysis crew chief an employee who is in charge of a pulling unit and crew (head well puller or pulling unit operator) erg coring cricondenthem the maximum temperature at which two phases. crinal cripple to reduce the output on a mud pump by pulling certain valves or rods crippled bit a roller-cone drilling bit with one cone removed crit critical critical angle the smallest angle of incidence in which a sonic.

and composition at which all vapor and liquid properties become identical critical temperature the temperature above which a particular substance exists only as a gas phase no matter what the pressure. For ethane. A dip of less then 45° will generally deflect the bit in the updip direction of the rock layer. bent. One of the connecting threads is machined at an angle to the axis of the sub. Pc critical rate the maximum rate at which oil can be produced from a well without production of gas from the free gas cap or water from below the oil/water contact critical reflection the seismic reflection from the point where the head wave is first generated critical saturation the minimum oil saturation in the pores of a reservoir at which oil will flow through the reservoir. and severe. the bottom is tangential to the horizontal. (residual saturation) critical speed the speed that equals the natural frequency of any compressor part critical state the temperature. pressure. XBD. Critical temperature is used along with critical pressure to determine the state in which a fluid exists (liquid or vapor) and is used to calculate compressibility factors. whereas. the bit will generally be deflected down the dip of the rock layer. At the critical production rate. A V20 crooked sub will give an angle change of 2°-37lOO ft and a 2° crooked sub will give a 6°-87l00 ft change. crbd. The top of the crossbed is steep. critical pressure the vapor pressure of a fluid at the critical temperature. A crooked sub is run between the mud or turbine motor and the lowest drill collar. crossbedded a sedimentary rock that displays crossbeds. medium. hard rock layers such as limestone make drilling a straight hole difficult crooked hole tendency the tendency of subsurface formation to cause a well to deviate. The cross on a Christmas tree diverts the well fluids into the wings and provides access to the well for running wireline tools. The deviation is often caused by the bit being deflected by a dipping hard-rock layer such as limestone. or offset sub) cross a pressure fitting with at least four openings. usually at 90°. A well that is intentionally drilled deviating from vertical is called a deviated well and a vertical well is called a straight hole. Critical pressure is used along with critical temperature to determine the state in which a fluid exists (liquid or gas) and to calculate compressibility factors. The properities of a liquid and its vapor are indistinguishable at the critical point. A crooked sub can have a muleshoe orientating sleeve and key to determine the actual orientation of the bottomhole assembly in the well.critical period forecast • crossbeds critical period forecast a weather and seastate prediction for a critical offshore operation such as moving a rig 113 liquid ^critical point y**** liquid + gaa ^ TEMPERRTURE critical point qaa critical point 1) the temperature and pressure at which the bubblepoint and dew-point curves meet on a temperature versus pressure plot.8 psia. Crossbeds dip in the direction of current flow. Tp critical velocity the velocity of a fluid that occurs in the transition range of Reynolds numbers of about 2000-3000 between laminar and turbulent flow. the critical pressure is 707. It is the pressure necessary to condense a vapor at the critical point. If the dip is greater than 60°. crooked sub a small length of bent drillpipe that is used to kick off a deviated well. degree of drillability. 2) a location on a drilling line that is subjected to excessive wear. X-bdd or x-bdd crossbeds sedimentary beds deposited at an angle (up to 36°) to horizontal in dunes or ripples. A crooked sub can also be used as part of a fishing string to give the right approach angle to the fish for the fishing tool.09°F. faulting. critical production rate the maximum production rate from a well that allows a stable cone to exist in the oil/water contact. It is controlled by the dip. vc critical water saturation the highest water saturation in a reservoir through which hydrocarbons can flow without water flowing critical weight the weight on the bit at critical revolutions per minute that will cause the drillstring to resonate and fail critter fossil CRK or crk creek CRM chemical remanent magnetism crm cream crn blk crown block crnk crinkled CRO control room operator crooked hole or well a well that unintentionally deviates from vertical along its course. This gives the sub a V2-2V20 bend. the gravity and viscous forces are balanced. Critical points often occur where the drilling line is bent through sheaves and is caused by shock loading. and fracturing of the formation and can be described as mild. (naturally deviated hole) crooked-hole area or country a location where dipping. For ethane. the critical temperature is 90. and the cone is maintained at a critical cone height. Critical saturation is about 15%. The substance cannot exist as a liquid. (angle. X-bds or x-bds .

gas and secondary porosity. spool-shaped metal pipe that is used between the preventer elements on a blowoutpreventer stack to attach choke and kill lines. The sand line sheave is often attached to one end of the block or hung underneath. crossplot or cross plot a graph of two different measurements. steel beam that connects the two pitman arms on a beam pumping unit with the walking beam through an equalizer bearing (equalizer) crowding die line the drilling of wells along a lease line to drain oil from the adjacent lease crowd the bit to put more weight than necessary on a drilling bit crown 1) the platform at the top of a derrick that is used to service the crown block 2) a piston top 3) the part of a bit with diamonds (North America). crossover joint a length of casing with different thread types on each end crossover packer a packer used in a dual completion well with gas on the bottom and oil on the top crossover spool a flanged wellhead connection that is designed to seal around and suspend an inner casing string (crossover casing spool) or tubing string (crossover tubing spool). During drilling. (adapter or adaptor) crossover connection a flanged connection used on a wellhead to joint two different pressure rating pipes crossover distance the seismic source to geophone distance at which the head wave and direct wave arrive at the same time. The crown block is part of the . crossfed the contact of wires in a swismic cable causing the blending of data crossflow the flow of fluid from one reservoir in a well through the well into another reservoir with low pressure crosshead the connection between the pony and connecting rods on a mud pump cross-laminated a sedimentary rock with crossbeds that are less than 1 cm thick. crossover sub a short section of pipe with a box and pin end of different diameters. It can also hold a sheave for the coring reel drum and small sheaves for a Manila rope from the friction cathead. neutron. The direct wave arrives first at a distance shorter than the crossover distance. cross section a vertical slice or panel of the subsurface. A crossover sub is used to change the outer diameter of drillpipe on a drillstring. The spools can be studded. and the fluid returns to flow into and up the crossover tool to the casing-workstring annulus. A separation of the two curves can be due to either a difference in matrix such as sandstone or the presence of gas. the crossover spool is a drilling spool that has the blowout preventers mounted on it. The spool has an internal diameter equal to the bore of the blowout preventers. The tool allows the gravel-pack slurry to be pumped down the work string to the openhole-liner or casing-liner annulus. flanged. Porosity measured on a compensated neutron log is plotted on one axis and porosity from a density log (limestone matrix) on the other axis. The choke and kill lines can attach to one spool or two spools with a preventer element in between. Some types of cross sections include correlation. and stratigraphic. Cross sections are often made by correlating between well logs and are an important tool for finding petroleum. Well-log measurements are often crown block crown block a stationary metal framework on the top of the derrick or mast of a drilling rig that holds sheaves that rotate on a horizontal shaft mounted on bearings with a greased lubricating system. (drilling or spacer spool or spool) cross threaded male and female threads that do not match cross yoke the horizontal. crossover tool a tool that is attached between the top of a liner or screen and the bottom of a workstring during gravel packing. structural. the entire diamond bit (Europe) cross-beds cross-correlation a statistical process in which the similarity of two waveforms from a seismic source is calculated as a function of the time shift or lag between the waveforms. or clamp-on connected. The drilling line goes through the crown block. cross spool a large. Cross-correlation is applied to the analysis of Vibroseis™ data. X-Latn or x-latn crossover a fitting that has two different nominal sizes and/or pressure ratings and is used to join equipment of different nominal sizes and/or pressure ratings. and sonic logs is used to make M-N and mineral identification (MID) plots used to determine lithologies. Other examples of crossplots are Pickett and Hingle crossplots.114 cross-correlation • crown block crossplotted. Crossplotting data from density. The crossover spool also allows for a pressure increase from one side of the spool to the other.

high density. The low shrinkage oils are less than 40° API and have 0 to 1. Heavy oil has less than 20° API. The crow's nest is accessed by the derrick ladder. The specific gravity of crude oil generally ranges from 0.500 Btu/lb. sulfur content. Crude oils have kinematic viscosities of 0. The high shrinkage oil ranges 35°-5O° API and have 1. or crude crude oil analysis the characteristics of a particular crude oil determined by a test recommended by the American Society of Testing and Materials and the Institute of Petroleum.000 SCF of natural gas/stock tank barrel. The crown block compensator is a cylinder filled with compressed fluid from a reservoir.crown block compensator • crude oil analysis hoisting system of the rig and the crown block beams are often an integral part of the mast or derrick. whereas a short taper is easier to clean crown sheet a plate on a boiler firebox crow's foot 1) a device that is designed to clamp onto a line that passes through it in order to tighten the line. The analysis includes the °API. Its critical temperature is greater than the reservoir temperature. The railing that goes around the crow's nest is called the pigpen. Volatile oil has 45°-70° API. Crude oil often contains significant amounts of dissolved natural gas. AROMATIC HC & NSO COMPOUNDS 115 naphthenes.300-19. It is immature or degraded oil. but not always. and brown to typically black. such as a sand line from a winch. it activates the air brakes on the drawworks to stop the traveling block. and high-sulfur crudes have greater than 1. Black oil has 30°-45° API. the crow's foots grips the line harder. lighter in weight than water. but sweet crude generally has less than 1% sulfur.14 0. When contacted by the traveling block. and c) volatile oil. a high viscosity greater than 10 cp. Volatile oil has a very low specific gravity and exists in the two phase region. Crude oils can also be divided into a) black or low shrinkage oils and b) volatile or high shrinkage oils.000 (10° API).6-1. The smell ranges from gasoline (normal. Crude oil varies in chemical composition and physical properties.780 (50° API) to 1. crow's nest 1) a platform that goes around the crown of the derrick on a drilling rig. (attic or crown platform) 2) an old term for the top of the derrick on a drilling rig CRP common reflector point crpld crumpled crpxln cryptocrystalline crs coarse CRT 1) cathode ray tube 2) cones run together CRUDE or crude crude oil crude bitumen a natural occurrence of very viscous hydrocarbons that are not commercially recoverable from a well crude oil a natural liquid that comes from wells and is composed of a mixture of primarily hydrocarbon molecules with a C/H ratio usually 6-8. and a negligible gas/oil ratio.00-0. is attached to one part of the crow's foot.000 SCF of natural gas/stock tank barrel. b) black oil. whereas the heavy oils with low "API tend to be brown to black. sour crude) to fruity (atomatic). The crow's foot is run on the bit and the bottom of the deviation instrument fits into the recessed center of the crow's foot.007-13 stokes at 100°F and are generally 0.7%. Crude oils are divided into sweet and sour crudes based on their sulfur content. A heavy oil has a density below 25° API. Types of hydrocarbon molecules in crude oil are paraffins. a medium crude 25°-35° and a light oil 35°-45°. The liquid has a very high gas/oil ratio. crown land federal or provincial land in Canada Crown-O-Matic™ a valve located near the top of a derrick. and asphaltics. cm blk crown block compensator a type of motion compensator used on a semisubmersible or drillship. Crude oils can be classified according to their relative concentrations of paraffins.70 0. The exact amount varies. The light oils with low °API tend to be amber to yellow in color. Its density is measured in "API. Crude oils can also be classified into a) heavy oil. 2) a device used to center a deviation instrument on a bit. The crow's nest has a water table that contains the crown block. crown platform see crow's nest crown profile the shape of a diamond bit. As more pressure is put on the sand line.6% sulfur by weight.7%. and a piston that is attached to the derrick above the crown block.14 (oil or petroleum) CO.06-8. intermediate-sulfur crudes have 0. aromatics. aromatics. Crude oil ranges in color from transparent through colors of greenish-yellow. C4 and lighter .000-4. Low-sulfur crude has less than 0. sweet crude) to foul (normal. and both the crow's nest and pigpen are called the duck's nest. pour point.02-1. The piston stroke is 20-25 ft. whereas sour crude has more than 1%. Crude oil has a compressibility of about 1 x 10"5 vol/vol/psi. CRUDE. and NSO compounds. viscosity.08-0. Crude 011 has a calorific value of 18. Another line.023-0. A long taper aids in drilling a straight hole and permits higher bit weights.00 0. reddish.23 stokes. Oil does not dissolve in water and is generally. Some crown blocks are double deck with the top sheaves at right angles to the bottom sheaves. An average crude oil chemical analysis by % weight carbon hydrogen sulfur nitrogen oxygen metals 84-87 11-14 0. naphthenes.

Csg. ash weight. metallic content. A cubic centimeter is equal to 1 ml. Xln.. ctg. internal atomic arrangement that is often reflected by the crystal faces. The gas passes through a turboexpander where it expands and is exhausted with temperatures of -160° to -180°F. crumb boss the oil field bunkhouse housekeeper crummies chain tongs that are used to run tubing crush cut the slow leaching of crude oil from a sample in a laboratory implying poor permeability cryogenic plant a gas processing plant that uses very low temperatures to achieve a high liquid recovery. centistoke CSUT" cyber service unit CT cable tools C. The crude stream is often a blend or mixture of oil from different fields and has specific qualities. and true boiling point. Arabian light. XI.116 crude stream • cubic foot CSD casing setting depth CSD™ Compensated Spectral Density cse gr coarse-grained Cy heptane CSG. compound. offered by Saudi Arabia.8% sulfur. cryogenics the study and use of very low temperatures crypto cryptocrystalline cryptocrystalline a rock that has a crystal structure that is too small to be seen with an optical microscope. A standard cubic foot of natural gas is the volume of gas in a cube 1 ft on a side under standard pressure and temperature. salinity.4° API and 1. cc or cm1 cubic foot the standard of measurement for natural gas. (microcrystalline) CRYP-XLN. or isomorphous mixture. Cryptofissile is in contrast to hydroclastic. Ctgs. The gases can then be separated in a fractionator. sulfur content. static 2) centistokes CSA 1) casing set at 2) Canadian Standards Association CSAT™ combinable seismic acquisition tool . or cryptoxln cryptofissile a clay mineral that separates into tabular falkes during a wettability test with distilled water after 10% HC1 has been added. crypto. has 33. °API. The definition of standard pressure content. XLN. or xln crystalline carbonate a name given to any limestone in which nothing can be recognized in the texture of the rock CS 1) cast steel 2) carbon steel 3) casing seat cs 1) casing. crpxln. CKYP-XLN or crypto-xln cryptocrystalline crys or cryst crystalline crystals crystal a homogeneous solid composed of a chemical element. crude stream a specific crude oil sold by an exporting country at a specific shipping point. hygrotaroid. Almost all the gases except methane are condensed. and noncrystalline. A crystal has a homogeneous. or ctgs cuttings C3 propane CTL cuttings time lag CTP cleaning to pits CTL cemotop ctr center CTS condensate to surface Cj ethane CTY county CU clean up CU or cu cubic Cu cummingtonite Cub or cub 1) cube 2) cubic cubic centimeter a unit of volume in the metric system and a derived System International (SI) unit that is defined by a cube 1 cm on a side. 1) true formation conductivity 2) total compressibility c(t) convolution function Ctc 1) contract 2) contact CTD corrected total depth ctd coated C lo decane CTGS. and characteristics of the major distillates such as yield. cryst. hydrofissile. or csg casing CSG-C casing collapse CSG-F casing failure csg hd casing head csg press casing pressure csg pt casing point CSIP casing shut-in pressure C6 hexane C6+ hexanes and heavier hydrocarbons CSL 1) center section line 2) county school lands 3) computer logging service C slinger a backup man on a drilling crew CSNG™ compensated spectral natural gamma tool CSPKR casing packer CSPS cable suspended unit (electric submersible pump) CSPT casing packer drillstem test CST sidewall coring CST™ chronological sidewall coring tool CSt. xl STAL or xtal crystalline 1) a substance with a definate and ordered molecular structure in contrast to amorphous 2) a texture composed of crystals or fragments of crystals crys.

Another conventional unit is bbl/stroke and can be converted to the SI unit by multiplying by 0. cum cup 1) a piston with a concave end that is used in some pumps 2) a depression worn in the shoulder of a tool joint by wobble cup job to replace worn cups on the traveling valve of a downhole pump cup packer a cup-shaped sealing device used in a well to test the blowout preventers and casing cupronickel an alloy of greater than 70% copper plus nickel curative the title requirements that are necessary to remove any objections on record title curbstone broker a lease broker without an office cure to age and set cement cure the title to fill in a gap or defect in the chain of title for land.175. A solvent such as trichloroethane is used to dissolve the oil from the cuttings. A column of water or drilling mud is used in running drillpipe into a well to prevent crushing of the pipe by hydrostatic pressure in the well. The oil is then identified visually in a visible cut or by fluorescence in cut fluorescence. A cubic meter contains 35.00378. A cut is often made for identification of oil shows in well cuttings. forcing the drill bit to drill the curve.cubic meter • cut and strip and temperature varies with contract and law but is about 15 psia and 60°F. (cable guide method) .315 ft3. The conventional unit is bbl/ton and can be converted to the SI unit by multiplying by 0. nv'lt 117 cuesta cuesta a surface ridge formed by a resistant rock layer. The outer portion of the guide does not rotate. The guide consists of a conventional drill bit driven by a flexible driveshaft in a bent guide or pipe. CUSH or cush cushion gas 1) the amount of natural gas that is necessary in a natural gas storage reservoir to maintain the minimum pressure needed to recover the natural gas stored in the reservoir 2) natural gas that is stored in an underground reservoir for later use in a pressure maintenance program custodian see pumper custody transfer the location in a gas pipeline where the gas ownership goes from seller to buyer cut 1) a separate hydrocarbon fraction or part made by distillation or a similar process.1590. cubic meter a derived unit in System International (SI) for volume. CDG CUSH or cush cushion cushion the fluid used in a pipe or tubing string to control pressures.1590. A conventional unit is US gals/stroke and can be converted to the SI unit by multiplying by 3785L/ stroke. such as limestone cu cm cubic centimeter cu ft cubic foot cu ft/bbl cubic feet per barrel cu ft/d cubic feet per day cu ft/lb cubic feet per pound cu ft/min cubic feet per minute cu ft/sec or cu ft/s cubic feet per second cu ft/sk cubic feet per sack cu in cubic inch cu m cubic meter cum 1) cumulative 2) cumulative production CUM-G cumulative gas production CUM-O cumulative oil production cumulative or cumulative production or recovery the total oil and gas production up to a given date. w3 cubic meter per kilogram a derived unit in System International (SI) for specific volume. The conventional unit is barrels and can be converted to the SI unit by multiplying by 0. Cut and strip uses special tools from a fishing-tool service company. The guide could also be prebent or designed to bend after running in the borehole.1590. nv'lmin cubic meters per stroke a derived System International (SI) unit for pump volume. (curing a title) Curie point the temperature above which a medium loses its ability to retain magnetism. curing the setting and aging of cement curing a title see cure the title current dollars dollars that are not adjusted for inflation (nominal dollars) curtailment the forced reduction of a well's per day gas production from the production specified in a purchase contract curved drill or drilling guide a downhole device used to kickoff and drill the build section of shortradius horizontal drainholes. (fraction) 2) a liquid diluted with something 3) the particle size that is removed at a certain percentage under certain conditions from a liquid-solid system by a filter 4) the percent impurities in crude oil 5) to reduce drilling mud density cut and fill an erosional channel that has been filled with sediments cut and strip a fishing method for conductor cable or sand line in a deep open hole or for a radioactive instrument. m-'/stroke cubic meters per tonne a System International (SI) derived unit for clay yield. A conventional unit is US gpm and can be converted to the SI unit by multiplying by 0. For most rocks it is less than 600°C. In some countries a cubic meter is used to measure crude oil volume. Another conventional unit is bbl/min and can be converted to the SI unit by multiplying by 0. The drill bit is driven from the surface by the driveshaft and the flexible drillstring above it. m>lkg cubic meters per minute a derived System International (SI) unit for pump output and flow rate.

The pipe left in the well is then retrieved by other fishing tools. stripped of liquids. clay content. The cable is then threaded through an overshot and drillstring until the logging tool is engaged and retrieved. or cvgs cavings CVL continuous-velocity log CVS constant velocity stack CVTY cavity CW continuous weld C^. CTL cutting tool a downhole tool that can cut through either rock or a fish cu yd cubic yard CV control valve C. or c. The cut point is the particle size that a given percentage is removed from the feed under specific conditions. Cuttings time lag is usually longer than mud time lag. 1) formation water conductivity 2) water compressibility or water coefficient of isothermal compressibility 3) connate water saturation cw clockwise Cw water compressibility C/W complete with C^B bound water conductivity CWE cold water equivalent equivalent water conductivity free water conductivity CWI carried working interest Cyber Log Systems™ a computed log analysis cycle one complete revolution. or ctg cuttings gas the gas obtained from the well cuttings during mud logging cuttings sampler a device that is used on a drilling rig to automatically separate some of the well cuttings from the drilling mud for sampling. The survey cable is supported from the rotary table and cut. two. and reinjected into the reservoir for pressure maintenance cycle skip or skipping the effect caused by the first signal during sonic logging being recorded on the cut-and-thread a fishing technique for a stuck logging tool. or saturation for computation. whereas those made by diamond bits and by air drilling tend to be smaller in size. specific heat at constant volume Cvg caving CVGS. or compressor between two intake strokes. The emulsion must be heated or treated with chemicals to separate the oil and water. and the larger cuttings are concentrated and washed. cuttings time lag the time that it takes the drilling mud to transport the well cutting from the bottom of the well to the surface. weight percent solids concentration C^. The cuttings are washed. (well cuttings) CTGS.118 cut-and-thread • cycle skip or skipping cuttings rock chips produced by chipping and crushing action of the drill bit on the bottom of the well. Ctgs. A cycle is the piston strokes in an engine pump. compressed. The cutoffs are the minimum porosity. Cutoffs are used in determining hydrocarbon saturations from well logs. A portion of the drilling mud from the well flows into the sampler where the well cuttings are separated. dried. cut a spoke to slightly close a valve cut ditch 1) to drill effectively 2) to do a good job cut down derrick to take a wooden derrick apart cut hole to drill a well cut line the height of oil in a stock or storage tank as seen on a tank gauge a) cutoff b) oxbow lake cut off 1) a channel eroded across the neck of a meander by a stream leaving behind an abandoned meander channel usually occupied by an ox-bow lake 2) the process of abandoning a meander channel cutoff the upper or lower limit of a parameter. The largest cuttings are made by roller-cone bits. (core head) cutters downhole fishing tools with knives that are rotated to cut stuck pipe in a well. Cutters can be either internal or external depending upon whether they are lowered on the inside or outside of the pipe. cutting oil oil that is used to lubricate and cool metal cutting tools . (bad oil) cut point the measurement of the effectiveness of a solid-liquid separator. cutting in the winding of a wire rope on a drum into a space in the underlying layer of wire rope. (stroke) cycle condensate natural gasoline or condensate that is stripped from wet gas before the cycle gas is reinjected into the reservoir for pressure maintenance cycle gas natural gas that is produced. The cuttings are sampled every 10-20 ft during the drilling of a well and at closer intervals in the pay section. The sampler is usually located over or near the mud tank. Cutting in can cause wire-rope damage. cutter acid used to remove water from crude oil cutterhead the ring-shaped cutting section on the bottom of a core barrel. Cvgs. One. cut-off line a line formedb y the intersection of a surface such as a bedding and a fault cut of oil the percentage of impurities in crude oil cut oil an emulsion of oil and water. ctgs. and stored in cloth sacks or envelopes and labeled. and four strokes are common in an engine. The cutterhead is usually diamond impregnated for uses in hard formations. Porosities in sandstone of 696-8% and 496-5% in carbonates are often used.

The injection of residue gas helps maintain reservoir pressure and prevents the condensate from separating (retrograde condensation) from the gas in the subsurface reservoir. One or more wave cycles are skipped and this results in the recording of an erroneously high transit time or low velocity for the rock layer. heavy oil. cyclic producer a pumping well that goes through repeated cycles of rod loading and then production. The efficiency of this process decreases with each cycle. RDX H-C — C-H I I H H cycloalkane or cycloparaffin (cyclobutane) cycloalkanes or cycloparaffin series a series of saturated. The residue or dry gas is then injected back into the subsurface reservoir 119 in a pressure maintenance program for the retrograde condensate reservoir. The fluid is pumped tangentially into the cone and spun. closed-ring hydrocarbons with the formula CnH2n. cyclone or cyclone cone a cone-shaped separator that contains a spinning fluid and uses centrifugal force to remove solids from the fluid. During the injection or huff stage. (alicyclic or napthene series) SILT SHALE MARINE ] LIMESTONE SHALE COAL SILT-SHALE NONMARINE SANDSTONE DELTA FRONT PRODELTA OFFSHORE NEARSHORE SWAMP LEVEE cyclothem cyclothem a vertical sequence of alternating marine and nonmarine sedimentary rocks. During the production or puff phase. The carbon dioxide dissolves in the oil. the well is shut in. soak. the well is shut in for days to allow the heat to dissipate and to reduce the viscosity of the heavy oil. cyclical marketing or make-up a condition in which no gas is taken from a gas well during months with a low gas price and the imbalance is made up during peak price months cyclic carbon-dioxide stimulation a type of wellstimulation process used to produce heavy oil. carbon dioxide is injected down the well and into the reservoir for a period of hours or days. is produced by solution gas drive. cyclic steam stimulation a type of well-stimulation process used on heavy oil reservoirs. and production. A vortex finder in the center of the cone can be used to remove gas. A well is repeatedly put through three stages: injection. Water is first injected into the reservoir to fill the fracture network. oil is expelled from the matrix of the rock as the pressure on the water is reduced. is pumped. cycle time 1) the time that it takes the drilling mud to make a complete round trip from mud tanks back to the mud tanks through the circulating system of a drilling mud. cycling the process of removing condensate out of wet gas from a condensate gas reservoir and then compressing and injecting the residue gas back into the condensate gas reservoir. A well is repeatedly put through three stages: injection. the fluid. the fluid.cycle time • cylinder block receiver closest to the transmitter but not on the fbrthest receiver. Cycle time is twice the lag time. During the soak period which lasts for days to weeks. cycling plant a surface installation that removes condensate from wet gas by compression and cooling or absorption with lean oil. heavy oil. which lasts for weeks to months. steam is injected down the well and into the subsurface reservoir for a period of time that ranges from days to weeks. During the injection stage. One cyclothem consists of one set of marine sedimentary rocks overlain by one set of nonmarine sedimentary rocks. cyclonite a common explosive in shaped-charge form used for perforating. (huff'n'puff or steam injection) cyclic water injection an improved oil recovery method used on fractured reservoirs. A cyclic producer can be the result of gas interference or too large a pump displacement. The desander and desilter on a drilling rig's circulating system are hydrocyclones. During the production phase which lasts from weeks to months. During the soak period. This is continued until it becomes uneconomical. and production. The cycle is then repeated. During the production phase. CY/D cycles per day cyl cylinder cylinder the metal tube in which a) the fuel-air combustion takes place in an engine or where b) the piston moves in a pump. cyl cylinder block the cylinder housing on an engine or pump . causing the oil to swell and become less viscous. The water injection is done only below bubblepoint pressure. (circulation time) 2) the time in a gas adsorption plant that it takes the sorbent to go from the adsorption tower through regeneration and back to the adsorption tower. Centrifugal force separates the particles by weight. An example is cyclobutane C4H8. soak.

(bull scout) cylinder drilling the drilling of a well with the wellbore contained in the dimensions of predetermined cylinders from the surface down to total depth cylinder head the seal on the end of a cylinder in an engine or pump. . . The czar also assigns s c o u t s to ^eiT d i s t r i c t s to be COVered. . czar the oil scout that is elected to be in charge of me s c o u t c h e c k s or meetings. cylinder liner a replaceable sleeve that fits in the cylinder of an engine or pump .120 cylinder drilling • czar cylindrical fold a fold in sedimentary rocks with the fold surface everywhere parallel to the fold hinge line CY/M cycles per minute cy/S cycles per second . The cylinder head often contains valves and outlets or inlets. .

chloride content. ago. y. The damage factor is equal to 1 — qlqp where q is the production rate at a fixed drawdown of the actual well and qt is the theoretical production rate at a fixed drawdown of the well with no formation damage. a time breakdown for each tour. activities such as tripping and repairs. daily and cumulative costs. dampening bottle see pulsation damper dampening sub a short section of pipe used in the downhole assembly between the bit and drill collars to absorb loads and vibrations during drilling. pump data. A daily contract quality has a specific price for the gas that is related to the Btu content of the gas. The mud properties are listed with mud weight. Reservoir rocks generally have permeabilities of 5-1. solids cement. gel strength. (mud record or report) daily take see daily contract quantity Dalton's law of partial pressures see law of additive pressures damage clause a provision in an oil and gas lease that defines the payment that the lessee must pay to lessor for any surface damage during drilling and production. damage factor a measure of the formation damage in a well. and drillstring data. pit volume. (daily take or take) DCQ daily drilling report a report made by the tool pusher on a drilling rig each morning that summarizes the drilling results of the previous 24 hours running from 6 a. 2) the undamaged permeability of the reservoir divided by the actual permeability measured during a drillstem test. damage payments compensation made by an operator to a surface rights owner for damages during drilling a well damage ratio 1) the theoretical flow capacity of a well divided by the indicated flow capacity. D . a common permeability unit. The report is usually prepared daily by a mud engineer. The damage is usually limited to crop damage. The damage ratio reflects skin damage in a well. Darcy is named after HenriPhilibert-Gaspard Darcy (1803-1858).m. The report is telephoned or radioed to the drilling contractor who then reports to the operator of the well. funnel viscosity. D-API Degrees American Petroleum Institute DAR discovery allowable requested darcy the unit of permeability measurement. cation exchange capacity. footage drilled in 24 hours.D • darcy 121 D D 1) depth 2) deliverability 3) diffusion coefficient 4) dimensionless 5) displacement 6) density log 7) distance 8) day 9) diameter 10) development 11) darcy 12) decline 13) deuterium 14) done d 1) depletion 2) diameter 3) dew point 4) dip 5) displaced 6) drainage 7) differential separation 8) decay 9) geophone spread 10) penetration exponent 11) day 12) annual production decline rate 13) deciDA daily allowable da deca dagger skirt a steel base with downward spikes on it that is used on the bottom of some gravity platforms to inhibit current scour around the base of the structure DA1B daily average injection barrels daily contract quantity the volume of natural gas per day that a purchaser is required to take from a gas reservoir as stated in a gas contract. A darcy is the rate of flow. Quantitative permeability measurements are made on rocks with a permeameter. is one1000th of a darcy and is abbreviated md. A daily drilling report commonly includes total depth at report time. DR damage release an agreement between the surface owner or tenant of land and an operator who is going to drill a well on that land. to 6 a. pH. calcium content. and fluid loss. and formations drilled. yield point. The fluid flows through the rock in viscous or laminar flow. measured in milliliters per second. A millidarcy.m. of a fluid having one centipoise viscosity through a one square centimeter cross section of rock with a pressure gradient of one atmosphere per centimeter. The surface owner or tenant receives a settlement in advance and releases the operator from any surface damage occurred during drilling the well. (damping sub) damping the decrease in an oscillation or wave damping sub see dampening sub dance hall the flat bed of a semitrailer truck D&A dry and abandoned D&C drill and complete D&D Desk and Derrick club D&P platform drilling and production platform Danian a global age of geological time that occurred about 67-62 m.F. mud measurements. solids-control equipment. bit size and number. The daily mud check report contains the well depth.000 millidarcies with some gas production from reservoirs with as little as 0. (morning report) daily mud check report a description of the physical and chemical characteristics of the drilling fluid during a period while drilling a well. a French engineer. Daily drilling reports vary between contractors. It is the Lower Paleocene epoch.1 millidarcies permeability. DF or D. plastic viscosity. The dampening sub uses steel wire woven into a mesh or washers to absorb shocks.

or db decibel D. A is the cross-sectional area in square centimeters. The headloss is equal to a coefficient that depends on Reynolds number and the conduit surface roughness times the length of the conduit divided by the diameter of the conduit times the velocity head of the flowing water. 1856) states that Q = K x / x A. \i is the fluid viscosity in centipoises. The operator directs all drilling activities and is responsible for the well.) x (dp/dx). The daylights tour is between the morning and evening tours.MA. The valve closes when the bailer is raised. In the metric system. Diamond Core Drill Manufactureres Association DCF discounted cash flow DCFR discounted cash flow rate DCOR diamond core DCFROR discounted cash flow rate of return DCLSP digging cellar and slush pits DCM distillate-cut mud do. Darcy's law is expressed as q = ((k x A)/\x. the datum is commonly sea level and is given in feet above or below sea level. / is the hydraulic gradient (loss of head per foot of flow distance). the dart lifts a ball valve to allow fluids and well cuttings into the bailer. The standby rate can be changed due to weather. dart 1) a protrusion on the bottom of a dart or dartbottom bailer. dart or dart-bottom bailer a bailer that has a check or dart valve on the bottom. Allowances are made in the contract for times when the rig is not drilling such as during logging. a measure of permeability. DAS deconvolution after stack dat datum data acquisition the method used in seismic exploration to emit a seismic pulse and to detect and record the seismic signals in the field data base a relatively complete collection of data data brokerage or exchange see geophysical library datum a reference surface to which measurements such as elevations are referred. Q is the quantity of water or any fluid (cubic feet per day) moving in laminar flow in a unit of time through a unit cross-sectional area that is A (square feet). K (feet per day) is the hydraulic conductivity. Darcy's law (Henri Darcy. The crew and the drillpipe may or may not be supplied by the operator. 2) A pump down version of an internal preventer. A modified day-rate contract is based on a basic day rate plus a footage-rate profit margin for incentive.m. The repair rate covers unscheduled shut downs except those for routine maintenance. casing and cementing operations. where q is the volume per unit time. during times when rigs are in short supply. It operates in a landing sub in the drill collars and is used when stripping under pressure.D. d daylights or daylight tour the shift for a crew on a drilling rig from 8 a. lack of supplies or personnel. On seismic. For elevations. coring. A daywork drilling contract is preferred by contractors in areas where subsurface conditions such as abnormal high pressures can extend the drilling operations. it is the surface from which seismic reflection times or depths are counted after corrections have been made for weathering and local topography. dat or DM datumization the flattening of a seismic reflection by the introduction of an arbitrary time shift datum pressure bottomhole pressure corrected to sea level or a specific subsea level day a non-System International (SI) unit that is allowable in SI for time. crew doodle bug crew DBIT diamond bit DBO dark brown oil DBOS dark brown oil stain DBS deconvolution before stack DC 1) drill collar 2) direct current 3) dual completion 4) diamond core 5) depth correction dc corrected d exponent DCB diamond core bit D. and d) a force majeure rate. drilling deeper DD&A deepened and abandoned DD&C deepened and completed DDC 1) direct digital control 2) deck decompression chamber DDL direct digital logging De effective decline rate Darcy's equation or law a formula that describes the flow of subsurface fluids and has a rate of flow proportional to the hydraulic gradient. day work.m. k is permeability in darcies. or day-rate drilling contract a type of drilling contract in which the contractor is paid for the time the rig is drilling down to a specified depth or horizon.122 Darcy's equation or law • De day tour see daylight tour daywork. (day tour) day rate see day work drilling contract . dB.D. (day rate or rig-time work) DB 1) drilling break 2) cement dump-bailer service 3) drilling barge 4) derrick barge 5) damaged bit Db diabase Db. A dart bailer is run on a sand or bailer line to remove fluids and cuttings from a well. b) a stand-by rate.400 seconds. c) a repair rate. and with offshore rigs.B. One day is equal to 86. An offshore day rate can include a) an operating and moving rate. Darcy-Weisbach formual a formula used to determine the loss of head in flowing water. normal corrected d exponent DCQ daily contract quantity DCS drill collars DD 1) drilling deeper 2) drill 3) drilled 4) drilling 5) depth determination dd dead D.C. or lack of completion equipment. to 4 p. and dpldx is the hydraulic gradient in atmospheres per centimeter. lack of license. When the bailer touches the bottom of a well.

The decanting centrifuge is used to remove heavy solids such as weighting material or barite from lighter components in water-base drilling mud. Decentralize is usually done with an arm or bow spring. The carbonaceous residue can be seen as a black precipitate on sediment grains in the reservoir rock that can plug the reservoir and as a tar mat at the oil/water contact. that has temporarily or permanently ceased to produce 3) a well that has been killed and is under control after a kick or blowout decentralizer 123 dead wood any internal fixtures such as pipe and valves that reduce the volume of an oil storage tank dead wraps the first few winds of wire rope around a drum. or a short section of timber. da decanewtons the System International (SI) unit used for weight on bit. The center of the crank is on the center line of the cylinder and the engine cannot start automatically. or by an increase in temperature causing an enrichment of the light ends of crude oil. deadman control a type of control that stops the machinery if the operator becomes incapacitated dead oil 1) viscous oil that has no or little dissolved gas. either gas or oil. There is a mud inlet into the conveyor. A debris flow is similar to a mud or earth flow but contains coarser particles.445. The liquid flows out ports on the larger end. The pressure on the fluid is balanced by adding weights onto a piston. DEA unit a treating facility that uses diethanolamine to remove acid gases such as hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide from a production stream Deb debris debris apron a broad alluvial slope deposited on an inland basin at he base of mountains bajada debris flow a mass movement or landslide that moves rapidly and contains a variety of particles. and cannot be recovered 2) residual oil after differential liberation of gas at reservoir temperature measured at 60°F and 14. and the slurry is thrown against the walls of the bowl by centrifugal force. Normal pentane is then used to dissolve the resins and precipitate the asphaltenes. a concrete block. Deasphalting can also occur in a gas lift well. dead well 1) an oil well in which the oil needs a pump to flow to the surface 2) a well. dead center the location of the piston on a singlecylinder engine at the end of the stroke. The complex asphaltene molecules become less soluble in the crude oil and precipitated as a solid bitumen. debug to search for and correct malfunctions in a computer program or an instrument debutanizer the distillation column in a gas processing plant where butane is separated from natural gas or natural gas liquids deca the metric prefix for 101.7 psia. 20% of which are greater than sand-size. (mud decanter) decentralize to position a tool or tubular against the side of a wellbore. along with considerable water. Dead kerogen is Type IV kerogen. DL 2) The bottom of the oil window where crude oil is generated dead-line or deadline anchor the sheave or rotatable drum on a base that is attached to the rig floor or substructure on a drilling rig through which the dead line end of the drilling line passes deadline diaphragm a diaphragm that is attached to the deadline on a drilling rig to measure the weight on the hook dead-load capacity the maximum vertical weight that a derrick can support without collapsing dead man an old term for a duster or dry hole deadman a buried anchor that is used to attach a guy wire for bracing a mast. derrick or other type of tower. (natural deasphalting) 2) A refinery process in which asphaltic residuum is treated with liquid propane to remove the resins and asphaltenes. dead end 1) the attached end of the drilling line 2) the closed end of a pipe dead fluid fluid that contains no free gas dead-in-a-hurry someone who transports nitroglycerin dead line or deadline 1) the fixed end of the drilling line on a drilling rig that is attached to the deadline anchor. DOIl dead sheave the wheel in the crown block through which the deadline is run dead time the length of time in microseconds that a radioactive logging system takes to recover from counting an event dead trace a seismic trace in which there is no variation possibly because of a disconnected connection dead weight tester an instrument used to measure surface shut-in pressure of a gas well. daN decanter or decanting centrifuge a centrifuge in the shape of a conical steel bowl with a double-screw conveyor rotating in it in the same direction but at a slower speed. The conventional unit is pounds and can be converted to the SI unit by multiplying by 0.de • de 1) electrode diameter 2) equivalent diameter DEA diethanolamine dead not connected dd dead carbon kerogen that has no potential to generate petroleum. The dead wraps are never played off the drum Dean-Stark apparatus a device that uses refluxing solvents to remove water and oil from cores deasphalting 1) a natural process in a subsurface oil reservoir caused by wet gas or retrograde gas from outside the reservoir migrating through the reservoir. will not flow through the rock. it has to be moved off center. decentralizer a decentralizing extension such as a bow spring that pushes a sonde or tool against the wellbore wall (eccentering arm) . The deadline is not reeled on the hoisting drum in the drawworks. Particles settle on the walls where the conveyor scrapes the settled solids toward the narrow end of the bowl where the discharge is located. Deadmen are made of a short length of largediameter pipe. The opposite end is attached to the drum in the drawworks and is called the fast line.

Dedolomitization is seen in calcite beds and calcite cemented sandstones as large. A decibel is used to measure sound intensity. A semilogarithmic chart is often used to make the decline curve approximate a straight line.0002 microbar is zero decibels soundlevel. or deer 1) decrease 2) decreasing 3) decreased decreased spacing a reduction in the size of drilling and spacing units in an area by a government regulatory agency. future production rates. and harmonic curve . Deconvolution recompresses the seismic impulse and results in clearer reflections and suppression of multiples. Deer. lease. db. For sound. A chance node is a point where chance will determine the outcome. deck 1) the flat working area on an offshore platform or ship 2) the screen surface on the basket of a shale shaker. deep as hell an ambiguous answer to how deep a well is deepen an operation on a well to drill below the deepest zone that the well previously penetrated or the deepest zone on the well's authority for expenditure deeper drilling dry-hole costs the cost of drilling a dry hole below the deepest proven producing zone in a well deeper-pool test an exploratory well that attempts to discover a deeper reservoir that has never been tested in a producing field deep gas deep gas is defined by the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 as natural gas produced from deci the metric prefix for 10 1 d decibel a unit of power of intensity ratio. This assures the pipeline company of an adequate supply of natural gas. A decline curve can be for either a single well or an entire field. lease. A pressure of 0. A decline curve (a plot of oil production rate versus time) of previous production (barrels per day) is extrapolated into the future. ECONOMIC LIMIT —— TIME decline curve decline curve a plot of rate of oil or gas production against time. The curve tends to smoothly decline with the highest production rate at first and the lowest production rate later when the wells become stripper wells. (flotation or tow barge) declared unit a unit formed by a lease under a lease pooling clause declination the angle between geographic north and magnetic north. dedolomitization the process of recrystallizing dolomite [CaMg(CO2)] into calcite (CaCO3). or field that is committed by gas contract to be sold to a specific purchaser at a fixed or determinable price. the threshold of hearing. For any position on earth. dedication the formal conveyance of private land for public use dedication of reserves the commitment. Exponential (constant percentage decline). usually by gas purchase contract. Branches on the tree occur when there are alternative courses of action. deconvolution removes the changes in the wave form or seismic energy made by the passage of the seismic wave through the subsurface rocks. (wavelet processing) decon DECR. Decollement is often associated with folding and overthrusting. In seismic exploration. the declination will change with time as the magnetic north and south poles move. decon deconvolution decontaminant a cement additive that counteracts a contaminant deconvolution a process that undoes the effect of waves passing through a filter. of all gas produced from a unit. deed a written instrument that conveys the title to land. hyperbolic. declining balance an accounting method used to calculate an accelerated depreciation on equipment decollement a structure composed of strata that have detached from the rocks below it. Eighty-acre spacing could be decreased to 40-acre spacing. A shale shaker can have either a single or double deck. Db.124 dec! • deep gas equations are often used to mathematically express the decline curve. or pressure level. either graphically or with a mathematical formula. it is a unit of measurement of the volume of sound equal to the logarithm of the ratio of the intensity of the sound compared to the intensity of an arbitrarily chosen standard. or field to a specific pipeline company. decline analysis or decline-curve method a method used to determine the remaining production. whereas a royalty deed transfers an interest in production. This is done by fitting a smooth curve to the decline curve. calcite rhombs. DeDet depth determination dedicated gas production from a unit. loudness. A warranty deed contains a guarantee of title. Decrease spacing requires a producing well on each decreased drilling and spacing unit to hold the lease in contrast to increased density. deck barge a wide barge that is used to transport jackets and modules offshore. The decision tree is used in an economic analysis of drilling. The decision tree ends in several terminal points which are the final outcomes. The purchaser has the right to all the gas production from that defined area. or dB decision tree a graphical presentation of a sequence of events and their possible outcome. and time of economic limit of a producing oil well. Decision nodes occur where a decision has to be made and there will be several consequences of that decision.

deficiency gas the difference in the amount of gas for which purchaser is obligated in a take-or-pay contract and the amount of gas that is actually taken 125 deficiency payment a payment made by an interstate gas pipeline company to a gas producer for gas that was not taken under a take-or-pay contract deficient well a well that cannot produce its allowable definite escalation clause a provision in a gas contract that sets the specific price for the gas but provides for specific increases in the initial price at specific dates or after any specific changes. The tool measures resistivity and the dielectric constant of formations and fluids. drift. DPT Deerparkian a North American age of geological time that occurred about 400-395 m. and organic silicones. a mud-gas separator.000 ft depth. b) flowing the mud in a thin layer over a wide sheet. or c) flowing through a vacuum cylinder. of the cost of a well(s) on a property which is disproportionately greater than the farmee's working interest. One type. The farmer has a deferred working interest and does not receive production revenue until the farmee has reached payout. It is usually horizontal.deep investigation • degree reservoirs below 15. a vacuum degasser. skid-mounted. The farmee has the right to have a similar disproportionate share. The ethane is returned to the gas stream. Equipment called degassers on a rig are designed to remove the gas. It is separated from the natural gas liquids to stabilize the liquid petroleum gas. The payments are spread over a number of years. the mud is less dense and viscous and cannot serve its purpose when recirculated down the well. pine oil. y. unlike the more common bonus which is a lump sum paid on execution of the lease. is designed to handle high pressure gas. The degasser is located on or near the mud tanks and is designed to remove any natural gas from the drilling mud when it returns from the well. In this manner. hole deviation. is designed to handle low-pressure gas that occurs as foam in the mud. The separated gas is then flared. One owner takes the gas as produced and the other owner postpones his right to the gas production. ° . of the operating rights in the well(s) until payout. deetfaanizer the distillation column in a gas processing plant where ethane is separated from natural gas or natural gas liquids. It is part of the Devonian period. the farmee is able to deduct all his IDCs. tributylophosphate. octyl alcohol. If the gas is not removed. or inclination) 2) the excursion of a curve on a well log 3) a change in the angle of a wellbore deflocculation the use of a thinner or agitation to break up floccules or lightly-bounded groups of finegrained particles called floes in a gel defoamer or defoaming agent a substance that reduces surface tension to reduce or eliminate foam. The price of deep gas was deregulated. ago. One degree is equal to TT/180 radians. parallel plates or tubes located in a separator that are used to coalesce foam bubbles DEG diethylene glycol deg degree degasser equipment that is pan of the circulating system on a drilling rig. deferred-bonus bidding a type of lease bidding. degaussing demagnetization DEG-C Degrees centigrade or Celsius DEG-F Degrees Fahrenheit DEG-K Degrees Kelvin DEG-R Degrees Rankin degree a non-System International (SI) unit that is allowable in SI for plane angle. The other type. usually all. in which the operator pays the bonus in installments and can terminate his rights and stop bonus payments at any time deferred-payment open-end sale a type of operating properties sale in which the seller reserves a production payment which ends when either a) the buyer's production reaches a specified amount or b) the reserves of the property are proven to equal a specified amount. degassing the removal of natural gas from drilling mud on a rig. usually offshore. usually all. deferred-production payment a type of production payment that does not start until the operator has received a specific amount of production deferred working interest farmout a type of farmout in which the farmee pays a share. The gas bubbles are removed by either a) spraying the mud against a baffle. deep investigation the sensing of a well-logging sonde beyond the invaded zone near the well bore deep propagation tool a down hole instrument that radiates electromagnetic energy and uses four receivers to measure the altenuation and velocity of the energy. deferred-production agreement a type of gas agreement between owners that are entitled to take payment of gas in kind. Defoamers are surface-active agents such as aluminum stearate. defoaming plate a series of inclined. drift angle. (offset sub) deflection 1) the angle between a crooked or deviated hole and vertical DFLN (angle of deviation. This protects the buyer of the properties if the reserves turn out to be less than originally estimated. deflecting sub or substitute a short section of pipe with an angle in it that is used to kick off a deviated well. such as in production or taxes. default the failure to comply with any provision in a legally binding contract default clause an oil and gas lease provision that states if the lessee violates the terms of the lease and does not remedy the violation after a certain number of days after written notice by the lessor. A deflected hole is more commonly called a deviated or directional well. deflection. three feet in diameter and 10 ft long. that might affect the seller deflected hole a well that is intentionally deviated from its normal course. the lessor can terminate the lease deferred bonus payments made to the lessor by the lessee for a lease.

(dehydrator) dehydration tank see settling tank dehydrator see dehydration plant dekatherm a unit of thermal energy equal to 105 Btu delay panel an electric memorizer that stores signals from a sonde to coordinate all signals with the depth reference of the sonde / delay rental a payment made to the mineral rights owner (lessor) by the lessee in order to maintain a lease during its primary term if drilling or production. at which natural gas from a well is to be delivered to a pipeline delv deliverability A 1) impulse 2) skin depth 3) loss tangent 4) displacement ratio 5) difference 8 1) skin depth 2) hole deviation 3) acoustic attenuation 4) delta value RIVER CHANNEL "API or degrees API gravity a scale reflecting the density of a fluid such as crude oil. has not commenced. It is a percentage of the bonus and can be as high as the bonus in some areas such as Louisiana. (annual acreage rental or carrying rental) delay rental clause an oil and gas lease provision that provides for the payment of a specific sum of o c e A N delta delta sediments deposited by a river emptying into a body of water such as a lake or ocean. and d) calcium chloride. Adsorption is used for the greatest dew point depression. F dehydration the removal of water.5 and subtracting 131. One degree Celsius is equal to 1° Kelvin. which depresses the dew point to -40°F. Fresh water has 10°API. liquid. pressure. and step-out well. The delay rental is usually paid annually. Pipeline or sales-quality gas contains less than 7 lb/MMscf of water and can contain a maximum of 3-5 lb/MMscf of water for cold climates. water. depending on the lease terms. depending on which is required in the terms of the lease. or gravity) grAPI "API gravity see "API °C 1) degree Celsius 2) degree centigrade "Celsius a non-System International (SI) unit that is allowable in SI for temperature. (API gravity. lobate. It can reduce the water content to less than V2 lb/MMscf. and molecular sieves. Expansion refrigeration uses a low-temperature separation unit and is commonly used to also remove liquid hydrocarbons. delv or D deliverability against pipeline pressure the amount of natural gas that a well can produce and deliver to a pipeline with a specific pressure (pipeline pressure) on the gas already in the pipeline deliverability plot a graph of flowing bottomhole pressure versus production from a well deliverability standard pressure the pressure that is used in determining the amount of natural gas (deliverability) that a gas well can produce delivery the actual volume of a fluid passed through a meter during meter proving delivery in kind the acceptance by an owner of an interest in a portion of the oil and/or gas produced from a well in lieu of monetary payment for his interest delivery pressure the pressure. such as calcuim chloride. c) expansion refrigeration. (drilling development or drilling and rental clause) delimit to fix a boundary of an oil field by drilling delineation well a general term for any well drilled to the side of a discovery well to determine the probable aerial extent of the reservoir on the location of the oil/water contact. or solid that are present. balance of river deposition and wave erosion (constructive or . due to adsorption of water from air deliverability the flow rate of a gas well against a specific pressure that is usually a working pressure at the wellhead after a specific time has elapsed since shut-in. It was originally the centigrade scale.126 "API or degrees API gravity • delta money (delay rental) to the lessor by the lessee at certain times in order to maintain a lease during its primary term if either production or drilling.5. alumina. The phase rule states the F = (C — P) +2 where C is the numer of components and P is the number of phases. outpost well. deliquescence the liquefactor of a solid. b) solid desiccants such as silica gel. Deltas are often described by their aerial geometry (arcuate. Natural gas is dehydrated to pipeline or sales-quality specifications by a) a liquid desiccant such as glycol. or birdfoot). More precise terms are extension test. but delay rentals can be semiannual or quarterly in the Midwest. cuspate. or natural gas. °C °F degrees Fahrenheit degrees of freedom the smallest number of variables such as temperature. stated in a gas purchase contract. and concentration that is needed to determine the remaining variables in the system and the phases such as gas. The plant is often either an absorber that uses a liquid dessicant such as triethylene glycol (TEG) or a solid dessicant such as activated alumina (bauxite) or silica gel for the separation. dehydration plant equipment at the wellsite(s) that often commingles gas streams from several wells to separate water from the gas to prevent hydrate formation. It is computed by dividing the specific gravity of the fluid at 60°F into 141. DAPI. Deltaic sediments are often very thick and can include sediment sizes from coarse sands to clays. The most common dehydration method uses triethylene glycol (TEG) in an absorber. has not been initiated during the period specified in the lease.

Surface soil samples are analyzed for carbonates derived from hydrocarbons that have seeped from subsurface reservoirs. Deltas formed in tidal inlets are described as flood and ebb deltas. A a Accuracy of azimuth angle A C 1) carbon isotope ratio 2) delta carbonate A carbonate a method of geochemical prospecting for petroleum... The anomaly occurs in the shape of an ellipse or halo. lacustrine delta-fill. The bedding in deltas can be described as topset. foreset. bar finger.. It is above tidal and marine influences and contains migratory channel.acoustic traveltime in fluid At]. in time between the arrival times at different geophone groups in seismic exploration 3) the time difference between opposite ends of a single-ended geophone spread or geophone groups at maximum offset on opposite sides of a symmetrical spread after correction for normal moveout (dip moveout) in seismic exploration.. AC A C halo an anomalously high concentration of carbonates derived from hydrocarbons in the surface soil over a subsurface petroleum reservoir. acoustic traveltime in rock matrix or (At. The upper deltaic plain is the older part of the delta and occurs furthest inland. or dominate process (river-dominated.. and the new delta progrades out into the ocean. It is due to the dip of the rocks in the geological section. (interval transit time) DT 2) the difference.. AD density-log porosity correction delta switching delta fringe sands delta fringe sands a fan-shaped deposit of shallowwater sands created by wave reworking of distributary mouth bar sands in front of a delta Ah depth variation Ai accuracy of slant angle deltaic related to a river delta AP differential pressure Apf frictional pressure drop AN neutron-log porosity correction delta switching a process in which a river periodcially abandons an old delta and deposits a new delta on a shorter route to the ocean along a shoreline. continuous velocity or boreholecompensated log or Acoustilipg™ log. various sand bodies such as distributary channel. A surface halo of delta carbonates (A C) can occur over subsurface reservoirs. The lower deltaic plain occurs between high and low tide. At. apparent matrix transit time acoustic traveltime in mud filtrate At. Depending on the type of delta.!. beach. The abandoned delta is eroded by waves.8a • 8^ 127 ARCUATE delta forms delta plain the environment on a river delta that occurs between the alluvial valley and the limit of low tide. The delta plain is the area where the distributary channels spread out and sediments are deposited from periodic flooding by the river and from high tides. AT the difference in time between two time values that were observed or interpolated from observed or calculated values on a seismic reflection or refraction stepout times At 1) time increment 2) acoustic traveltime in a formation 3) residence time A t 1) sound velocity (usually the compressional wave) measured in jtsec/ft through a rock layer or formation by a sonic..^). the official symbol is t. acoustic traveltime in limestone At. and delta fringe sands can be petroleum reservoirs in ancient deltas. acoustic traveltime in shale acoustic traveltime in sandstone acoustic traveltime in water . It contains bay fill and distributary channel deposits. acoustic traveltime in coal Atj. wave-dominated. or tide-dominated). and flood plain deposits. and bottomset beds. Ap density difference Apj density correction A^ radius of invaded zone destructive)..

and f) bit selection. The field can also be depleted after a waterflood or enhanced oil production becomes economically unjustified. DENL. Den-G density. or bacteria. erosional resistance with no structure. A density log uses a pad-type sonde with a spring-loaded back-up arm that also provides a caliper measurement. (formation density. b) gas effect. the porosity of the rock can be calculated.128 delta value • depletion gas expansion drive effects. Liquid density is often expressed in lbs/gal. By bombarding the subsurface rocks with gamma rays and counting the backscattered gamma rays. and bed thickness effects departure direction see departure depl depletion deplete to exhaust or use up depleted field. The densimeter is calibrated against air and water. A demulsifier is used as a chemical additive in drilling mud to separate oil and water. gamma-gamma. A turbidity current is a density current. or nuclear interface log)D. The bulk density of rock includes the density of the rock and the fluids in the pores of the rock. ds Is Densilog™ a density log densimeter or densitometer a through-tubing production logging device that measures the resonate frequency of a hollow cylinder with radial blades as fluid flows through it to measure the density of the fluids. DL. The density log is used for a) porosity determination. Density is often used interchangably with specific gravity. or g/cc. lbs/bbl. or formation that has produced all of its recoverable oil and gas. The relative amounts of oil and water are important in selecting a demulsifier. Depletion can be either a) cost or b) percentage. Percentage depletion is based on a statutory percentage of gross income on production for a year. depl or d depletion allowance percentage of oil and gas monies that are tax exempt depletion decline the natural decline in produaion of a well that occurs after the drainage has reached the outer boundaries of the well's drainage in a constant volume reservoir depletion drive see dissolved gas expansion drive depletion-drive pool see dissolved gas-expansion pool depletion gas expansion drive see solution-gas expansion drive delta value the deviation of an isotope ratio from the standard value demister a wire mesh pad that is used in a separator to trap and coalesce liquid droplets out of gas demonstrated reserves both measured and indicated reserves demulsiner a chemical. chemicals. that is used to break up emulsions. reservoir. or DIL density order a regulatory commission ruling on well locations dentist a cement man dep depreciation deparaffin To remove wax from wells or flowlines. From the density of the rock. reservoir. irregular branches of tributary streams with no preference to direction or orientation. Dendritic drainage is the most common drainage pattern. invaded zone. Cost depletion amoritizes the depletable basis in the property over the life of the produaion. departmental lease an oil and gas lease on federal lands that was noncompetitive or issued without bidding departure the compass direction of a directional survey location in a well from the wellhead location (departure direction) departure curves a set of curves that permits apparent resistivities from normal and lateral logs to be corrected for borehole. The compensated density log has a secondary detector on the sonde that responds more to the mudcake and borehole irregularities and is used to correct or compensate the main detector for these undesired . density mass per unit volume. The wax is removed by heat. Matrix density is the density of only the rock. demulsify to break an emulsion into its components demultiplexing a process in seismic exploration that separates the individual seismic channels from the field tape and reassembles the seismic data that correspond to each detector onto an edit tape Den density log dend dendrite dendritic drainage a stream drainage pattern which is characterized by numerous. or formation a field. usually a surface active agent. d) detection of overpressured zones. A demulsiner is used to reduce the surface tension of oil to break up oil and water emulsions. Economics might not justify waterflood or enhanced oil recovery. e) lithology identification. the density of the subsurface rock layers can be computed. c) hydrocarbon density. The field can be depleted after primary production has occurred and the natural reservoir drive has been so diminished that the wells are at or below the economic limit. depletion 1) the reduaion in reserves by the removal of petroleum from a reservoir 2) the removal and sale of petroleum from a reservoir 3) the reduaion in value of a field or lease by the production of gas and oil 4) the time in the life of a well when hydrocarbons can no longer be produced with a profit 5) an accounting method in which a reduction in income is made for tax purposes that reflects the removal of a mineral deposit that cannot be replaced such as produaion of oil and gas. Gas density is often expressed in lbs/ft3. A densimeter is used to differentiate gas from oil and water flow in a well. gamma ray log DENL density log dense limestone limestone with little or no permeability. density current a gravity flow down a slope by a denser fluid in a lighter fluid. Dendritic drainage develops on rocks of uniform. scrapers. Den. density log a radioactive type of wireline well log that measures the density of subsurface formations in gm/cc.

The two halves of the torpedo are hinged and clamp around the streamer. Total measured. depositional-shoreline break a line on a shelf of a basin that is defined in seismic or sequence stratigraphy as having the depositional surface located landward of the break at base level (sea level) and seaward of the break at below base level.000 ft depth. The accounting methods used can be either a) straight line or b) accelerated. Track 1 is located to the left and Track 2 to the right. depth point is a) the point of reflection for seismic energy. (rating) depth track a vertical column down a well log with recordings of depth (below kelly bushing. Examples include a high-energy river channel or eolian sand dune in the desert. (diameter of invasion) depth of investigation 1) the maximum subsurface depth to which a surface exploration tool such as seismic can reach and define features 2) the radius around the wellbore in which a logging sonde is influenced by the rocks and their fluids. reservoir. or deep. or ground level (GL) that is used for zero depth in well logging depth earned seefarmout depth depth in the depth of a well when a new bit is run in the well depth of invasion the radius measured from the wellbore to the point which the mud filtrate penentrated back into a formation. or field per unit time./lOO ft. dpt. It is measured from the measure point on the tool to the point in the formation where the tool response is centered. Four depth controllers are used on each streamer. logged. or ground level) in hundreds of feet. A depositional trap is a type of stratigraphic trap. The Texas Railroad Commission has a depth yardstick allowable of 102 BOPD for a well on a 40-ac spacing production from a reservoir between 5. the amount of gas and/or oil that is permitted to be produced by a government regulatory agency. deprop depth the distance from the top to the bottom of a well. The depth yardstick increases to 230 BOPD for a well on 40 ac spacing producing from a reservoir between . The top of a well is measured from the kelly bushing (KB).000 and 6. weight and amount of equipment increases with the depth rating of the rig. True vertical depth is measured vertically to the bottom of the well and is usually shorter than total depth. The depth of investigation of a normal device is about twice the A to M electrode spacing. The fins are angled to keep the steamer at the desired depth. The depth yardstick increases with depth of reservoir and increased well spacing. depositional system a three-dimensional assemblage of lithofacies in seismic or sequence stratigraphy that are genetically linked by processes and environments depositional trap an oil and gas trap formed by the deposition of the reservoir rock such as a limestone reef or river channel sandstone. A detail log has a scale of 5 in. medium. or b) the point midway between the shotpoint and geophone. the amount of petroleum that is permitted to be produced from a well. depth rating the maximum depth that a drilling rig is safety designed to drill using standard equipment and tools. which may not be vertical. leasehold. D. The depth of investigation is described as shallow. drilling floor (DF). rotary table (RT). rotary table. depr or dep deprop depropanizer depropanizer the distillation column in a gas processing plant where propane is separated from natural gas or natural gas liquids. depository bank the institution to which delay rental payments must be made for the lessor of a lease depr depreciation depreciation the annual deduction from income in recognition for the loss of the value of equipment due to age. or ground level (GL). Z./100 ft. or well that will exhaust or deplete the reserves within a specific period of time depletory covenant the obligation of the lessee of adjacent lands not to drain the oil from under the lessor's lands by wells on the adjacent lands depocenter an area of thick sediment deposition depolarize the removal of a polarizing corrosion agent deposit a natural accumulation of oil and/or gas or any other commercial substance depositional environment the physical environment in which sediments were deposited. depth-control log a gamma ray or neutron log run in a cased hole for correlation with an openhole log in the well for completion operations depth datum the kelly bushing (KB). In refraction seismic exploration. depthometer an instrument that consists of a counter on a calibrated wheel used to measures the length of wireline as it is run in or pulled out of a well depth out the depth of a well when an old bit is pulled out of the well depth point in reflection seismic exploration. depth-bracket method of proration a method of limiting oil and gas production by assigning a specific amount of production to all wells of a specific depth range depth column see depth track 129 depth controller a 2-ft torpedo with two fins that is used on a hydrophone steamer to regulate the depth of the streamer.depletion rate • depth yardstick depletion rate the production rate from a field. whereas a correlation log has a scale of 1 or 2 in. and driller's depth are measured along the course of the wellbore. assuming a horizontal reflector. or z depth-bracket allowable an allowable. (depth column) depth yardstick reservoir depths that are used by a government regulatory agency to set allowables. A constructive delta causes a depositional regression. depth point is the point for which the depth of a horizon has been calculated. The size. depositional regression a retreat of the seas from the land (regression) caused by the deposition of sediments along the shoreline. Depth-bracket allowable is based on a depth yardstick. that is based on the depth of the well.

The API size number for derricks refers to the number of panels between the upper and lower girts. drawworks. It is equipped with a brake and brake handle. A derrick barge is used to lift modules onto offshore platforms. or rig floor) DF derrick height the length of a derrick leg measured from the derrick floor to the bottom of the water table beams derrick man or derrickman the senior rigman of the drilling crew who climbs the derrick to stand on the monkey or derrick board to latch and unlatch WELL LOG s DEPTH TRACK • depth track 10. and 515 BOPD for offshore wells.392. brackets. drk. The rotary table.. The derrick is often called a standard derrick and must be assembled piece by piece at the drill site or on the offshore drilling platform in contrast to a unitized derrick or mast which is lowered and raised in one piece. deregulation clause a provision in a gas contract that outlines how the price of gas covered by the contract will be determined in the event that natural gas is deregulated derrick . A derrick consists of a) a gin pole. the tools and drillstring are run into the ocean from the work area surrounding the opening. The derrick is used to suspend the drillstring in the well and is part of the hoisting system that raises and lowers equipment in the well. Deranged drainage forms on an recently exposed surface. The derrick window. the larger and stronger the derrick must be.000 to 1. The API safe-load for a derrick is computed by multiplying the strength of the weakest point of a derrick leg and multiplying by four. A typical offshore derrick is 150 ft high and 33 ft wide along the base. drill. V-door or V-window is the open space in the derrick through which drillpipe and equipment are brought onto the drill floor. and other equipment are located on the floor and the well is in the center. 1965. The horizontal structural members that support the legs are called girts with braces connecting the girts. e) legs. b) crow's nest. or Dk. driller's console. The derrick climber consists of a wheel used to slide down a cable (Geronomi line) which is attached to the rod basket or tubing board and a stake or some other secure fastening on the ground. A derrick usually has four legs located at the corners of the derrick floor. derrick floor the elevated platform supported by the substructure on a drilling rig on which the derrick sits. 192 BOPD for fields discovered after January 1. (Geronimo or safety slide) derrick efficiency factor the actual derrick load divided by the maximum equivalent load on a derrick. On an offshore drilling rig. d) monkey or racking board. The deeper the well. derrick apple a small object such as a nut or bolt that falls to the drill floor of a rig derrick barge a barge that has a heavy lifting-capacity crane on the stern.000 and 10. girts. and ladder. (drilling. The derrick efficiency factor is expressed as a percentage. Derricks are rated for maximum pipe setback load and wind velocity. The substruaure or derrick floor is used to mount equipment such as the rotary table and drawworks. The crown block is located at the top of the derrick. 1965. short tributaries and extensive swampy areas.000 lbs. deranged drainage a stream drainage pattern that is characterized by irregular streams flowing in and out of lakes with a few. away from the rig.500 ft depth that was discovered before January 1. DRRK. (crane barge) DB derrick climber a device that is used by a crew member to escape from the monkey or tubing board near the top of the derrick on a drilling or workover rig. There are nine API sizes of conventional derricks that range from 80 to 189 ft high and have capacities from 86. both with and without stands of pipe. c) water table. Drk. Drilling operations occur on the derrick floor.130 deranged drainage • derrick man or derrickman derrick a vertical tower made of special structural steel on a drilling rig.

ago. The design factor of wire rope is the nominal catalogue breaking strength of the wire rope divided by the calculated total static load on the wire rope. destructive testing a testing procedure that destroys the sample. Desc. desc. Three types of derrick windows are a) V-window. y. Sandstone reservoirs can occur as beaches deposited in front of ancient destructive deltas.00 for internal-yield pressure. from the shoreline. or descr desiccant a drying or dehydrating medium such as triethylene glycol (TEG) or silica gel that is used to remove water desiccator a metal or glass container that is used to dry out a substance. desc. and d) ladder window. Des Moinesian a North American epoch of geological time that ended about 310 m. A vortex pipe extends from the top of the cone into the desander and causes a whirling motion in mud that is pumped tangentially into the desander. coarse particles exit the bottom of the cone. The desilter typically removes 50% of all 10 \L size particles. (safety factor) 131 design life the maximum expected operational life of equipment design load the maximum force that a structure is engineered to withstand design pressure the maximum working pressure that equipment is designed to withstand design water depth the maximum water depth for the operation of a specific drilling rig desilter a metal. and the mud with finer particles exits the top. . Destructive testing is in contrast to nondestructive testing. Sand in the drilling mud could cause excessive abrasion in the mud pumps./lOO ft in contrast to a correlation log at 1 or 2 in. des desiccation desalt desalting plant desalting a method of emulsion treatment in which low-salinity water is mixed with the emulsion to dilute the brine phase and lower the salt content of the crude oil desalting plant an installation that uses either chemical or electrostatics to remove salt from crude oil. Hydrogen sulfide is removed from sour gas with an amine solution or iron sponge. It is part of the Pennsylvanian period. (sole fault) detailed study or survey a geological and geophysical investigation over a relatively small area of interest. Thrust and growth faults often become detachment faults as they flatten out with depth. if any. or Descr description description the legal location of land covered by a lease. Desc. in diameter) after the drilling mud circulates back to the surface of a well and before it is returned to the mud tanks. DESTRUCTIVE DELTA BEACH destructive delta destructive delta a river delta dominated by erosional marine forces such as waves. cone-shaped device having no moving parts called a hydrocyclone. the precipitation of reservoir bitumens by hydrogen sulfide causes desulfurization. desulf desulfurizer desulfurization the removal of sulfur. cone-shaped device that centrifuges the drilling mud in a manner similar to a desander to remove silt-sized and larger particles in the range of 2-74 \x in diameter. detail log a well log with depth scale of at least 5 in. The desiccant that absorbs or adsorbs moisture is placed in the bottom section. desulf det 1) detector 2) detonator detached structure a structure in overlying rocks that does not involve the basement detachment fault a large. and the substance or sample is placed in the top section. design factor the ratio of the minimum load causing failure in a structure to the maximum permissible working load or the ultimate stress to the allowable stress. low-angle fault that is parallel to the bedding planes in sedimentary rocks. The desilter has a smaller cone than the desander and is used after the drilling mud flows through the desander and before it is returned to the mud tanks. (tower hand or monkey) derrick monkey a derrick man derrick ladder a steel ladder that goes up a derrick from the drill floor to the crow's nest between two legs. It is a type of hydrocyclone. The delta protrudes little. A detailed study is in contrast to a reconnaissance study or survey.derrick monkey • detail log elevators to stack drillpipe during trips. The desander can be operated mechanically or by fluid flowing in a metal.25 for plain-end yield stress and 1. derrick skinner a derrick man derrick window the space in the derrick through which drillpipe and equipment are brought onto the drill floor. The derrick man mixes the drilling mud and can maintain the mud tanks. The heavier. The derrick ladder is used to give access to the racking board and the crown block through an opening in the platform on the crow's nest. A desander has a larger cone than a desilter. The derrick man also maintains the machinery and is second in charge of the crew on that tour. The testing could be a tensile or compressive test or mass spectrometry. The design factor is usually expressed as a decimal. The design factor for casing is 1. The desiccator has a top and bottom section. b) drawworks window. desalt desand to remove API sand (particles greater than 74 |JL in size) desander a metal vortex cone on a drilling rig that centrifuges drilling mud to remove a high percent of API sand (particles greater than 74 \x. In a high temperature reservoir.

see geophone det detergent a drilling fluid additive that is used to reduce the surface tension of the drilling fluid. The S-curve kick builds angle.132 detail scale • deviation drilling development well a well drilled into a producing reservoir that already is reasonably well delineated. Type III is a well that is deflected at a deeper depth and then has a constant inclination. Deviation is the minimum angle between a straight line through the wellbore and a true vertical line measured in degrees. DRM detritus particles of rock formed by mechanical weathering deuterium an isotope of hydrogen (2H) that is heavier than common hydrogen. Type I is deflected at shallow depth. (delay rental clause) 2) a term in an agreement that specifies the exact number of developmental wells that are to be drilled development contract a federal contract for exploration on lands where development incentives have been granted and acreage restrictions have been relaxed as encouragement for exploration development costs the cost involved in bringing proven reserves to production. detector 1) a sensor such as a scintillation counter on a nuclear well logging tool 2) the part of a remote sensing system that converts electromagnetic radiation into a signal 3) a geophone used in seismic exploration. Detrital remanent magnetism is in contrast to chemical and thermal remanent magnetism. Deviated wells can also be classified as Types I. D DEV development well Dev devonian dev deviation developed reserves the amount of oil and/or gas that can be recovered through existing wells development the methods used to drill and bring into production petroleum from a reservoir development clause 1) a provision in an oil and gas lease that allows for the payment of delay rentals to the lessor at certain times to maintain the primary term of the lease if drilling or production. Two types of deviated wells are a straight (continuous) and S-curve kick. A detrital rock is composed of detrital mineral grains. detail scale a depth scale on a log of 5 in. (exploitation well) DEV development well success ratio the number of successful development wells divided by the total number of development wells drilled in that basin DEVI 1) deviate 2) deviated 3) deviation DEVIA deviation drilling deviated hole or well a well intentionally drilled at an angle from the vertical. Type II is the S-shaped well. The straight kick builds angle and then drills straight to the target. The deviated well is initiated by a whipstock or a bent sub with a downhole. A detail log is used to examine the subsurface formations in more detail than on a correlation log./100 ft detectability the smallest object that can be resolved on a remote sensing image. A deviated hole is in contrast to a crooked hole that was unintentionally drilled. and then drops angle and drills straight to the target. turbine or mud motor. abrupt. detr. A detrital mineral is formed from the mechanical weathering of rock. To drop angle. An example of deviation is 4°N30°E. packed-hole. The deviation can be described as abnormal. the pendulum effect can be . Drilling a development well results in either an oil or gas development well or a dry development well. drills straight. (allogenic) DETR. and III. Development wells are drilled to efficiently drain the reservoir and have very low risk. II. To build angle. to increase the bit penetration rate. Well deviation can be initiated by the fulcrum. The development well will have several producing wells on adjacent drilling and spacing units. and the inclination is constant until the target is reached. determinable fee a property interest that terminates at a specific event or nonevent detonator an electric blasting cap used for explosives DETR or detr detrital detrital particles that were formed by the weathering and erosion of preexisting rocks and were transported and deposited. pendulum. Development costs include the cost of drilling developmental wells plus the production equipment and its installation. Deviated well depths are reported as measured depth with vertical depth in parenthesis. and rotational. has not commenced. measured in pipe diameters. drift-induced. and to reduce balling the bit. A detergent is a surface-active agent. near-bit stabilizer with collars. a packed-hole assembly that is stiff and stabilized to full gauge can be used. primarily magnetite. (directional hole or well) deviation 1) the amount in which a well has been drilled off vertical. The mineral crystals aligned with the earth's magnetic field as they were settling out of water. development length the distance. To maintain the angle. and bottomhole assemblies. Wireline well logs are run with coiled tubing on a deviated well. depending on the terms of the lease. DEVI or dev 2) the angle between a tool axis and vertical in a well 3) the difference between a predicted or expected value and the aaual value that is measured deviation bit a rotary drilling bit that is engineered to reduce the tendency to drill a crooked hole /100 ft. or dtr detrital grain allogenic grain detrital remanent magnetism the magnetic moment created by the alignment of ferromagnetic minerals. a fulcrum assembly consists of a full-gauge. in a sedimentary rock. that a single or multiphase fluid takes to reach equilibrium as it flows into and along a pipe deviation drilling (straight and S-curve) deviation drilling intentionally drilling a well at aa angle from the vertical.

A dextral strike slip fault is also known as a right lateral strike slip fault. and Chautaquan North American epochs. dew point tester an instrument that is used to measure the dew point and water content of gas. and Lower Devonian global epochs. for inaccessible sites. or c) dropped down the well. dew point the highest temperature at which water vapor in a gas will begin to condense. dewax dewaxing d exponent drilling exponent dextral rotation to the right or clockwise. ago. Both the gyroscopic and magnetic multishot surveys are recorded on film. The depth determination in made by timing. The dew point is used to indicate water vapor content of natural gas. DF derrick floor DF or D. Deviation surveys can be run every 1.F. DFP date of first production DFREC drilling fluid recovery DFTS drilling fluid to surface DG 1) dry gas 2) developmental gas well DGAS dry gas DGM downhole gravitymeter Dgt Dip Rec digital dip-log recording service Dgt Tp Rec digital tape recording service dh downhole dj. One type of multishot measurement uses a stabilized gyroscope that transmits the information to the surface through an electric wireline. A refrigerant is used to cool the gas until liquid moisture is formed and observed. Dextral is the opposite of sinistral. Senecan. The Devonian is subdivided into Upper Devonian.deviation survey • diabase employed with a stabilizer located several drill collars from the drill bit. Gas production from Devonian shales is given special tax consideration as unconventional gas. A drift indicator measures only the hole inclination. diesel fuel DFE derrick floor elevation DFLD drilling fluid DFLN deflection DFN delayed fission neutron DFO datum faulted out. diameter of hole DHC dry hole contribution DHDD dry hole drilled deeper DHL™ deviated hole logging DHM dry hole money DHR dry hole reentered DHWO dry hole workover DI dual induction log d. Dev Devonian shale shale deposited during the Devonian period. (dolerite) Dd . Middle Devonian. flushed zone) 2) inside diameter of pipe Dia or dia diameter diabase an intrusive rock composed primarily of the minerals labradorite and pyroxene. Deviation drilling is sometimes called controlled directional drilling. b) on a wireline. DP or d dew point curve a line drawn along the dew point in a pressure or temperature versus concentration plot. Deviation drilling is often used in offshore wells. The multishot measurements are made with a logging tool either a) in a drill collar that has to be fished out. The Devonian is known as the Age of Fish and Forests and is part of the Paleozoic Era.F. It contains the Ulsterian. The survey can be either magnetic or gyroscopic (used in a magnetic environment) and are single or multishot. y. damage factor D. (directional drilling) DEVIA in liquid 133 8 600' 1/2 800' 1/2* O20< 2 1/4* qns 400' 3/4c 1000' 3/4° TEMPERRTURE dew point curve deviation survey (multi-shot) deviation survey a downhole survey that charts the inclination or inclination and azimuth of a well. It shows where dew first forms in a gas. drilling floor d. The single-shot measurement is made by running the tool inside the drillstem on a wireline.000 ft in formations that don't deflect the bit and as often as every 50 ft in areas of dipping hard rocks and faults: (directional survey or directional and directional drilling log) deviatoric stress the component of total stress that is greater than mean normal stress at a point devit devitrified DEVL 1) develop 2) developed 3) development Devonian a period of geological time about 405365 m. whereas the other instruments measure both inclinaton and azimuth. Devonian shales in the Eastern United States are fractured and contain natural gas. 1) diameter of invaded zone (inner boundary. for sidetracking a well. or for testing numerous potential zones. Erian.f.

northeast. DIAM or diam diameter diameter of invasion see depth of invasion diamond an extremely hard mineral composed of pure carbon with a specific gravity of 3-51-3. The diamond weights range from 2 to Vis carats and are typically 1 to Va carat. solution.134 diachronous • diastem shearing or milling of the formation. direct offsets are located immediately to the north. Diagenesis includes the processes which form sedimentary rocks from loose sediments and occur in sediments from the time they are buried until metamorphism (high temperatures and/or pressures). diaphragm pump a reciprocating pump that uses the action of a flexing diaphragm in a fixed chamber to move fluids.53 diamond washover shoe diamond bit diamond bit or diamond drill bit a type of drag bit that has no moving parts and uses a large number of small. The diamonds are arranged in radial blades on a face of solid steel and tungsten-carbide casting to produce a continuous diamond washover shoe a hollow tube with industrial diamonds on its cutting edge. The flow is often caused by pressure or density differences. Diamond bits are most effective in hard formations such as dolomite due to their scrapping with some crushing action. DBIT diamond near bit stabilizer a sub that is run on the drillstring to maintain the proper position of the drillstring in the hole during drilling. or southwest of a well or lease. One corner of each lease is shared. industrial grade diamonds arranged geometrically on a solid steel or tungsten carbide body to cut the well. underlying rocks such as salt or shale. Diamond bits are made with a steel blank that is put in a mold containing tungsten covered diamonds plus a binder. such as D437. and the well cuttings are usually smaller than those made by a roller-cone bit. The diamond bit is operated at higher RPM than a roller-cone bit and costs about four times as much as an insert bit of the same size. The diamond washover shoe is designed to cut around a stuck tool to loosen it during fishing operations. Examples of diapirs include a salt stock or plug and a mud diapir. The diaphragm pump has the advantage that it can handle large amounts of suspended solids in the fluid. diapir a body that has pierced or appears to have pierced the overlying rocks by the upward flow of plastic. adaptations for special applications. or west. Diamond bits are classified by the International Association of Drilling Contractors with a three-digit code preceded by D. (time-transgressive) diag diagram diagenesis the changes which occur in sediments at shallow depths under low temperatures and pressures. The diaphragm meter is used for low volumes of clean. A diamond compact bit is a type of drag bit that uses a synthetic diamond matrix. A diamond bit typically lasts for 200-400/hrs of drilling. east. The diaphragm is alternately filled and emptied to measure the gas. shape. and then fused. compaction. Diagenesis can include cementation. (piercement dome) diapiric folding folding in sedimentary rocks such as an anticline in which incompetent beds such as shale or salt have been extruded through the crest of the structure (piercement folding) diastem a short interruption in the sediments without erosion . Larger diamonds are used for softer rocks and smaller diamonds for harder rocks. southeast. Biogenic gas forms during the diagenesis of sediments. dry gas and is the type of gas meter used on homes. diamond-point bit a bit having one sharp point and tungsten carbide cutting edges that is run ahead of core bits to remove cuttings from the bottom of the well diamond steel-mill bit a bit with small diamonds on its surface that is used to cut a window in the casing for sidetracking a well diachronous a rock unit such as a formation that was deposited at different times in different areas. Oil generation occurs at greater depths and higher temperatures through the process of catagenesis. Diagn or diagn diagenic dolomite dolomite [CaMg(CO3)2] formed by the alteration of limestone soon after the limestone was buried in the subsurface diagenetic porosity see secondary porosity Diagn or diagn diagenesis diagonal offset a well or lease that is located immediately to the northwest. south. There are about 150 types of diamond bits that are used for either drilling and coring. natural. and recrystallization. and one side of each lease is shared. diaphragm meter a type of positive-displacement meter that uses a diaphragm in a meter case to measure gas volume. The stabilizer has diamonds and hard metal on the portion that comes in contact with the rock walls of the wellbore. and fluiddischarge design for coring bits. The code indicates intended formations to be drilled. In contrast.

or vaporization a method used in a reservoir fluid study. diesel-oil cement a type of cement used in wells. expansion.0 vacuum 1. A die collar is the female counterpart of a taper tap. diflf difference differential 1) the premium in price that is added to some oils for such characteristics as low sulfur or high "API 2) the pressure difference between the two sides of a choke 3) the difference between two measurements differential caliper the difference in the calipermeasured diameter of the well and the bit size differential entrapment the preferential accumulation in a basin of natural gas. It has a very shallow radius of investigation. Diatomaceous earth is used as lost-circulation material and as an additive to cement slurry and drilling mud to reduce density.7 7. A die collar does not have a releasing mechanism. Diesel-oil cement is used to control water problems during drilling and in producing wells and is also used to repair casing leaks and plug lostcirculation zones and channels. but it will not affect oil-bearing zones. Substance Dielectric constant 1. Diatoms have existed from the Cretaceous peroid to the present.2 77 60 4.9 6. dielectric a substance that permits the passage of lines of electrostatic force but is a nonconductor of electricity dielectric constant a measure of the electrical insulation properties of a substance. The compression of air injected into the combustion chamber heats the air and causes the fuel to ignite when it is injected into the chamber. or in cases where the Archie equation does not work such as low-salinity or variable-salinity connatewater formations. It has an unlimited pumping time and will not set until the cement comes in contact with water. The fish then can be retrieved. An orifice plate is often used to restrict and measure gas flow. differential liberation gas coming out of solution because of a gradual decrease in pressure. Differential entrapment is due to the relative differences in densities of the fluids. or H). the gas is collected and analyzed. The die collar is lowered into the well on a fishing or drillstring and rotated to cut a thread on the fish which screws onto the die collar. As gas is released from an oil sample in a laboratory cell with increasing volume and decreasing pressure. The diesel engine was invented by Rudolph Diesel. The remaining oil is called residual oil. unconsolidated sedimentary rock that is very porous and is formed from diatom shells composed of SiO2. diesel oil or kerosene. The die collar has a thread die on one end. Differential liberation can occur in an oil reservoir due to production differential liberation. diesel-electric power a power system in which diesel engines are used to drive electric generators that supply electricity. a natural deposit of siliceous microfossils (diatoms) on a screen. DP or K differential-pressure flowmeter a type of gauge used to measure the velocity of a fluid.diastrophesm • diastrophesm a general term that includes all movements in the earth's crust diatom a type of single-celled plant that floats in the ocean. diesel-oil plug see gunk plug diesel squeeze the pumping of dry cement and diesel oil under pressure through perforations in a well. . die nipple a pipe that has external cutting threads in contrast to a die collar dies the serrated steel teeth used on tongs for gripping. diesel engine an internal combustion engine that is often used as a prime mover for drilling rigs and some pumping units. chert-like form of diatomaceous earth die to have a well cease flowing die collar a steel collar that is used in fishing operations.5 6.0 gas and air oil differential-pressure flowmeter 135 fresh water salt water silica sand limestone dolomite anhydrite 2. Diesel engines commonly have two or four strokes per cycle. and saline water.B.G. Diesel-electric power is commonly used on offshore drilling rigs and some onshore rigs. Diatoms have a SiO2 shell and are useful as microfossils. Relatively pure deposits of diatoms are called diatomaceous earth. A good insulator has a high number. Diesel squeeze will cement and seal off waterbearing sections when the water is absorbed by the cement. in traps located in an updip direction from the source rock. The velocity is calculated from the drop in fluid pressure as the fluid accelerates through a restriction. differential pen a marker on an orifice meter that records the differential pressure between upstream and downstream. with asbestos fibers that is used to remove suspended solids from a fluid diatomite a dense.5 dielectric constant log a log used to measure the dielectric constants of fluids in rocks adjacent to the well bore. and a surface active agent. in that order. Both very high frequency and ultrahigh frequency sondes are used. diatomaceous earth a white to light-gray. usually in inches of water differential pipe sticking see differential-pressure sticking differential pressure 1) the difference in pressure on a fluid at two different points such as across an orifice plate 2) the pressure difference between the hydrostatic head of drilling fluid and formation pressure at a given depth in a well 3) the difference between flowing and static pressure in a well. diatomaceous earth filter diatomaceous earth. Diesel-oil cement is a mixture of cement (API types A. The dielectric constant log is used to distinguish between fresh water and oil. The combustion drives the piston. crude oil.

It is very accurate. The sample is uniformly heated at a constant rate. In seismic exploration. DTA diffraction a phenomenon in which waves are modified or scattered from the end of an abrupt discontinuity. diffusion alloy an alloy used to decrease corrosion. or c) a back-off operation. differential thermal analysis a technique used to determine the mineral composition of a sample. and wear. b) cement setting behind casing. Dilute is in contrast to concentrate. an indicator and alarm is triggered. Dissolving agents such as hydrochloric acid can be used for limestones. Differential separators are in contrast to an instantaneous separator that results in maximum shrinkage.136 differential-pressure sticking • dim diffuser a passage located downstream from an impeller in which velocity energy is converted into static pressure. Clay minerals can be identified using this technique. diffusivity equation a partial differential equation that describes transient flow behavior of single-phase gas flowing through porous rock. The temperatures at which various minerals use heat as they decompose are recorded to identify the minerals. DIFL dual induction focused log DIFL-GR dual induction focused log. differential pressure unit a flowmeter that consists of a U-shaped tube partially filled with mercury. Freeing the stuck pipe can be accomplished by a) reducing the hydrostatic pressure in the well. gamma ray log DIF-T differential temperature log digger see driller digging pits to excavate the mud pits for a drilling rig digital a system in which the information is recorded or contained as discrete numbers. The differential pressure unit was the original type of flow meter used by the gas industry. differential SP a well-log curve made from two spontaneous potential (SP) measurements using two electrodes that serve as each others' reference potential to minimize uninvaded SP circuit effects differential temperature log or survey a wireline type of well log that records wellbore temperatures and temperature gradients. such as one cut by a fault. dilutent 1) a liquid added to thin a solution 2) a gas that occurs in natural gas and has no heat value such as water vapor or nitrogen dim 1) dimension 2) diminish . On one end is a range tube that is used to measure the height of the mercury in one arm of the U-tube. If the pressure varies out of the range. The diffuser also directs the fluid to the next impeller in the pump. Diffraction causes a diffraction curve to travel out and downward from the end of the rock layer. The vertical movement of the drillstring in the well is restricted. The differential temperature log is used to locate a) gas flowing into the well. erosion. but circulation can be maintained. Spiral-grooved pipe can be used to reduce the contact between the drillstring and the well walls to alleviate differential pipe sticking. and c) to determine bottomhole temperature and the geothermal gradient. digital computer a computer that records all information as a decimal or binary number with a specific number of digits. The diffusion alloy is formed by a layer of intermetal compound made by the addition of elements to the surface. The spotting or releasing fluid is made of diesel oil with special additives or an oil mud that is used to dissolve the mudcake and equalize the pressure. This condition is aggravated by permeable formations and is more frequent when the drillstring is left motionless in the well for a period of time. b) the use of a spotting fluid. and the response is linear to flow rates. It is called the diffusivity equation because it is the same form as the equation that describes heat flow and unsteady mass diffusion. The soaking process takes 6-12 hrs before the assembly is worked loose. digitize to quantify or put the values into discrete numbers differential-pressure sticking the adhesion of the drillstring against the well walls due to the difference in the hydrostatic pressure of the circulating drilling mud in the well and the formation pressure at that level. The condition is called stuck pipe. differential separators multiple separators that reduce oil pressure in stages in a process called stage separation to minimize shrinkage and loss of lighter hydrocarbon fractions. (differential pipe sticking or wall sticking) differential pressure switch a pressure gauge that has a predetermined pressure range set on it. fc:::::::::r::v^:""^:::::t-- dikes dike an igneous intrusion that cuts across pre-existing rock layers DIL dual induction log DIL™ dual induction laterolog dilatancy the expansion of a substance such as a rock dilut diluted dilute 1) a solution with relatively small amounts of solute 2) to add more solvent to a solution. Digital is in contrast to analog. The gas flows by the other arm of the U-tube that is open. seismic waves are diffracted by the end of a rock layer. Modern computers are digital as compared to the older analog computers.

(strike plate) dip point the point of the bottom of the tank where the dip weight or bob touches the strike plate. or six arms with pads that are in contact with the rocks on the side of the well as the dip meter is brought up the well. four. The information is plotted on a dipmeter log or a stick or tadpole plot. gauge. (moveout or velocity filter) dip rejection filter see movement filter dip rod a wood or steel rod with markings that is lowered through the dip hatch into a crude oil storage tank for gauging (gage or gauge rod) dip section a cross section oriented perpendicular to the depositional shoreline. ding or dinge a dent or flattened area caused by impact dinoflagellate a one-celled marine organism that resembles both a plant and animal. A dim spot is caused by an abnormally low reflection coefficient. The hatch is fitted with a lid. The dip of each rock layer is calculated from the orientation of the dipmeter and at what depth each microresistivity sensor touched the rock layer. b) locate faults and unconformities and c) make structural and stratigraphic interpretations. They can have a spring snap at the end for attachments. diode an electronic device made by two semiconductors that allows an electrical current to flow in only one direction d. The dip line is oriented perpendicular to the strike or horizontal direction of the sedimentary rocks. Bobs are usually made of brass to avoid sparks and can be serrated along an edge for chalk or indicator paste. A gyroscope or magnetometer is used to record the orientation of the dipmeter in the well. Two types of dip-slip faults are normal and reverse. At a fixed flow rate. DIPM dip moveout the difference in seismic arrival times at detectors that are located symmetrically opposite each other on either side of the source divided by one-half the separation distance of the detectors dipping the European term for gaging or gauging dipping reference point a mark on the thief hatch of a crude oil storage tank from which the dip tape is lowered in gauging (gaging or gauging reference point) dip plate the heavy metal plate that is attached to the bottom of a crude oil storage tank below the thief hatch. dip separation the displacement of a rock layer by a fault measured along the dip of the fault dip shooting running seismic with the primary objective of determining the dip of reflectors dip-slip fault a break in the rocks with movement predominantly vertical. DM dipmeter log a well log showing the orientation or dip of each rock layer in a well as measured from a dipmeter. (gage or gauge point) dip rejection the use of a filter to remove selected dips and apparent dips from seismic data. Diplog1" a dipmeter log dip log a tradename for a dipmeter DIPM™ dipmeter log 137 dipmeter or dip meter a wireline device used to a) calculate strike and dip of subsurface formations. The dip plate is designated zero on the tank gauge table and protects the bottom of the tank from the gauging weight or bob. Two methods of presenting the data are a) a tadpole plot and b) a stick plot.op inside diameter of outer pipe DIP dipmeter Dip resistivity dip log dip 1) the angle from horizontal of a plane such as a bedding or fault plane. dimensionless well length the length of a horizontal well divided by twice the reservoir height. K' dimensionless pressure a number that is based on the initial reservoir pressure minus the present flowing pressure of a well. Dinoseis a seismic source that is similar to Vibroseis™ and uses a gas explosion on a plate that is resting on the land surface.dimensionless permeability • dip slope dimensionless permeability the actual permeability (kv divided by the average permeability of the formation (kavg). The dip point is designated zero on the tank gauge table. Dinoflagellates have existed from the Triassic period to the present. A dip line is in contrast to a strike line. Each pad has microresistivity sensors that detect when a rock layer is contacted. A dip section is oriented perpendicular to the strike section. 2) the angle between a reflection or refraction seismic wave front and horizontal dip bob the weight used on the end of a gauge tape that is lowered through the dip hatch on a crude oil storage tank for gauging. LD dim spot the lack of a seismic reflector on a rock interface. The dipmeter has three. Modern sondes have four pads that make focused microresistivity measurements of the microlaterolog type. or thief hatch) dip line a or seismic section that is parallel to the dip of the subsurface sedimentary rocks. weight or dp weight) dip hatch an opening on the top of an oil stock tank or storage tank that is opened to gauge or measure the level of oil and to take an oil sample. It is then multiplied by the square root of the ratio of the vertical permeability to the horizontal permeability of the reservoir. dip slope the surface formed by the exposed top of a resistant formation such as a limestone that is dipping at an angle into the ground . (gauge or gauging bob. The measurements are digitized and transmitted by cable to the surface. (gage. Shale overlying a porous or gassaturated reef could cause a dim spot. Dip is measured perpendicular to the strike or horizontal direction of the plane. Several units in an array are often used. the dimensionless pressure will decrease with time as the flowing pressure decreases. The dip bob touches the strike plate at the bottom of the tank which is zero on the tank gauging table. Dimensionless pressure is used to calculate the change of pressure in a well with time. Dip rejection is used in areas of flat bedding to remove steep noise lineups and taking out multiples. Some have a shell (theca or test) and are useful as microfossils.

yield point. plastic viscosity. Well deviation can be initiated by a fulcrum assembly. The orientation of the grooves is controlled by a gyroscope.000 ft in formations that do not deflect the bit. for inaccessible sites. or c) dropped down the well. To maintain the angle. The core is scribed with grooves cut by a scribed shoe along the axis of the core. a packed hole assembly that is stiff and stabilized to full gauge can be used. the pendulum effect can be employed with a stabilizer located several drill collars from the drill bit. and gel strengths of liquids. The single-shot measurement is made by running the tool inside the drillstem on a wireline.138 dip tape • directional well dip slip fault directional drilling dip tape A reel of measuring tape with a weight on one end. for sidetracking a well. An indirect index is an alphabetical list of grantees. It is used for low pressure service and is in contrast to an indirect fired or heated vessel in which the fire tube heats another fluid. and as often as every 50 ft in areas of dipping hard rocks and faults. The tape is lowered through the gauge hatch to measure the level of a liquid in a tank. or for testing numerous potential zones. DS. Direct current is in contrast to alternating current. It is sometimes called controlled drilling. A direct index is located in the country or parish courthouse and is used for lease checks. b) on a wireline. (deviation drilling) DRDR directional-drilling clause an oil and gas lease provision that states that drilling a deviated hole from a surface location that is not on lease and completing or bottoming the deviated hole under the lease shall satisfy the terms in that lease directional-drilling log see directional log directional-drilling data sheet a data report describing the downhole assemblies and drilling parameters at various depths in a deviated well directional drilling supervisor directional engineer a petroleum engineer who specializes in directional drilling directional hole see directional well directional log or survey a downhole survey that charts the inclination or inclination and and azimuth of a well. near-bit stabilizer with collars. The depth determination in made by timing. which then heats the fluid. The directional turbodrill is shorter than a straighthole turbodrill so that it can follow the well curvature in a deviated hole. V-G meter or viscosity-gel viscometer directional charge an explosive charge or array of charges used in seismic exploration and designed so that the explosive front travels at approximately the seismic velocity. DC direct-fired or direct-heated vessel a tank such as a heater-treater in which the fluid comes in direct contact with the fire tube. Directional surveys can be run every 1. (gage or gauge tape. DR. directional well a well intentionally drilled at an angle from the vertical. This causes the energy to add up constructively. or DIRSV directionally oriented coring coring operations in which the core is taken in reference to magnetic north. usually water. directional deviation an intended variation in the course of a well directional drilling intentionally drilling a well at an angle from vertical. gage or gauge line) dip tube the oil inlet tube mounted inside a gas anchor on the bottom of a sucker-rod pump. directional plug a cement bridge used to deviate a new well from an old well directional turbodrill a downhole motor that uses turbines and circulating drilling mud to rotate the bit. A fulcrum assembly consists of a full-gauge. A drift indicator measures only the hole inclination. The survey can be either magnetic or gyroscopic (used in a magnetic environment) and is single or multishot. The multishot measurements are made with a logging tool either a) in a drill collar that has to be fished out. Both the gyroscopic and magnetic multishot surveys are recorded on film. To drop angle. The directional well is initiated by a whipstock or a bent sub with a downhole turbine or mud motor. Two types are a straight (continuous) . One type of multishot measurement uses a stabilized gyroscope that transmits the information to the surface through an electrical wireline. (deviation survey or directionaldrilling log) dir sur. whereas the other instruments measure both inclination and azimuth. (mosquito bill) see dp bob DIR or dir direction direct connection a connection between a prime mover and driven equipment without using a gear reducer or other device to reduce the speed direct current electric current that continuously flows in one direction. Deviation drilling is often used in offshore wells. (grantor index) direct-indicating viscometer an instrument that uses an electric motor or hand crank to rotate blades to measure apparent viscosity. direct index a chronological and alphabetical index of grantors of oil and gas leases.

direct operating expenses costs that are attributed to a specific project or unit. and other expenses on a well. northeast. south. A directional hole is in contrast to a crooked hole that was unintentionally drilled. and III. utilizing pipelines and gatherers of natural gas as transporters. the folds have bedding planes that are no longer parallel to each other. Type III is a well that is deflected at a deeper depth and then has a constant inclination. ." disconformity disconformity a subsurface erosional surface formed by a channel. the discounted monies paid out equal the discounted monies made. drills straight. Directional well depths are reported as measured depth with vertical depth in parenthesis. DCF discounted cash-flow rate the discount percentage which reduces to zero the cash flow stream on an investment such as drilling a well. and the leases share a common corner. a diagonal offset is a well or lease that is located immediately to the northwest. Direct operating expenses are in contrast to direct overhead.*. repair. electricity. Type II is the S-shaped well. Wireline well logs are run with coiled tubing on a directional well. best efforts. (deviated hole or well or directional hole) DEVIA direction of feeing the direction in the axial surface of a fold that is at right angle to the fold hinge line and points toward younger beds direct line drive a type of waterflood pattern in which the injector and producing wells are on the same straight lines oriented north-south and east-west. 1 •v- 1 . direct purchase gas natural gas bought on the spot market. or southwest of another well or lease. calcareous plate from an extinct marine planktonic organism. The discount percentage takes into account the time value of money.'•/. southeast. Discoasters are common Tertiary peroid microfossils that became extinct at the Pliocene-Pleistocene epoch boundary.Vv". having parallel rock layers both above and below it disconnection clause a provision in a gas purchase and sales agreement authorizing the buyer to cease purchasing gas and discontinue maintaining a connection with its gathering and transportation facilities from any well for which it is no longer economical to purchase gas. Type I is deflected at shallow depth and the inclination is constant until the target is reached. and spot gas) direct sale an agreement under which a producer contracts with a local distribution company or ultimate industrial consumer (industrial end-user) of natural gas to sell and deliver natural gas to that purchaser. In contrast. Direct sales is in contrast to selling the gas to the pipeline or gatherer which then resells the gas to the local distribution company or ultimate consumer in a method called sale for resale. The leases share a common side. Dirty is in contrast to clean. pumper. II. such as from future oil and gas production. interruptible.•• : . The straight kick builds angle and then drills straight to the target. ••'.direction of facing • and S-curve kick. and then drops angle and drills straight to the target. (noncontinuous spacing) discordant fold a fold in rocks such as an anticline in which the fold axis is not parallel to other fold axes in the regional area discordant folding folding such as anticlines in sedimentary rocks that are both competent and incompetent. These could be workover. It is prorated over all the company's operations. 2) well cuttings that must be removed from drilling fluid DISC discovery well discounted cash-flow rate 139 disc discovery disch discharge discharge line the pipe on the circulating system of a drilling rig that connects the mud pumps to the rotary hose disclaimer by tenant or surface owner as statement by the surface rights owner that he has no interest in the mineral rights of that land discoaster a very small. Direct overhead is a part of the operating expenses. The sandstone is relatively dark in color and is generally a poor reservoir rock. for which the time value of money has been accounted. Directional wells can also be classified as Types I. (well disconnection clause) discontinuous spacing a drilling and spacing unit that is made up of several smaller tracts of land.: ".• 1 *. direct overhead expenses that reflect the overall administrative costs of a company and are not directly chargeable to a specific unit or project. DIRSV or dir sur directional survey dirt tanks see earthen pits dirty containing clay-sized particles or shale. As a result of flowage. (investor's interest rate) DCFR . V . At zero cash-flow stream. dy dirty sands 1) poorly sorted sandstone with silt and clay.'. A direct line drive is in contrast to a staggered line drive in which the injector and producing wells are offset and are located on separate straight lines oriented north-south and east-west. (self-help. east. direct offset a well or lease that is located immediately to the north. Discounting uses a percent (discount factor) to decrease the present value of future income. The S-curve kick builds angle. whereas the competent beds will not flow. The incompetent layers will thick and thin with the stresses of folding. discounted cash flow income. some or all of which are not adjacent. or west of another well or lease.

DISC discovery well allowable the amount of petroleum production from a discovery well that a government regulatory agency permits during a certain time (allowable). It is the return rate on the investment that is discounted for time. Displaced fluid is in contrast to the displacing fluid. In a water-in-oil emulsion. DPIR discounted return on investment a method of evaluating a project such as drilling a well. Dispersed phase is in contrast to the continuous phase. displacement 1) the weight of a fluid displaced by an object floating or submerged in that fluid 2) the total net volume of fluid that is moved by a rotary pump measured in cubic inches per revolution 3) the distance on a combination logging tool between the various measure points 4) the replacement of formation fluids by mud filtrate in the invaded zone displacement efficiency a ratio of the volume of oil swept from a zone by an enhanced oil recovery process to the volume of oil present in the zone prior to the process. displaced pool a subsurface oil reservoir with a tilted oil water contact. Each track is divided into sectors. or hard disks. The profit (income minus expenses). NPX disharmonic folding folding is rocks in which the number and position of folds in sucessive surfaces do not match in contract to harmonic folding disk the computer storage medium. The number discounted cash-flow rate of return a method of economically evaluating an investment such as drilling and completing a well. Rates from 10% to 20% are commonly used. (internal phase) dispersed shale shale that occurs in the pores of sedimentary rocks and originates as authigenic clay minerals. discounted for time. Disks can be either floppy disks. to equal the monies paid out. The dispersed shale can act as a cement for the clastic particles. ED or Ed displacement fluid a liquid. scientific rate of return. discounted for time. that is pumped down the casing during a cement job after the cement slurry and the top wiper plug displacement meter a type of flowmeter in which the fluid displaces a piston in a cylinder. whereas the Hughes disk bit had two disks with teeth. for drilling. The allowable is higher than the standard depth yardstick to encourage exploration. The value of the expected income on the project. Magnetized iron oxide needles on the disk store the information. dispersent an agent that holds finely-divided particles in a dispersed state dispersible a substance such as an inhibitor that can be evenly distributed in a fluid by agitation dispersion the change in the shape of a wave train as it travels through a medium because of the different velocities of different frequency waves dispersoid a colloid displ 1) displaced 2) displacement displaced fluid the fluid in the reservoir that is moved by injected fluids during enhanced oil recovery. discounted for time. The discounted payout is the time that it takes for the petroleum production revenue. completing. DPO discounted profit-to-investment ratio a method of evaluating a project such as drilling and completing a well. DROI discount factor or rate an annual percentage that is used to discount or reduce the value of future income for the time value of money. The Guiberson disk bit used in Texas in the early 1930s had four disks. better filtration control. The discount factor is based on estimated future interest and inflation rates. dismlcrite a fine-grained limestone (less than 1% allochems or coarse grains) composed of micrite with irregular patches of sparry calcite DISP 1) displace 2) displaced 3) displacing 4) displacement dispersant 1) a chemical that breaks up concentrations of liquid and solid materials or reduces the surface tension between two liquids 2) an additive that is used to decrease the viscosity of cement dispersed a suspension of clay platelets with no faceto-edge associations dispersed drilling fluid a drilling mud that contains chemicals such as lignosulfonate to keep clay platelets separated. The data is stored on concentric circles called tracks on the disk. . A displaced pool could be due to either hydronamics of water flowing under the oil or the formation of a tar mat at the oil water contact followed by regional tectonic tilting. which are permanently installed in the computer and are peripheral devices.140 discounted cash-flow rate of return • displacement meter disk drive the computer device that uses a read-write head to record and decipher information from a disk. usually drilling mud or salt water. and operating the well. io discovery 1) a new oil and/or gas field that is located by exploratory drilling 2) a new pool (reservoir) in an old field that is located by exploratory drilling disc discovery pressure the initial or original reservoir pressure discovery well an exploratory well that locates a new oil and/or gas field or a new pool (reservoir) that is either deeper or shallower than existing production in an established field. discounted for the future value of money. liquid. disk bit a type of drag bit with the cutting edges mounted on two or four vertically rotating disks. (internal rate of return. is divided by the discounted expenses. investor's rate of return. water is the dispersed phase. is divided by the discounted cost of the project. dispersed phase the scattered solid. The discovery well allowable can be unrestricted production until pay out. or profitability index) DCFROR discounted payout a method of economically evaluating an investment such as drilling a well. A dispersed drilling fluid has a higher viscosity and gel strength. which use a disk drive to read and write and can be stored separately. Oil is the dispersed phase in an oil-in-water emulsion. and higher solids tolerance than nondispersed fluids. or gas in a dispersion that is surrounded by the continuous phase. Binary digits 0 and 1 are represented by the magnetic direction of the needles which are oriented or detected by a readwrite head.

Dist. Displacement pressure is the minimum capillary pressure that will force a nonwetting fluid such as oil into a capillary opening that is saturated with a wetting fluid such as water. such as drilling mud. Disproportionate sharing can have unfavorable tax consequences. It is equal to about 0. disposal well a well used to inject the salt water that is produced along with oil into the subsurface DSPL 141 dissolution boxworks a carbonate residue with angular pores that is left from the solution of an evaportie raubwacke dissolution porosity porosity formed by the solution of the rock dissolved gas natural gas that is dissolved in oil in the subsurface reservoir under formation pressure. displacement-type prover the most common type of meter prover used. internalgas. parts per million (ppm). A dissolving agent for salt formations can be fresh water. It bubbles out of the oil on the surface as the oil is produced and the pressure is reduced to surface conditions. displacing fluid the fluid that is injected into a reservoir during enhanced oil recovery. or milligrams per liter (mg/1). The flow goes through the meter to be tested and into the displacement-type prover. The gas bubbles form because production has decreased reservoir pressure to below bubblepoint. displacement time the time expressed in minutes that is required to completely replace all the fluid in a drillstring or casing string with another fluid at a given flow rate. A displacement-type prover consists of a calibrated section of pipe with a cylindrical or spherical displacer in the pipe. during a cement job on a well. or solution-gas expansion drive) dissolved gas/oil ratio see solution gas/oil ratio dissolved-gas pool an oil field with a dissolved. displacement pressure the pressure that is required for one fluid to replace another fluid in the pores of a rock. openended pipe that extends from the deck of an offshore platform to below the water surface and is used to discharge treated. solutiongas. Displacement pressure varies inversely with the pore diameter. or solution-gas expansion pool) dissolved solids the total organic and inorganic matter in solution.). dist. or dstl disproportionate sharing or allocation an agreement in which the working interest and the net revenue interests are not proportional. solution-gas. A skim pile is a type of disposal pile that uses baffle plates to coalesce oil droplets.39 times the weight of the pipe in lbs/ft. displacement volume the volume of a fluid in a well that is displaced by the drillstring. display the representation of data disposal pile a large-diameter (24-48 in.displacement pressure • distillate of piston strokes is counted to determine the volume of fluid flow. (volumetric depletion-gas. Dissolved solids is also called total dissolved solids. dissem disseminated dissociation the breakage of a compound into atoms or ions dissolution a solution cavity in a rock .gas drive (expanding gas bubbles) supplying the energy to cause the oil to flow from the reservoir rock into the well. (special allocation) disproportionate working interest a working interest in a well that bears a greater portion of the working interest costs than the working interest revenues from production. (solution gas) GAS/OIL 0 % ULTIMATE PRODUCTION | PRIMARY RECOVERY) 10 ° dissolved gas drive dissolved-gas drive a type of reservoir drive mechanism in which the expanding gas bubbles forming from gas coming out of solution in the subsurface oil drives the oil into the well. produced water and deck drainage. dissolving agent an additive to drilling mud that is used to dissolve a formation that is causing sticking pipe. internal-gas. Displacing fluid is in contrast to the displaced fluid. distillate see retrograde gas. The distal bar is a transition zone composed of fine sands and coarse silts. Dissolved solids are usually measured in parts per thousand (ppt). (entry or forefront pressure) displacement rate the rate in which cement slurry is pumped down a well displacement tanks graduated tanks that are used on a slurry pumping unit to measure the amount of displacement fluid. It tends to be relatively inefficient and produces only 20%-30% of the oil in place. DIST district Dist or dist distillate dist distance distal bar the subaqueous environment on a river delta located between the distributary mouth bar and the prodelta. The true volume is then compared to the indicated volume from the meter. Dissolved gas is in contrast to nonassociated and associated gas. (depletion-drive. The reservoir has a characteristic rapid decline in pressure with production and a rapidly increasing gas/oil ratio with minimum water production. and a meter factor is calculated. Disproportionate working interest is in contrast to a proportionate or undivided working interest. Other methods of meter proving include the volumetric prover and the master meter.

The sharing of costs and benefits between the participating parties is dependent on the formation of participating areas which can be formed at various times during the agreement. The sand is deposited from the bed load of the distributary when the water slows down as it flows into the ocean and overrides the salt water. The grantor gives not only cash distillation the process in which a liquid is vaporized by heat. to the diver. This is in contrast to an undivided type of unit operating agreement in which the sharing of costs and benefits is according to a formula established at the initiation of the agreement. The compressor pumps a certified breathable output. Some diverting agents are polymer-coated sand. distributary mouth bar sand bar deposited in front of a distributary (channel) on a river delta distributing rack A wheel disk located near the bottom of a settling tank that spreads an emulsion. diverter valve a valve that will direct fluid flow back through a loop or around some equipment when activated. the energy density varies inversely with the distance. diverter bag a low-pressure tool that provides for the controlled release of a kick away from a drilling rig through a blooey line diverters temporary plugging agents used during acidizing a well to redirect the acid into untreated sections of the reservoir. and soluble materials are often used. disturbed belt an area of thrust faulting. or uranium diverter equipment that is attached to the bell nipple on a wellhead or marine riser. A divergent margin is in contrast to a convergent margin. divergent margin the boundary between two lithospheric plates that are pulling apart to form a rift. and benzoic acid flakes. distortion is the undesired change in the waveform. wax. A disulfide is miscible with hydrocarbons but not with water and is sweet in the doctor test. condensed by cooling. DITCH DIT-D dual induction-SFL tool DIU drilling in unit div division . Oklahoma City. the energy density varies inversely with the square of the distance. (umbilical hose) divergence the decrease in amplitude of a wavefront due to the spreading of the wavefront as it travels outward. A diverter valve is used on a lease automatic custody transfer unit. As surface waves spread out. (diverting valve) diverting agent material that is used to limit the zone being hydraulically fractured and directs the frac fluid to the fractures. (Spreader) distribution the allotment. distortional wave an S-wave distributary 1) a river channel outlet on a delta 2) a channel on a deep sea fan. and/or develop a specific property. naphthalene. When the oil quality is sensed to be below pipeline quality. Large drag folds that are located both on and below the thrust faults can form petroleum traps. of daily production for wells on a lease distribution system a small unit that transmits seismic data in digital form by fiber optics or radio telemetry from several geophone groups to a main recording unit distributor an apparatus that directs the timing and amount of fuel flow district a relatively restricted area in a basin that contains two or more productive structures that are similar in age. DITCH ditch samples ditch the mud flow channel from the conductor-pipe outlet of a drilling rig ditch gas 1) natural gas detected from well cuttings 2) natural gas removed from drilling mud in a flowline ditch magnet a permanent magnet that is 2-3 ft long and is used in the drilling-mud return line between the shale shaker and mud tanks to remove milled iron particles from the drilling mud. The diverter can be closed to prevent fluids from flowing vertically and to divert the fluids out a blooey line.142 distillation • divisible sharing arrangement dive hose a flexible rubber hose that connects a compressor with a diver. diversification the process in which an oil company invests in other energy sources such as geothermal. A disturbed belt is the result of compression. coal. ditch sample a common term for well cuttings. (overthrust belt) disulfide a colorless liquid that is composed of a chemical with a -S-S. the flakes of subsurface rock cut by the drill bit. Basement rock is sometimes thrust on top of sedimentary rocks in an overthrust. Two types of diverters are a) a bag-type unit and b) a modified rotating blowout preventer. either air or heliox. based on production tests. away from the rig. diverting valve see diverter valve divestiture 1) to break up an oil company into several independent companies that each operate a certain aspect of the oil business such as exploration or refining 2) to sell off some assets of the oil company that are not related to the oil business divided type of unit operating agreement an arrangement between parties to explore and develop a specific area. and hydrocarbon content district office a company office engaged in exploration and production from one of several smaller offices that report to a larger regional office that oversees a geological province. Tulsa. A diverter valve can be either hand or pneumatic operated. As body waves spread out spherically. and then collected dstn distortion a change in shape or position of something in relation to its actual shape or position. rock salt. In seismic. style. explore. and Wichita could be district offices that report to the Mid-Continent regional office.linkage. wax buttons. the diverter valve redirects the oil back to the stock tanks and shuts down the pump motor. Oil-soluble resins. (unit operating agreement) diving wave a curved raypath that reaches the surface divisible sharing arrangement an agreement between parties to acquire. The metal particles could damage the mud pumps.

and how to transfer an interest.. gamma ray log D L dual laterolog L™ DLS dogleg severity DLT dual laterolog tool DM 1) datum 2) drilling mud 3) dipmeter dm decimeter dm3 cubic decimeter dm3/s cubic decimeters per second Dmax maximum depth DML disintegrating metal liner DMO dip moveout DMPEG dimethyl either of polyethylene glycol DMS data management system DMWD downhole measurement while drilling Dn nominal decline dn down d. decreasing. Division orders can be either for royalties or delay rentals to royalty owners or proceeds from production sales to interests of a well(s). c) a survey traverse. 2) the field shed or cab that houses seismic recording instruments 3) a small shelter used for keeping lease records and changing clothes on a lease 4) the enclosure on an offshore drilling rig where the driller operates the hoist and rotary and circulating equipment (control cabin) 5) to falsify a report (boiler house or boilerhouse) doghouse commando a drilling crew member who loafs and spends a lot of time in the doghouse doghouse dope gossip about the oil field doghouse or dog house samples inaccurate wellcutting samples collected by a roughneck on a drilling rig. divide it up. or dog's leg a sharp deviation or bend in a) a well's direction or inclination. derrick dkr darker DL 1) driller's log 2) dead line D/L density log Dl dolomite DLC GR densilog. caliper. 3) drilling obligation do outside diameter of casing D. Dol. They are used to pay the correct owners and include the interest owner's name. Dol. The division orders are prepared and signed by all interest owners in a well prior to the sale of oil or gas. A dogleg in a well can cause a keyseat. or dolo dolomite . A dogleg is also known as an elbow. dol. address. invaded zone) dj uninvaded zone diameter DK or dk dark Dk. Division orders also include a description of the property. dogleg angle the angle between two intersecting center lines of sections of a deviated well dogleg severity a measure of a well's change in inclination. Doglegs are decribed as abrupt. b) a joint of pipe. division orders D/O division office DOC drilled out cement doctor to rework a well 143 doctor solution sodium plumbite used in a doctor test to determine the sulfur content of crude oil doctor test a qualitative test to determine the sulfur content of crude oil that utilizes an instrument containing a test fluid composed of sodium plumbite that reacts with sulfur doctrine of correlative rights the right of the mineral owner in a producing field to his share of the reservoir energy and production and to be protected from harmful practices by adjacent mineral owners DOD drilled out depth DOE Department of Energy dog a poor geological prospect or oil deal dog chaser or catcher a lazy worker dog clutch lever a lever on a drilling-rig floor that is used to engage the drawworks power train as a backup to the air clutch doghouse or dog house 1) a portable. The Geolograph or Drill-o-graph is often housed in the doghouse. increasing. dol. usually expressed in 7100 ft dogman a person responsible for slinging loads and directing the crane operator dog pipe to move pipe dogs 1) a spring-activated core catcher 2) steel prongs used on a straddle packer to grip the side wall of a well when weight is applied to set the packer 3) the serrrated steel teeth used on slips to grip drillpipe DOI Department of the Interior DOIL dead oil D-OIL diesel oil d olp outside diameter of inner pipe DOL. Sometimes the roughnecks are negligent in taking the samples at regular intervals and will take one sample. D. one-room shed that is used at the drill site to shelter the drilling crew and wellsite geologist and to store equipment and records.O. normal d exponent DNL dual-porosity compensated neutron log DNLL™ dual-detector neutron lifetime log DNS or dns dense DO 1) drilled out 2) development oil well. and amount of interest owned. and permissible. dog leg. dogleg.O. long. excessive (severe). or d) a wire rope. or dolo for the development of the property but also additional considerations to the grantee such as monies or property. give the operator the authority to sell gas and oil. division-order opinion a title opinion by an attorney that establishes the division of royalty payments division orders instructions on the distribution of payments. show the procedures and times for paying the interest owners. and label it with several depths. Dj diameter of invaded zone (outer boundary.division-order opinion • DOL.

The rock has physical properties similar to calcite except that it will not bubble in cold. A subsurface dome in reservoir rocks can form a petroleum trap. Dominant frequency is an approximate measurement taken from a wave spectrum made by Fourier analysis. 2) geophysical equipment 3) a seismograph. Dolomite has a matrix density of 2.B. 2) a carbonate sedimentary rock consisting of more than 50% of the mineral dolomite. D. Natural attraction of the far end of the forked stick toward the subsurface is used to indicate a potential wellsite. donkey pump a small transportable pump doodle bug 1) a forked stick. willow. dilute acid. Magnesium-bearing waters perculating through limestone cause a chemical reaction that alters limestone into dolomite. and an interval transit time of 43. If the rock contains between 50%-90% dolomite.00026. Fresh water mixing with seawater under a limestone shelf causes calcite solution and dolomite precipitation. D . Dl. Dol. oil. dol. dorag dolomite a type of dolomite formed by a natural chemical process in which the rock limestone (CaCO3) is replaced by dolomite [CaMg(CO3)2]. the money is given only if the well is drilled to a specific depth. The word is derived from an Eastern European word for mixed blood. Dolomite has a hardness of 3-5 to 4 and three perfect cleavages at oblique angels.000 ft/sec. crew doodlebug crew a seismic crew doodle bugger or doodlebugger a geophysicist DOOH drilling out of hole doormat a lease barely large enough to hold a drilling rig DOP drilled out plug dope 1) a viscous material such as grease used as a lubricant and a corrosion-resistant covering on the threads of pipe and tubing 2) a tar-based coating used to prevent corrosion on pipelines dopebook a well log dope brush a soft-bristled brush that is designed to apply pipe dope to pipe threads doppler effect the apparent shift in frequency caused by the movement of a source in relation to a receiver or a receiver in relation to a source. (dolomite) dolst dom dominant D. The term dolostone is used to avoid confusion with mineral dolomite. or dolo dolomitic a sedimentary rock that has from 5%-5O% dolomite dolomitization the natural conversion of limestone (CaCO3) into dolomite [CaMg(CO3)2] dolst dolostone dolostone a carbonate sedimentary rock consisting of more than 50% of the mineral dolomite. usually of seismic data. In a bottomhole donation letter. The doodle bug is held by both hands and pointed out in front of a person called a dowser while walking over the ground. dissolved organic matter domain association with an independent variable such as time or frequency domain dome dome a circular or elliptical arch. the money is given only if the well that is drilled is a dry hole. Dolomite tends to be good reservoir rock. (diabase) doline see sinkhole doll head a wooden block with a groove cut on the top to guide and hold pull rods off the ground Dolofrac a service company trade name for hydraulic fracturing dolomite 1) a mineral composed of CaMg(CO3)2.O. A dome is caused by a central uplift such as a salt plug or intrusion.876 gm/cc. In a dry-hole donation letter. (dolostone or calcareous dolostone) DOL. made of peach. The frequencies increase if they are moving together and decrease if they are moving apart. Dolomitization can occur soon after the limestone is deposited (diagenic or supratidal dolomite) or later as the waters percolate through fractures or permeable zones in the limestone (secondary or epigenic dolomite). it is called a calcareous dolostone.M.5-38. The mineral dolomite is commonly white with rhombfaced crystals. or gas well.144 dolerite • DOT dome-roof tank a liquid storage tank with a roof in the shape of a dome that projects upward domicile a legal residence dominant frequency one divided by the dominant period. Dolomite tends to be good reservoir rock. dosing the addition of a measured amount of chemicals to accelerate or decelerate a reaction DOT directional orientation tool dolerite an intrusive rock composed primarily of the minerals labradorite and pyroxene. X-ray diffraction or chemical staining is used to distinguish limestone and dolomite. dominant period the time for the passage of two consecutive peaks or troughs on a wave spectrum dominant wavelength the distance from peak to peak or trough to trough on a wave spectrum Donald Duck a centrifugal pump used to pump drilling mud from the reserve pit to the mud tanks (Yellow Dog) donation letter an agreement in which one party contributes money to another party in order to drill a well but does not receive an interest in the property on which the well is drilled. or other wood that is alleged to be of value in finding a location for a water. a matrix velocity of 23. Most dolomite is formed by the alteration of limestone rock.5 sec/ft.

A double-pole mast is often used for pulling rods and tubing. double-drum hoist lifting apparatus with two reels of wire rope.double • doughnuts 145 UNSATURATED DOLOMITE WINDOW » 20 FRESH WATER 50 100 double section SEA WATER dorag dolomite double two joints of tubulars such as drillpipe or tubing screwed together double-acting pump a pump in which the pistons discharge fluid on both the forward and backward stroke of the piston. doubles see double double section the same section of rock layers drilled twice in the same well. Drilling mud is circulated between the core barrels. whereas the other stack is located on the drilling rig. double wall packer test see straddle-packer test doubly-plunging anticline an anticline with an axis that is inclined to horizontal in two opposite directions doughnut the concrete structure used around a subsea wellhead to form a 1-atm chamber doughnuts see slips . The outer pipe is in tension. The inner barrel is stationary to receive the core as the outer barrel rotates to cut the core. crooked. The double-tube separator can handle a higher fluid volume than a single horizontal separator. Hydrocarbons with double bonds are called unsaturated. near the top of the derrick where the derrickman stands to stack doubles (two joints of pipe) when tripping out of a well double bond a linkage between atoms involving two electron pairs. A mist extractor in located in the upper barrel along with a pressure control valve and gas outlet. and the inner pipe in compression. (double barrel separator) double-wall drillpipe two drillpipes. double-rubbered pipe drillpipe in a cased. The liquid is drained into the bottom section to complete the separation. A duplex mud pump on a drilling rig is double-acting. One stack is located on the seafloor. double-packer test see straddle-packer test double pin a tubular coupling having two box ends with male threads double-pole mast a portable derrick used on a wellservicing unit that is constructed with two steel tubes. one inside the other. A double section is caused by drilling through a reverse fault. double substucture two substructures located on top of each other. or deviated hole with pipe rubbers or casing protectors on every second joint. whereas the second drum is used for swabbing and coring. commonly called the monkeyboard. double stack two sets of blowout preventers located on one oflshore drilling operation. The rubbers are designed to reduce casing wear. Double section is in contrast to a lost section caused by a normal fault. The main drum pulls tubulars. double suspension plug a piece of equipment that is used at the top of an oil well to suspend the tubing down the well double tilt a bent downhole drill motor with a bend on both ends for high angle building in a deviated well double-tube separator double-tube horizontal separator a separator with two horizontal vessels on top of each other. The incoming fluid goes into the upper vessel first where it flows over baffles to make the initial gas-oil separation. Double substructure are used to raise the elevation of the drill floor. double barrel separator see double table separator double block valve a valve that can close both the upstream and downstream sides of the valve. double Bouguer correction a correction used on a seafloor gravimeter measurement to compensate for the mass of seawater above the gravimeter double box a tubular coupling having two box ends with female threads double core-barrel drill a core drill with an inner barrel suspended on ball bearings. Double-wall drillpipe is used to replace drill collars in directional wells. double board a platform.

a down-dip well usually will not produce as much as an up-dip well. spiral shaft in a lined stator. and c) to be combined with measurement while drilling tools for use in navigational drilling. downstairs the derrick floor downstream 1) transportation. The turbine or turbodrill has blade rotors in stators. down-draft retort a device that heats a core to 350cF to distill the fluids out of the core.146 downcomer • down the center line downcomer a pipe with fluid flow directed downward down dip located down the slope of a plane such as a rock layer or fault down-dip well a well located low on a structure or lower along a formation. downhole mud motor . and water are used to generate steam for a steam flood. The separator is attached to the bottom of the tubing below the standing valve and is the only fluid entry into the pump. The downhole storm choke automatically shuts off the well if there is an abnormal flow of oil up the well. downhole storm choke type of safety valve that is located in the tubing of flowing wells on the sea bottom. The downhole motor turns at 40-200 rpms to drive the bit up to 800 rpm. a type of enhanced oil recovery for heavy oil. The downhole gas separator is used to increase the efficiency of the pump and prevent gas lock. Air or oxygen-rich air. Fluids flow through a tortuous path in the separator causing the gas to separate from the liquid and flow into the tubingcasing annulus. refining. down the center line a type of reservoir-scale waterflood pattern in which the injection wells are . The downhole motor gives rotation and torque to the bit while transmitting the drill-collar weight to the bit. fuel. whereas the positive-displacement motor has a solid steel. Downsweep is in contrast to an upsweep. Downhole motors are used a) to initiate a wellbore kick-off for a directional hole and drill a smoothly curved hole in a buildup or drop-off section. downstroke the downward movement of a piston or plunger in a cylinder down structure a location or well that is not on the crest (top) of a trap such as a dome or anticline. The opposite end or direction is called upstream. b) to drill with diamond or high-speed insert bits in soft formations. The motor is driven by the circulating drilling fluid that is pumped through the drillstring. Downstream is the location on a gas pipeline that is furthest from the wells. and marketing operations for petroleum 2) the end or direction of the pipe that faces in the direction of the fluid flow. Steam generation on the surface of the ground causes environmental problems and decreases in temperature as it is injected down the well. (off structure) downsweep a Vibroseis™ seismic signal with the frequency decreasing with time. (mud motor) downhole packer See production packer downhole pump efficiency see field efficiency downhole steam generator a device for generating steam in a well at the level of the producing reservoir.DRILL COLLARS STABILIZERS- VIBRATION DAMPENER HOLE OPENER BIT downhole assembly downhole closure the horizontal distance measured from the bottom of a well to a vertical line extending down from the surface location of the well (drift) downhole gas separator a bottomhole device designed to separate liquid and gas before they are pumped up the well. Downhole motors are usually acquired on a rental basis and are good for 25-30 hours of drilling. The fluids are than condensed and measured. Because gas and oil rise. (bottomhole gas separator or bottomhole separator) downhole ground an electrode used on a logging cable above the electronic sonde as a reference electrode instead of a surface electrode downhole motor or downhole mud motor a positive displacement or turbine motor that is run just above the bit on a drillstring.

drainage area 1) the subsurface area of a reservoir that is effectively depleted by one well 2) the area of source rock that expulsed hydrocarbons drainage pattern the orientation and plan of streams in aerial view. The axis of the drag folds will be parallel to the strike of the fault plane. Drainage is in contrast to imbibition. Drag bits were the original type of bits used in rotary drilling. draft the vertical distance from the bottom of a ship or floating platform to the water surface (draught) drag the additional force or torque necessary to move the drillstring due to friction against the wellbore (pipe drag) drag bit a type of rotary drill bit with no moving parts and steel cutting blades on the bottom. Downtime could be due to a workover 2) the time in which a rig is not drilling due to weather. The folding is caused by friction as one side of the fault moved against the other side during faulting. rectangular. A type of drag bit is the fishtail bit wi$i two curved blades oriented similar to a fishtail. a self-propelled machine with a blade on the front that is used for grading and digging DP 1) dew point 2) drillpipe 3) datum plane 4) differential pressure dp dynamic positioning D. The hydrogen sulfide concentration is reflected in the degree of color change. Drag bits can also have three or four blades. Some common drainage patterns are dendritic. barbed. logging. The fixed blades drag and cut the sediments on the bottom of the well. or other reasons 3) the time in which any equipment is not being used 4) the time that it takes circulating drilling mud to travel from the drill floor to the bit through the drillstring down-to-the-basin fault a fault in which the basin side has moved down relative to the other side down-to-the-coast fault a fault in which the coast side has moved down relative to the inland side dowser someone who uses a forked stick to explore for subsurface water or petroleum dozer a bulldozer. A drag bit is used for soft formations. The drainage pattern is often influenced by the underlying geology. A pump or bellows is used to draw a gas sample into the detector. Field drainage is the movement of oil and gas in the entire reservoir. 1) drive pipe 2) drillpipe D/P drilled plug DPD deeper pool discovery DPE deeper pool extension DPF drillpipe failure dpg deepening DPI depthmeter potential DPIR discounted profit-to-investment ratio DPL drillpipe electric log DPL™ Drilling Porosity Log DPM drillpipe measurement dpm/g disintegrations per minute per gram dpn deepen DPND deepened DPO 1) during payout 2) discounted payout DPROB drilling problems DP ship dynamic-positioning ship DPSIP drillpipe shut-in pressure DP system dynamic-positioning system DPT 1) deeper pool test DPT™ Deep Propagation Tool dpt depth DPU drillpipe unloaded DR damage ratio Dr drift log dr 1) drain 2) drive 3) drum 147 Draeger detector a hydrogen sulfide detector used on a drilling rig. drainage 1) the movement of subsurface oil and gas in a reservoir due to the pressure gradient in the reservoir caused by producing wells. The detector consists of a calibrated glass tube filled with lead acetate granules. centripetal. and the production wells are located along the sides down-the-hole measurements or procedures made in a well down-the-hole IP a method used to explore the region near a wellbore using induced polarization from a single potential or current electrode in the wellbore and other electrodes on the surface down-the-hole treatment a process in which a reagent is pumped in well to treat emulsions downthrown the side of a fault that apparently moved downward downtime 1) the period of time during which a well is not producing or is shut in. and parallel. The blades are often hard surfaced or have tungsten carbide inserts. The drainage direction is toward the producing wells. drag folds dragway ramp the incline leading up to the V-door in the derrick of a drilling rig where pipe and other equipment are pulled or dragged up onto the drill floor. There are scales for both high and low concentrations. radial. Large drag folds form on large thrust faults in overthrust or disturbed belts and can form petroleum traps.down-the-hole • drainage radius located along the centerline of the field. trellis.P. There can be a drag fold located on either side of a fault. drainage radius the radius of a cylinder of pressure drop in a reservoir centered on a well producing fluids from that area of the reservoir . deranged. drng 2) The displacement of a wetting fluid with an nonwetting fluid. an equipment change. drag fold a fold located along a fault plane.

(compaction anticline. Two brakes are used. Because the sediments are thicker to the sides of the harder rocks. y.148 drainage relative permeability • dresser coupling drawdown or draw-down test a test used to evaluate the limits of an reservoir. The topography causes a warping of sedimentary rock layers above a limestone reef. compaction or plains type fold) drape fold a fold in sedimentary rocks caused by the deposition of sediments over an uplifted or rotated block in the basement. and drawworks drawworks-drum socket the attachment fixture for the drilling line on the drawworks drum of a drilling rig DRBP drillable bridge plug DRDR directional drilling Dresbachian a North American epoch of geological time that occurred about 515 m. Drawworks are manufactured in many sizes and are rated for load capacity by the manufacturer based on input horsepower that ranges from 500 to 3000 hp. bedrock hill. drainage sale leasing of lands that might be drained by producing wells on adjacent lands drainage tract a lease adjacent to a lease with production drainage unit the maximum area in a petroleum pool that can be drained efficiently by one well drainhole 1) a horizontal well or a lateral offshoot from a vertical well 2) the portion of a horizontal well that drains the reservoir drainhole length the length of a drainhole that drains the reservoir drain sample A sample taken from the outlet of a tank drape sedimentary rock layers overlying topography. The curve is used to compute the rate of production and rates of production for maximum economic recovery with different bottom-hole pressures. drillpipe (5 in. or eddy current. main drive shaft. rotary counter shaft. The mechanical brake is water cooled and is used to hold the drum in a stopped position and to control the lowering of a load. The auxiliary brake is used during tripping and is either hydrodynamic. one horsepower is necessary for each 10 ft to be drilled. that works like a centrifugal pump. and controls. drawdown or draw-down pressure the static reservoir pressure minus the bottomhole flowing pressure in psi I 1 - •/*' Hi drawworks drawworks or draw works the machinery on a drill floor that contains the reel of drilling line used to raise and lower equipment. draped anticline a domal structure formed by compaction of sediments over and along the flanks of harder rocks of limited aerial extent such as a buried reef. drainage relative permeability the displacement of crude oil out of a reservoir by increasing the nonwetting phase saturation. In general. The drawworks also enable the roughnecks to make or break pipe with the use of catheads. drillpipe for deeper wells). or cuesta. The drum around which the drilling line is reeled has a spiral grove to start the first wrap. The drawdown test uses the effect of production and downhole pressure reduction of a well on the neighboring wells to determine the extent of the reservoir. catshaft and catheads. bedrock hill. The draping is caused by both initial deposition and differential compaction of the sediments. Draping causes an initial dip of the sediments. The drawworks normally has four gear speeds. and their thickness decreases more to the sides creating the compaction anticline on originally horizontal sediments. (forcedfault) draping the conformance of overlying sediments above an area of relatively high rocks such as a basement fault block or a limestone reef. channel sandstone. and depth rating that is based on 4V2 in. and a clutch is used to change speed and direction. that uses magnetic force. ago. they compact more. All drawworks are very similar. It is part of the Cambrian period. maximum hook load. There are three forward and one reverse speeds for the high and low drum drives for a total of six forward and two reverse speeds. dwks drawworks console the control panel on the drill floor where the operator controls the mud pumps. jackshaft. The overlying sediments compact and decrease in thickness more than the overlying harder rocks. This is in contrast to imbibition relative permeability that increases the wetting phase saturation. brakes. A draped anticline in sedimentary rocks can form a petroleum trap. coring reel. DRATE drilling penetration rate log draught see draft draw a blank to drill a dry hole drawdown or draw down 1) the difference between static bottomhole pressure and flowing bottomhole pressure (in psi) at a constant fluid production rate 2) the vertical distance between the static level and the level during pumping (flowing) in the annulus of a well 3) The flow rate divided by the drawdown pressure in bopd/psi or Mcfd/psi 4) a reduction drawdown or draw-down curve a plot of bottomhole pressure versus production from a well. rotary drive. Power is from a direct-current motor or from the main drive shaft through the jackshaft using roller chains and sprockets. and the components include drumshaft group. or other type of hard core. dress 1) to repair equipment 2) to sharpen a bit dresser coupling a metal sleeve that is used to connect two joints of unthreaded pipe .

or bent. On a cabletool rig a percussion bit is used. Drag bits are rotary bits having blades that tear into soft formations. and flowlines drift angle the angle between a crooked or deviated hole and vertical (angle of deviation. A polycrystalline diamond bit (PCD bit) is a drag bit with blanks of man-made polycrystalline diamonds. drilling drift 1) see drift angle 2) The horizontal distance measured from the bottom of a well to a vertical line extending down from the suface location of the well (doivnhole closure) 3) a gradual change in a reference value with respect to measurements that are being made 4) poorly-sorted glacial deposits covering the surface of the ground 5) a gauge to measure the inner diameter of loops. The tricone bit with three cones is most common. nipples. The drillability of formations are classified as soft. uses hydroflouric acid to etch the deviation of the well on the side of a glass bottle. square. Another type uses a plumb bob or mechanical pendulum in a barrel and punches a hole with a stylus into a paper disc that is graduated with 1° circles. very hard. or grooved. an acid bottle inclinometer. Drillability also increases with lower mud weights and viscosities. If the drift mandrel hangs up in the tubing. and a clean top has to be milled or cut to accept the fishing tool. On a rotary rig. hole deviation. A drift log is made with a drift indicator and does not measure azimuth. The jet bit has fluid courses through the body of the bit or between the cones that are equipped with jet nozzles. A blank has greater abrasion resistance than natural diamonds. The drift mandrel is dropped through each joint of new tubing as it is picked off the pipe rack to be run in the well. Diamond bits are used for drilling through hard rocks and coring. and abrasive. The most common rotary bit is the rock or rollercone bit that has two. (bit) drill blank the cutting edge on a polycrystalline diamond bit. or tubing to determine the drift diameter of the tubular Drig or Drig. Rotary cone drill bits are good from 8 to 200 hours of rotating and wear out after an average of 24 hours of rotating. Drill collars come in many sizes and shapes. liner. The disc moves up to the pendulum stylus. drift. a rotary bit is used. polycrystalline diamonds that are cemented under high temperature and pressure to a tungsten carbide cylinder called a carbide stud. deflection. The percussion bit is a pointed or wedge-shaped weight that pulverizes the rocks on the bottom of the well as the bit is raised and lowered. drl or DD 3) see drill bit drillable any tool such as a packer that is designed and constructed with material such as plastic or cement that can be removed from a well by drilling through it drill collar drill collar a heavy. hard. and the instrument is dropped from the surface onto a baffle plate located on top of the drill bit. drilling DRILL drilling information drill 1) the mechanism for boring holes in earth including cable-tool and rotary rigs 2) the act of boring a hole in the earth. The top of a fish is often broken. medium. and reduces bending. keeps the drillstring stiff. (blank) drill by or around to sidetrack a well drift test the passage of a drift mandrel through casing. or four rotating cones on the bottom of the bit. Drg. On a conventional tricone bit. (inclination survey) Dr ~ drift mandrel a cylinder of specific size that is run through casing or tubing to insure its size. the tubing is rejected as out of gauge. One type. The blank is made with a layer of manmade. The drift indicator is activated by a timing device and can make two punches. (jack rabbit or rabbit) 149 drillable packer a permanent packer that can be retrieved by milling the slips drillability the ease in which a formation can be drilled. (inclinometer) drift log or survey a record of how much a well deviates from vertical at various depths in the well. The drilling fluid jets out the nozzles and impacts directly on the teeth of the cones of a roller-cone bit.dresser-drawer contact • drill collar dresser-drawer contract an instrument or contract that was never recorded dressing 1) to shape and sharpen a cable tool or drag bit 2) the fitting together of the parts of a tool 3) the surfacing of material dressing a bit repair of a worn bit dressing off to condition the top of a fish in a well to receive a fishing tool. thick-walled. The weighted drillstring puts tension on the drillpipe. large-diameter pipe that is used on the bottom of the drillstring just above the drill bit to add weight to the bottom of the drillstring. Extended nozzle bits have elongated fluid paths to reduce the distance between the nozzle exit and the bottom of the hole. The tricone bit has three legs welded to a shank. twisted. Typical collar sizes are 31 ft long with an outer . Roller-cone bits are either a) milled toothsteel teeth or b) insert-button bits. The legs hold journals around which bearings rotate to allow the cone on each leg pin to turn. Some are full-bore openings and others are ported. They can be round. three. The time is set. Diamond bits have no moving parts and have diamonds imbedded into the matrix on the bottom and sides of the bit. there are nozzles are located between the cones. drill ahead to continue drilling drill around to deviate or sidetrack a well around a fish in the well drill bit the cutting tool used in drilling. or inclination) drift diameter the minimum inner diameter of a well or a tubular such as drillpipe or casing drift indicator an instrument that is used to determine how much a wellbore deviates from vertical at a specific depth in the well. triangular. Regular bits have an opening in the center of the bit body for drilling fluid. The rotary bit is turned by the drillstring to chip and flake the rocks at the bottom of the well.

The rotary table. mud system. the drill floor is the work area surrounding the opening where the tools and drillstring are run into the ocean. The driller is also responsible for preparing the driller's report and pipe measurements. tour or drilling report) driller's work station the pan of the drill floor located by the right. or 27/s in. it shows not only mud and drilling variables but also has controls for the blowout preventers.. On an offshore drilling rig. just slightly smaller than the well being drilled. (driller's or drilling log. drilled solids well cuttings from subsurface formations. The pins are bolted to the jacket. The drill floor is where the drilling operations occur. air pressure. The driller's report is similar to a daily drilling report and is used by the tool pusher to make that report. The piling pins are then inserted in the seafloor using a pile driver and then cemented. A copy is kept on the rig. and other equipment are located on the floor and the well is located in the center. driller an employee of the drilling contractor who is directly responsible for the rig and its crew on that tour or shift. It shows the orientation of the tool face and the azimuth and inclination of the well. Drill collars can have slip and elevator recesses. This is done from the driller's position on the drill floor near the driller's console on a land rig. drawworks. drill head the chuck on the bottom of the downhole assembly to which the bit is attached drill in to make a discovery by drilling into a productive reservoir drilling the act of creating a hole through the subsurface rocks. The casing pressure continuously varies as all the formation fluid is circulated out of trie well. the casing pressure is kept constant by adjusting the choke setting at the choke manifold until the well is filled with kill mud. (digger) DRLG or drlr driller's console (Cities Service) driller's BOP control panel a series of controls used to operate valves on the control manifold that directs hydraulic pressure to the closing elements of a blowout preventer stack on a drilling rig.F. When the heavier kill mud is circulated into the well. drilling. or rig floor) D. The driller is accountable to the toolpusher at the rig. drillstring rotary torque. list of pipe and downhole equipment used. The driller's report includes geological and mechanical information such as formations encountered. mud tests. drillstring rotary speed. driller's position the location on the drill floor of a drilling rig around the driller's console driller's report an abbreviated record of the drilling operations and progress during a tour or shift on a drilling rig. The report is signed by the driller. The original mud is circulated. tool pusher. The report also includes the names of crew members. and a weight indicator for total weight-on-bit and total hook weight. driller's dial an instrument on the drill floor used by a driller during navigational drilling. Spiral-grooved drill collars are used to reduce contact with the well walls and reduce differential wall sticking. front corner of the drawworks near the drawworks brake handle. or a rotary rig that rotates a bit diameter of 6'/4. 8. On an offshore rig. DC drill collar safety clamps clamps that are bolttightened onto a drill collar and have two handles drill column the drillpipe and drill collars in the well drilled pilings heavy steel pins that are used to fix the jacket of an offshore platform to the seafloor. and derrick along with an alarm system and an elapsed rig-downtime recorder. Driller's method is in contrast to the wait-and-weight method. pump speed. oil and gas shows. Usually 2-30 drill collars are located on the drillstring. and in the control cabin or doghouse on an offshore rig. footage drilled. and pressure is kept constant by adjusting the choke setting. tong torque . drawworks. and equipment breakdowns along with a drilling time log. The driller is responsible for the drilling operations on the drill floor and operates the hoist and rotary equipment. and company representative. hours worked. The inner diameter is 2 V-A in. Drilling can be done with a cabletool rig that pounds a weighted. chisel-shaped bit down through the rocks. The pin and box connections are cut from the pipe body. (derrick. driller's console. A square drill collar is used with a packed-hole assembly to control the direction of the well. drill floor the elevated platform supported by the substructure on a drilling rig on which the derrick sits. Nonmagnetic drill collars made of K-Monel are used on the lower end of a downhole assembly in directional drilling. driller's log 1) see driller's report DL or DRL-L 2) a sample log made by the driller by examining the well cuttings driller's method a method used to control a well by circulating the kick fluids out of the well and then circulating a higher-density kill mud through the kill line into the well through an adjustable choke. or 10 in. The driller's console is located on the driller's work station.150 drill collar safety clamps • drilling indicator. and general maintenance and repair. ton-miles of drilling line used. The panel is located on the drill floor in contrast to the remote BOP control panel that is located away from the drilling rigdriller's console or control panel the control panel on the drill floor that contains the drilling gauges that record pump pressure. Holes are drilled into the seafloor through the supporting legs of the jacket using a slant rig.

a water-foaming agent is used. b) oil-base muds. The drilling muds are the most common. Three types of drilling fluids are a) water-base muds. d exponent drilling floor see drill floor drilling fluid the fluid circulated down the well during rotary drilling to a) cool and lubricate the bit and b) remove the well cuttings. W is weight on bit in pounds. Drig. If water is present when drilling with gas. drilling-fluid weight recorder an instrument located on the circulating system of a rotary drilling rig that continuously measures the drilling-mud density drilling foreman see toolpusber . The department also includes an assistant drilling superintendent or manager and several drilling engineers or supervisors. and foam in contrast to a mud engineer or mud man. Drig. drilling and rental clause an oil and gas lease provision that provides for the payment of a specific sum of money (delay rental) to the lessor by the lessee at certain times in order to maintain a lease during its primary term if either production or drilling. The drilling exponent is calculated by log (j^\ divided by log (^\ in which R = drilling rate in ft/hr. DB drilling block the area where an exploratory well is proposed drilling bond an indemnity bond that is required by some states when a well is drilled drilling break a sudden increase in the rate of drillbit penetration. water is the continuous phase in an oil-base mud. drilling and operating restrictions provisions by a government regulatory agency or lessor that regulate the drilling and operating activities of the lessee. or operator on a drilling rig and is in charge of the drilling fluid. drilling contractor the person or company that owns and operates a drilling rig drilling control a hydraulic or pneumatic device that is connected to the drawworks brake handle on a drilling rig and maintains a predetermined weight on the bit without input from the driller (automatic driller or automatic drilling control unit) 151 drilling costs monies spent per foot or meter of hole drilled drilling crew one of three or four teams that drill shot holes on a seismic crew using explosives drilling curve a plot of well depth versus drilling time drilling-delay rental clause an oil and gas lease provision that enables the lessee to maintain the lease during the primary term without commencing drilling by periodically making payments called delay rentals drilling department the part of an oil company that is responsible for the operational details of drilling and completing wells.drilling ahead • drilling foreman on the bottom of a string of steel pipe in the well to chip and flake the rock. tests. daywork (by-the-days drilling to TD). drlg. cutting blades are extended out the sides of the tool to dig a large cavity at the bottom of the hole. Compensation for drilling is structured on a footage (by-the-foot to TD). N is rotary speed in rpm. air. (delay rental clause and drilling clause) drilling and spacing unit the acreage upon which only one producing well from a certain producing zone can be located. Some drilling fluids can also 1) control subsurface fluids and 2) build a filter cake along the well walls. If oil is present. or drg drilling ahead to drill a straight hole without a deviation along a length of the well drilling and belling tool a large-diameter drill in the shape of a cylinder that is used to dig holes in the sea bottom for offshore piles. There can also be a materials supervisor along with the support personnel. The drilling and spacing unit is set by a government regulatory agency. c) foam. The gas can be a) dry gas. The drilling-fluids engineer prepares. DRLG. natural gas. and d) stable foam. The salinity of the waters in water-base muds ranges from fresh to brines. or turnkey (fixed amount) basis. or a zone of abnormal high pressure. The International Association of Drilling Contractors has a standard drilling contract form. After the tool digs out the hole to a depth of several hundred feet. DB drilling capacity the maximum depth to which a specific rig is designed and equipped to drill drilling clause see drilling and rental clause drilling collision a well drilled into another well (intersection) drilling contract an agreement between a drilling contractor and the operator that holds the mineral rights or represents the mineral rights owner of a lease to drill a well in a specific location to a certain depth or horizon. The drilling department is headed by a drilling superintendent or manager who is a petroleum engineer. K is rock drillability with shale about 1. DFLD drilling-fluids engineer an engineer who works for a service company. The drilling department keeps in constant communication with rig operations. b) mist. Gas includes both air and natural gas. a porous zone. Solids in the drilling mud include clays such as bentonite and additives. and adjusts or conditions the drilling fluid as the well is drilled. has not commenced. Forty acres is common for an oil well and 640 ac for a gas well. This cavity is used to cement the piles in place. and D is bit diameter in inches. The drilling contract defines the obligations and rights of each party. These can include provisions for damage to crops or burying pipelines. depending on the lease terms. drilling contractor. and c) gas. (proration unit) DSU drilling barge a general term for any floating drilling rig. The drilling fluids engineer works with all types of drilling fluids including water. (operations department) drilling efficiency the number of wells drilled per drilling rig per year drilling engineer a petroleum engineer who specializes in the mechanics and techniques of drilling a well drilling exponent a calculated number that is used to detect undercompacted shale with abnormally high pressure. A drilling break could be caused by subsurface layers of different rocks..

In the similar. (consentingparty) 3) the operator of a well being drilled drilling permit the authorization from a government regulatory agency to drill a well. Drilling mud is either a) water-base (fresh to saline water). (wellpermit) drilling platform an offshore drilling structure with legs attached to the sea bottom. (chilling-time log) DTML 2) see drilling report drilling mud a mud that is circulated in the well during drilling to a) cool and lubricate the bit. e) hook load. See steel template jacket platform and gravity base platform. An ice island is used in Arctic waters. and nominal strength. viscosity and yield strength. the lease expires. (drilling program) drilling hose see rotary or mud hose drilling in drilling into a producing formation drilling island an artificial island that was constructed in shallow water to serve as a foundation for drilling wells. and is commonly between 1 and 15/S in. and c) identify lithologies. or block line or hoisting cable ) drilling liner a liner used when drilling in areas of hard rock that serves the same function as intermediate or protective casing to isolated zones such as lost circulation or abnormal high-pressure zones in the well. e) pump SPM. b) penetration. commercial. If the well that was being drilled as the primary term expired does not obtain commercial production. The most common drilling funds are limited partnerships and joint ventures. drilling option a contract in which a party that drills a well and shares that information with another party will receive a farmout from that party. rotary speed.3 lbs/gal. b) oil-base (usually diesel oil). drilling rate the rate. (farmout option) drilling out drilling the cement out of casing after a cement job or to drill a cement plug in a well drilling party 1) a company that is obliged to contribute money to drilling in a unit operating agreement 2) any company or individual that agrees to join in and share the costs of any operation under a joint operating agreement. b) rotary torque. b) locate porous zones in dense rocks. Total depth is read to the nearest Vio of a foot. Since 1943. drilling operations clause an oil and gas lease provision that maintains the lease after the primary term of the lease has expired if drilling that commenced before the primary term expired is still occurring on the lease. Various chemicals and substances called additives can be added to change the properties of the drilling mud such as density and water loss. weight on bit. A typical bentonite drilling mud weighs 9-10 lbs/gal in contrast to fresh water that weighs 8. Drilling rate is recorded on a drilling-time log. rotary. mass/unit length. any well drilled on that lease after the primary term expires that obtains commercial production will maintain that lease as long as drilling on that lease did not cease for longer than a specified time after the primary term expired. A drilling prospect can be either explorational or developmental. A six-pen single recorder records a) hook load. continuous-drilling operations clause in an oil and gas lease. (geolograph) drilling fund a variety of techniques used to obtain venture capital from investors for drilling oil and gas wells. d) rotary torque. The drilling fund can be either private or public. The mud contains clays such as bentonite or attapulgite to give it weight. The drilling jar is also used to free a stuck bit in a tapered hole or a bit stuck on a ledge or by cuttings or cavings. The oil-base mud is commonly called an invert mud. and c) hydromechanical. drilling log 1) a record of the rate of penetration of drill bit with depth in the well plotted in minutes per foot drilled. Drilling line is also described by nominal diameter. usually expressed in minutes per foot. Drilling Porosity Log™ a porosity log that is computed from drilling parameters such as rate of penetration. The clays can be either native or. A heavy drilling mud can weight 15-20 lbs/gal. drilling jar a tool that is used to deliver a sharp. d) pump pressure. Drilling party is in contrast to nondrilling party. that the bit is penetrating the subsurface rock. The drilling jar consists of a mandrel that slides in a sleeve with a hammer end. The drilling jar can be run on a drillstring and is located three or four drill collars below the top of the drill collars. b) remove the well cuttings. but different. (hoisting. (gel or mud) DM drilling operation the erection of a drilling rig with support equipment in the boring into the subsurface. or c) emulsion mud. The drilling log was originally made in the 1920s by marking 1-ft intervals on the kelly and timing each mark to the kelly bushing. Drilling line is identified by the number of strands and the number of wires in each strand. An . The drilling log is used to a) accurately determine the top and bottom elevation of formations by the change (drilling break) in drilling rate. upward blow to free stuck pipe in a well. c) rotary rpm. c) pump speed. which is registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission. and d) build a filter cake along the well walls. The drilling permit lists the location and depth of the well. b) hydraulic or oil jar. most commonly.152 drilling fund • drilling record emulsion mud is made with water at the continuous phase and 5%-l 0% oil as the dispersed phase. Drilling line is usually braided steel wire that ranges in diameter between Vi and 2 in. It is a round-strand type that is usually wound in a right-regular lay and is typically 6 x 19 with an independent wire-rope core. drilling logs have been recorded mechanically by such devices as a Geolograph. and pump pressure and strokes. DPL drilling program see drilling fund drilling prospect a location or tract of land that has both economic and geological potential for drilling a commercial well. Types of drilling jars include a) mechanical. (penetration rate) drilling-rate curve see drilling-time curve drilling recorder a chart recorder that is capable of recording up to ten drilling parameters on a drilling rig. c) control subsurface fluids. and 0 pump pressure. and f) weight-on-bit along with g) the time to drill each foot. The liner does not extend to the surface in contrast to a casing string. drilling line heavy-duty wire rope on a rotary drilling rig that is used to raise and lower equipment in a well. A drilling recorder normally records a) rotary speed.

(drilling-rate curve) drilling-time log a record of the rate of drill-bit penetration with depth in a well. cementing equipment. spool-shaped metal pipe that is used between the preventer elements on a blowoutpreventer stack to attach choke and kill lines. b) locate porous zones in dense rocks. The drill or pay lease is in contrast to a drill or forfeit lease. footage drilled. rotating. A copy is kept on the rig. See drum 2) a large. The drilling report is similar to a daily drilling report and is used by the toolpusher to make that report. The decrease in weight on bit with time is measured while maintaining constant rotary speed. mud tests. Drill-o-graph an instrument on a drilling rig that records the drilling-time log drill-out or drill out 1) to use the drill bit on the drillstring to remove a plug in the well 2) to drill as many wells as permitted drillpipe drillpipe a section of hot-rolled. Since 1943. and company representative. or clamp-on connected. along with a drilling time log. drill off to fill the well with well cuttings drilloff test a test run on a rotary drilling rig to determine the response of bit penetration rate to weight on bit. jackup. in diameter that was used to connect the tools to the walking beam of a cable-tool rig. 6000 0 2 4 6 8 10 153 6050 6)00 drilling time log determine the top and bottom elevation of formations by the change (drilling break) in drilling rate. drilling-time logs have been recorded mechanically by such devices as a geolograph. turns a length of steel pipe (called the drillstring) to rotate a rotary bit that chips away at the rocks at the bottom of the well. and circulating. and c) identify lithologies. drilling rod a 15-18-ft section of solid. list of pipe and downhole equipment used. which is commonly used today. wrought iron about 1 in. The spool has an internal diameter equal to the bore of the blowout preventers. (boring rod) drilling spool 1) the drum in the drawworks of a rotary drilling rig that holds the drilling line. The four major systems on a rotary drilling rig are the prime movers. The drilling-time curve is recorded on a drilling-time log. storage. drilling the well in an old method of drilling into a high-pressure hydrocarbon zone and allowing the well to blow in while collecting the oil in ponds and drainage ditches around the well until the well is capped drilling-time curve the rate. drill or pay lease a type of oil and gas lease that requires the lessee to drill a well on the lease within a specific time or pay delay rentals to the lessor. that the bit is penetrating the subsurface rock. (drilling log) DTML drilling unit 1) the area or drilling and spacing unit fixed by a government regulatory agency for drilling one well 2) a drilling rig 3) the entire barge. hoisting.MINUTES/FT. and general maintenance and repair. The spools can be studded. Drilling rods were used in some early versions of the cabletool rig and were later replaced by Manila rope. Two types of drilling rigs are cable tool (an older method) and rotary. oil and gas shows. flanged. semisubmersible. seamless. usually expressed in minutes per foot. high-strength steel pipe (some are made of aluminum) . The drilling-time log was originally made in the 1920s by marking 1-ft intervals on the kelly and timing each mark to the kelly bushing. The report also includes the names of crew members. The drilling log is used to a) accurately DRILLING TIME.drilling report • drillpipe drilling report an abbreviated record of the drilling operations and progress during a tour or shift on a drilling rig. A large weight on the bit is applied and the drawworks break is locked. The cable-tool rig raises and lowers a wedge-shaped weight on a cable in the well to pulverize the rocks. The drilling supervisor is in charge of the drilling crews and their procedures. or drillship used in offshore drilling drill or forfeit lease a type of oil and gas lease that requires the lessee to drill a well on the lease within a specific time or loose (forfeit) the lease. ton-miles of drilling line used. The tender can contain mud tanks. plotted in minutes per foot drilled. and equipment breakdowns. tour report or drilling log) drilling rig the equipment used in drilling a well. or other auxiliary equipment. The rotary rig. The drill or forfeit lease is in contrast to a drill or pay lease. drilling tender a support ship for an offshore drilling operation. (driller's log or report. power. (cross or spacer spool or spool) drilling superintendent the person in charge of a contractor's or oil company's drilling department drilling supervisor a drilling engineer who reports to the drilling superintendent of a drilling contractor or an oil company. The choke and kill lines can attach to one spool or two spools with a blowout preventer in between. The drilling report includes geological and mechanical information such as formation encountered. pierced. toolpusher. The report is signed by the driller. hours worked.

6 lb/ft nominal weight. drillpipe or drill-pipe mill a device that has tungsten-carbide cutting edges and is rotated on the bottom of a fishing string to grind or pulverize (mill) sections of drillpipe stuck in a well drillpipe or drill-pipe protector a rubber or steel sleeve that can be attached to a joint of drillpipe to reduce wear by friction in a cased hole drillpipe or drill-pipe safety valve a valve with threads that match those on the drillstring. with 19. and the breakout tongs become the backup tongs. 2) on a cable-tool rig. and hole opener and the bit. The drillstem puts weight on the bit and was also called an auger stem or sinker bar guide. The elevators are used to raise or lower drillpipe in the well. DP or D. usually in the form of a letter. Heave compensators and a telescoping joint are used to drillship drillship compensate for wave motions. Drillships are used for drilling in deep water and use eight anchors or dynamic positioning with a ship-board computer and thrusters to keep the ship directly above the drillsite. The breakout tongs unscrew the pipe. Wall thickness ranges from 0. The drillpipe is part of the drillstring that is rotated by a rotary drilling rig to turn a bit on the bottom of the well to cut the well. drillpipe or drill-pipe cutter a fishing tool that is rotated on a fishing string to mechanically cut.P. the backup tongs become the makeup tongs. A marine riser is used to connect the ship to the wellhead on the seafloor and complete the closed system for circulating drilling mud. drillstem pressure loss the pump pressure necessary to circulate drilling fluid from the bottom of the kelly. collars. keyseat wiper. The drillpipe safety valve is kept on the drilling-rig floor and is used to close the drillstring during a kick. Two sets are required. G. The drillpipe elevators are attached to the traveling block or triple hook by two elevator links that are forged steel bars with eyes on both ends. and e) pipebody yield strength. Drillships are commonly 200-450 ft long. DS drillsite 1) the exact location of a proposed well 2) the oil and gas lease on which a proposed well is located drillsite arrangement an agreement in which the lessee assigns all of his interest in a drillsite along with a fractional interest in the remaining portion of the lease. A drillship is not as stable as a jackup rig or semisubmersible when drilling. subs such as stabilizers. Drillpipe grade (D. The American Petroleum Institute has a color-coding system for drillpipe classification. Each section of drillpipe is called a joint. whereas the backup tongs keep the pipe steady so that it can be screwed or unscrewed. stuck pipe in a well Drill Pipe Log™ a type of well log made by a tape recorder as the drillstring is tripped out of the well. The drillstem includes the kelly. DS or D. down the drillstring to the drill bit drillstem safety valve a short sub containing a fullbore ball valve that is activated by drilling mud . The drillpipe log records spontaneous potential and short and long resistivity measurements. Class 2. and casing.670 in. and Class 3 are used to describe drillpipe wear. drillship or drill ship a ship with a drilling rig aboard. The tool is lowered down the center of the drillstring and the flexible electrodes are pumped through a port in the bit. Each grade and size is specified by a) nominal weight per foot or meter. b) internal diameter. The well is drilled through a hole (moon pool) in the hull from a derrick mounted on the ship's center of buoyancy. with 133 lb/ft nominal weight. reamers. concerning the title of the land. and the inner diameter from 2. 2 (27-30 ft) and 3 (38-45 ft). and working interests. and 5 in. drillpipe or drill-pipe elevators elevators that are usually center-latched and clamped onto squareshouldered or taper-shouldered drillpipe tool joints. Drillpipe usually has tool joints welded on both ends. drill collars.5 Mb nominal weight. with 16. reserving an overriding royalty or net-profits interest in the drillsite drillsite royalty a payment (royalty) made to the lessor in order to locate a well on one tract of land and drill a deviated hole to produce oil from under another tract of land drillsite title opinion a thorough analysis by an attorney. Common sizes include y/i in. solid steel shaft with a chisel point into which the bit jars are screwed. along with any provisions for a lease on which drilling is about to start drillstem or drill stem 1) all the rotating pipe on a rotary drilling rig from the kelly to the drill bit.415 in.154 drillpipe or drill-pipe cutter • drillstem safety valve that is made in several sizes but is commonly 30 ft (31ft with the tool joints) long. The drillstem is 5 in.S. 4Vi in.151 to 4. X. premium). in diameter and 30-40 ft long. c) collapse resistance. either externally or internally. drillpipe or drill-pipe tongs wrench-like devices used on the floor of a drilling rig to screw togetner (make up) and unscrew (break out) joints of drillpipe. Outer diameters range from 2% to 6% in. drillpipe.362 to 0. When the pipe is screwed together. mineral rights. d) internal yield pressure. Drillpipe ranges are 1 (18-22 ft). Class 1 (new. the drillstem is the heavy. and S) identifies the minimum yield strength of the pipe. E.

The flow rates are controlled by an adjustable choke. jars. The drillstem test is run in four steps. single-packer test with one compressional packer is used when the formation is on or near the bottom of the well. the bit. double-packer. b) crown block. The test can be made either in an open hole or in a case hole with perforations. reamers. A hookwall or casing-packer test is used in a cased well. The tool has three or four valves. If liquid flows to the surface. 2) the drillpipe 3) the drillpipe and drill collars drillstring compensator a passive device that is used to nullify rig heave on an offshore drilling rig. DSC drillstring drag the actual surface load required to raise or lower a drillstring in a well minus the drillstring's neutral weight drillstring float or drillstring float valve a check valve that is used in the drillstring to allow drilling fluids to be pumped down the well but to prevent fluids from flowing up the inside of the drillstring (backpressure valve) . During the final shut-in (FSI). the valve is open. This prevents drilling mud from flowing out of the kelly when it is unscrewed from the drillstring to make a connection.drillstem or drill stem test • drillstring float or drillstring float valve pressure and is located just below the kelly saver sub. A safety joint is run above the packer. and f) final hydrostatic pressure. usually a drillstring. b) initial flow pressure. When the pumps are stopped. When the mud pumps are pumping. and volumes drillstem test tool drillstem or drill stem test tool the tool used to run a drillstem test. The sample of the formation fluids is collected near the end of the final flow period. An openhole. All are air-spring tensioning with a set tension level. a packer or packers. The types are a) deadline. c) initial shut-in pressure. (lower kelly valve) 155 are measured. perforated anchor pipe. and hole opener on a rotary drilling rig. drillstem test chart drillstem or drill stem test a method used to temporarily complete a recently drilled formation in a well in order to evaluate it. and c) traveling block. If it does not flow to the surface. An openhole. The valve can be closed with a hexagonal wrench to remove the kelly under pressure and can be stripped in the well during snubbing. Packers are used to isolate the formation from drilling-mud pressure. drill collars. the valve closes. pressure gauges. and up to three pressure recorders. Pressure records made during the drillstem test are used to calculate the formation pressure. There is an initial flow (IF) period in which the tool is opened for usually 5-15 minutes but can be up to 60 minutes. The drillstem safety valve also acts as a safety valve to prevent high pressure mud from flowing up the drillstring. and the amount of formation damage. The test is run from 20 minutes to three days. DST or D. The important measurements are a) initial hydrostatic pressure. coated-metal chart by a movable stylus that is driven by a mechanical clock. The test determines the type of fluids in the formation and how fast they can be produced. stem. A Bourdon tube pressure recorder is used in the drillstring to record well pressures on a black. permeability. During the test. and valve assembly into the well.S. the driller measures the height of liquid in the drillstem by counting the stands of pipe in the derrick. and rope socket below the drilling line. and sometimes a disc-type valve. A flow string. DSTT drillstring or drill string 1) the entire drillstem including kelly. the tool is closed. and a sampling chamber is used to collect uncontaminated formation fluids at the end of the test. or straddle-packer test with two packers is used when the formation is located off the bottom of the well. The valves include a bypass or equalizing valve. and subs such as stabilizers. pressures. it is sent to a separator where the gas is metered and the liquids gauged. A cone-packer test is used over a core hole and a wall-over-cone packer test is used over a core hole with a soft shoulder. The results are reported in amount of fluid flowing through a choke in a certain amount of time. or sometimes a tubing string. The pressures are recorded on a pressure-buildup curve.T. The term drillstring comes from cable-tool drilling and refers to the drilling bit. The tool is then opened again for the final flow (FF) for 30 minutes to 24 hours while the flow rates. formation fluids are allowed to flow into the drillstem. The tool is then shut in for the initial shut-in (ISI) that lasts twice as long as the flow period while the bottomhole pressure is recorded along with surface shut-in and flowing pressure. a circulating valve. d) final shut-in pressure. e) final flow pressure. drillpipe. a main test valve. The time of the test is limited by the chart space on the downhole recorder. key seat wiper. perforated pipe. is used to carry the packer(s).

The drive-in unit is in contrast to a back-in unit. It prevents a washout and provides a conduit for drilling mud circulating back into the mud tanks. or white oil) drips 1) a separator 2) see drip gasoline Dri-spiral™ a horizontal absorber-contractor that uses absorption. These types of platforms were designed to resist underwater mudslides. or blue. No wellhead equipment is mounted on the drive pipe. drillwell the hole in the hull of a drillship or semisubmersible through which the drilling occurs. Drive casing is used to start a well only in areas of vegetation and very soft ground. round bore that allows a drillstring to pass through drill-through-the-leg platform an offshore production platform in which the legs serve as large conductor pipe and contain several well slots. sloped legs. The piles or pins are cemented into the seafloor and bolted to the jacket. natural. a percentage evaporated at 104°F of 24%-85%. The drive pipe is pile driven to the seafloor from a production platform. Retrograde gas is the preferred term for dip gasoline. condensate. The platform has two large-diameter legs for drilling and two smaller diameter. retrograde gas. raw or wild gasoline. 3) see separator drip gasoline liquid hydrocarbons of very light crude oil composition that occur as a gas under subsurface reservoir conditions (high temperature and pressure) and condense into a liquid upon production and surface conditions.P. drips. (drive casing or stove pipe) D. outside diameter that is often formed by several joints welded together and is pounded into the ground with a diesel hammer until driven to refusal. and blending for gas dehydration drive the natural energy or pressure on the oil in a subsurface reservoir that causes the oil to flow through the reservoir rock and into a well. The liquid would accumulate in a tube called the tail piece that was occasionally blown out. The water can vary in salinity from fresh through sea-water and brines. Gas reservoirs have a gas expansion drive. driver the prime mover on a pump drive rollers wheels or cylinders that are mounted in the kelly bushing and contact the kelly. and gravity. driven well a well that is made by driving casing without any drilling rig drive-in unit a self-propelled service unit or workover rig that has the cab and steering on the same end as the mast.156 drill through • drop off drive casing see drive pipe driven to grade piles or pins in the legs of an offshore platform jacket that have been pile driven to the desired depth. (moon pool. The drillwell is located on the center of gravity of a floating rig and is generally 20-25 ft in diameter. gas condensate. distillate. The most common are dissolved gas. Drive rollers allow the kelly to move up and down inside the kelly bushing. moonpool or moonwell) drip 1) a small tank on a pipeline that traps liquids condensing out of gas flowing through the pipeline 2) equipment in the form of iron tubes that was used on gas wells to separate condensate and water from the gas. If condensate is recovered on the lease with standard field separator equipment. Condensates have very high °API that range between 45 and 60 and are very valuable commercially. It is commonly measured in hammer blows per foot of penetration and is often 140-150 ft. gas distillate. free gas cap. It had four vertical iron tubes with the inner two tubes connected with a cross tube through which the gas flowed. drill to granite to drill a well to basement rock drill under pressure to rotary drill while maintaining a high pressure in the well by using a rotating head for a seal. Drilling under pressure increases the rate of penetration. derrick drl drill DRLD or drld drilled DRLG or drlg drilling DRL-L driller's log DRL-M drilling media drill through a fitting that has a full. Gas condensate typically grade from colorless to light-colored liquids with tints of red. drive block a heavy weight used to pound conductor casing into the ground drive bushing see kelly drive bushing DRLR or drlr driller DRM detrital remanent magnetism drng drainage DROI discounted return on investment drop tTo drop a weight to generate seismic energy using a thumper type of seismic exploration system drop a line to gauge a tank drop off the part of a wellbore in which the inclination decreases toward vertical . 2) An old name for thick casing with a sharp shoe that was used when the casing had to be driven into the well. green. The Natural Gas Processors Association has defined drip gasoline as having a vapor pressure between 10-34 psi. a percentage evaporated at 275°F of not less than 90%. water. drive pipe 1) a short string (20-100 ft) of largediameter pipe or casing with 26-42 in. it is often combined and recorded with the crude oil. centrifuging. (kelly bushing rollers) drive shaft a rod that transmits rotational power drive shoe a short section of closed pipe that forms the protective end of a drive pipe or casing when it is run (casing shoe) drive unit the engines for a deep drilling rig drive water pressurized water that is injected into a reservoir from injection wells to push slugs of chemicals and oil toward producing wells during enhanced oil recovery drk 1) dark 2) derrick Drk. (casinghead. driven to refusal a point in which hammering the drive pipe or casing down in the ground has little effect. Natural gas that contains gas condensate is called wet gas. and an end point in distillation of not higher than 375°F. drill water the liquid in water-base drilling muds.

1 gal of natural gas liquids per Mcf. 3) a separator drum brake the apparatus used to slow or stop the rotation of a drum on a hoisting system. In a dry-hole donation letter. 2) natural gas with water removed. dry-bed dehydrator a contactor vessel that contains a layer of a solid material. drop weight a heavy weight of lead or cast iron that can be released from the bottom of a semisubmersible to give it more buoyancy drowned a well that produces too much water to make production profitable drowning the flowage of water from the wellbore into an oil formation drowning out the gas zone the restriction of gas flow from a low-pressure. (duster or wet well) 2) a well being drilled without circulating drilling fluid and very little or no ground water in the well. The cement slurry plug is heavier than the drilling mud and sinks through the drilling mud to the lost circulation zone. The dry acid will not react with the carbonate reservoir until contacted with water in the formation. (iron oxide method) dry completion drusy cement drusy cement a type of cement found in limestones in which the cement crystals line the surfaces of larger particles and protrude as teeth into the pore spaces DRY dry hole dry a pump with no fluid to pump (starved) dry acid an oil-soluble. In a dry-hole . a party that owns leases in the area agrees to contribute a sum of money to drill a well to a specified depth on a lease that it does not own if the well turns out to be a dry hole. The dry completion is in contrast to the more common wet completion. Divers can assemble and service the wellhead in the gas atmosphere contained in the chamber. dry hole 1) a well that did not encounter commercial amounts of gas or oil. A drum is usually larger (about 55 gal) than the barrel (42 gal) used to measure oil volume. and c) adequate breaking surface. permit. low-volume gas zone from flowing into a flowing oil well by oil from another reservoir in the well drpd dropped DRRK derrick dru drusy drum 1) a metal shipping barrel. 2) the cylinder of a hoisting system such as the drawworks on a drilling rig where the wire rope is wound. propane. The reservoir temperature is above the cricondentherm. nonaqueous acid that is used for acidizing carbonate reservoirs. The drum has a spiral groove to start the first wrap of wire rope. or other problems drop point the surface location of a weight drop using a thumper type of seismic exploration system drop time the time that it takes a go-devil instrument to fall through a drillstem to its location in a well dropping-the-plug technique a method of emplacing a cement slurry in a well with a lost circulation problem.dropped coverage • dry-hole agreement dropped coverage a section of the seismic line that was not shot because of access. drunken thread an irregularity on the threads of a pin drusy a rock that contains irregular cavities with mineral crystals lining the walls and projecting into the cavities dru 157 used and is blended with oil. Dry gas contains less than 0. Ethane. DRY dry-hole agreement a type of support agreement between two parties in which the supporting party receives geological or drilling information in return for a promise to make a cash contribution to the drilling party if a dry hole is drilled. The hoisting drum on the drawworks is designed for a) maximum barrel diameter. The party that made the dry-hole contribution usually receives copies of the well logs from the dry hole. Condensate can form. Dry gas is in contrast to wet gas. Acetic acid is often dry completion a subsea completion that has an atmospheric chamber surrounding the subsea completion system. such as silica gel that removes liquid from gas that is passed down through it dry box method the removal of H2S from sour gas by passing the gas through a bed of wood chips impregnated with iron oxide in a contactor. The iron oxide can be regenerated with air. The bed must be kept moist with a small stream of soda ash solution. b) length between flanges. dry drilling drilling in which no drilling fluid is circulated back to the surface dry gas or dry natural gas 1) natural gas that contains no or insignificant amounts of liquid hydrocarbons and is over 95% methane. Mechanical and electrodynamic brakes are used on the drawworks on a drilling rig. however. DGAS or DG dry gas reservoir a gas reservoir in which a decline in reservoir pressure will not result in formation of a condensate in the reservoir. and butane can be present in minor amounts. on the surface with a drop in temperature.

The specified amount is defined by contract and can be 1%. In return. (dryhole contribution) dry oil crude oil that contains less than a specified amount of basic sediment and water.S. dry-hole clause a provision in an oil and gas lease that defines what a lessee must do to maintain that lease during the primary term if a dry hole is drilled. dry test a drillstem test with no formation fluid flowing from the test zone into the drillstem tool. given by one party to another party in a support agreement after a well is drilled to contract depth. dry-hole support consideration. It can also provide for the suspension of the delay rental payment in a year in which a dry hole was drilled with delay rentals effective in later years. . The consideration is not given if the well is completed as a producer. dry hole or dry-hole money the amount of money specified in a support agreement between two parties to be paid by the supporting parn to the drilling party if the well drilled is a dry hole.T. and gauges over a flowing well on land or on a dry completion on the seafloor. Dry tree is in contrast to a wet tree on the sea bottom. a party agrees to contribute a sum of money to drill a well to a specified depth on a lease that it does not own if the well turns out to be a dry hole. tanks.S. and there is zero pressure when the tester is opened during the flow period dry tree a Christmas tree-type of completion of valves. and additives that are stored in sacks. and the well is plugged and abandoned as a dry hole. dry storage the supplies of dry cement. Dry string is in contrast to a wet string. (clean oil) dry pipe drillpipe without drilling mud in it dry plugging the sticking and plugging of fine particles in a hydrocyclone such as a desander or desilter dry pumping the pumping of a well when the level of liquid in the well is below the downhole pump. DHM dry-hole plug a cement plug that is emplaced into a dry hole in order to prevent salt waters from flowing up the well and polluting fresh water reservoirs. The plug is required by a government regulatory agency. DTS s-wave interval transit time DUAL dually completed purchase letter. dry watch the period of time in which a rig is not drilling and is shut down dry watchman the person who guards a shut-down drilling rig dry well a dry hole DS 1) directional survey 2) drillstem 3) drillship 4) dual seal ds dense D. dry-hole purchase letter a type of dry-hole agreement in which a party agrees to pay a specific amount of money if a well drilled on a lease that it does not own is a dry hole. chokes. In return. the driller transfers or sells specific leases or portions of leases to the party that made the dry-hole contribution. or silos dry string a string of pipe without any drilling mud in it. Usually the party that contributes the dry-hole money receives copies of the well logs from the dry hole. necessary tests are run. The provision can be to make a delay rental payment at a specific time. dry-hole contribution see dry-bole support dry-hole costs the cost of drilling a well up to the casing point not including lease costs dry-hole donation letter or dry-hole letter a type of dry-hole agreement in which a party owning leases in the area agrees to pay a specific amount of money (dry-hole money) to drill a well on a lease that it does not own if that well is a dry hole.158 dry-hole clause • DUAL the pressure is flat on the pressure chart. drilling mud materials. usually money (dry-hole money). drillstem DSA™ downhole seismic array DSC drillstring compensator DSD deep seated salt dome DSDP deep-sea drilling project dsgn design DSI drilling suspended indefinitely dsl diesel oil ds Is dense limestone dsmt dismantle DSN™ dual spaced neutron log DSN II™ dual-spaced neutron II log DSO dead oil show DSP deliverability standard pressure DSPL disposable well DSS days since spudded DST or D. drillstem test dstl distillate dstn distillation DSTT drillstem test tool DSU drilling and spacing unit DSV diving support vessel DT 1) drilling time 2) interval transit time 3) differential temperature log 4) drilled tight D/T driller's tops Dt true depth DTA differential thermal analysis DTD driller's total depth DTF t (interval transit time) of fluid DTH down the hole DTIM drilling time DTL 1) differential temperature log 2) drill-throughleg platform 3) dual-spaced thermal decay log DTM t (interval transit time) of mud DTML drilling-time log DTOP driller's tops DTOR downhole torque dtr detrital. Dry pumping can damage the downhole pump. the driller agrees to transfer or sell leases or portions of leases to the party that makes the dry-hole contribution.

A ductile substance is in contrast to a brittle substance. dual emulsion an emulsion in which the external phase is oil and the dispersed phase is an oil-in-water emulsion. DSN Dual-Spacing Decay Time log a compensated log of the pulsed-neutron type. A dual laterolog is used with high resistivities and deep invasion. The dual induction log is used when drilling fluid invasion is great and is used primarily for a) determining true resistivity.B and b) water at a distance from the clay minerals with a conductivity of formation water C. dual induction laterolog see dual laterlog DIU* dual induction log or dual induction focused log a type of wireline log that induces an electric current into the rocks adjacent to the wellbore.dual completion or dually completed well • TUBING STRINGS CASING ductile 159 with a gamma ray or spontaneous potential curve. The tubing strings have 2-2 V4 in. TDT™ dual-spacing formation density log a compensated formation density log dual-string Christmas tree or wellhead a series of valves. The log is usually run along with a spontaneous potential and a focused. a deep investigation (lid) and a medium investigation (Ilm). The dual laterolog records both a deep and shallow laterolog curve along dual polarity vertical section a velocity analysis display of seismic data with the peaks of normal polarity filled in with one color and the troughs reversed and filled in with another color dual porosity compensated neutron log a compensated neutron log that has two thermal and two epithermal neutron detectors. b) correlation. ductile a substance that rupturea above the yield point. The dual guard log is recorded with a gamma ray and/or spontaneous potential log. and c) determining the distance of drilling mud invasion. the porosities agree. DIV dual laterolog a focused log that records deep and shallow resistivities. Dual completion is in contrast to a commingled well in which the oil and gas from different zones are mixed.. DLL™ dual completion dual completion or dually completed well a well completed to produce from two separate pay zones. Two induction curves of electrical conductivity of different depths of investigation. or oil fuel for a steam rig was burned in the duck's nest. outer diameters which are smaller than usual. DUAL or DC Dual Dipmeter™ a stratigraphic high resolution dipmeter tool that uses four dual electrodes on pads to record eight microconductivity curves for highdensity dip calculations. Water in shaly formations is considered to occur as both a) water bound to clay minerals with a conductivity of Q. coal. The zones are separated by tubing packers in the well and the oil and gas is brought up the well in separate strings of tubing and stored in separate tanks. The tool orientation is made by a triaxial accelerometer and three magnetometers. . dual-spaced density log a compensated formation density log dual-spaced thermal decay log a compensated log of the pulsed-neutron type dual-spaced neutron log a compensated neutron porosity log. dual-fuel engine a prime mover on a beam pumping unit that can use either natural gas or gasoline dual guard log a shallow and very deep guard log that measures formation resistivity. The wood. the epithermal-derived porosity reads lower than the thermal and agrees more with a density-derived porosity. dual system a drilling rig that uses rotary equipment to drill to the pay zone and cable-tool equipment to drill the pay zone (standard tool drilling-in outfit) dual water method a method used for computer analysis of well logs in shaly formations.- duck's nest (off rotary drilling rig chart) duck's nest 1) a tank for standby drilling mud 2) an overflow tank used during a gas kick 3) the crow's nest and the pigpen that goes around near the top of the derrick of a drilling rig 4) a small pit that is lined with fire brick. are recorded. shallow resistivity log such as a shallow laterolog or guard log. Two porosities are derived. gauges. In a shaly formation. and chokes that are attached to the top of a well that produces from two different zones through two different strings of tubing. A dual string Christmas tree is used to regulate the flow from both zones and has two master valves to control each production string along with two production wing valves. In a clean formation.

and boundstone. dump 1) an unintentional shutdown of a computer 2) a readout from data storage dump bailer a bailer that is run on a wireline and is designed to deposit fluids or cement slurry at a specific location in a well. The scale on an insert bit ranges from TOTS. merger or loan. (stage cementer) DWA drilling with air dwks drawworks DWM drilling with mud dwn down DWO drilling with oil DWOB downhole weight on bit DWP dual wall packer DWSW drilling with salt water DWT 1) deadweight ton 2) deep well thermometer dwt deadweight tonnage DX distance dy dirty dye penetrant testing a nondestructive testing technique for metals. that are held inside a collar with ports by shear pins. dune a mound of loose sand deposited and shaped by wind or flowing water Dunham's classification of limestones a limestone classification that is based on the presence of micrite or sparry calcite and whether the sandsized particles are mud or grain supported. duster a well that did not encounter commercial amounts of oil or gas (dry hole or wet well) DRY dusting 1) air drilling with no water in the hole 2) the use of high-pressure air during air drilling to increase the drilling rate Dutchman 1) the threaded section of pipe or fitting that broke off in a collar or female connection. down the well and into the producing reservoir. tool contains two sleeves. wackestone. tool a stage cementing tool that is used for long casing strings to prevent weak formations from being exposed to high pressures during a cement job. The International Association of Drilling Contractor's dull grading ranges from T1-T8 for tooth dullness and B1-B8 for bearing condition. A dump flood involves the cutting. (measuring tank) . (liquidpenetrant testing) dynadrill or Dyna-Drill™ a type of positive displacement. mudstone. The dummy pump has a fluid passage through a dummy or blanking tool.160 ductility • dynadrill or Dyna-Drillu dump valve 1) a valve on a production vessel that is usually activated by a float to open at a high liquid level in the vessel and close at a low level. Dull grading is based on tooth. The dump tank is continuously being filled and emptied to measure the flow volume with a dump meter. The dump bailer is filled with cement and lowered to dump cement on a bridge or plug. the pistons pump mud into the discharge line on both the forward and backward strokes. dump box the box where the cuttings from a bailer on a cable-tool rig are dumped. acquisition. The due diligence is made by a professional such as a geologist or petroleum engineer. then the dye penetrant and a developer is applied. It is opened by a bomb.V. The D. Types of limestones include grainstone. duopoly a market with only two sellers in contrast to a monopoly or an oligopoly duplex pump a mud or slush pump that uses two reciprocating pistons that move back and forth in two removable liners. Bit wear increases the grading number. 2) a valve used on a positive displacement downhole motor to prevent the motor from running while tripping in and out. The metal is cleaned with a solvent. shooting. dulls worn drill bits dummy a blank tool that is used to fill a side pocket gas mandrel landing nipple dummy pump a tool that is run on a tubing string to check for leaks during acidizing and treating wells. located higher in the well from the producing reservoir. A dump flood often results in by-passing and wasted oil in the reservoir. packstone. or pulling of casing in a well to allow water to flow into a producing reservoir from a well. (mud box) dump flood an unscientific and inefficient method of waterflooding an oil reservoir in order to produce more oil. 2) a short section that is used to lengthen equipment 3) a plate used to align two flanges DVI displaceable volume injected D. The water can flow from a water reservoir. burned. It is a double-acting pump. Flowing mud drives ductility the ability of a substance to deform and flow without visible fracturing dud a dry hole due diligence a comprehensive review and verification of data used in oil and gas reserve evaluations and the conclusions made from that data. A dump valve is used on a separator to allows a specific volume of water or oil through the outlet. dull grading a system used to describe the wear on drilling bits. and gauge wear. The dynadrill is a three-stage motor assembly with a spiralled cavity lined with rubber along its length. or chiseled out. dump gas the gas covered under a dump-gas contract dump-gas contract a gas purchase contract for gas left over after the specific amount of gas that a firmgas contract calls for is purchased. The Dutchman must be cut. This forces the oil through the reservoir rock toward producing wells. Metal flaws appear with bright colors.V. bearing. A dump-gas contract does not call for a specific amount of gas to be purchased and is usually at a lower price than the firm-gas contract price for gas. downhole mud motor. Due diligence is often performed before a sale of interest in a property. an upper and lower. dump meter a type of flowmeter that uses a measured volume tank called a dump tank that is continuously being filled and emptied to measure the flow volume and rate dump oil crude oil shipped in barrels and not a pipeline dump tank a calibrated tank that is used in a lease automatic-custody transfer (LACT) unit to measure the volume of a liquid such as crude oil.

usually sodium nitrate and wood pulp.2 ml/1 dissolved oxygen. where a hydro-acoustic position system is used. (ask system) dp or DP system dynamic range the variation from the weakest to the strongest seismic signal that can be recorded. or stationing a method used to keep a drillship or semisubmersible on station. A dynamometer can be used on a sucker-rod pumping unit to monitor the downhole pump and rod string condition. The forces are measured with a dynamometer and recorded in reference to the sucker-rod position. The signals are picked up by hydrophones (usually four) on the semisubmersible or drillship and sent to a shipboard computer for processing. The motor is driven at relatively low rpms and is used for directional drilling. A dynamic compressor uses a spinning impeller that rotates on a shaft. Dysaerobic has between 0. but not in deep water. saturated with nitroglycerin. Transponders or beacons are positioned on the seabed. Dyne has been replaced by the System International (SI) unit newton. the computer detects the drift from the seabed sound transmissions and uses the ship's thrusters to put the drillship back on station. The thrusters have controlled-pitch propellers to adjust the position of the drillship. Disadvantages include storage and transportation problems and shot hole drilling costs. Dynaflex™ tool a wireline tool that is used to kick off a deviated well 161 dynameter card (dynagraph) dynagraph a continuous record of the forces acting on a polished rod during the pumping cycle. Two types of dynamic compressors are centrifugal and axial. The system is still used. currents. Dynamite is composed of an absorbent. Dynamic range is about 40 dB on an analog recorder and 80 dB on a digital recorder using magnetic tape. dynamic loading the sudden application of a weight dynamic positioning. The dynamometer is used as a rod weight indicator. The forces are recorded on a dynagraph or dynamometer card. It measures the load on the polished rod and forces such as peak load. Dynamite is not commonly used on marine surveys because of the bubble affect and environmental impact. If the ship drifts off the drillsite because of waves. Another system uses prepositioned radio transmitters on fixed structures such as production platforms that transmit signals to the antenna on a vessel. peak torque. and horsepower requirements exerted on the pump system during the pumping cycle. The advantage of dynamite is the wide range of seismic frequencies that are generated.1 and 0. positioning system. The early dynamic positioning systems used the angle on a taunt wire secured by a clump weight. dynamometer mechanical or electric instrument that measures load or stress. dynamite a seismic source that is exploded with weights ranging from 100 g to a few kilograms on the ground surface or in a shot hole at the base of the weathered zone. The rod position is recorded on the abscissa and the load on the ordinate. or wind. A dynagraph is used to analyze stress and the downhole pump performance.Dynaflex™ tool • dysmigration a solid steel shaft mounted eccentrically in the cavity. . dynamometer card see dynagraph dyne a force in the cgs system that gives a 1 gram weight an acceleration of 1 cm/s. (dynamometer card) dynamic compressor a rotary compressor that has a continuous gas flow. dysaerobic water that is between aerobic and anaerobic in oxygen content. This is used to determine range and bearing. dysmigration the leakage of petroleum from a trap.

7182) EA expected allowable EA or Ea area sweep efficiency ea earthy ea. eaming-well costs all costs that were incurred and paid by the farmee in drilling. 0. Cash contributions are subtracted from eaming-well costs. (telluric current) earthern pit an escavation that was dug by a bull dozer to store drilling mud at a drillsite. and equipping an earning well.6 on the Thermal Alteration Index.5-2. For gas-prone rocks. overburden. Earth pressure is in contrast to the pressure on the fluid in the pores of the rock which is called reservoir. The earning well must be drilled to specifications in the agreement such as to a specific contract depth or horizon.2-2. Steel mud tanks are now commonly used. or rock pressure) earth trap a subsurface petroleum trap earth wax 1) solid paraffin from crude oil 2) ozokerite earthy 1) a mineral that has a dull luster or appearance 2) a rock that appears similar to earth or soil. it is 2. The earning block can also include any boot acreage. location.65 on vitrinite reflectance. earned depletion the depletion allowance for Canadian tax calculations. During early mature. Easements can involve the drillingsite and access road. earning conditions see eaming-well requirements earning well a well specified in a support agreement or farmout which the drilling party or farmee must drill in order to acquire the farmout acreage or support. Earned depletion is based on a percentage of eligible expenditures. The farmee can then terminate drilling of the earning well and drill a substitute well. eaming-well drilling-and-spacing unit the drilling-and-spacing unit on which the earning well is located earning-well requirements provisions in a support agreement or farmout that define the earning well. The costs can include those incurred with a substitute well. Early mature is 2. and contract depth. completing. lithostatic. Earth currents extend over large areas and are caused by variations in the earth's magnetic field. (earning conditions) earthflow earth current a natural electrical current that is either static or alternating at a very low frequency that flows through the ground. The farmout depth is the depth the farmee earns by drilling the earning well. There is often an excuse provision in the agreement for a substitute well should the earning well Rencounter impenetrable substances. earnest money money that is exchanged to show an obligation or interest of one party before a binding agreement is signed (hand money) earning block the drilling and spacing unit area of an earning well in a farmout agreement. The earthen pit can be divided by earthen or wooden dividers.7-1.3 on vitrinite reflectance. the source rock has generated some oil or gas but has not reached peak generation. and 35-50 on spore colour index for oil-prone rocks. testing. or formation pressure. E/BL east boundary line Ec electrochemical component of the spontaneous potential . or because of other conditions making further drilling impracticableS.5-0. (dirt or groundpits) earth oil crude oil earth pressure the subsurface pressure exerted by the weight of the overlying rocks. each early mature a stage in kerogen maturation between immature and peak mature.162 E • Ec E l ) east 2) Young's modulus or modulus of elasticity 3) electric field strength 4) efficiency 5) experimental 6) force (electromotive) 7) energy 8) electrode 9) empirical 10) wave intensity 11) Eotvos unit 12) efficiency factor 13) gas expansion factor 14) exa-15) specific energy 16) effective elasticity e l ) effective 2) influx rate 3) cumulative influx 4) external boundary conditions 5) equivalent 6) electric 7) electrical 8) external 9) base of the natural logarithm (2. ea E^ areal sweep efficiency easement written permission to use specific surface lands for a specific purpose.3 on the Thermal Alteration Index. fluid. Implied easement can be for entrance and exit. Earning-well requirements specify the well commencement and completion dates. and 0. Earth pressure increases about 100 psi/100 ft of depth. (geostatic.

1) displacement efficiency 2) dynamic elasticity modulus of deformation Ed displacement efficiency EDC EROS Data Center eddy current testing a nondestructive testing method used primarily to measure casing thickness. ECP effective core penetration Ej. The measured eddy currents are compared to eddy currents generated in a known thickness of casing. edge player a person or company who tries to obtain leases and drill wells around the margins of plays and fields as they are being developed. edge values the hydrocarbon concentration peaks on the surface of the ground that are formed by microseepages above the oil/water contact on a subsurface reservoir. edge unit system an agreement in Louisiana in which the lessee of a drilling unit on the edge of an oil and gas pool is not forced to drill an unnecessary well to produce the oil or gas. materials. EL economic zone the seabed and ocean extending 320 km or more out from the land. Echinoids have existed from the Ordovician peroid through the present. Echinoids belong to the class Echinoidea of the phylum Echinodermata and include sea urchins and sand dollars. y. An edge well often penetrates the oil/water contact.eccentering arm • eccentering arm a decentralizing extension such as a bow string that pushes a sonde or tool against the wellbore wall (decentralizer) eccentric a curved metal plate that is not circular and has a long and short axis. The oil/water or gas/water contact lies below the lease. Edenian a North American age of geological time that started about 455 m. and the effects of eddy currents are measured on a pick-up coil below it. The investor has legally secured a share of the income derived from the mineral extraction as a return on the investment. ECD equivalent circulation density Ech echinoid eductor 163 echinoderms echinoid a marine invertebrate that has a globular body encased in an external skeleton composed of plates that have movable spines. economic limit the production level in a well in which the production revenue equals the well operating cost The well is usually plugged and abandoned when it reaches the economic limit. A country. b) to pump water. An exciter coil generates a magnetic field in the casing. An eccentric is attached to a central power unit that turns the eccentric on a vertical axis. EDM electronic distance meter EDP electronic data processing EDR estimated damage ratio EDTA ethylene diamine tetracidic acid educated guessers engineers eduction valve an exhaust valve eductor a tube that uses a fluid flowing through it with a high head from a jet to create a vacuum. The hydrocarbons have lower values on the inside of the halo and background values outside the halo. the lessee of the edge lease shares in the cost of drilling and completing a well on an adjacent lease and shares proportionally to productive acreage in the production from that well. edge lease an oil and gas lease that is located on the boundary of a field. edge water free water located to the sides of the oil or gas reservoir edge well a well drilled down the flanks of a structure or on the outer limits of a producing formation. eccentric bit a type of cable-tool bit in which the cutting edge is lower on one end than on the other eccentricity a measure of being off center or out of round. ago. and labor that are necssary to produce and market a particular resource (resource cost) economic interest an interest in minerals in place that was acquired by investment. based on a United Nations commission. can claim exclusive mineral rights in the economic zone. Instead. The eccentric is attached by jack or transmission lines to several pumping units that operate off the central power unit. Ech ECM equivalent circulating density economic allowance the amount of oil and/or gas that a Canadian regulatory agency permits a well to produce per formation in the well economic basement the subsurface level below which there is no current exploration interest economic cost the costs of capital. c) to remove . It is part of the Ordovician period. A pipe is eccentric when the difference between the inner and outer diameters varies around the circumference of the pipe and the pipe-wall thickness varies. Edge values occur in the form of a hydrocarbon halo. An eductor is used a) to remove degassed mud from a vacuum-type degasser.

. the voltage difference between inert electrodes immersed in a reversible oxidation-reduction system. eight-point mooring system a pattern of eight anchor cables and anchors that are spread out symmetrically to moor a semisubmersible eighty board the monkey board on a derrick designed to hold fourbles or four joints of pipe 88 lease a general term for a lease form. EF-GR extremely fine grained E/4 east quarter EG ethylene glycol eg gas influx egg 1) a dynamite charge 2) a Microdot package EGMB ethylene glycol monobutyl ether EH pattern sweep efficiency E. in 1916 as a lease (number 88) for Producer Oil Company that later became synonymous with all lease forms. R is the concentration of reduced substances and O is the concentration of oxidized substances. and e) to clean the cellar on a well. in which both x andj' are horizontal directions in the reservoir effective lift the lift in feet by imput gas during gas lift as determined by a pressure survey effective overburden stress the pressure that is equal to the overburden pressure minus the pore pressure (effective confining pressure) effective pay factor a calculation that is used in some unitization agreements to determine the lessor's. ago. effective decline rate the decrease in production from a well over a period of time.energy input)/ energy output. ke effective porosity the porosity (percent volume of a rock occupied by pores) which includes only the interconnected pores effective radius the radius of drainage area around a well effective reservoir permeability the square root of the product of vertical permeability (/fe£. in contrast to a potential source rock effective stress a principle stress at a point in a formation minus pore pressure equation is Eh = K log TT.. y. the effective permeability is usually less than the absolute permeability. Ej. The P mud from a mud tank. E effl effluent effluent liquids flowing out effl effort the number of separate raypaths that are mixed together to make the final display in seismic exploration. Effort is the number of energy sources per shot point times the number of geophones per group times the number of records that are stacked. where K is approximately 70. Edward balance an instrument used to determine the specific gravity of natural gas in the field by weighing EDX energy-dispersive X-ray E/E end to end Eeff effective atomic number EEZ exclusive economic zone EFD engineering flow diagram E/4 east quarter eff efficiency effective confining pressure the overburden pressure minus the pore pressure (effective overburden stress) effective date of a lease the day that a lease is first in force. and other factors. De effective fluid level the height of a static fluid effective horizontal permeability the square root of the product of permeability in the x direction (kx) times permeability in the y direction (&. The efficiency factor is equal to (energy output . and possibly the lessee's. Effective weight is in contrast to weight in air. effective permeability the permeability of a fluid when it shares the pore spaces with another fluid. is a measure of the system's oxidation state. When two fluids share the pore space. share of production. Producer's 88 was originally a lease form printed by Burkhart Printing Company in Tulsa. (oxidation-reduction or redox potential) EH controls electrohydraulic controls EHD entry-hole diameter EHF extremely high frequency EHP effective horsepower E.). Effective pay factor is based on depth. The effective date of a lease is shown on the top of a lease form and is not the date of lease execution. effective weight the weight of an object submerged in a liquid such as drilling mud. Oklahoma. Effective wave base depends on the period of the waves but is about 10 ft. A Venturi nozzle throat is often used. divided by the production rate at the beginning of the period. (Producer's 88 lease) eg strain tensor EIPS extra improved plow steel EIR Environmental Impact Report . such as 1 month or 1 year. d) to pull solids through a hopper. invasion efficiency Ei vertical sweep efficiency Eifelian a global age of geological time that started about 390 m. (submerged weight) efficiency factor a measure of the power loss from a prime mover to the driven equipment.) times horizontal permeability (kh) effective shot depth the vertical distance from the surface to the shot charge in a shot hole used in seismic exploration (shot depth or elevation) effective source rock source rock that has already generated and expelled petroleum.164 Edward balance • EIR effective viscosity the viscosity of a fluid flowing through a porous rock with another fluid sharing the pores of the rock (apparent viscosity) effective wave base the depth in the ocean below which wave action no longer moves sediments. potential productivity saturation. It is part of the Middle Devonian epoch.

The neutron loses the same amount of kinetic energy and bounces off the atom with decreased energy. three-phase. The elastic limit occurs at the yield point. Elastic deformation is in contrast to brittle or plastic deformation. lateral. Power is transmitted by bus bar and is converted by transformer feaifiers to DC and distributed according to need to the DC motors on the rig. Electrodes are used to measure the return current in microvolts/ampere.500 v at the electrodes. Elastomer is used in blowout preventers and packers. and hole probe) electric rig a drilling rig in which the rotary table is driven by an electric motor. electric motor with a seal seaion and a multistaged centrifugal pump on top of it. The motor has 12-18 in. Elec. The electric log can include spontaneous potential (SP). The pressure differential between the inside and outside of the pipe curve due to centrifugal force is measured to calculate the flow velocity. elastic wave a wave that propagates through a medium without permanent deformation of the medium. An electric submersible centrifugal pump consists of a) an elearic motor. Elastic scattering is in contrast to inelastic scattering. Elec log electric log. c) an intake section. elastic limit the maximum unit stress that a substance can sustain without permanent deformation when the force is relaxed. The amount of energy transferred depends on the mass of the nucleus and the angle at which the neutron scatters. The first type was dieselelectric with the prime mover direaly coupled to the DC generator.EIS • electric submersible centrifugal pump EIS Environmental Impact Statement Ek electrokinetic component of the spontaneous potential EL 1) electric log 2) Electrolog™ 3) economic limit E/L east line El elevation el electron elasterite an elastic pyrobitumen that occurs associated with base metal deposits in Carboniferous limestones of northern England. 0 a surface installed switchboard. (electricdrive rig) electric submersible centrifugal pump a pump that is suspended by the tubing string into the well fluid on the bottom of an oil well and is powered by an electric motor. hole and resistivity logging. electrical basement the subsurface level below which the rocks have very high electrical resistivities electrical dehydrator an installation used to separate an oil/water emulsion. induaion. elastic a substance that deforms instantly and totally returns to its original shape when the stress is removed elastic collision a collision in which the total kinetic energies of the particles are the same after the collision as the total kinetic energies before the collision. b) a seal section. Elastic collision is in contrast to inelastic collision. The dehydrator converts 440 v at the switchboard to 16. The motor speed is determined by the frequency of the power supply that can be controlled by a power inverter. (electric well log or electric survey) 2) An early type of resistivity log that emits current from a constant electrode and measures the current at a distance relative to a reference electrode. The electric motor on the bottom is an induaion-type. EL. laterologs. Silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR) systems are more common now. The diesel engine is coupled direaly to an AC generator. An energized signal is introduced into the subsurface by electrodes to create electric logging a drill hole induced polarization or resistivity survey in a well which uses closely spaced electrodes to investigate the elearical properties of the rocks adjacent to the wellbore (IP. The seal . The substance will return to its original shape after the stress is removed. normal resistivity (R). 165 a megahertz current. elec. elastic scattering a type of scattering in which a neutron strikes the nucleus of an atom and transfers some kinetic energy to the atom. (electrostatic or electrochemical treater) electrical log or survey see electric log electric coring an early name for wireline well logging electric-drive rig see electric rig electric line an electrical wire that goes down a well with the wireline and is used in well logging and perforating (conductor line) electric log 1) a general term for a wireline well log that measures and records the elearical properties of rocks and the fluids in the pores in a well. coalesce and sink by gravity. rotors that are stacked on top of each other. g) a junction box. such as a seismic wave elastomer natural or synthetic rubber material that will return to its original shape after deformation. The electric dehydrator ranges in size from 6 ft in diameter and 12 ft long to 12 ft in diameter and 80 ft long. Elec log. or elec elearical election at casing point a decision after testing the well to run casing or plug and abandon the well electraflex an electromagnetic exploration technique use to detect subsurface structures and possibly hydrocarbons. This is in contrast to a diesel engine used on many drilling rigs. Water molecules which are polar. or E log elbow elbow 1) a bend or deviation from the vertical in a well 2) a pipe fitting with an angle less than 180° elbow meter a head-type device that is made with a pipe elbow and is used to measure elbow velocity. and h) a transformer. and microresistivity logs. e) a three-conductor armored electrical cable strapped to the tubing string. elastic deformation the temporary distortion of a substance. Heat is applied from a firetube to reduce the viscosity of the emulsion and the emulsion is then exposed to a high-voltage alternating current in grids oriented perpendicular to the fluid flow. d) a multistage centrifugal pump.

An electric swivel eliminates the rotary table and kelly and allows for a longer string of pipe to be drilled before making a connection. The tool is used to estimate. b) a three-phase transformer or an autotransformer. and water saturation and to identify hydrocarbon zones. EPTm electromagnetic thickness tool a tool with a transmitter and receiver coil that uses an alternating magnetic field to measure the thickness of casing and locate vertical splits ETC"" electromagnetic waves radiation that is associated with periodically varying electric and magnetic fields. electrochemical treater see electric dehydrator electrode one of two terminals of an electrical source such as a battery. The electromagnetic spectrum includes gamma rays. d) in high temperature wells. fax. eV . or similar electronic means electron-spin resonance an analytical method used to determine the number of unpaired electrons or free radicals in a substance. and a lateral resistivity. telecopier. d) the thermoelectric effect. c) in gassy wells. E electron a subatomic particle with very little mass (9.6 x 10"12 erg. microwaves and radio waves in order of increasing wavelength. c) a motor controller or switchboard. E. used in well logging. with electrical wires running down the center.997924 x 108m/s). a long normal. electric-welded pipe a tubular with one longitudinal seam formed by electric-flash welding or electric resistance electric well log see electric log electric wireline a wire rope. Electromotive force is measured in volts and is generated by a) primary cells. The pump often contains a centrifugal gas separator to divert free gas around the pump. the cementation factor (m). Beta radiation is made of electrons.109 x 10~28g) and a -1 electrical charge. The electric wireline tool is used with a sinker and bumper jar on a work string of sucker rods or small diameter tubing. Electron-spin resonance is used to estimate the maturity of kerogen in sedimentary rocks.60 x 10"19 joules or 1. or emf pump motor electric submersible centrifugal pump section. An electric submersible centrifugal pump is used for a) lifting large volumes of liquid. (submersible pump) electric survey see electric log. The fluids in the well cool the pump. or equalizer is located between the motor housing and the pump housing and contains the shaft that connects the motor with the pump. The tool is rotated to cut the electric cable against the tubing which has already been chemically cut. electromagnetic propagation log a wireline log that measures propagation time and attenuation of very high-frequency electromagnetic waves through formations close to the wellbore using microwaves. and e) for lifting high-viscosity fluids.000 miles/s (2. It is a shallow investigation log (1-4 in. and acids and are in contrast to a nonelectrolyte. Electrons occur as orbiting clouds of 1 to over 100 electrons around the nuclei of atoms. and a stationary diffuser. electron volt a unit of energy that is equal to one quantum of charge in an electron times one volt.5 EDM electronic notice a message sent by Telex. whereas the negative electrode is the cathode. a short normal. e) the pyroelectric effect. (magnetic brake) Electrolog™ a wireline well log that consists of a spontaneous potential. and can propagate in a vacuum. X-rays. el electron density electrons per unit volume electronic cable see cable electronic distance meter a device that measures the travel time of electromagnetic radiation from the meter to a reflector and back to accurately measure distance. ultraviolet. Electromotive force is the voltage that causes current flow in a conductor. Electromotive force is not a force but is the electrical energy that is developed per unit charge. protector. infrared. c) electrical generators. The accuracy of the meter is 1 part in 10. bases. Elearolytes include salts. and f) the piezoelectric effect. ES electric swivel a type of top-drive power swivel that uses an electric motor. visible.). Each stage of the centrifugal pumps consists of a rotating. b) in directional wells. electromotive force a force that produces or maintains an electric current in a circuit. EMF.166 electric survey • electron volt electrodynamic brake an auxiliary brake used on the drawworks of a drilling rig. travels at the speed about 186. Some electronic distance meters use microwave. b) storage batteries. An electron volt is equal to 1. The tool contains a cutter that is attached to a spring-loaded arm extending from a mandrel. EL electrolyte a substance that dissolves into positive and negative ions in water and can conduct an electrical current. floating or fixed impeller. electric wireline tool a fishing tool used to cut the electrical cable from an electric submersible pump. d) a junction box. whereas others use laser radiation. The positive electrode is the anode. The brake uses an electric current and magnets to slow or stop the drawworks shaft. Flowing electrons form an electrical current. and e) a submersible wellhead. The surface equipment typically consists of a) three single-phase transformers.

emissivity 167 elevator spider the hinged. casing. E log electric log elong elongate elongate anticline an anticline that is at least four times longer than wide elongation the increase in gauge length after rupture divided by the original gauge length. gripping device that is attached to the elevators on a drilling rig. ESV EMF or etnf electromotive force EMI electromagnetic inspection eminent domain the taking of private lands with compensation by a government agency for public use emissivity the ratio of radiant flux from an object to the radiant flux from a blackbody at the same kinetic temperature e . The water is then separated by gravity. The spider is manually or air activated to latch around tubulars that are being raised or lowered in the well. el gr elevation of the ground elimination clause a provision in a unit agreement that automatically eliminates certain lands from the unit area after a specific date unless certain developmental operations are being done (automatic elimination clause) It SHORT It LONG electric logs OLLAR ELEVATORS SLIPS elevators elevators a heavy. C. or c) tubing elevators which are sized to fit the tubular. but isotopes of an element differ in the number of neutrons. Two plates with a voltage of 10-25 KeV with 60 cps is used to polarize and distort the water droplets 60 times each second. electrostatic treater electrical dehydrator element a substance composed of all the same atoms with the same chemical and physical properties. Al. Elements have the same number of protons and electrons. and O elephant a giant oil or gas field elephant hunt exploration for a giant oil or gas field Elev or elev elevation elevation correction the Bouguer and free-air corrections used for gravimeter data elevator bails or links the bars that fit in the hook below the traveling block on a drilling rig to hold the elevators. The properties of elements can vary slightly between isotopes of an element. Elongation is expressed as a percentage of gauge length. Emergence is in contrast to submergence. emergency blowout preventer valve a safety valve stored on a drill floor that can be stabbed and screwed into the drillstring emergency shutdown system manual stations in a production platform that can deactivate the equipment emergency support vessel a ship designed to aid an offshore platform during a crisis. clamp-like device on a drilling rig that hangs from elevator bails on the traveling block and is used to grip with the elevator spider the tubular and raise or lower the drillstring.electrostatic precipitator • electrostatic precipitator 1) apparatus that uses the electrostatic field on a water-in-oil emulsion to coagulate water particles. b) casing elevators. 2) Apparatus that uses an electric field and charge collector plate to remove fine sediments suspended in a gas. or tubing in the well. The precipitator cannot be used on an oil-in-water emulsion. ELSBM exposed location single buoy mooring EL/T electric log tops ELY easterly EM electromagnetic EMA equivalent methane in air embd embedded emer emergency emergence the relocation of a land position to above sea level. There are 106 different natural elements. Iron (Fe) and silicon (Si) are examples. elemental analysis the qualitative or quantitative chemical analysis of a substance into its elemental compositions such as Fe. Elevators can be a) drillpipe elevators.

Emulsifiers can be a) ionic (anionic. Lignosulfonate and surfactants are used as emulsifiers in drilling mud. but commonly 8%-12% by volume) of 25°-5O° API oil for lubricating characteristics and inhibiting bit balling. pipe. it goes through a counter which is attached to a level wind assembly and a pipe straightener. A tight emulsion has small closely-spaced droplets and is hard to break in contrast to a loose emulsion that has large. The burner uses either natural gas or heavy oil.000 ft. The endless tubing unit is usually used on producing wells that need pressure control. however. initiating flow. mechanical device. The coiled tubing greatly reduces empirical a relationship or formula that was determined by measurements rather than theory. The exhaust gases exit the stack which extends 10-15 ft above the separator. cationic.000 ft of tubing with an outer diameter of ¥*-VA in. emulsion test a test to qualitatively determine the components such as water. and sediments in an emulsion . A surfactant additive can be used in the acid to prevent an emulsion block. The reel can store up to 16. emulsion mud a water-base drilling mud with a small amount (l%-40%. or amphoteric) and b) nonionic. A limited amount of drilling can be done with a downhole hydraulic motor. small-diameter steel tubing wound as a continuous length on a hydraulically powered tubing reel. electrostatic treater. and well stimulation and cementing. (heater-treater or fire-tube heater) emulsion treating the use of an emulsion breaker which can be a) heat. emulsion frac a hydraulic frac method that uses a water and oil emulsion. y. ago. b) chemicals. less commonly. emulsoid colloidal particles that take up water EMV expected monetary value EMW equivalent mud weight EN eroded nozzle En Enstatic encapsulation The adsorption of long-chained polymers to the surface of shale encroaching water waters entering a producing formation from the sides (edge water) or below (bottomwater) as oil and/or gas is produced from the formation encroachment the flow of water into an oil or gas reservoir as the petroleum is produced end damage damage to the pin or box end of a tubular end effector a tool used on the manipulator of a remote-operated vehicle for work on a subsea production system. whereas the liquid surrounding the droplets is the continuous phase. EMUL or etnul 2) The accumulation of basic sediment and water on the bottom of the tanks. Produced emulsions are commonly treated with heat. blind. The frac fluid has good proppant carrying properties and is cheaper than highviscosity gelled oil or water. a water-in-oil in which droplets of water are suspended in oil. farapart droplets and is easier to break. c) mechanical. Endless tubing is in contrast to other types of well service units that use joints of relatively stiff pipe. The blowout-preventer stack usually includes four rams including hydraulic cutter. In the indirect-fired type of emulsion heater. On the end is usually a socket wrench for installing and removing equipment such as valves. copper. A fire-tube furnace directs a flame down the center line of the pipe to heat and break the emulsion in the direct-fired type of emulsion treater.being common. continuous reeled. EMUL or emul emulsion emulsified water an oil-in-water emulsion emulsifler or emulsifying agent a substance that is used to produce an emulsion from two liquids that normally do not mix. As the tubing feeds off the tubing reel. It is part of the Lower Devonian epoch.168 empirical • endless tubing unit emulsion treater a type of vertical or horizontal field separator that uses heat to break an emulsion such as oil-in-water or water-in-oil. emulsion block a viscous emulsion of oil and water in a formation near a wellbore. There is a fire danger in using emulsion mud. The emulsion block is a type of formation damage and can occur in a carbonate after acidizing. and it is difficult to dispose. endless tubing high strength. The frac fluid. or reeled tubing) endless tubing unit a well service unit that uses flexible. the flame is used to heat water that is in contact with the emulsion. (coiled. Emulsion mud uses a sodium soap emulsifier. An injector head with friction blocks' pushes or pulls the tubing in or out of the well. can form a stable emulsion with the formation fluids. electrostatics. ductile steel tubing with an outer diameter of \Vi in. Produced fluids can be an oil-in-water in which droplets of oil are suspended in water and. The tubing is made of low-carbon steel alloy with very low sulfur along withchromium. and slip rams. or chemicals that break up an emulsion into its components. The steel tank has a U-shaped pipe in it called a fire tube. and nickel for ductibity in length up to 19. WATER DROPS emulsions (water in oil—oil in water) emulsion 1) the stable mixture of droplets of one fluid in another fluid that normally does not mix. and/or chemicals to separate them. E empty hole a well filled with air or gas Emsian a global age of geological time that existed about 395-390 m. or d) electrostatic to separate an emulsion. The droplets are called the dispersed phase. oil. into its components. Endless tubing is used for sand or paraffin clean out in tubing. A temperature of 80°-180° F is necessary to separate emulsions. usually water-in-oil. emulsion breaker equipment or a process such as a heater.

energized acid a mixture of nitrogen in the gas state and hydrochloric acid in a ratio of about 1. often steam. energy audit an accounting of all the energy consumed in a particular installation. EOC end-on an arrangement in seismic exploration with the shot point at or near the end of the geophone spread endothermic a chemical reaction during which heat must be added. Enthalpy is defined as the sum of an object's internal energy plus the product of its volume multiplied by the pressure. and hydraulic crane. tubing injector head. end-to-end 1) a type of reservoir scale waterflood pattern in which the water injection wells are located on one end of the field and are progressively moved toward the other end 2) the length of a valve measured from one end to the other end of the valve (face-toface) endurance limit 1) the stress at which a sucker rod will break after it has been subjected to 10 million stress reversals 2) the stress at which a substance will break after hundreds of millions of stress cycles. or reeled ppe unit) Endo endothyra endo 1) to lay pipe end to end 2) to slide something endways end of curve the depth at the point in a deviated well in which the curved portion of the build curve ends. Enthalpy is sometimes called heat content. olive green. energy of the environment a description of the power of the erosional process that was active during the deposition of sediments. and nitrogen flooding). it is the point at which the chemical indicator changes color. A short ton of 2. and joints in rocks can be oriented en echelon.204. Lean gas or lean gas and water is then injected to drive the oil toward a producing well.000-1. or brown mineral of the pyroxene group that is composed of MgSiO3. An engine is not a motor. micellarpolymer. carbon-dioxide flooding. chemical (polymer. it was deposited in a low-energy environment. The endurance limit is significantly less than rupture stress. If it contains only coarse detrital particles. streamflooding. entitlement the right to refine one lower-tier barrel of oil. During titration. (long ton) enhanced oil recovery artificial methods used to recover more oil after primary production by the natural reservoir drive and. Endothermic is in contrast to an exothermic reaction endothyrids a type of microfossil that existed from the Devonian through the Permian periods end-point a specific time during a reaction. lubricator. endurance ratio the ratio of endurance limit to static tensile strength (fatigue ratio) end user the final purchaser and utilizer of natural gas from a pipeline. (coiled tubing. on a cable-tool rig English ton a weight of 2. Energized acid is used in acidizing to increase the flowback or cleanup rate. entitlement program a Federal Energy Administration requirement that a refiner buy or sell .000 lbs is used in the United States and Canada. energy of adhesion the attraction of surface molecules across the interface of two immiscible fluids or one fluid and a solid.000 kg or 2. waterflooding was considered part of enhanced oil recovery. and alkaline flooding). Common enhanced oil recovery methods include thermal (cyclic steam stimulation. A high-energy environment such as the surf zone on a beach or a fast-moving river channel will deposit only coarsegrained sediments. Other equipment on the unit includes a circulating system for nitrogen. An end user is usually an industrial user or a power plant. An energy audit is used to measure energy efficiency. (condensing gas drive) enriching gas mixing a natural gas with a higher heat-content gas in order to increase its Btu content enstatite a grayish white to yellowish. or pentanes.500 SCF/bbl. it was deposited 169 in a high-energy environment. faults. EOR or ER enhancement the improvement of data by filtering enriched gas injection or process an enhanced oil recovery method that uses miscible displacement and involves injection into an oil reservoir of natural gas that either a) naturally contains intermediate hydrocarbons or b) has been enriched on the surface by addition of propane. In older terminology. Enstatite is common in intermediate and basic igneous rocks and occurs in some sedimentary rocks. Enhanced oil recovery is sometimes called tertiary recovery if it occurs after waterflooding. eng engine engine a machine that is designed to convert combustion of fuel into rotary motion that is used to drive equipment. The unit usually has a crew of two. possibly.Endo • entitlemen program trip time. entirety clause an oil and gas lease provision that stipulates that later subdivisions or transfers by the lessor will not affect the lessee's development and operation on the lease. and in-situ combustion). waterflooding. Royalties will be paid to owners in proportion to their acreage. butanes. continuous tubing. The metric ton equals 1. blowout preventers.62 lbs and is often used as a measure of oil volume. The transfer of the intermediate hydrocarbon components from the displacing gas into the residual oil swells the residual oil and makes it less viscous. enthalpy the total energy of a system minus the kinetic and potential energy. or other fluids.240 lbs used in Great Britain. en echelon a parallel but offset or staggered arrangement that is similar to shingles on a roof. eng engineering technician a skilled employee who installs and maintains instruments and control devices in the field engine house the shed that contains the engine. and gas miscible (cyclic carbon-dioxide stimulation. Folds. Limestones with micrite are deposited only in low-energy environments. acid. A low-energy environment such as the lagoon behind a reef will deposit fine-grained muds. If a sedimentary rock contains detrital mud. The lease will be developed as a unit.

(aeolianite) EOM extractable organic matter EOR enhanced oil recovery EOS equations of state EOSAT the commercial firm that distributes Landsat data . The epithermal neutron log is often used in air-drilled holes.170 entrain • epoch Eotvos correction a correction for the centrifugal force of the spinning earth used on a shipboard gravimeter. Epigenic dolomite is in contrast to primary. E EP 1) extreme pressure 2) electromagnetic pipe inspection log 3) explosion proof 4) electric pump Ep epidote Ep pattern sweep efficiency EPA environmental Protection Agency EP additive a drilling-fluid additive that is used to lubricate drilling bit bearings under high pressure (extreme-pressure lubricant) epeiric sea a broad. e. The entitlement program was initiated to average the costs to all refiners. Refineries using old oil purchased entitlement tickets. (neutron-epithermal-neutron log) EPM equivalents per million EPOC extract percent organic carbon epoch a time subdivision of a period. Eoc E of W/L east of west line Eogene see Paleogene eogenitic porosity porosity that forms in sediments after deposition but is characteristic of the environment of deposition and is affected by changes in that environment. Entry pressure varies inversely with the pore diameter. supratidal. epithermal neutron log a neutron log that detects high-energy epithermal neutrons to determine the porosity of the rock. an atomic particle with the mass of a proton but without electric charge. (secondary. The Eotvos torsion meter uses two masses suspended on a torsion fiber. (displacement or forefront pressure) environmental baseline the natural or predevelopment conditions at a site before development environmental impact study a written report of research performed to determine the environmental effect of a proposed project. Epithermal neutrons are emitted by a source. Miocene epoch the right to refine one barrel of lower-tier oil or entitlement in relation to the amount of lower-tier oil that the refiner uses. evaporite. An environmental impact study includes a) a description of the project. in a neutron-logging device. wind-blown sediments. Entry pressure is the minimum capillary pressure that will force a nonwetting fluid such as oil into a capillary opening that is saturated with a wetting fluid such as water. ago. Refineries using new oil or imported oil received entitlement tickets. If the ship is traveling eastward. An Eotvos unit is equal to lCT9/cm. Slower neutrons are called thermal neutrons. b) a description of the predevelopmental conditions of the site. shallow extension of the ocean onto the continental interior epeirogenic or epeirogenetic Large-scale structural deformation of rocks by broad uplifts and downwarps epiclastic a sedimentary rock composed of weathered and eroded particles epifauna animals living on the seafloor rather than buried in the sediments. and e) alternatives of the project environmental oil-emulsion mud drilling mud made by water emulsified in a paraffinic oil enzyme an organic catalyst eo oil influx E/O east offset EOC end of curve Eoc eocene Eocene an epoch of geological time about 55-38 m. The program has been discontinued.02 eV. Epifauna is in contrast to infauna. EOL expected opportunity loss eolian deposited or shaped by wind (aeolian) eolianite a clastic sedimentary rock composed of consolidated. Eotvos torsion meter a type of gravity meter that is used to measure horizontal gravity variations. a mineral composed of CaMg(CO3)2. The fractures were routes through which Mg-rich waters perculated through the limestone when it was transformed into dolomite. y.. Penecontemporaneous dolomite is an example of eogenitic porosity. The source and detectors are skid mounted and pressed against the wellbore. c) the expected effects of the project. such as an alpha-berillium reaction or a neutron generator. that has replaced calcite in limestone along natural fractures such as joints in the limestone. Eogenitic porosity is formed just a foot below the surface. stratigraphic or tectonic dolomite) Epilog™ a computer center-processed log epithermal neutron a relatively fast neutron. epigenic tectonic structures such as folding and faulting that occurred after the deposition of the sedimentary rock epigenic dolomite dolomite. and diagenic dolomite. Differences in gravity cause a rotation of the masses on the fiber. syngenetic. d) suggested solutions to lessen adverse effects of the project. the centrifugal force is larger and the gravimeter will read low. An eolianite is a dune sand that is naturally cemented. entrain to drag into a fluid flow entrained gas gas bubbles in a liquid entrained liquid mist-sized droplets of liquid in gas entrained oil crude oil that occurs in very small amounts in natural gas entrainment velocity the gas velocity in tubing necessary to force liquids from the tubing entry pressure the pressure that is required for one fluid to replace another fluid in the pores of a rock. The Eocene is part of the Tertiary period. Eotvos unit a unit of gravity change over horizontal distance used with the Etvs torsion balance. Epithermal neutrons have a kinetic energy level of 100 eV to 0.g.

E-POR • equivalent mud weight E-POR excellent porosity EPS early production system E l ) hydraulic diffusivity 2) capacity 3) dielectric constant e l ) relative dielectric constant 2) emissivity E^SORT extremely poorly sorted EPT™ electromagnetic propagation tool Eq equipment eq 1) equal 2) equivalent EQMT equipment eqnt equant equalize the exchange of cash between pooled or unitized parties to balance each party's investment in the unit. Equitable balancing can be done without a contract or statute that applies. The profile is a smooth parabolic curve that is concave upward and is steeper at the source and flatter at the mouth. and composition. equitable servitudes land use restrictions such as zoning or deed covenants that are enforceable by law equity crude or oil the proportion of production that is allotted by contract to the operating company by a county (concession crude) Equiv or equiv equivalent equivalent the amount of a substance that will react with one mole of H+ or OH~ ions (gram equivalent weight) Equiv or equiv equivalent circulating density the effective mud density at a specific depth in a well as the mud is circulating. (Kfactor. equilibrium profile the characteristic longitudinal profile of a graded stream which has a gradient at each point along the stream that is just sufficient to transport the stream load without erosion or deposition. partition coefficient. The term homogranular is preferred. In physics. and temperature of a pure substance and between volume. equalizer 1) the horizontal steel beam that connects the two pitmen on a beam pumping unit with the walking beam through an equalizer bearing (cross yoke) 2) a device used with the mechanical brakes on the drawworks of a drilling rig to distribute the braking force to each brake band equally. or piezometric contour) equipotential surface a surface of equal fluid potential equitable balancing a system developed by the courts on behalf of working interest owners (underproduced party) who have not taken an amount of gas equal to the percentage of cumulative gas production that they own. equilibrium a state that exists when all forces or processes that are acting on an object or substance are in balance. the flow rate. pressure. ECD equivalent mud weight the effective mud density at a specific depth in a well as the mud is circulating . It is usually expressed in lb/gal. an object in equilibrium will be at rest or be moving with a constant velocity.5 width. This system permits an owner to correct the imbalance by making up the underage through disproportionately higher takes (volumetric balancing) or cash payments from the overproduced party (cash balancing). EOS equigranular a substance such as a rock that is composed of crystals of about the same size. and the geometry of the wellbore. temperature. or gas that is going to another phase is equal to the amount coming back to the original phase. Some equalizers are automatic. tangible. Equivalent circulating density is the hydrostatic pressure plus the annular circulating pressure drop above a point in the well. pressure. Equivalent circulating density is controlled by the mud properties. pressure. equipment production payment a type of production payment. that is free of the costs of production and continues until a specific time. It is expressed as the static mud weight that would exert the same pressure at that point in the well. and personal property. equilibruim calculation a compulation of the phase behavior of a process or reservoir oil and gas (flash calculation) equilibrium constant Yt/Xt where Yt is the mol fraction of a component in the vapor phase and Xt is the mol fraction of the component in the liquid phase. (gradedprofile) equip equipment equipment costs monies spent for salvageable. The valve allows drilling fluid to bypass thepacker through the inside of the drilpipe and is normally open. a share of the oil or gas produced from wells. The equilibrium constant is a function of temperature. liquid. equant a sedimentary particle with a length less than 1. and composition of a mixture. Equipment costs are amoritized more rapidly than lease costs but are not currently deductable as are IDCs. Equipment costs do not include the cost of installing the equipment. The balance is based on each party's participation factor. The equilibrium point is used in seismic or sequence stratigraphy to separate rising from falling sea levels. equipotential line a contour line of groundwater pressure head (isopiestic or isopotential line. Money from the equipment production payment which is contributed by the owner of a working interest in the wells is used to equip and complete the wells being drilled. or vapor-liquid equilibrium) K equilibrium gas drive crude oil displacement in a reservoir by gas with little or no exchange between the gas and oil in contrast to miscible drive 171 equilibrium point the location on a depositional profile at which the rate of eustatic change of sea level is equal to the rate of subsidence or uplift. eqnt equations of state the mathematical relations between volume. 3) a hole in the wall between tanks or compartments that is used to equalized the liquid level in both tanks equalizing sub a tool that is designed to equalize the pressure across subsurface production controls in the tubing string of a well before reopening or removing the controls from the well equalizing valve a valve that is used on a drillstem test tool. In chemistry. a substance is in equilibrium when the amount of one phase such as solid.

Sometimes abrasives are added to the drilling fluid to make the drilling more efficient. BMW equivalents per million the unit chemical weight of a solute dissolved in one million unit weights of solvent. Ethane is the second most common natural gas after methane but is a minor constituent of biogenic and dry gas. a boiling point of — 127°F at 14. flow rate. ES-IT-S salt dome profilin ESV emergency support vessel E.07. erosional transgression an advance of the seas onto the land caused by erosion along the shoreline erosional velocity the gas velocity that will abrade and remove the protective coating in a flowline and accelerate corrosion error map a map showing the expected variation in the estimates of a mapped surface ERTS Earth Resources Technology Satellite ERW electric resistance weld ES electric survey es source elevation with respect to datum esc escavation escalator or escalation clause a provision in a gas contract that provides for an increase in the base price of the gas because of the long contract time escape clause A disclaimer that is used on log interpretations that limits the liability of the interpreter on the accuracy of the interpretations. escheat the reversion of property ownership to the government where there are no legal heirs escrow a written document.g. a critical pressure of 708 psia.) of the paraffin or methane series found in some natural gases.. It is part of the Devonian period. geometry of the wellbore. a vapor pressure of 800 psia at 100°F. EROS earth resources orbiting satellite erosion 1) the wearing away and removal of a material 2) the formation of sediments from rocks by weathering and their transportation to another location erosional drilling drilling using the hydraulic action of high-velocity jets of drilling fluid from the nozzles of a jet bit. e. The contractor runs seismic and shares the seismic with the companies that contributed. a critical temperature of 90°F. Fresh water and seawater mix in an estuary.8 Btu/cu ft . and annular surface pressure. Paleozoic era erection load the stress or load on the drilling rig caused by the raising and lowering of the mast Erian a North American age of geological time that occurred about 390-385 m.172 equivalents per million • ethane for use by a seismic contractor. Established reserves include all of the proven reserves and some of the probable reserves. ago.7 psia.. Equivalents per million of a solute is equal to the part per million divided by the equivalent weight. that provides an obligation between parties escrow seismic an arrangement in which exploration companies contribute money in escrow H I H I H-C—C-H I I H H ethane ethane a hydrocarbon (C2H. or possibly money or goods. and others etching the chemical solution by acid of a substance such as a rock etch tube the acid bottle used in an acid bottle inclinometer. After a period of time.36. Ethane has a molecular weight of 30.. Equivalent mud weight is the sum of the hydrostatic.volumetric efficiency e. a specific gravity of 0. EPM equivalent weight the atomic weight of an ion divided by its valence ER enhanced recovery ER reservoir recovery efficiency Er oil recovery efficiency er detector elevation with respect to datum ERA Energy Regulatory Agency era a major time division of earth history. Ethane . circulating. ESP expanding spread profile ESP measured spontaneous potential essay an old term for a wildcat well Egsp static spontaneous potential Est estate est 1) estimate 2) estimated ESTA estimate established reserves unproduced oil and gas whose location and estimated amounts are reasonably established by existing wells and other geological and engineering data. tubing stretch t| 1) kinematic viscosity 2) overvoltage 3) hydraulic diffusivity et al. and a gross heat content of 1768. It is often made of soda-lime-glass and hydrostatic pressure is superimposed. It is part of the Devonian period. It is usually expressed in lb/gal. and surface pressure at a point in a well. ester a compound formed by the reaction between an organic acid and alcohol estuary a coastal indentation usually formed by a drowned river mouth caused by rising sea level. the seismic is sold and the proceeds are put in the escrow to run more seismic. Equivalent mud weight is controlled by mud properties. ESD emergency shutdown Eshka method e technique used to determine the sulfur content of crude oil Esopusian a North American age of geological time. It is expressed as the static mud weight that would exert the same pressure at that point in the well. y.

i r 1 2 T ? | r 4 5 MILES r it i f •f -•in l- -US IS T T r -?- SECONDS event event a line of traces on a seismic record that could be a reflection. Ethylene is an important feedstock for the petrochemical industry. Evaporative pit or pond see evaporation pit or pond evaporative unit an apparatus that is used in the field to reduce the volume of produced water from wells. Ethylene can also be formed by cracking in a refinery or in an olefins or ethylene plant. and animal respiration and decay uses up the oxygen dissolved in the water. syngenetic. dissolved in ground water. supratidal. and anhydrite along with chemically precipitated limestone. euhd euhedral euhedral a mineral crystal with well developed faces in contrast to anhedral. There are three 12-hour tours. ozokerite. In water. The concentrated brine is disposable in another location. E EXC excellent exc excavation exception well a well that was authorized or drilled as an exception to the well spacing allocated by a government regulatory agency excess cash money that is not committed to development or property and is unrelated to the project. (evaporative pit or pond) evaporative dolomite a mineral [CaMg(CO3)2] that is formed by the replacement calcite of limestone. to midnight. The minerals and rocks commonly include salt layers of halite. The Mg-enriched waters perculating down through recently deposited limestone between the shoreline and lagoon alters the calcite into dolomite. refraction. (steamer unit) evening tour the shift on a drilling rig that goes from 4:00 p. Evap or evap evaporation pit or pond an excavation with a large surface area of a fraction to several acres that is used to reduce the volume of produced water from wells by evaporation. eux EV expected value Ey or Ey volumetric sweep efficiency eV electron-volt EVA evaluation of velocity and attenuation evacuated container a method used to take a gas sample for analysis. and highly organic sediments. Organic matter deposited in a euxinic environment will not decay. Excess cash is passed as additional . ethylene glycol a colorless liquid that is often used as a desiccant in a glycol dehydrator. ethylene is the most common hydrocarbon.m. and tectonic dolomite. euhd EUR estimated ultimate recovery eustatic a worldwide sea level change eux euxinic euxinic an anaerobic environment. and asphalt. along with methane. A sample container with a vacuum is used to obtain the sample. Eys vertical sweep efficiency EW 1) electric weld 2) exploratory well ew water influx E R electromagnetic wave resistivity W™ EWSRT extremely well sorted ex excellent EX east extension exa the metric prefix for 1018. epigenic. Evaporative dolomite is in contrast to primary. or other phenomenon from the subsurface (seismic event) even time the arrangement of crew shifts on an offshore drilling rig so that each crew spends tour weeks offshore with 12-hour tours followed by two weeks ashore. such as black shales. eval evaluate Evap or evap evaporite evaporite or evaporites 1) minerals deposited from the evaporation of a saline solution 2) a sedimentary rock layer composed of salts precipitated from the evaporation of water. E/2 east half ETR early-time region et seq and those that follow ETT™ electromagnetic thickness tool et ux and wife et vir and husband EU 1) environmental unit 2) external upset eu-bitumen a fluid bitumen. In petroleum-bearing basins. euxinic occurs where the circulation is restricted (restricted basin). The evening tour is between the day and morning tours. C2 ethene or ethylene a hydrocarbon (C2H4) of the olefin or alkane series that can occur naturally or be formed by refinery process. The water in a basin can be stagnant and euxinic below a certain depth due to a sill or because of temperature or salinity stratification. can be deposited and preserved as potential source rocks for future petroleum generation.ethene or ethylene • excess cash is considered part of natural gas liquids and is used as a fuel and a feedstock to make ethylene. The pit is either dug in impermeable soil or lined with clay or an impermeable liner such 173 as plastic. Evaporative dolomite is caused by evaporation of lagoonal waters in a tropical climate which causes CaCO3 to precipitate and the water to become enriched relative to Mg. the crew from one tour is ashore while the crew from the other two tours work offshore. The unit uses a fire tube to form steam and concentrate the salts into a brine with a liquid volume reduction of about 90%. Eu-bitumen is easily soluable in organic solvents and includes petroleum. gypsum. diffraction.

or illegal oil) excess royalty 1) royalty (payment) in excess of one eighth 2) an overriding royalty exch exchange exchange agreement an arrangement between two parties to deliver oil or gas to one party at one location in exchange for the delivery of oil or gas to the other party at another location exchange and renewal lease a new lease that is issued in trade for an older lease exchange cation a positive ion such as Ca++. marginal. expansion gas drive see pressure depletion drive consideration between parties in a sharing arrangement. Na+. or field by a governement regulatory agency during a certain time that is not subject to a proration factor or reduction in amount. Expanding cement is a mixture of anhydrous calcium sulfoaluminate. Exothermic is in contrast to an endothermic reaction. exh exhausted well a well in which production has declined below profitability exhauster a dynamic compressor with an inlet pressure that is less than atmospheric exhaust manifold the system of pipes that collects the burned gases from the cylinders of an engine and directs them to the exhaust pipe exhaust valve the cam-operated valve on the cylinder of an engine that allows the burned gases to pass into the exhaust manifold exhibit an attachment that specifies details on an agreement. An exchange of property for services can have unfavorable tax consequences. Deep gas is exempt gas. The expansion of the cooled part as it warms forms the expansion fit. . hot oil. drill. excess factor the amount of cement slurry used in a cement job that is greater than the computed or theoretical volume that is needed excess oil excessive production excessive dogleg a change in a well's direction and/ or inclination that is abrupt enough to cause sticking tools and excessive stress for equipment and tubulars in the well. an exhibit is a separately listed provision. and waterflood wells. -y expansion fit a very tight union formed by placing a cooled part inside a warmer part.174 excess factor • expansion gas drive exempt gas categories of gas that are exempted by Section 107 of the 1978 Natural Gas Policy Act from federal price ceilings. EXC-T excessive temperature excursion the lateral movement of a curve on a well log excuse provision a clause in a farmout agreement that states the conditions under which a farmee can stop drilling an earning well. Mg++. An exclusive license is in contrast to a nonexclusive license. and lime along with Portland cement. NH4+. On a lease. The conditions are usually that the drilling has become impossible or impracticable. and a substitute well could be permitted. exchange of property for services a barter agreement in which property such as leases or equipment is traded for services such as drilling a well. exp exposed expanded perlite a cement additive that is made from a volcanic glass of rhyolite composition that has been finely ground and intensely heated to drive off water. expanding spread profile A marine seismic technique in which two ships are used. exchanger see heat exchanger exciter a small direct current generator that is used to generate the field for a main generator excl excellent Exclas or exclas extraclast exclusive license permit granted by a country to explore. executive right the legal right to sign a document such as a lease exempt allowables the amount of petroleum that is permitted to be produced from a well. expanding cement a type of cement used in wells that expands against the filter cake and pipe on setting. exh exhaust exhaust the burned gases from an engine. ESP expansion bend or loop a U-shaped bend in a pipe that is designed to compensate for expansion and contraction of the pipe expansion bit a drill bit that can be adjusted to several sizes expansion chamber an enlarged pipe on a choke manifold that slows the fluid flowing out of the choke manifold expansion dome a cylindrical tank used on the top of a storage tank to allow liquids to expand without overflowing the storage tank expansion factor the change in gas density at a pressure change across an orifice. calcium sulfate. The ships steam at 25 nautical miles (50 km) toward each other from a distance of about 25 nautical miles (50 km). One ship tows an air-gun array firing about every 20 seconds. excessive production petroleum produced in excess of the allowable granted by a government regulatory agency (excess oil. Expansion fit is in contrast to a shrink fit. Exempt allowables are granted in special instances such as discovery. and the other ship tows the streamer cables. K+. (allonge or rider) exinite kerogen derived from pollen grains and spores in sedimentary rocks exist existing exothermic a chemical reaction during which heat must be removed. and produce petroleum from a block without any competition. Expanded perlite is used to decrease the weight of the cement and increase yield. pass and steam apart for another 50 km. The ability of a clay mineral to exchange cations is measured with the cation-exchange capacity. or H+ that is located on a clay mineral surface and can be easily replaced by another cation. leasehold. Excessive dogleg is in contrast to a permissible dogleg.

expense-bearing interest see working interest expensed an accounting method in which the costs are deducted from income in the year that the costs were incurred. water. All possible financial results of drilling a well from dry hole to large discovery are calculated and then multiplied by the estimated probability of that occurrence expressed as a decimal. c) deeper pool test. logged. or gravel. exploratory well a well drilled in order to locate an undiscovered petroleum reservoir. or cast iron for shaped explosive charges that disintegrate in the well. (semiexpendable gun) expendable well an exploratory well drilled for the purpose of obtaining geological information rather than oil or gas production expense 1) monies spent on purchasing hydrocarbons. with the horizontal tank being preferred. expense-free interest an interest in oil and gas property. and geochemical. expendable-retrievable gun a type of perforating gun that is run on wire and is a cylindrical. and e) outpost or extension test. aluminum. leases. A coil is used to melt the hydrate. and geophysical exploration and the drilling of exploratory wells exploration license a permit granted by a country to a party to explore for petroleum in any part of a large designated area not covered by a production license. vertical. and the water liquifies into a hydrate. the developmental wells are drilled. There may or may not be a steel carrier to contain the blast. supplies. The fluid is passed through a jet that causes cooling by expansion. (prospecting or reconnaissance license) explorationist a geologist who explores for petroleum exploratory period or term the time during which a lessee can maintain a lease by drilling wells or paying delay rentals. or T-bone tank is used. An exploratory well can also be drilled to significantly extend the limits of a discovered reservoir. Types of exploratory wells include a) new-field wildcat. which was first developed in 1865. plastic. exploratory wells are drilled. EMV expected value a method of analyzing the riskadjusted return on a project such as drilling a well. The gas. EV Expend expendable (perforating gun) expendable gun a type of perforating gun that has individually pressure-sealed cases of ceramic. In the second phase. Exploration can be geological. of a decision such as drilling and completing a well. was a 4-ft tin cylinder that was originally filled with gun powder and lowered into the well. and any oil is then separated by gravity. The slim hole is drilled. The . which is generally less favorable. and the debris remains in the well. The torpedo was detonated by lowering an iron weight on a wire. The explosive blast shoots fragments of the case into the formation. An explosive cord is used to connect seismic charges or is planted in a trench as a seismic source. expressed in money. Expensed is in contrast to capitalized and is the generally preferred method from a tax position. In the first phase. geological and geophysical information is shared. d) shallower pool test. The gun leaves a minimum amount of debris in the well but cannot be reused. or step-out well. that does not share the expense of production of the oil and gas expir expiration EXPL exploratory expl exploration exploitation the development of a petroleum reservoir exploitation well see development well exploration the activities involved in the search for petroleum reservoirs. exploration costs the costs of geological. expected monetary value the expected value (risk times value of that consequence). The Robert's torpedo. hollow tube with strip jets in ceramic or glass cases. and/or services 2) the deduction of monies for purchases from income in the year that the purchases were made. either by discovering a new field or a new shallower or deeper reservoir in a previously discovered field. explosive fracturing a technique that uses an explosive such as nitroglycerine which is detonated in the well to increase the size of the wellbore and to fracture the reservoir rock to increase production. glass. The gun powder was replaced with nitrogycerine. (nonretrievable gun) Expend expendable hole a slim hole that is drilled offshore to define a structure outlined on seismic before a platform is set. b) newpool wildcat.expansion refrigeration • explosive fracturing 175 expansion refrigeration a method used to remove water from natural gas in order to meet pipeline specifications. The sum of these is the expected value of the proposed well. EW explosimeter a device that detects flammable gases and is calibrated in percentages of the lower explosive limit of those gases in air explosion proof EP explosure cord explosives in a woven sleeve covered with plastic. such as a royalty interest. equipment. It is the primary term of a lease. Expense is in contrast to capitalization. The gun is lowered on an insulated shooting cable and detonated electrically. the wildcat well does not have seismic data to support the prospect. In the third phase. There is a nonconsent penalty if one party does not participate in the drilling. exploration agreement or contract a three-phase joint operating agreement. geochemical. Sand and gravel can be packed around the nitroglycerine shell to contain the explosion. The expansion vessel is often equipped with a heating coil or a glycol injector. Exploratory wells have high risk but can have great returns on investment by discovering significant reserves. geophysical. A wildcat well is sometimes differentiated from an exploratory well. expansion vessel a first-stage separator on a lowtemperature or cold-separator unit. and then plugged and abandoned. The casing above the explosion can be protected with a temporary plug of cement. A horizontal.

176

explosive jar • external upset a normal roller-cone bit, so that the drilling mud is jetted out directly onto the teeth of the cones. The extended nozzle bit is used for drilling soft, sticky formations. extender a filler type of additive that has little or no effect on the chemical or physical properties of the substance to which it is added. Bentonite is commonly used as an extender in cement. extension 1) additional reserves given to a reservoir because of an increase in the proven area of the reservoir 2) an increase in the area of a field's boundary due to drilling extension fracture a natural fracture in a rock caused by tensional forces. The fracture is oriented parallel to a,, the maximum stress, and perpendicular to cr3, the minimum stress. extension and renewal clause a provision in an agreement that provides for the continuation through all future renewals and extensions on the lease of the overriding royalties or oil payments that were created from a working interest on that lease extension test or well a well drilled in the expected extent of a reservoir that is being developed but at a significant distance, usually two or more drilling and spacing units, from the nearest producer in that reservoir (delineation well, outpost or step-out well) EXT external casing packer an expanding device that is used to seal the area between the casing and the sides of the wellbore. The external casing packer can be seated and filled with cement to obtain a very positive seal between the casing and well walls. It is often used in cement jobs to limit vertically the area of cement along the sides of the casing. external cutter a fishing tool that is lowered on a fishing string over a pipe in a well and rotated to cut the pipe from the outside with mechanical knives. An external cutter is in contrast to an internal cutter. external guylines the wires that run from a mast or derrick on a drilling rig or workover unit to anchors. External guylines provide stability. external patch a patch made to repair casing or attach casing to another casing string in the well. The external patch is applied with a casing-patch tool and is be made of neoprene or lead, (casing bowl or patch) external phase the fluid that completely surrounds the globules of the dispersed phase (suspended phase) in an emulsion. Oil is the continuous phase in a waterin-oil emulsion and water in an oil-in-water emulsion. (continuous phase) external rate of return a method for evaluating a project such as drilling a well. External rate of return is the investment rate required so that the compounded value of all the money obligations are equal to the ultimate value of the compounded returns. external thread a thread located on the outside surface of a connection. An external thread mates with an internal thread, (male thread) external upset a section of thicker wall that protrudes outward along the threaded end of a tubular such as drillpipe. External upset is in contrast to an internal upset. EU

explosive can be detonated with a time bomb. After the explosion, the debris is cleared from the well. Casing cannot be set in a well after explosive fracturing, and an openhole completion must be used. The explosive fracturing porcess is called giving the well a shot. Explosive fracturing has been replaced by hydraulic fracturing and acidizing, (nitro shooting or shooting) explosive jar a jar that uses an explosion to deliver a very hard blow to a hammer. The explosive jar is used to loosen a stuck choke or production control in the tubing. The jar can be rearmed and used again. explosive limits the upper and lower percentages of gas concentration in an air-gas mixture that will result in an ignitable mixture explosive snuffing a technique used to extinguish the fire on a burning well. An explosion of dynamite over the well drives the oxygen out and snuffs the fire. The metal surrounding the fire must first be cooled by water so that it does not reignite the fire. exponential decline an oil well production decline rate or curve that is a constant percentage such as 10% per year. Plotting the average rate versus cumulative production forms a straight line on regular coordinate paper. The equation for constant percentage decline is: Q, = Qfi~Dt where Q, = production rate at a certain time, Q, = initial production rate, e = base of the natural logarithm (2.7182), D = decline as a fraction of production rate, and t = time. Constant percentage decline is the most commonly used method to duplicate a well's decline curve, (constantpercentage decline) exp pig expendable plug express covenant a specific promise in a lease. Express covenants could refer to the burial of pipelines, damage for crops, free gas, or a variety of other provisions. An express covenant is in contrast to an implied covenant. express drilling clause an oil and gas lease provision that requires a well to be drilled by a specific party to the lease expropriation the seizure of private property by a government. In some instances, the owners have been fully or partially compensated for the lost property, and in other instances, there has been no compensation. Multinational oil companies with their production, transportation, and refining equipment have been frequent targets of expropriation by foreign countries, (nationalization) expulsion the migration of oil and gas out of a source rock. Expulsion is caused by primarily by the expansion of organic matter into petroleum. The pressure generated by the formation of petroleum fractures the source rock to create routes of migration. (primary migration) expulsion efficiency the amount, usually expressed as a percentage, of generated hydrocarbons that have been effectively expulsed from the source rock. Expulsion efficiency often ranges from 0% to 70%. exst existing EXT 1) extension well ext 1) external 2) extrapolated extended nozzle bit a roller-cone bit with drillingfluid channels that are extended farther out than on

extr • Exv or exv extr extremely extraclast a calcarious detrital particle produced by erosion of an older rock from outside the area of deposition. Exclas or exclas extract the organic matter removed from sediments or sedimentary rocks by organic solvents. Two methods of extraction are soxhlet and ultrasonic. (kerogen) extraction plant equipment such as a contactor or absorber that is used to remove liquids from casinghead or wet gas extradune area the environment that is marginal to eolian (wind blown) sediments in the desert. The sediments deposited on the extradune area are not wind blown and could be saline lake or alluvial fan in origin. extra-gauge larger than the diameter of the wellbore extra-heavy crude crude oil that is less than 10° API extra-heavy oil crude oil that has a "API of less than 10 extraneous gas 1) natural gas that is produced but is not covered by a pooling or unitization agreement

177

2) gas injected into an underground gas-storage reservoir extra-weight drillpipe® heat-treated, seamless heavy-weight drillpipe that has a longer box end and pin end than normal drillpipe. The outer diameter is the same as a normal drillpipe but the walls are thicker and it weighs about twice as much as a normal drillpipe. Extra-weight drillpipe is used in directional drilling and between the drillpipe and drill collars to prevent drillstring failure. extreme-pressure lubricant a drilling fluid additive that is used to lubricate drilling bit bearings under high pressure (EP additive) extension fracture a fracture caused by tensile stress. The fracture surface will be oriented normal to the maximum tensile stress direction (crj). extrusive rock an igneous rock that flowed onto the surface of the earth and solidified. Extrusive rock is typically composed of very small mineral grains. Volcanic lava such as basalt is an example of extrusive rock. Extrusive rock is in contrast to an intrusive igneous rock that solidifies in the subsurface. Exv or exv extrusive

178

F • Fahrenheit temperature scale

F 1) from 2) Fahrenheit 3) factor 4) force (mechanical) 5) formation-resistivity factor 6) fuel 7) free 8) flowing 9) torque factor 10) number of degrees of freedom 11) farad f 1) fine 2) frequency 3) fraction 4) fluid 5) formation 6) front 7) fugacity 8) flash separation. 9) coefficient of friction 10) fracture 11) fathom 12) femto- 13) Fanning friction factor (dimensionless) F* apparent formation factor F/ 1) flowing 2) flowed 3) fractured with °F Degrees Fahrenheit FA foaming agents Fa orifice thermal expansion factor Fab fabricate
Fac or fee facet

SAND

SHALE

facies map

face ejection bit a type of rotary coring bit in which drilling fluid passes through longitudinal holes in the wall of the bit to the face of the bit. A face ejection bit is used in soft formations, bottom-discharge bit face-to-face the length of a valve measured from one end to the other end (end-to-end) facies a distinctive part of a rock layer that is different from the rest of the rock layer in either composition (lithofacies) or fossils (biofacies). A sedimentary facies is an areally restricted part of a stratigraphic unit, such as a formation, that is significantly different in character from other parts of the unit.

facies triangle a triangle with sandstone, shale, and limestone, carbonates, or nonclastics at the apexes. The percent composition of a sedimentary rock can be plotted on the triangle.
sandstone

limestone

50% facies triangle

shale

facies change

facies change the change in one rock layer, either laterally or vertically, from one rock type to another such as a sandstone to a shale, or in fossil content. Facies changes are often gradational or interfingering. facies map a map that illustrates the aerial variations in rock composition (lithofacies) or fossil content (biofacies) in a particular rock unit

factor of safety see safety factor Fahrenheit temperature scale the temperature scale based on the freezing point of fresh water at 32° and the boiling point at 212°. Degrees Centigrade or Celsius can be converted into degrees Fahrenheit by multiplying 9A and adding 32°. Degrees Fahrenheit can be converted into degrees Centigrade or Celsius by subtracting 32° and multiplying by 5/<>. The scale is named after Gabriel Fahrenheit, a German physicist (1686-1736). F

Fail or fail • farewell sand FAIL or foil 1) failure 2) failed

179

failed arm

Sailed arm one arm of a triple-junction spreading center that stopped spreading. In the theory of seafloor spreading and plate tectonics, spreading centers often originate as triple junctions, three spreading arms radiating out from a point. One arm eventually fails or stops spreading and the other two arms continue to spread as a single continuous rift. The failed arm is a basin that eventually is filled with sediments. fail safe equipment that is designed to automatically shut down or stabilize if a component fails fail to go to not explode failure the yield of a substance by ductile flow or brittle fracture fairlead 1) the guidance device used to spool wire rope on a reel 2) a rope or wire that is protected from wear fair market value the price that something would receive if put on the market for a reasonable time by a willing seller from a willing buyer. Fair market value is "the amount a willing buyer will pay a willing seller, with the property or interest exposed to the market for a reasonable period, neither the buyer nor the seller being under a compulsion to buy or to sell, both being competent and having reasonable knowledge of the facts." FMV fairway 1) the area along the trend of gas and/or oil deposits of a particular type in a particular area. For example, the fairway could be a trend of reefs or folds along the shelf margin of an ancient basin. 2) the area of thickest pay or best porosity in a long field 3) a shipping lane in federal waters where permanent drilling and production structures are prohibited FAL 1) RUM log 2) formation-analysis log F L flow analysis log A™ fallback the downward flow of produced fluids in a well during artificial lift, (slippage) falloff test a pressure transient test that is similar to a buildup test but is used on water-injection wells. The injection rate is held constant, the well is shut in, and the decrease of bottomhole pressure is recorded. Fa thermal-expansion factor false cap the hard, calcite-cemented sedimentary rocks, usually sandstone, that can occur above the cap rock of a salt dome false-colors the deliberate shift or change of colors on an aerial or satellite photograph. False colors are

used when a portion of the visible and near infrared spectrum are imaged. The colors on the photograph are then shifted to show the infrared response as red, the visible red as green, and the visible green as blue. false horizon a seismic reflection that is not real and is due to multiple reflections Famennian a global age of geological time that occurred about 380-365 m. y. ago. It is part of the Upper Devonian epoch. Fancher holder a core holder used with a permeameter to measure the permeability of a core or a rectangular-shaped sample. The sample is put in the holder where a rubber compression ring is forced around it to form a seal along the sides of the sample. Dry air is then passed through the sample. The permeability of the core is" calculated from Darcy's law. A Hassler chamber or holder serves the same purpose. flan delta a deposit of sediments similar to an alluvial fan. A fan delta is deposited by a high energy mountain stream flowing into the ocean. F&FA fooling and fiddling around F&L fuel and lubricant fanglomerate alluvial fan sediments that have been cemented into sedimentary rock Fanning friction factor a dimensionless number that is used to determine flow-friction pressure losses. The Fanning friction factor is denned a s / = (-TA I
/U2p\

(-^—1 in which p is the flow-friction pressure loss in lb/ft2, d is the pipe diameter in ft., L is the length of the pipe in ft., U is the average flow velocity in ft/sec, p is the fluid density in lb/ft3, and g is the acceleration of gravity (32.174 ft/sec.2)./ fanning the bottom drilling a well with relatively little weight on the bit in order to prevent drilling a crooked hole Fann viscometer an instrument used to accurately measure the properties of a drilling fluid. The Fann viscometer works similar to a blender. Plastic viscosity, yield point, apparent viscosity, and gel strength are measured. fan shooting refraction seismic exploration with geophone lines located in fan-shaped arrays radiating from the shot point. Fan shooting was used to detect salt domes. Fan viscometer or V-G meter™ an instrument commonly used to measure the viscosity and gel strength of drilling mud. The Fann viscometer uses a rotating outer cup driven by an electric motor. The drilling mud is contained in the space between the inner and outer cup, and the torque on the stationary inner cup is measured. The scale is in centipoises (cp) when the outer cup is rotated at 300 rpm. farad a derived unit in System International (SI) for electrical capacitance. Farad is calculated by C/V. A 1-farad capacitator stores an electrical charge of 1 coulomb (C) when 1 volt is applied. F farewell sand the lowest possible producing zone in an area

180

farm boss • fault gouge FASB Financial Accounting Standards Board FAST fracture-assisted steamflood technology fastice immoble ice in Arctic waters fast line the end of the drilling line on a drilling rig that is attached to the drawworks. The fast line is reeled on and off the reel to raise and lower equipment in the well. The fast line moves with greater velocity than any other portion of the drilling line. The other end is called the deadline. FL FAST Process fracture-assisted steamflood process fast sheave the sheave on the crown block through which the fastline is reeled fathom a nautical measure of depth that is equal to 6 ft or 1.8288 m./ fatigue metal failure under repeated stress fatigue endurance limit the maximum bending stress that will not result in permanent failure or fatigue of a tubular fatigue ratio the ratio of endurance limit to static tensile strength, (endurance ratio) fat oil the oil from an absorption plant that is rich in gasoline. Natural gas is bubbled through lean oil in an absorption tower. The oil absorbs liquid hydrocarbons and becomes fat oil. The light hydrocarbons are then distilled out of the fat oil and it becomes lean oil. Fau or fau fauna

farm boss the foreman who is in charge of some oil leases farmee or farminee the party in a farmout agreement who is obliged to drill a well (earning well) to certain specifications in the arrangement in order to receive support interest in mineral rights acreage from the other party who is called the farmor. (farmoutee) farmer a clumsy oilfield worker farmer's oil royalty payment to the lessor farmer's sand 1) the oil formation that occurs below "every" landowner's property 2) a producing sandstone that the mineral rights owner claims is located below the bottom of a well drilled on the land farmer's well 1) a well dug by hand 2) any very shallow well farmin or farm-in 1) an interest in mineral rights obtained through a farmout agreement 2) to obtain a farmout agreement from another party FI farmor or fat-minor the party in a farmout agreement who contributes an interest in mineral rights acreage to the other party, called the farmee, in return for a well (earning well) being drilled. (farmouter) farmout or farm out 1) the interest in mineral rights given through a farmout agreement 2) to give a farmout agreement to another party 3) see farmout agreement
FO or F/O

farmout agreement an agreement between two parties in which one party, the farmor, contributes interests in mineral leases in compensation to another party, the farmee, who drills a well(s) called the earning well(s) on the leases. The farmor usually retains an interest in the leases that were farmed out. In the conventional farmout, the farmor assigns a 100% working interest in the well to the farmee and reserves an overriding royalty interest. After payout, the overriding royalty interest converts to a working interest. The interest assigned to the farmee can be either a present assignment or assigned when earned. In an off-lease farmout, the interest earned is not on the earning well drilling and spacing unit. farmout area the acreage covered by a farmout agreement. The farmout area can consist of one or more earning blocks. farmout depth the depth below an earning block to which a farmee earns the right to produce by drilling an earning well in a farmout agreement. The farmout depth can be a) unlimited, b) to a specific true vertical depth, or c) to a specific horizon. farmoutee see farmee farmouter see farmor farmout leases all the leases owned by a farmor that are within the farmout area farmout option a contract in which a party that drills a well and shares the information with another party will receive a farmout from that party, (drilling option) FARO flowed at rate of faro a relatively small oblong-shaped reef with a lagoon that that forms part of the rim of a larger barrier or atoll reef

fault

fault a natural break in the rocks with one side moving relative to the other side. Faults are described by the relative movement of each side. Dip-slip faults (normal, reverse, and thrust faults) move primarily up and down. Strike-slip faults (right and left lateral) move primarily horizontally. Oblique-slip faults move about equally up or down and horizontally. FIT, Fit, orflt fault block a unit of rocks bounded by faults fault breccia a tectonic breccia located along a fault surface. The fault breccia is formed by the crushing of rocks along the fault surface as the fault moves. fault closure the permeability barrier formed by a fault along the side or top of a petroleum reservoir fault grooves scratches on a fault plane or surface that are caused by gouging and are oriented parallel to the fault movement, (fault striae) fault gouge soft, unconsolidated, very fine-grained rock fragments found along a fault surface. Fault gouge

fault line • fee land is formed by the grinding action of the fault movements on rocks and later, by mineral decomposition. Fault gouge can act as a permeability barrier to make the fault a sealing fault, (gouge, clay gouge, or selvage) fault line the trace of a fault on the surface (fault trace) fault plane a flat surface along which a fault has moved. If it is not flat, it is called the fault surface. fault-propagation fold a fold located at the tip of a thrust fault where the fault loses slip and is terminated. The fold takes up the criestal shortening line fault set a group of parallel faults that are related to the same deformation fault striae scratches on a fault plane or surface that are caused by gouging and are oriented parallel to the fault movement, (fault grooves) fault surface the uneven face along which a fault has moved fault trace the line of a fault on the surface, (fault line) fault trap a type of structural petroleum trap in which faulting displaces the reservoir rock. Oil and/or gas migrating up the dip of the reservoir rock is trapped against the fault plane. A single fault usually forms a relatively small trap as faults tend to be straight and linear and do not have sides. Two intersecting faults or a curved fault can form larger traps. fault zone an area along a fault surface that has been deformed by fault movement and is characterized by numerous small faults, fault breccia, and/or fault gouge fauna fossil or modern animals. Fauna is in contrast to flora. Fau orfau Fb 1) basic orifice factor 2) formation factor (rock matrix) FBD formation breakdown FBF friction-ball-friction FBG 1) formation breakdown gradient 2) formation balance gradient FBH flowing by heads FBHP 1) flowing bottomhole pressure 2) final bottomhole pressure FBHPF final bottomhole pressure flowing FBHPSI final bottomhole pressure shut in FBP 1) final boiling point 2) formation breakdown pressure FBR full bore retrievable FC 1) float collar 2) full cost 3) field code FC or fc filter cake FC accounting full cost accounting FCC 1) fixed carbon content 2) false-color composite F.C. casing flush-coupled casing FCD dimensionless fracture conductivity FCMP first contact miscibility pressure FCP 1) flowing casing pressure 2) final casing pressure FCPF final casing pressure flowing FCPSI final casing pressure shut-in

181

FCV flow control valve FD finite difference F-D formation density FDC 1) compensated formation-density log 2) formation-density content log FDC™ formation density compensated F DIP focused diplog FDL 1) formation density log 2) fluid density log fdn foundation FE frequency effect fj 1) sampling rate 2) gauge location factor FEA Federal Energy Agency Fe acid an acid with a sequestering agent to control the reprecipitation of iron and control the pH when acidizing a well. The low pH helps control clay swelling. feathering deviation of a hydrophone streamer from the true seismic line behind a boat. Feathering displaces the midpoints of the reflections. fecal pellet a fossilized excrement, usually ovoid shaped, of an invertebrate animal. Fecal pellet is in contrast to the larger caprolite. FED 1) federal 2) four electrode dipmeter federal exploratory unit an area composed of federal, state and/or fee land that has been unitized by several parties to explore and develop an area. It can be done either a) on individual units according to acreage positions in the entire federal exploratory unit or b) on divided units according to leaseholders in that particular unit. fee the ownership of record for surface and/or mineral rights on land feed see feed mud feeder head A pipe that carries slurry to two or more hydroclones feeder line 1) a pipeline that conducts the gas or oil from the lease to the trunk line, which is a larger pipeline that conducts it to a refinery or transportation center 2) the flowline that connects a subsea well to its manifold feed mud drilling mud that is about to be processed feed off to lower a drillstring or tool in a well by disengaging the brake on the drawworks and allowing the drilling line to reel off the drum feed-off rate the speed in which the drilling line unwinds from the drawworks drum feedstock a chemical refined and manufactured from hydrocarbons and used to produce petrochemicals. Methane, ethylene, propylene, butylene, and napthenes are common feedstocks. feedwater the water used in steam generators fee in surface the surface rights owner of a lease fee interest the ownership of both surface and mineral rights interest feel ahead to drill a small-diameter well fee land private land located in parts of the United States and Canada that has both a surface and mineral rights ownership. Fee land is in contrast to public lands.

182

feeler • fenestral pore sandstone with 25%-90% micas and micaceous metamorphic rock fragments, 10%-50% feldspars and feldspathic rock fragments, and 0%-65% quartz, chert, and metaquartzite rock fragments feldspathic litharenite a sandstone that has less than 75% quartz and either a) between a 1:1 and 1:3 ratio of feldspar to rock fragments or b) between 5O%-25% feldspar, granite, and gneiss rock fragments as compared to other unstable rock fragments and detrital clay. feldspathic quartzite 1) a sandstone composed of 70%-95% quartz, chert, and metaquartzite rock fragments, 5%-15% feldspars, and feldspathic rock fragments and 0%-15% micas and micaceous rock fragments 2) a subarkose feldspathic sandstone a sandstone that is intermediate in composition between an arkose and a quartz sandstone. A feldspathic sandstone has 10%25% feldspar and less than 20% clay matrix. feldspathic subgraywacke a sandstone with 10%25% feldspars and igneous rock fragments, 10%-25% micas and metamorphic rock fragments, and 50%80% quartz and chert feldspathic wacke a sandstone with 10%-25% feldspar, more than 10% argillaceous matrix, and abundant quartz, chert, and quartzite. The feldspar grains are more numerous than fine-grained rock fragments. FEM finite-element method Fe-mag ferromagnesian female connection or thread a thread located on the inside surface of a coupling that mates with a male thread, (internal thread) femto the metric prefix for 10~ 15 ./ Fen or fen fenestra fence diagram a three-dimensional representation of wells and the geological cross sections (panels) between them. The cross sections interconnect to form a network. fenestral pore elongated pores parallel to bedding in limestone rocks. Fenestral pores are common in algal mat deposits and are thought to form by organic

feeler a pipe run into a well to test the well's ability to take a string of casing fee royalty the share or payment of the gas and/or oil production that is free of the costs of production and is paid to the lessor. Fee royalty was originally one-eighth but can now be from one-eighth to onefourth, (landowner, landowner's, or gross royalty) fee simple land owned without restrictions by a person fee simple absolute an estate of inheritance that is limited absolutely and without limitations to a person and his/her heirs and assigns forever fee simple defensible an estate that is less than fee simple absolute in that it is subjected to a specific limitation fee tail a freehold estate with a definite line of inheritance that extends from the original grantee to the present generation FEL from the east line feldsarenite a type of sandstone that has less than 75% quartz and greater than a 3:1 ratio of feldspar to rock fragments feldspar a common group of minerals that are potassium aluminum silicates (potassium feldspar or orthoclase) or sodium-calcium aluminum silicates (plagioclase feldspar). Feldspars are common in igneous and metamorphic rocks and immature sediments. Feldspars range in color from white, gray, pink, to pale yellow, have a specific gravity of 2.52.7, hardness of 6-6.5 and two cleavage planes at 86°90°. Feldspars can decay to form clay minerals. Fspr,
fspr or Fs

feldspatfaic a sedimentary rock containing feldspars feldspathic arenite a sandstone with 10%-25% feldspar, less than 10% argillaceous matrix, and abundant quartz, chert, and quartzite feldspathic graywacke 1) a sandstone with less than 75% quartz and chert, 15%-75% detrital clay matrix and more feldspar than rock fragments 2) a sandstone with 25%-9O% micas and metamorphic rock fragments, 10%-50% feldspars and igneous rock fragments, and 0%-65% quartz and chert 3) a

PANEL OF

fence diagram

FERC • field development

183

Fenestral Pore
fenestral pores

decay along laminations in the limestone mud (micrite). FERC Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FERC out clause a provision in a gas purchase and sales agreement authorizing the buyer to cease purchasing the gas if the purchaser is not permitted by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to include the amounts paid in the costs which are used to calculate the buyer's own regulated resale rates which is called the cost of service. fermenter a type of bacteria that thrives on organic matter in the absence of oxygen and sulfate. The fermenters form biogenic gas from a few feet below the surface to about 1,000 ft below where they are inhibited by high temperature. few ferrigenous ferricyanide process a wet scrubbing technique using iron to remove hydrogen sulfide from crude oil and natural gas ferrigenous iron-bearing, ferr ferromagnetic a substance that has a large positive susceptibility to a magnetic field and a large hysteresis resulting in remnant magnetization. In rocks, certain mineral crystals such as magnetite will align themselves with magnetic moments when the rock is molten. Two types of ferromagnetic minerals are ferrimagnetic and antiferrimagnetic. ferromagnesian containing iron and magnesium.
Fe-mag

ferrimagnetic a substance such as the mineral magnetite that will align itself with a magnetic moment. Some of the grains will be oriented in the opposite direction, but when the magnetic moment is removed, some magnetic moment remains in contrast to an antiferrimagnetic substance. ferrous oxide a black compound (FeO) that can be made from the oxidation of ferrous sulfide. (iron monoxide) ferrous sulfide a black compound (FeS2) that can be made from iron and hydrogen sulfide. (iron sulfide) ferrule see guide ring Fe-st ironstone FF 1) frac finder log 2) full of fluid 3) fishing for Ff 1) free fluid 2) flushing factor F.F.&W. furnish fuel and water FFI free-fluid index FFM fracture finder microseis

FF-MGS frac finder microseismogram log FF-MGS-G frac finder microseismogram, gamma ray log FF-MGS-N frac finder microseismogram, neutron log FFP final flowing pressure FG fine grained F.G. fracture gradient Fg, ideal-gas relative density factor FGIH finished going in hole FGIW finished going in well FGLR formation gas/liquid ratio F/GOR formation gas/oil ratio fgr fine grained F-Gr or f-gr fine grained F gr real-gas relative density factor FH full hole l?hgm mercury manometer factor, correction for gas column F hgt mercury manometer temperature factor FHP final hydrostatic pressure FI 1) flow indicator 2) fracture initiation f, sampled operator fibr fibrous fibrous a substance that can be separated into threads, fibr FID flame ionization detector fiduciary a person, the trustee, who is appointed to hold something in trust or trusteeship for another person field 1) the surface area underlain by one or several petroleum reservoirs that are related to a single geological feature such as an anticline. The field is often named after a geographic landmark. The American Petroleum Institute assigns a six-digit field name code to each specific field name. This is followed by the state abbreviation and county code. An example is the Clark field in Texas, which is 145385TX285. Oil and gas fields are classified according to their reserves. An A field has more than 50 MMBO or 300 BCF of natural gas. A B field has between 25-50 MMBO or between 150-300 BCF of gas. A C field has between 10-25 MMBO or between 60-150 BCF of gas. A D field has between 1-10 MMBO or 6-60 BCF of gas. An E field has less than 1 MMBO or less than 6 BCF of natural gas. An .F field is abandoned as nonprofitable. FID or fid 2) the space under the influence of a force such as a potential field 3) a general term for an outdoor area 4) a specific reservoir or subsurface producing zone sometimes applied by a government regulatory agency field appraisal the delineation of a petroleum field and the characterization of its reservoir mechanics field butanes the mix of natural gas liquids from a gas processing plant field compression test a test used to determine the gasoline content of casinghead or wet gas field development the drilling of wells and the installation of processing and storage equipment for a petroleum field

184 field development well • fill-up curve field development well a well drilled in the reasonably proven extent of a producing petroleum field. The extent of the field is defined by extrapolation of subsurface data. The well should have several producing wells on adjacent drilling and spacing units. A field development well has small risk, see development well field drainage the migration of petroleum under a field due to production. Wells in the field cause a pressure gradient between the producing wells and the remaining petroleum in the reservoir causing the petroleum to flow toward the wells. field efficiency the measured production divided by the computed production of a downhole pump, field efficiency is about 80%. field end the end of a pipe on the other side from a coupling or box field facility equipment such as separators or absorbers that serve several leases field foreman see production foreman field grade butane normal butane and isobutane that is separated from wet gas at a natural-gas processing plant (mixed butane) field intensity force per unit such as length or mass field noise test see noise test field plant equipment located on a pipeline that is used to remove ethane, propane, butane, and condensate from natural gas (straddle plant) field potential the capacity (production of gas and/ or oil) that a field is able of producing during a 24hour peroid field price a natural gas price that is either a) the current price that a buyer needs to get a gas contract or b) the weighed, average gas contract price field print a preliminary well log printed at the well in contrast to a final print field processing the separation and treating of natural gas and crude oil on the lease before it is delivered to a pipeline or refinery field processing unit apparatus such as an absorption unit, LTX unit, or separator system through which natural gas from wells passes before it goes to a processing plant or pipeline field rate the contract price for drilling a well field rules the regulations issued by a government regulatory agency that are used to efficiently develop and produce petroleum from a field. Field rules can include spacing, density, an allocation formula, a gas/ oil ratio limit, and surface casing requirements. Field rules can apply to one, several, or all reservoirs in the field. field scale the large-scale application of an enhanced oil recovery process to an oil field. Field scale is in contrast to a pilot-scale. field-size distribution a histogram of the number of fields discovered in a basin plotted against the reserves in those fields. The field-size distribution is usually lognormal in shape. field static pressure the reservoir pressure that is uniform throughout an oil or gas field after all the wells have been shut in for a period of time. Ps field superintendent an employee of the operator who supervises all drilling and production activities in a field, area, or district. The field superintendent works through the production foremen. field tank see stock tank field tape a magnetic tape that is used to record geophysical data in the field. After the data have been modified by computer processing, it is a processed tape. The processed tape can be either intermediate or final. FT field terminal platform an offshore production platform that acts as a central processing facility for a field. The platform accepts risers from the wells and processes the gas and oil before it is transported. FTP 15-minute percentage timer an electric programmer that turns a sucker-rod pump on and off every 15 minutes 50-50 allowable the amount of gas and/or oil that a field is permitted to produce in a given time by a government regulatory agency. Fifty percent of the allowable allotted to individual wells and 50% to the acreage. figure of merit the excellence of magnetic compensation for a specific aircraft. The figure of merit is computed by summing without regard to sign the twelve magnetic signatures recorded when the aircraft carries out 20° rolls, 10° pitches and 10° yaws, peak to trough on north, east, south, and west headings. FOM FIH fluid in hole FIL™ fracture identification log file for record to send an instrument to the county or parish clerk for recording filing date the date in which an instrument was recorded in the county or parish records fill 1) well cuttings on the bottom of the well 2) large pieces of rock on the bottom of a well fill connection see fill-up line filler a small-diameter wire that is used to fill in the space between different diameter wires used in the strand of a wire rope. The fillers give the wire rope greater strength and service life, (seale) filler material a cement slurry additive used to increase the yield of the slurry filling the hole pumping drilling mud into the well to maintain the fluid level in the well fill line a pipe that connects the s'sndpipe manifold with the bell nipple above the biwvvout preventers and the annulus of a well. The fill line is used to pump drilling mud directly from the mud tanks into the annulus during tripping out during lost circulation. (fill connection or fill-up line) fill the weevil to put grease in a lubricator fill up the height in the annulus from the bottom of a well to the top of the cement fill-up line see fill line fill-up curve a plot of pressure increase with time for a shut-in well after production. The fill-up curve is used to measure the permeability of the reservoir rocks and to estimate productive capacity. The time

fill-up period • final tape
necessary to reach static equilibrium is a measure of the effective permeability of the reservoir rock and also measures the well's productivity index, (buildup curve) fill-up period the time at the start of a waterflood during which the injected water forces gas back into solution in the formation fluids. The injection rate is relatively high. FILT or filt filtrate filter 1) the part of a system that screens or removes some of the input information. In seismic exploration, filters are often used to limit the frequency of the energy being recorded. A high-cut filter transmits frequencies below a certain level, whereas a low-cut filter transmits frequencies above a certain level. 2) a physical device such as a screen that is designed to remove solid particles larger than a certain size from a fluid. A dry-type scrubber is a filter that removes dust from a gas stream. filter cake solid particles from drilling mud that are plastered to the sides of the borehole as the drilling mud is forced into the rocks surrounding the well. The fluid from the drilling mud that is forced into the rocks is called filtrate. The volume of the filtrate and the thickness of the filter cake can be determined in the laboratory by a filter press. The thickness of the filter cake is measured in VM in. and described as soft, firm, or tough, (mudcake or wall cake) FC

185

different frequency filters. The display is used to show which frequency filters show the reflections best and select the filters for the entire program. filtrate the liquid portion of the drilling mud that is forced into the rocks adjacent to the borehole during drilling. Filtrate occupies the pores of the reservoir rock in the flushed zone. The solid particles are plastered to the side of the wellbore to form the filter cake. FILT or filt filtrate loss the loss of fluid base from a liquid forced through a porous medium. As a well is being drilled with circulating drilling mud, a filter cake of solid particles is build up on the sides of the well as the liquid (filtrate) enters the rock. Filtrate loss is measured in the laboratory by the amount of liquid (filtrate) that passes through a filter in a filter press during a specific time under a specific pressure. Filtrate loss is a common test for drilling mud. (filtration, filter or fluid loss) filtrate reducer a drilling-fluid additive such as bentonite, pregelatinized starch, or sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) that is used to inhibit filtrate penetrating a formation. Filtrate reducers used in cement slurries are either finely divided materials such as bentonite or water-soluble polymers made of latex. Filtrate reducers such as silica flour and hydrocarbon resins are used in hydraulic fracturing to stop the flow of treating fluid away from propagating fractures in the formation, (fluid loss additive, preventer, reducer, or fluid-loss control agent) filtration the process of using a filter to remove solids in suspension from a fluid filtration loss see filtrate loss filtration system equipment used to remove solids from a fluid filtration test a laboratory test used to measure the volume of filtrate and thickness and quality of a filter cake formed by a specific drilling mud. The test instrument is a filter press with a filter cell that has an inside diameter of 3 in, a height of at least 2'/2 in, a frame mounting, a pressure source, and a graduated cylinder to receive the filtrate. The filter cell is covered with a fine screen that holds filter paper. Drilling mud is subjected to 100-500 psi at 200° -300°F. The filtrate volume that collects in the graduated cylinder every 30 minutes is reported in cm3. The filter cake is measured in V 2 of an inch 3 and described as soft, firm, or tough. FIN finished fin 1) final 2) finished fin a ridge formed on the shoulder of a tool joint that was caused by using boxes and pins with different sized shoulders final to complete a well final print the permanent print of a well log made on high-quality paper with appropriate heading information and calibration. Final print is in contrast to field print. final squeeze pressure the surface pressure of a well at the finish of a squeeze cement job. FSP final tape a magnetic tape with seismic data that has hieen modified into final form. A final tape is in contrast t<b a field and intermediate tape.

orfc
filter element A perforated metal sleeve with compression-gasketed ends. A simple one is used for removing dry solids. filtering the discrimination between signal and noise on the basis of frequency or velocity. Filtering is used in seismic analysis. filter loss see filtrate loss filter press a device that forces drilling mud or cement slurry through a filter or porous medium according to API standards to separate fluid from solids in a filtration test. The filter press is used to measure fluid loss and mud cake properties of a drilling fluid. The filtration rate through a standard filter paper and the rate of mudcake thickness increase under standard test conditions are measured. The filter press has a sample container, pressure source, the filter, and a graduated measuring cylinder. The filter cell has a fine screen with a cylinder drain that is covered with filter paper. The mud sample is forced through the filter cell at either 100 or 500 psi and at temperatures from 200°-300° F. The volume of filtrate produced in 30 minutes is measured. The filter cake on the filter paper is measured in ]/32 in. and described as soft, firm, or tough. filter separator a horizontal or vertical vessel that uses high-quality filtering medium to separate very small liquid and/or solid particles from gas. The filter separator contains filter tubes or elements that cause the coalescence of mist and removable of solids. A filter separator can remove 98% of l|x particles and 100% of 5|x particles. A filter separator is commonly used on field compressor inlets and as final scrubbers of glycol contact towers and on horizontal separators.

filter test frequency display or scan several
versions of the same short seismic section made with

186 finder's fee • fire-tube heater finder's fee a cash consideration, override, or other compensation for a third party for promoting a deal between two other parties. finding and development costs a method used to evaluate exploration economics. The cost of locating and developing a field per barrel of oil or thousand cubic feet reserves is calculated. The cost includes lease costs, G&G, overhead, and the drilling and completion of all wells in the field. The cost is divided into the estimated reserves of the field. Maximum acceptable values will determine the feasibility of the project. finding costs a method used to evaluate exploration economics. The cost of locating a field per barrel of oil or thousand cubic feet of gas reserves is computed. The cost includes lease costs, G&G, overhead, and the discovery well drilling and completion. The cost is divided into the estimated reserves of the field. Examples would be $2.02/BO or $0.51/Mcf. Maximum acceptable values will determine the feasibility of the project. Finding costs can be either risked or unrisked. fin drig finished drilling FENDS an inertial navigation instrument fineness the size of cement particles formed by the grinding process in cement manufacturing. Fineness is used to calculate total particle surface area per gram of cement. fines small particles. chromatography-mass spectrometry to qualitatively or quantitatively identify and correlate biological markers such as isoprenoids, steranes, and triterpanes. Oils from the same source will have similar fingerprints. finish a well to complete a well fin-tube a tubular with a flat, protruding surface projecting outward that is used in a heat exchanger to cool fluids flowing through the tube fire box the equipment, usually in the slope of a U-tube, where fuel such as natural gas is burned to heat up a fluid. The part of the fire box in contact with the fluid is called the firetube. A fire box is used in a fire-tube heater to separate emulsions. fire flood a method of enhanced oil recovery in which the subsurface oil in the reservoir is set afire. The subsurface oil burns and breaks down into coke and lighter oil. As the coke burns, the heat reduces the viscosity of the oil ahead of it and the heated gases formed by the combustion drive the oil ahead of it toward producing wells. Some of the combustion gases dissolve in the oil, further reducing the viscosity of the oil. Large volumes of air must be injected into the reservoir in order to maintain the subsurface combustion during the fire flood. Air injection is a major expense of a fire flood. The air is heated by an electric heater or gas burner at the sand face and injected at 400°-l,200°F to ignite the fire. The zones of fire flood include a) burned region, b) burned front, c) coke, d) cracked hydrocarbons, e) hot water, f) light hydrocarbons, and g) oil bank. The burning front moves about 0.25-1 ft per day. Forward combustion occurs when the burning front moves from the injection well towards the producing well. Reverse combustion occurs when the burning front moves from the producing well toward the injection well. Water can be injected along with air. The water is flashed to steam and reduces the volume of air needed to be injected, (in-situ combustion) fire loop a pneumatic control line on a production platform that uses temperature sensors to shut down the equipment in case of a fire fireman the crew member on a steam-powered rig who maintains the boilers fire tube the U-shaped tube or series of tubes in which fuel such as natural gas is burned to heat a fluid in a fire-tube heater. The fire tube is part of a fire box that is in contact with the fluid being heated in a direct heater and with a water bath in an indirect heater. The temperature in the fire tube is above 1,000° F. Two common types of fire tubes are 100,000 and 250,000 Btu/hr. The fire tube can be either continuous or intermittent. fire-tube heater a type of vertical or horizontal field separator that uses heat to break an emulsion such as oil-in-water or water-in-oil. A temperature of 80°180° F is necessary to separate emulsions. The steel tank has a U-shaped pipe in it called a fire tube. The direct-fired type of fire-tube furnace directs a flame down the center line of the pipe to heat and break the emulsion. In the indirect-fired type, the flame is used to heat water that is in contact with the emulsion. The exhaust gases exit the stack which extends 1015 ft above the separator. The burner uses either natural gas or heavy oil. (emulsion treater or heatertreater)

fingers

fingers (off rotary drilling rig chart)

finger a metal or wood, horizontal bar-like protrusion that is part of the fingerboard located under the monkeyboard on the derrick of a drilling rig. The fingers on the fingerboard form slots for the derrickman to rack the upper ends of tubular stands during tripping out. finger board or fingerboard a rack with fingerlike projections located under the derrick of a drilling rig. The fingers are used to separate and hold the upper ends of tubular stands such as drillpipe or tubing when they are pulled from the well. fingering 1) the invasion of water or gas into an oil reservoir with finger-like intrusions during production of oil. The bypassed oil is often not recoverable. 2) the formation of finger-shaped irregularities at the front of an injected fluid slug in a reservoir during enhanced oil recovery Fingerlakesian a North American age of geological time that started about 385 m. y. ago. It is part of the Devonian period. fingerprinting the correlation of oil to oil, or oil to source rock by using gas chromatography and gas

fire up • fishing neck fire up to start an engine, heater, or boiler fire wall an earthen or concrete bank that surrounds an oil tank or any oil handling equipment. The fire wall is used to contain the oil in the event of a spill. firm gas the gas that is delivered and taken under the provisions of a firm gas-purchase contract. After the required amount of firm gas has been taken, any other gas is called dump gas. firm gas contract a gas purchase contract that provides for the delivery and purchase of a specific amount of gas during a certain period of time firm service natural gas sold with a guarantee for delivery in contrast to interruptible gas first arrival or break the first recorded signal of a seismic wave from a known source in seismic exploration. First arrival is used in reflection seismic to determine the effect of the weathering zone. first-contact miscibility the mixture of two fluids in any proportion without an interface formirig between the fluids first curve a spontaneous potential curve on a well log first fold out of basin the first anticline that is located up dip from the deep part of a basin. It is first in line to receive and perhaps trap any oil and gas that was generated in the deep basin as it migrates up dip along the flanks of the basin. first out indicator information on a shut-in panel that identifies the end element that caused the shutdown first right to refusal preferential right to purchase first-tier oil old oil in the United States that was subjected to price controls under the Emergency Petroleum Allocation Act of 1973. First-tier oil is in contrast to second-tier oil that could be sold at market price, (lower-tier crude oil) fis 1) fissure 2) fissile fish fishing fish 1) a tool, pipe, cable, rod, packer, or other piece of equipment that has fallen to the bottom of the well or is stuck in the well. Lost roller cones followed by failed tool joints and drillpipe are the most common fish. The fish must be removed (fished) out of the well before drilling can resume. A fishing string with fishing tools is used to remove the fish, (junk) 2) operations on a drilling rig to recover a fish in the well 3) a sensor towed in water 4) a portable surface electrode that is used to make an electrical ground for well logging. The fish is buried in a shallow hole that has been dug in the ground and filled with mud. fisherman a person who is part of a crew that fishes for junk in a well, (fishing hand) fisheye structure a seismic display pattern of reflections that is similar to a fisheye and is often formed by a reef fishing any operation to release, remove, or recover a fish or junk that has fallen to the bottom of a well or is stuck in the well and adversely affects drilling and completion operations on the well. Fishing tools are used for fishing. Fishing expenses are generally 50%-75% higher than normal drilling costs and

187

fishing

represent about 3% of drilling costs. FSH, fish, fsg, fsgfishing assembly see fishing string fishing bell a neck or reduced diameter on the cable end of a housing that anchors the connectors on the bottom of a survey cable. The fishing bell is designed for an overshot during fishing operations. fishing bid a small bonus bid that is made in a competitive lease sale in hope that no other bids are filed fishing hand a person who is part of a crew that fishes for junk in a well, (fisherman) fishing head the top part of a downhole tool that allows the tool to be easily fished from the well

fishing magnet

fishing magnet a permanent magnet run on a wireline during fishing operations. Fishing magnets are used for small pieces of junk and can have a skirt extending downward to keep the junk from being knocked off as the magnet is being raised. Three types are a) cut-lip, b) mill-tooth, and c) flush guides. The well is circulated before fishing to wash away other debris so that the metal can contact the fishing magnet surface. The magnet is used for ferrous materials and will not work if the fish is covered with debris or is made of brass, aluminum, carbide, or stainless steel. There is also a fishing electromagnet. fishing neck 1) a groove in the top of wireline tools that is designed to permit a fishing tool to be attached to the tool and remove it from the well 2) a reduaion

There are many different types that include a) spears. (fishing assembly) fishing supervisor a specialist who directs fishing operations fishing tap a fishing tool that is lowered on a fishing string and rotated to cut an internal thread on pipe in the well fishing time the time on a rig spent fishing for junk in the well fishing tool a device that is lowered into a well to retrieve an object (fish or junk) that has fallen to the bottom of the well or become stuck in the well. jar. f) washover pipe. In milling operations. In wireline fishing. and j) impression blocks. fishing-tool operator a service company employee who directs fishing operations on a well fishproof any equipment that is used over the well and does not have any parts that can fall into the well fish scales scale or chemical precipitate on pipe or vessels fishtail bit fish tail or fishtail bit a type of rotary drag bit that has on its bottom two curved steel blades shaped eccentric swage nipple swage nipple ell tee fittings . h) safety joints. b) overshots. Fishing tools are designed to grip or hook and lift. The drillpipe or tubing is usually normal weight except when heavy pipe is used. Fishing tools are usually rented. i) junk retrievers. with the other tools below the jars. Drill collars are usually run without stabilizers. the sinker bars are run below the rope socket and the jars below the sinker bars. or mill the object. they are run with four to six drill collars between them and the fishing tool. For most fishing operations. e) tap and die collars. c) internal and external cutters. g) jars. d) milling tools.188 fishing specialist • fish tail or fishtail bit in the diameter of drill collars near the pin or box end that is used to receive the overshot and grapple fishing specialist a consultant or company that supplies advice and fishing tools on a lease or rental basis for a fishing job fishing string the drillpipe or tubing and downhole assembly that is used with a fishing tool in fishing operations. Small particles are removed with a fishing magnet or junk basket. drilling jars and a bumper sub are run just above the fishing tools. cut.

and elbows that are used in a pipe system. The fixed blades drag and cut the sedimentary rocks on the bottom of the well. FCC fixed choke a choke that is not adjustable and has only one size orifice in contrast to an adjustable choke. On the platform. The platform is located at least 50 ft above sea level.' / V O o \ \ / V \ p \ o s O tf ' five-spot waterfloods 5-spot or five-spot a type of waterflood pattern. The fishtail valve is used to turn the flow on and off (butterfly or wafer valve) fish trap a conservation officer assigned to a seismic crew fisl fissile fissile a rock that is easily split into thin sheets. it is used primarily in developmental drilling over known offshore fields. (knowledge stick) five-point test a flow-after-flow test used to determine the flow rates at different flow pressures in a gas well to determine the open-flow potential. A curve is then plotted that can be used to determine the optimum flow rate. FISSL. (positive choke) fixed cost a cost that once spent cannot be recovered. tubing pressures. An outlet for drilling mud is located near the bit shank. or paper strips that are used to mark shot locations or instruments . fixed-rate royalty a common type of royalty in which the mineral interest is paid a fixed percentage or fraction such as Vs fixed-term royalty an interest that exists during a specific time period fizz a gas leak FJ flush joint FJ. fis fissure theory an old theory dating back to the 1860s that crude oil occurs in crevices in the subsurface rocks FIT formation interval tester fittings small pieces such as pipes. The shut-in pressure of the gas well is measured along with the flow rates at five different bottomhole or. plastic. less desirably. flagging 189 nonvolatile fixed-carbon content of vitrinite and coals on a dry ash basis. A gravity-base platform can be used when there is a need for crude oil storage. nipples.fishtail valve • like a fish tail. A producing oil well is located at the center of the square. The deck area is commonly 150 ft by 150 ft. producing wells can be located as close as 6 ft apart. fig 555 termination the automatic termination of a lease if there is no well producing on the lease and the delay rental is not paid on time five-foot stick a measuring stick that is used to determine the depth of a cable-tool well by measuring the length of the drilling line used. fishtail valve a type of quick-opening valve that uses a disc or wafer on a pivot in a chamber to open and close. a A !• o ! i & fixed platform i A o s p o V o op . fix an accurate location determination fixed carbon content a coal ranking scale that is based on the percentage of volatile matter and fixed platform or fixed offshore platform a relatively permanent offshore platform made of welded tubular steel in which the legs are attached to the sea bottom by piles. A higher fixedcarbon value indicates higher maturity. Fittings do not include couplings or valves. The most commor} is the steel template jacket platform. (sunk) fis. casing flush-joint casing F-K frequency-wave length FL 1) floor 2) flowline 3) flush 4) fluid level 5) fast line fl 1) fluid 2) flat fl/ 1) flowing 2) flowed FLAC fluid-loss control agent flagging cloth. Because it is hard to move a fixed platform. A fixed-carbon content of 0% is equivalent to 100% volatile matter. A fishtail bit is used primarily for soft formations and were originally called drag bits. Four water injection wells are located in a square. or fisl FISSL fissile fissure a fracture with separation in a rock.

The use of flambeau lights is generally restricted and regulated by government agencies. Flaring was common in old oil fields. It is also used on a fire box. The flare jacket extends from the mudline to 10-13 ft above mean water level. Flags warn the crew chief when most of the sand line has been pulled out of the well when swabbing. and the flare tower is mounted on the ends of the piles. flambeau lights a flare that is used to burn casinghead gas that is produced with oil. The flame arrester uses a very fine-mesh screen that allows the vapors to pass through but prevents fire from entering the screen. but it is currently illegal in most areas of the world. or on offshore platforms when gas cannot be-disposed of in any other manner. flash drum see flash chamber flash expansion see flash vaporization flash gas high Btu content gas that is vented from a low-pressure separator . (equilibrium calculation) flash chamber a conventional oil and gas separator that is operated at a low pressure to flash separate the oil and gas. fig flags 1) cloth or nylon strips on a sand line. flare stack a metal. flank one side of a fold in rocks as divided by the axial surface. A flange can have holes in it for bolts or it can be threaded. A fold will have two flanks. Flaring occurs today only during well testing. fig 2) to make a raised edge or projection 3) a tool used to make a raised edged or connection flanged union a connection using bolts to join together two raised rims (flanges) on the ends of two pipes flange up to complete an operation. tubular. flame arrestor a fitting on the vent of an oil storage or stock tank that is used to prevent fire from entering the tank and igniting the oil vapors. trap. steel truss structure having three legs that is used to flare natural gas on an offshore platform. The flash chamber is often the second or third stage in separation. vertical tower that carries pipe and supports the flare burner for safely flaring gas on an offshore platform flare tripod a flare stack on an offshore platform with three legs flash the sudden vaporization of a liquid due to either a rapid decrease in pressure or increase in temperature flash breaking the instantaneous change of a gel from viscous to fluid flash calculation a computation of the phase behavoir of a process or reservoir oil and gas. (flash drum. flaggy the tendency of certain sedimentary rocks to split along bedding planes or joints into thicknesses (1-10 cm) suitable for flagstones. FID flame snuffer a metal clapper that is attached to the vent line of a tank and can be closed in case of a fire flammable material that can burn flammable limits the lower and upper percent volume concentrations of a gas in a gas/air mixture that will result in a mixture that can be ignited flare boom *" — *~" ** flare boom flange flange 1) a raised edge or projection on a pipe or connection. Flash cut implies good permeability. The flags are inserted by twisting the sand line to separate the strands. 2) an indicator in a computer program to inform the rest of the program about an earlier condition flag the line to put cloth or nylon strips on a sand line on a drilling rig. or vessel) flash cut the rapid leaching of crude oil by a solvent from well cuttings or a rock sample in the laboratory. The ions are conductive and the current is measured. when unavoidable before a gas pipeline is being laid. Flange up is often applied to the process of finishing piping systems. (limb) flank well a well located on the edge of the known extent of a field flare burning gas flare arm or boom a steel projection off the side of an offshore platform that carries gas pipes and supports the flare burner for safely flaring gas flare bridge a walkway on a flare boom on an offshore platform that leads out to the burners flare jacket a trianglar-shaped. flame ionization detector the hydrocarbon detection system used in gas chromatrography that ionizes the organic compounds in a hydrogen flame and electrostatic field. Flags are used to show how much of the line is in the well.190 flaggy • flash gas flare or flaring the burning of gas. Flagging the line is used to show how much of the line is in the well. Tubular piles hold the flare jacket in position. The flange can also be connected by welding or with clamps.

The flexible mud hose ranges 35-75 ft longhand is commonly 50-60 ft long. The joint is part of the lower riser package. flattened section a seismic section in which an event on the seismic record has been made horizontal. API grades of flexible mud hoses vary by length and pressure rating. (kelly. Flat spot reflectors are always positive off a gas/liquid contact.or six-sided kelly. The inner diameter is 2-3 Vi in. flexible mud hose a flexible. mud. The pressure is plotted versus total volume to determine bubblepoint pressure. and the pressure and volume of the reservoir fluid are measured. The interest usually increases during months in which the average production exceeds a specific amount. and the pressure and temperature are adjusted to reservoir conditions.5°. flat 1) the flat surface that runs along the length of a four. Some flexible mud hoses are made of steel pipes with swivel joints. The flexible marine-riser joint compensates for the surface movement of the surface vessel and permits up to 10° movement of the riser. and transmits the drilling mud from the standpipe to the gooseneck on the swivel of a drilling rig. Flattening is used when there is a problem with lowvelocity glacial drift and to restore a section to a particular time. A flat spot can be caused by a gas/liquid contact in a reservoir and will be out of place in a background of dipping reflectors. 191 flatten out to dismantle a drilling rig FLC-A fluid-loss control agent FLD rield fld 1) field 2) failed 3) flowed 4) filled fleet angle the angle between the drilling line extending up from the drawworks drum to the crown block and the drilling line hanging vertically from the crown block. (ball or flex joint) flexible marine-riser joint the flexible connection between the lower riser package and blowoutpreventer stack and the marine riser on a subsea wellhead.flash liberation • flexible weight pipe flash liberation 1) gas coming out of a solution because of a sudden drop in pressure 2) see flash vaporization flash point the lowest temperature at which vapors rising off the surface of a particular volatile such as crude oil will ignite with a short flash as an open flame is passed over the surface flash separator field equipment that uses a rapid pressure drop to purify glycol used to remove water from natural gas flash set the sudden solidification of cement usually caused by mixing two different types of cement flash tank a vessel that uses either a rapid rise in temperature or decrease in pressure to separate liquid from gas flash trap or vessel see flash chamber flash vaporization a test used in a reservoir fluid study. (variable overriding royalty interest) flexible weight pipe a joint of heavy drillpipe that is run along with several other joints of flexible weight pipe on the drillstring between the drill collars and pipe to strengthen the location between compression and tension on the drillstring. or rotary hose) flexible overriding royalty interest a share in a well in which the size of the interest in production varies with the amount of production from the well. A sample of reservoir liquid is placed in a laboratory cell. in diameter. (weight pipe) . Flat is in contrast to ramp. The fleet angle should be kept at a minimum and less than 1. There can also be a flexible joint at the top of the marine riser above the telescopic joint. flexible mud hose lat bottom mill flat-bottom mill a common type of junk mill with a flat bottom used in fishing operations flat gel a gel with a 10-minute gel strength that is the same as the initial gel strength flat hole a cable-tool well that is oval rather than round in cross section flat spot a horizontal seismic reflector. flex collar an articulated drill collar flex flexible flexible coupling a link between two shafts that bends to allow for the two shafts not being exactly aligned flexible joint a connection between two pieces of equipment that can rotate due to a ball and socket. armored rubber hose that is commonly 4 in. The pressure is reduced by increasing the volume of the cell in increments. (kelly flat) 2) a thrust fault surface that is subparallel to a incompetent bed.

and prevents bit clogging. . A float shoe is similar to a float collar that would be located further up the casing string. to prevent slurry backflow. minimizes flowback during connections. Flocculation can occur in drilling mud between clay platelets. either flapper or ball. float collar a small length of steel pipe with a constricted orifice on the inside that is used to connect two joints of casing during a cement job. The float collar orifice has a valve. flocculant or flocculating agent a substance such as an electrolyte that causes flocculation. The platelets are joined edge-toface. The floating storage unit is fed oil by pipelines from offshore platforms for transfer to smaller tankers. The collar is usually located one joint of casing above the guide shoe. flexural rigidity the stiffness of an elastic plate under bending forces flexure a hinge or very gentle fold in sedimentary rocks flexure zone a line in a formation that marks the spot where the formation rapidly thickens downdip from the line flg 1) flange 2) flowing 3) flaggy flights a curved metal blade that is wrapped around a centrifuge shaft FL IN flow into well flipped a reversal of the continuous and dispersed phases in a drilling mud Flk or flk flaky Flo flora flo flow float 1) the buoyant chamber that floats in a liquid and is used to activate equipment. spring-loaded ball. to prevent slurry backflow into the casing during a cement job. The graving dock is then sunk with its gates open to release the platform. The lower end of the casing is plugged. The flocculating agent is used to thicken drilling mud and to increase yield point and gel strength. (coagulation) floes or flocculates groups of aggregates of finergrained particles in suspension that can be broken by normal shaking. Flocculation can result in gelation and the precipitation of colloids. or dart type that is located in the drillstring. The explosive charge is flushed down a hose to a submerged steel cage. A semisubmersible and a drillship are floaters. The floating charge produces an early uphole time and delayed reflection times. The buoyant effect of the displaced fluid eases the weight of the casing string. depending on the level of the liquid 2) to be suspended at the upper interface of a fluid by depressing an equal weight of that fluid 3) a trailer or truck bed with two sets of wheels. Large numbers have large exponents and small numbers have small exponents to handle a large range of data with the same number of bits on magnetic tape. The platform is then towed vertically out to its fitting-out location. The float valve can be either permanent or pumpdown. suspended particles into lightly bonded groups (floes) in which the platelets are joined edgeto-face. One method is to build the structure onshore with attached flotation tanks. The float valve prevents a backflow of cuttings into the drillstring during connections or shutdown of flow. When the plugged casing string is lowered into the well. Polymers are used to clump solids into large aggregates for separation by settling or screening. (flexible or ball joint) Flexotir™ a marine seismic source that uses a small explosive charge. Seismic data recorded by floating point retains the exact energy amplitude. flocculation the attraction and aggregation of finely divided. float valve 1) a valve that is activated by a float which is affected by the level of a liquid 2) a one-way valve of the flapper. either flapper or ball. The wiper plugs seat on the float collar.192 flex joint • floes or flocculates flex joint a connection between two pieces of equipment that can rotate due to a ball and socket. floatstone a wackestone limestone with the grains greater than 2 mm in size float switch a switch that is activated by a float on liquid in a vessel. floating storage unit a tanker that has been converted to serve as a fixed floating storage tank for offshore oil. the casing and the volume of space in the casing displaces the fluid. The float switch is sensitive to the level of the liquid. float out to transport a floating steel platform from its construction site to its offshore location. floating pad a pad on a logging tool that does not make a good contact with the wellbore wall floating point recording a method of gain control in seismic recording using binary numbers in exponential notation. A float collar is similar to a float shoe that would be located on the bottom of the casing string. The platform is sunk into position and the flotation tanks are removed. floating tank a crude-oil storage tank with the main gate valve to the main line left open so the oil can flow through the tank as pumping rates on the main line vary floating the casing a method that is used to lower casing into very deep wells when the weight of the long casing string could break the casing. The float shoe guides the casing string into the well and seats the wiper plugs. The oscillation of the explosion bubble is inhibited by the cage when the charge is fired electronically. Another method is to construct the platform in a graving dock with an attached flotation raft. FC floater a drilling platform that floats above the offshore drillsite without any legs attached to the seafloor. floating charge an explosive charge used in seismic exploration that is not as deep in the shot hole as intended. The valve prevents drillpipe blowouts. in contrast to a baffle collar that lacks a valve. it is rotated from horizontal to vertical by adjusting its ballast. float valve sub a short section of pipe placed on the bottom and near the top of the drillstring during air or gas drilling. float shoe a type of casing shoe that has a check valve. and the well filled with fluid. The platform is then winched into the water and towed to the site. At the offshore site.

The flotation raft is made in a graving dock and is used to float a platform jacket to its offshore position.or y/2-in.flood or flooding • flow efficiency flood or flooding the process of displacing oil. Flowback is used to remove the frac fluids from a formation and the well after a frac job. an assistant to the driller. The hard disk is a permanent installation in the computer. Floppy disks are made of plastic with a magnetic coating. floppies are covered with a jacket. Two to four floormen are used on each tour. produced water with natural gas in a contactor under high pressure. four-. The floorman set the slips. The flow versus the difference of the squares of the average reservoir and wellbore pressures are plotted on log-log paper. floundering see bit floundering FLOUT flow out of well 193 P§ . 2) the flow of drilling mud out a connection that has been unscrewed. (multipoint test) flow a well hard to let a well flow at capacity flowback or flow back 1) the flow into the well of fluids that were injected into a formation. the displaced fluid. Flo F-LOS fluid loss flotation the removal of oil from water using either a) froth flotation or b) dissolved gas flotation. The plot will be a straight line and can be used to determine optimum flow rate. flotel or floatel a floating hotel for workers assembling an offshore drilling and production platform. computer storage medium. Starting with a shut-in well. (rotary helper or roughneck) floppy disk a 51/*-.and 8-in. and handles other equipment on the drill floor.Pit. A disk drive is used to read and write on the floppy disks. On release of the pressure. The flow-after-flow test is made by measuring several flow rates and their corresponding bottomhole pressures. A 3V2-in. It can be used individually or joined into flotation rafts. latches and unlatches the elevators. Flooding includes waterflooding and several enhanced oil-recovery processes. There are two types. depending on the number of flow rates used in the test. manipulates the tongs. flotation unit a type of produced water treater. The floatel is often a semisubmersible rig fitted with living quarters and is a type of accommodation platform. or five-point test. floor 1) the contact of a salt layer and/or plug with the underlying rocks 2) see drill floor floor crew the workers on the floor of a workover or drilling rig floorman or floor man a junior member of the drilling crew. The 5V4. that records flow rates with time by a pen on an arm flow check a pause in circulation during drilling to determine if fluids are flowing into a well flow coupling a thick-walled section of tubing that comes in joints of 5. flotation jacket or raft a structure made by joining flotation cans with steel supports. flood blocks and pulleys he system on a drilling rig that directs a wireline into the well flooding 1) the inability of a screen to process fluids due to solid particles clogging the screens 2) the drowning of a well by water flood plain the flat depositional plain surrounding a river channel. A flow-after-flow test is called a three-. Flow Rate MCFD flow-after-flow test flow-after-flow test a test used to determine the open-flow potential of a gas well. Flowback often happens when the kelly is unscrewed and is caused by an underbalance because of air or gas in the mud or an excess of cuttings in the annulus. flora fossil or modern plants. (pressure differential) flow bean 1) a constriction in the line that is used to restrict and control flow during a test or production 2) the replaceable orifice on a positive choke (choke bean) flow by heads intermittent flow of fluids from a well flow chart a paper chart. 10. Flotation is very effective up to 100 ppm oil concentration. a series of increasing flow rates are run at fixed time intervals. 8. or 20 ft. a) A dissolved gas unit saturates treated. b) A dispersed gas unit uses gas bubbles dispersed by an inductor device or rotors to cause a vortex that brings oil droplets to the surface. the gas bubbles out of the water causing oil droplets to rise to the surface in a froth. in a subsurface reservoir by injecting fluids. The capacity of a floppy disk is measured in kilobytes. who works on the floor of a drilling rig. usually circular. The flood plain is covered with water during floods when the river overflows its banks. (tee) flow efficiency the actual well production divided by the amount the well would produce without either . diameter disk has a hard covering. flow cross a T-shaped pressure fitting with three openings. A flow cross is located where the wing connects on a Christmas tree. Flow couplings are designed to minimize erosion and are installed above and below diameter changes in the tubing string. Floppy disks can be removed from the disk drive and stored. flotation barge a wide barge that is used to transport jackets and modules offshore (tow or deck barge) flotation can a spherical or cylindrical tank that is used to float a production platform and rotate it into position. Flora is in contrast to fauna. two on a line and one at a 90° angle to the other two openings. the displacing fluids. Finegrained sediments are deposited on flood plain which includes the backswamp or overbank environments.

(tubing flow valve) flowmeter or flow meter a gauge used to determine the velocity of a fluid. flow nipple a constriction in a line (usually Vfes-l in. Flowlines are usually buried 3-5 ft in cultivated or populated areas. Some types of flow nipples include bottomhole. coil assembly. commingles the fluid and directs it to separation and treatment facilities on the lease flowline heater a heater that is used to prevent hydrates from forming in the flowline. The flow nozzle consists of a short restriction or narrowing of the diameter of a flowline with a smooth entry and sharp exit. The square root of the differential pressure varies proportionally with the flow velocity. FP flowing well a well that flows to the surface under its own pressure. flow period the time during a drillstem test. A positive or fixed flow nipple has a specific diameter. Three types are a) continuous. The valve is used to open or close flow to the flowline. and 0 electromagnetic flowmeters. flowline tee flowline tee flowline or flow line pipes and pipe fittings that carry fluids. The heater is used when dehydration of the gas is not economical. flowline header the piping that receives flow from several wells. A flowmeter is also a type of throughtubing production tool. Flow nipples can be fixed or adjustable. Some common types of flowmeters include a) positive displacement. FL flowline bundle a cluster of flowlines with hydraulic hoses and electric cables on a subsea production system. bean or flow plug) flow nozzle a head-type meter that is used to measure fluid velocity. 1978 ORIGINAL PRESSURE SHUT IN PRESSUE SHUT IN TIME flowing pressure flowing pressure the pressure on the fluid at the top or wellhead of a well as the fluids are being produced. The indirect heater is most common and consists of a shell. d) ultrasonic. or cone-shaped stem with a seat to change the size of the orifice. b) differential pressure. but fiberglass. flowline treater a heater or electrostatic treater that is used to break an emulsion flowline treatment a process in which a reagent is continuously added to treat emulsions at the wellhead to the flowline flowline valve the valve on the wing of a Christmas tree. Flow efficiency is expressed as a percentage or decimal. The restriction causes a drop in the fluid pressure where the differential pressure is measured. Production of oil or gas is often reported in barrels or cubic feet on a certain sized flow nipple. surface. and storm chokes. e) vortex shedding. Adjustable flow nipples use a needle. flowing gas natural gas from a well in the United States that was already committed or dedicated to interstate commerce on November 8. cement-lined steel pipe. during which formation fluids are free to flow to the surface through the drill stem flow plug see flow nipple flowpoint or flow point 1) the gas flow rate that occurs at the entrainment velocity 2) the minimum . The flowline from an artificial lift well is usually low pressure (<125 psi).194 flow fitting • flowpoint or flow point stimulation or damage. and flexible plastic pipe are also used. Flowlines are used to collect produced fluids from wells and transport them to treating and storage facilities. (choke. and c) inflatable packer. fire tube. sleeve. (completion efficiency) flow fitting a tee or cross pipe with a full round bore that allows the passage of both tools and production fluids flow or flowage fold a fold in rocks that have undergone plastic strain and have flowed with no slip surfaces toward the synclinal trough flowing artesian well a well in which the water has enough pressure to flow to the surface flowing bottomhole pressure the pressure on the fluid measured at the bottom of a well when the well is producing. Flowing pressure is in contrast to static pressure. c) turbine or propeller. Flowing bottomhole pressure is in contrast to static bottomhole pressure. diameter) used to restrict and control the rate of flow during a test or during production. usually from a few minutes to several hours. A flowing well does not use artificial lift. Steel pipe is the most common. A flow efficiency of 200%300% is characteristic of a good well-stimulation job. and burner assembly filled with fresh water. A flowline valve can also be found on the wellhead of a pumping well. b) full bore spinner.

nitrogen. Fluiditivity is in contrast to viscosity. 195 FLS fluid sampler fls flesh flshd flushed FLT.0 g/cc.injection well can also be a disposal well for oilfield brines. The casing adjacent to the producing zone can be perforated or shot with holes to complete the well. Fluid level can be either static or flowing. Flow string protects the hole. and protects the downhole equipment. and water vapor. of treating fluid from a well after stimulation. pay or production string. FR flow-recorder chart a chart used to record flow velocity or volume measured by a flowmeter. either a liquid (inelastic fluid) or gas (elastic fluid). bucket. flow string the deepest and last length (string) of casing that is run down to or through the producing zone.flow recorder • control agent temperature at which solid noncrystalline hydrocarbons begin to flow flow recorder a gauge that records gas or liquid velocity or volume. blue for static pressure and green for temperature.. or control agent a drilling-fluid additive such as bentonite. The liquid fluid density is often assumed to be 1. production casing or inner conductor) flow tank 1) an oil heater 2) oil and water heater 3) a tank used to separate oil and gas 4) see stock tank flow treater a combined separator. and/ or gas) in the pore spaces of the rock. waterflood. The ink colors for a gas chart are standard. The number of tubular collar reflectors is used to determine the depth to the larger liquid surface reflection. or cartridge pen is used to record the data. orf fluid cleanup the removal. A fluid will conform to the shape of its container. pregelatinized starch. The chart has two common scales. oil. fluidity or fluiditivity the ability of a gas or liquid to change shape when a force is applied. or fit 1) fault 2) faulted fit float fltg floating flu fluid flue gas gas produced from burning fuel. F-LVL fluid-level log a sonic tool used in a pumping well to determine the distance to the top of the liquid in the annulus during pumping and shut in. or sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) that is used to inhibit filtrate penetrating a formation. heater. preventer. The flowstack also has connections for the fill line and the mud-return line. Red is for differential pressure. One is a linear scale that goes from 0%-100%. that can flow. treatment. capillary. pump cylinders. Flow string has the smallest diameter. The pseudosteady state occurs when the pressure of the well responds all the physical boundaries of the reservoir. fluid-injection well a well that is used to put either a gas or liquid into a producing formation for pressure maintenance. Fluids will flow relatively uniformly through a flow unit. flu. (capital. and rods are located fluid-expansion drive a reservoir energy that produces crude oil in some reservoirs when the pressure on the oil is above the bubble point. (meter chart) flow regime a stage in the life of a producing well.. (bell nipple or mud riser) flow station a central processing. and is the longest string of casing in the well. Flue gas usually consists of carbon dioxide. It has an expandable flanged top that guides drilling tools into the well. Flowstream samples are used for fluid composition tests. and measurement facility for oil and gas flowstream fluid flow in a pipe flowstream samples fluid samples from a wellhead or flowline. The other scale is a square root chart with the graduations closer at the bottom and spread out at the top of the chart.fl. Fluidexpansion drive is caused by the volumetric expansion of undersaturated crude oil in the reservoir with the relief of reservoir pressure due to production. long. fluid end the side of a pump where the suction and discharge valves. and treater flow unit a zone in a reservoir that has a relatively uniform porosity and permeability. Liquified gases such as nitrogen and carbon dioxide can be used in the treating fluid to speed the cleanup. Fit. the average reservoir pressure will decrease with time. prevents fluid migration. but typically 5 Vi or 7 % in. The most common chart drive makes one revolution in 24 hrs. liners. flow schedule the production schedule for a well flowstack a casing nipple or short pipe that is attached to the top of a blowout-preventer stack on a drilling rig. The transient state of a well occurs when the flow production is sensed by one physical boundary but has not been sensed by the other boundaries. The standard flow-recorder chart used on a flowmeter is circular with a diameter of 12 in. Fluid-loss additives used in cement slurries are either finely divided materials such as bentonite or water-soluble polymers made of latex. fluid level the vertical distance in a well from the surface to the top of a liquid in the casing or tubing. reducer. fluid a substance. Fluid loss additives such as silica flour and hydrocarbon resins are used in hydraulic . A Vee. or enhanced oil recovery. A sound impulse emitted by the tool at the surface reflects off tubular collars and the liquid surface. fluid loss see filtrate loss fluid-loss additive. The infinite-acting state occurs just after the well is put on production and the flow into the well has been unaffected by any physical or artificial boundaries in the reservoir. During the pseudosteady state. A fluid. isolates formation fluids. The flow of fluids can be either a) Newtonian or b) non-Newtonian. fluid density the density of a fluid (water. The steady-state stage occurs when a constant pressure can be maintained at both the wellbore and at the boundaries of the reservoir. oil. often by swabbing. ranging 2 %9 Vs in. The cgs unit of fluidity is the rhe. It has a very rapid decline curve and an extremely low recovery factor of less than 5%.

The fluid-travel log is made by injecting a radioactive slug into the fluid in the well from holes in the logging tool. streaky. The stress on the rod string drops by thousands of pounds in a fraction of a second as the valve opens. Joints of flush-coupled casing are joined with a coupling that has the same outer diameter as the casing. The fluorescence used to detect oil in drilling mud is described as traces. and very good shows. it ranges from yellow-brown to gold. The fluorescence can be described as none. The gas is compressed on the downstroke. flush-production stage the stage in the history of a field that occurs between the initial development period in which the wells are drilled and the settledproduction stage in which the oil is produced at a relatively level. causes a flash of fluorescence called a streaming cut. fluorescent ferromagnetic particles and an ultraviolet light to detect flaws in metal such as tubulars. vessel. flush-joint connection a connection between joints of pipe that does not have a protruding shoulder or collar. It is the result of the natural reservoir energy. and fluorescent intensity decreases with maturity. Fluorescence can be also used to indicate the level of kerogen maturity. During the flush production stage. but rapidly declining amounts from the natural reservoir energy. See magnetic-particle inspection fluormeter an instrument used to detect and measure the intensity and wavelength of fluorescence of well cutting extract flush to clean out a pipe. straight channel that is used to study sediment transport by flowing water in a laboratory FLUOR. initial petroleum-production rate of a recently drilled well. the cuttings are put in a solvent and viewed under ultraviolet light through a binocular microscope. Longer wavelength fluorescence indicates higher maturity. . The treads are cut into the casing body. spotty. flushing factor the logging tool response in the absence of flushing of the reservoir divided by the logging tool response with flushing. or fluor fluorescent magnetic-particle inspection the use of fine. Crude oil and some minerals fluoresce. flute cast a sole mark on the bottom of a sandstone that was formed by the filling of a flute The flute is a depression that was formed by turbulent flow around an object on a muddy bottom. and the traveling valve is not opened until it reaches the liquid level in the pump. from 18°-45° degrees it ranges from gold to pale yellow.4 ppt and 46. Fluor. A flush-joint casing has the same outside diameter along the full length of the casing. /y flushing oil oil that is designed to clean used oil. and sludge from moving parts flush-joint casing casing without a shoulder or collar on the end. fluvial river environment fluvial-dominated delta a river delta that is characterized by river deposition of sediments in contrast to erosion by waves or tides. (formation or reservoir pressure) fluid-travel log a recording of fluid flow around a stationary logging tool in a wellbore. from 10°-18°. fluid pressure the pressure on fluids in a subsurface formation.C. From 2°-10°. shows. Flush production is considered to be finished when the well will no longer flow and has to be put on pump. casing flushed zone the area near the wellbore were mud filtrate has almost completely replaced the formation water and hydrocarbons. Flow of the radioactive material by the tool is measured on two detectors on the tool. which in turn is affected by the density of the ground water. The fluxgate magnetometer has two cores of Permalloy. The flushed zone is part of the invaded zone and is represented by the subscript xo. Normal fluid pressure is affected by the hydrostatic pressure increase with depth. and the casing has a male thread at one end and a female thread at the other end. Fluid pound can be corrected by a) slowing the pumping unit or b) shortening the stroke. F. FLUOR. but slightly declining rate. The flute depression is V-shaped with a scoop-shaped depression at the apex. (filtrate reducer) FLCA fluid-loss control methods used to reduce filtrate loss in a well fluid packed an operating horizontal heater filled with liquid. The flushed zone extends only a couple of inches back from the wellbore and occurs between the mud cake and the transition or annulus zone. (liquidpacked) fluid pound a condition producing extreme stress on the sucker rods in a well. it ranges from blue-white to white. FTL fluid wave a compressional wave in a liquid flume a long.or tide-dominated delta (constructive delta) fluxgate magnetometer an instrument that detects changes in the geomagnetic field of the earth. as it dissolves in the solvent. Fluid pound is caused by gas (solution gas or water vapor) above the liquid in the barrel of a downhole sucker-rod pump. particles. good shows. or well with a flow of water flush-coupled casing casing with female threads on both ends. patchy.196 fluid-loss control • fluxgate magnetometer fracturing to stop the flow of treating fluid away from propagating fractures in the formation. A fluvial-dominated delta is in contrast to a wave. The fluid-travel log is used to locate leaks in the casing. or atmospheres. Fluor. FJ flush-joint pipe tubular without any protrusions flush production the unrestricted. or fluor fluorescence fluorescence a luminescence caused by ultraviolet light. To detect the presence of oil in well cuttings. and uniform.5 psi/100 ft for water salinity of 100 ppt. The hydrostatic pressure increase is 45 psi/100 ft for water with a salinity of 55. psia. the oil is produced in relatively large. oil ranges from nonfluorescence to dull brown. The oil. Aromatic compounds cause the fluorescence in oils and kerogen. Abnormal high and low pressures deviate significantly from normal hydrostatic pressure. and above 45° . The delta will prograde out from the shoreline and has characteristic distributary lobes. The V points upstream. Fluid pound is the extreme of gas interference that delays the opening of the traveling valve. Fluid pressure is usually measured in psi. The Mississippi River delta is an example. The fluorescent colors of oil range from yellow to green to blue depending on their "API.

and a larger number of smaller-sized pumps is used. A foaming agent is used with water in mist drilling and when excessive water is encountered while drilling with air or gas. The flywheel causes the engine to run smoothly. The rig might even be designed to drill a slim hole. Flysch sediments are separated from their mountain source by molasse sediments. usually carbon dioxide or nitrogen. foaming agent a substance used to form stable bubbles due to aeration or agitation of a liquid. The advantage of foamed cement is decreased slurry weight.F-LVL • focus or focused log a highly permeable material which approaches the saturation of the earth's magnetic field. Laterologs. It is followed by a backflow during which the foam is removed from the well. The sedimentary rocks contain few fossils and are thinly bedded. Focused logs yield measurement curves with sharper bed boundaries and yield improved R. because it is more retarded and has better fluid-loss control than normal acid. Foam is used in drilling fluids. marls. Foam is neither a true liquid nor a true gas. The time the foam is maintained is called foam stability. flywheel a large circular disk that is attached to the crankshaft of an engine which stores inertial energy while spinning. foam acidizing a well-stimulation treatment in which a gas. Other types of magnetometers include proton and optically pumped magnetometers. well cleanouts. The log was developed for highresistivity formations and for use in low-resistivity muds where electric and induction logs do not work well. corrosion inhibitors.000-Hz cyclic field caused by a coil around the cores completes the saturation of the core. often chalk. Foam drilling prevent mud rings from forming. flysch relatively deepwater marine sediments deposited during an uplift or orogeny. or fin formation Fm manometer factor FMBDP formation breakdown pressure FM-GR fine-to-medium grained FMS formation microscanner™ FMT formation multitester FM/T formation top F-MUD fresh mud FMV fair market value Fm W formation water FMWTR formation water fin fine I?ND formation factor deduced from neutron and density logs FNEL from the northeast line FNL from the north line filly finely fiit faint FNWL from the northwest line FO 1) farmout 2) faulted out 3) fuel oil Fo formation factor deduced from total porosity F/O farmout 197 foam bubbles of gas covered with a liquid film. lubricants and viscosifiers. foam agent see foaming agent foam drilling drilling with foam mud as a drilling fluid. The Gulf magnetometer has three perpendicular fluxgates so that one of the fluxgates will measure the maximum component of the earth's geomagnetic field. An airstrip must be constructed next to the drillsite. sandy shales. FM or fin frequency modulation FM. A soap tank that holds 10-20 bbl of a dilute soap and water mixture is used next to the rig. The number of suspended drilling lines is increased. Common additives that are used during foam drilling are detergents. The fluxgate magnetometer is sensitive to changes in the order of 1 7. foamed cement a type of cement used in a cement job that is made of a mixture of cement slurry and nitrogen in the gas state. FA foaming oil crude oil with solution gas bubbling out of it. induction logs. Foam acidizing is used on carbonate reservoirs. F-LVL fluid level flw flow fhvd flowed flwg flowing fly-in rig a drilling rig that is dismantled into many small sections and flown to the wellsite by several trips in an airplane. foam mud a drilling fluid that is made by a) injecting water and foaming agents to create a stable foam or b) injecting a gel-base mud containing a foaming agent into an air or gas stream foble board a fourble board FOCB Federal Oil Conservation Board FOCL focused log FOCUS focus log focused correlation curve a resistivity measurement taken by an arm of a dipmeter and displayed on a dipmeter log focused electric log see focused log focused gamma ray a type of well log run while drilling that measures gamma ray emissions from both the top and bottom half of the hole focus or focused log a type of wireline well log that has a measuring electrode and guard electrodes designed to direct the electrical current through the formations around the wellbore as a horizontal disk or ring. A standard derrick is used instead of a mast. Magnetometers are used for exploration of the subsurface. guard logs. Surface foam has gas bubbles only on the surface of the liquid. and muds. Foaming oil decreases the efficiency of a separator. Fm. measurements. so foam flow rates do not have to be as high to remove well cuttings as drilling with air. often containing turbidites. The energy needed to saturate the core is a measure of the earth' magnetic field parallel to the core. A 1. Foam has a higher viscosity than air. and gas-well deliquification. is mixed with water and acid and pumped down a well. The gas bubbles are encased in a thin oil film and are not stable or long lasting. Flysch contains calcareous. spherically . fracturing fluids. whereas body foam has gas bubbles throughout the liquid.

198 FOE • foraminiferan FOM figure of merit fool's gold seepyrite foot an English unit of measurement equal to Vi yd. aragonite or less commonly. The footing on a jackup rig is either a mat for soft bottoms. biosparite. The axial surface of the fold is the surface along the points of maximum curvature occur on the fold. the presence of sparry calcite or micrite. fold-back a geophone cable used in seismic exploration that is doubled back on itself so that two geophones are located at each position folding 1) the process of bending a rock layer 2) the change of a wave shape as it passes through a linear filter. precipitated (orthochemical). or foraminiferan small one-celled animals with shells that are composed predominantly of CaCO3 (calcite or. and casing are covered on a day rate. micrite. and the type of sand-sized particles (fossils. agglutinated . A buckle fold is formed by forces parallel to the layering in sedimentary rock. syncline. and dual laterolog are examples. and in-situ (autochthonous) particles. FOCI or FOCUS FOE flanged one end F-OIL frac oil fol foliated CREST AXIS fold fold 1) a curve. recumbent.3048 m footage the depth of a well footage-rate contract a common type of drilling contract that is based on a per-foot payment. The footage-rate contract is in contrast to a day-rate or turnkey contract. Move-in. fol footwall foot wall the side of the fault which protrudes under the opposite side which called the hanging wall Foram or foram foaminifera foliated texture foliations bands of light and dark minerals in metamorphic rocks Folk's classification of limestones a limestone classification that is based on the presence of transported (allochemical). pelmicrite. or pressure. pelsparite. oosparite. microlaterologs. bend. The hinge line of a fold joins points of maximum curvature on the fold. usually contingent upon drilling to a specific depth or to a specific event such as reaching a formation. intramicrite. or arch in a rock layer. Other operations such as coring. biomicrite. pellets. rig-up. (convolution) foliated a rock with foliations. horizontal.. oomicrite. foraminifer. rig-down. 12 in. 2) The number of common depth points used in stacking a seismic record. plunging. logging. testing. spuds for a hard bottom or a combination of both foot-pound the unit of energy or work in the footpound-second system. kick-off point. Types include intrasparite. inclined. and 0. dismicrite. rarely. and vertical fold limbs are the areas on either side of the hinge. foot throttle a pedal on the floor of a drilling rig that regulates the power to the drawworks foot valve the check valve on the inlet of a pump suction line that keeps the pump filled with liquid focused logs. and biolithite. A fold is usually the result of deformation of that rock layer from external forces. Some types of folds include anticline. and move-out charges are included in the footage rate or as a fixed amount. upright. A foot-pound is the work done in raising 1 lb a height of 1 ft against gravity. footing the structural seabed support on the legs of a platform or jackup rig. oolites and intraclasts). Gneiss is an example. whereas a bending fold is formed by forces perpendicular to the layering. follower an adjustable device that fits into a stuffing box or packing gland on a pumping well to compress the packing around the moving polished rod foraminifera foraminifera.

The planktonic (floaters) and benthic (bottom dwelling) are guide fossils for the Cretaceous and Tertiary periods. and rocks from the mountainbuilding belt are thrust and folded toward it. (formation fracture pressure) FBP or FMBDP formation cleaner an acid additive used with hydrochloric or mud acid in acidizing a well. unavailability of equipment. format 1) an arrangement of data that is stored or displayed 2) the size of a remote sensing image formation a mappable layer of rocks. governmental restraint. or other industrial disturbance. public riot. strike. the proportional costs of that lessee's drilling will come out of the lessee's share of production. Some states allow for a change in the risk of drilling the well when computing the compensation. and any other cause." A formal contract is legally enforceable in contrast to a letter agreement. Most foraminifera lived in the ocean. 199 foreset beds foreset the sloping beds of sediments deposited in front of a delta. The formation cleaner is an inhibited oxidizing agent and is used to restore permeability to formations damaged by nonpetroleum organic residues such as bacterial slimes or injected gum and polymers. seaward side of a reef. Fm. The foreset beds are located between the topset and bottomset beds. (displacement or entry pressure) foreign tax credit the portion of foreign taxes paid by a United States company that are deductible from federal taxes foreland a stable area adjacent to a mountainbuilding belt. which is not reasonably within the control of the party claiming suspension. Force majeure is often specifically defined as "an act of God.fm. It varies inversely with the pore diameter.foraminiferal limestone • formation damage particles). Forced pooling is usually initiated by a petition to the regulatory agency. FBG formation-breakdown pressure the minimum pressure that will cause a subsurface rock layer to fracture. Foram orforam foraminiferal limestone a limestone rock composed primarily of the very fine-grained shells of foraminifera. lockout. causing them to clog or bridge pore throats. war. flood. fire. if a lessee refuses to join. The formation has a sharp top and bottom boundary and is often the unit of rocks shown on a geological map. The rock usually lacks a fine-grained matrix. fore-arc basin an elongated basin located between island arc volcanoes and a deep ocean trench on a convergent plate margin forefront pressure the pressure that is required for one fluid to replace another fluid in the pores of a rock. it is called formation. large football-shaped foraminifera. In some states. FM. are guide fossils for the Pennsylvanian and Permian periods. blockade. beginning with the words "This agreement entered into this day of . The fore reef is usually composed of poorly sorted carbonate sediments that have eroded off the reef. If the layer is a mixture of different rock types. forelimb the shortest and steepest limb on an asymmetrical fold in sedimentary rocks. . Monovalent cations or low pH methanol can be used in drilling mud td stabilize the particles. Examples of formations are the Bartlesville Sandstone and San Andres Formation. Oil-base mud filtrates with emulsifying ." Force majeure translates to superior force. formation damage a problem caused by water-base drilling mud infiltrating a potential subsurface reservoir rock and reducing its permeability adjacent to the well. Formation-breakdown pressure is often 6585% of overburden pressure. act of the public enemy. The foreland is generally part of the continental crust. (Rua analysis log) formation-balance gradient the formation porepressure gradient at a particular point in reference to the flowline. Fusulinids. whether of the kind specifically enumerated above or otherwise. explosion. Forefront pressure is the minimum capillary pressure that will force a nonwetting fluid such as oil into a capillary opening that is saturated with a wetting fluid such as water. They are excellent microfossils that have existed from the Cambrian period to the present. lightening. storm. (compulsory pooling) force feed the pumping system that is used to lubricate bearings force-majeure"clause a provision in an oil and gas lease or operating agreement that states that the lessee will not have violated the terms of lease if prevented froni fulfilling the lease by conditions beyond the lessee's control. forfeiture clause an oil and gas lease provision that allows the lessor to terminate the lease if the conditions of the lease (drilling a producing well or paying delay rentals) are not met forfeiture of lease termination of lease forging plastically deforming hot metal formal contract a legal document that states the conditions in an agreement between parties. (drape fold) forced pooling a state law that requires a lessee in a majority interest in a unit to include lesser lessees in pooling to form a unit. The other limb is called the backlimb. fore reef or forereef the steeply dipping. forced fold a fold in sedimentary rocks caused by the deposition of sediments over an uplifted or rotated block in the basement. A formation is named after a geographical location where it crops out and after its dominant rock type. Formation damage can be caused by clay minerals swelling or dispersing. orf formation-analysis log a log computed from fluid resistivity and porosity measurements from an induction log together with either a sonic or density log.

or reservoir pressure.000 psi to artificially fracture a reservoir rock in order to increase permeability and production. h) emulsion frac. the log is also used with other logs as an aid to identifying the composition of the subsurface rocks. is affected by the density of the ground water. g) gelled oilfrac. The formation-resistivity factor is also expressed as equal to Kr/Pm where A. b) sandfrac. f) gelled waterfrac. a trailer-mounted manifold and frac bus. In general. EMS formation pore pressure the pressure exerted by the formation fluid on the wall of the pores in the formation. (formation factor) F or FR formation sensitivity the sensitivity of a producing formation to formation damage by drilling-mud filtrate formation solids sand and other rock and mineral material from the producing formation. Formation damage can also be caused by wax or asphalt from the crude oil being produced. or atm. Higher injection rates form longer fractures. Besides porosity. the density of the subsurface rock layers can be computed. gas. Normal pore pressure is hydrostatic pressure and abnormal high pressure or geopressure is higher than hydrostatic pressure. A formation that is damaged can be treated with organic cationic polymers or given a frac job. The formation-resistivity factor can be measured directly from a core with an AC conductivity bridge. From the density of the rock. packers are used to isolate the formation. The proppant or sand concentration is usually '/2-4 lbs/gal. d) acidfrac. the formation gas/oil ratio increases with increasing depth of reservoir. b) identification of thin beds. (pore pressure) formation pressure the pressure on fluids in a subsurface formation.000 lbs in a massive hydraulic frac. The Formation MicroScanner is used for a) fracture detection. is a constant between 0. which. and d) core orientation. Thickening agents can be used to increase frac-fluid viscosity. The compensated density log has a secondary detector on the sonde that responds more to the mudcake and borehole irregularities and is used to correct or compensate the main detector for these undesired effects. and frac-fluid transports. Propping agents (small spheres) such as sand or aluminum oxide pellets. Fracturing can be done in stages during which different fluids are injected into the well. if the well is not cased. The frac fluid is usually water (possibly with acid) or diesel oil. Abnormal high and low pressures deviate significantly from normal hydrostatic pressure.200 formation-density log • formation solids formation gas/oil ratio the amount of gas dissolved in a unit volume of oil under subsurface reservoir conditions. Its orientation is determined by a triaxial accelerometer and tool orientation by three magnets. The amount of gas that can be dissolved in a liquid increases with increasing pressure and decreases with increasing temperature. e) superfrac. bulk handling equipment such as sand transports. Formation gas/oil ratio is in contrast to producing gas/oil ratio which is the gas/oil ratio as the oil is produced. Formation fracturing was developed in 1948 and was originally done through a tubing string to below a packer.0. c) waterfrac.). The microscanner is similar to a dipmeter. and i) vapor frac. Formation solids can cause a sand control problem in producing wells . Formation pressure is usually measured in psi. The hydrostatic pressure increase is 45 psi/100 ft for water with a salinity of 554 ppt and 46. the porosity can be calculated. Formation pore pressure is the same as formation. or nuclear interface log) FDL formation evaluation the analysis of the nature and fluid content of a subsurface formation from well data such as wireline well logs and drillstem tests formation factor see formation resistivity factor formation factor log a formation resistivity factor curve derived from a resistivity or porosity device formation fluid the water. The formationresistivity factor is used in Archie's formula to determine water and hydrocarbon saturation of a formation in a well from electrical wireline well logs. The formation-resistivity factor is equal to P~m where P is the porosity of the rock and m is the cementation factor. Normal formation pressure is affected by the hydrostatic pressure increase with depth.5 psi/100 ft for water salinity of 100 ppt. fracturing. psia.000 to 1. Fracturing equipment includes pumping equipment. blenders. formation-density log a radioactive type of wireline well log that measures the density of subsurface formations. (frac job.000. It records four 7-cm wide borehole images in shades of gray. The frac fluid flows out of perforations in the casing or. The effect of increasing pressure increases faster than the effect of increasing temperature with reservoir depth on the solubility of gas in crude oil. fluid. Some types of formation fracturing include a) hydrafrac. in turn. and/or oil that occupies the pore spaces in a subsurface rock layer formation fracture pressure the minimum pressure that will cause a subsurface rock layer to fracture. By bombarding the subsurface rocks with gamma rays and counting the backscattered gamma rays. (fluid or reservoir pressure) PFP agents can cause emulsion blockage.8 and 1. (formation breakdown pressure) formation fracturing a well-stimulation process in which frac fluids are pumped down casing or a temporary workstring under high pressures up to 20. c) rug detection and porosity determination. Formation damage can also occur during well treatment such as a frac or acid job. The frac job is measured by the pounds of sand used which usually varies from 20. The formation gas/oil ratio is expressed as SCF/STB or SCM/SCM with standard conditions being 60°F and 1 atm pressure. (gas/oil ratio) formation interval test see formation test Formation MicroScanner™ a wireline tool that makes of picture of the wellbore by mapping microresistivity variations from an array of small padmounted button electrodes mounted on a four-arm sonde. are suspended in the fluid and are used to hold the fractures open after the pumping stops. gamma-gamma log. (density. or hydraulic fracturing) formation gas natural gas produced with crude oil from an oil reservoir formation-resistivity factor a ratio of the electrical resistivity of a reservoir rock saturated with water (Ro) to the resistivity of the water (/?„.

power. The drillstem test can be either an openhole or hook-wall packer test. "API of the oil. Foss. The seismic data is converted by Fourier transform from the time domain in which it was recorded into a harmonic domain as a function of frequency (frequency domain). which are composed of shells fossil oil crude oil fossil water water that has been in sedimentary rocks since the sediments were deposited. less desirably. forward contract a contract for future delivery of natural gas at a predetermined price FoRro™" Log a focused resistivity log made with a button electrode surrounded by a guarding electrode on a pad.formation test • 4 spot formation test a drillstem test in a wejl. Fossils are useful in determining the age of the sedimentary rocks in which they are contained and how those sediments were deposited. Forward combustion is in contrast to reverse combustion. formation-volume factor the number of reservoir barrels of crude oil that are needed to be lifted to the surface and shrink to one barrel of stock tank oil after the solution gas has bubbled out. A curve is then plotted that can be used to determine the optimum flow rate. The preserved tracks. Fourier analysis is part of Fourier transform and is named after the French physicist Baptiste Joseph Fourier (1768-1830). 467 plan a pipeline's plan for natural gas delivery curtailment based on end use 4 spot a type of waterflood pattern in which three injecting wells in a triangle surround a producing well . Foss. A microscope is necessary to identify microfossils because of their size. an enhanced oil recovery method. FOSS. FORS formation strength forward toward the bow of a ship. There is either a downdip component to the reservoir rock or a permeability barrier such as a fault on each of the four sides. crude oil. Microfossils are common in sedimentary rocks and are often used in petroleum exploration because they can be obtained from well cuttings. roots. or the imprints of the plant or animal. Foss. Deeper reservoirs usually have higher solution gas/oil ratios and larger formation volume factors. Fourier analysis the representation of a waveform such as recorded seismic exploration data as a weighed series of sine and cosine functions. tubing pressures. and reservoir temperature. Fourier analysis determines the amplitude and phase of component sine and cosine waves of different waveforms. four-point test a flow-after-flow test used to determine the flow rates at different flow pressures in a gas well to determine the open-flow potential. FOT 1) flowing on test 2) final open time fouling marine growth on an offshore structure foundation pile a short string of casing that is run in an offshore well to anchor equipment such as blowout preventers on the seabed. burrows. The formation volume factor curves are determined experimentally from an oil sample or can be estimated from the gas/oil ratio. specific gravity of the gas. and other indirect remains are called trace fossils. commonly called the monkeyboard. or foss fossil assemblage a specific group of fossils that identifies a particular geological time or rock zone fossil fuel a combustible natural deposit such as natural gas. Formic acid is used for acidizing high-temperature wells. Fossil water is connate water. The shut-in pressure of the gas well is measured along with the flow rates at four different bottom-hole or. (frequency or harmonic analysis) Fourier transform a series of computations that is important to seismic processing. and exhaust strokes. The four-cycle is in tontrast to a two-cycle or two-stroke engine. (reservoir volume factor) FVF or B 201 formation water 1) original water in sedimentary rocks from the time of sediment deposition 2) subsurface water that has been out of contact with the atmosphere for a great period of time 3) water in the pores of subsurface rock that is very saline (connate water) FMWTR orFmW formatter a set of logic circuits used in seismic exploration to format digitized information before it is recorded on magnetic tape formic acid an organic acid (HCO2H) that is less corrosive than hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids. or foss 1) fossil 2) fossiliferous fossil preserved remains of an ancient plant or animal. compression. near the top of the derrick where the derrickman stands to stack fourbles (four joints of pipe) when tripping out of a well four-cycle or four-stroke engine an internal combustion engine that has intake. Microfossils are studied by micropaleontologsists. The fossils are often shells or bone. The formation volume factor generally varies between 1. in which the burning front moves from the injection well toward the producing well. Forward is in contrast to aft. their mineral replacements. (anchor string or outer conductor) fountain an old term for a gusher fountain well a flowing well fourble a stand containing four joints of drillpipe or tubing fourble board a platform. Fossils are studied by paleontologists. or coal that formed from ancient organic matter fossiliferous a rock that contains fossils. forward combustion a type of fire flood. The log measures the resistivity of the Rm zone. orfoss fossiliferous micrite a limestone that contains over two-thirds lime-mud (micrite) matrix compared to sparry calcite and contains l%-10% coarse grains of allochems.6.1 and 1. four-sided closure a potential petroleum trap that will not allow the petroleum to leak out on any side. FOSS. This breaks down the seismic recording into sinusoidal components that can be frequency filtered to eliminate noise and enhance the signal. FOSS.

202 four-stage separation • frac job / O / O I O ^ o O A' / o l / o o O O A^ O > regular four-spot four-spot waterfloods skewed four-spot four-stage separation a system that uses three separators connected to a stock tank on a lease to separate natural gas and crude oil.Q.G. alcohol. The flush can also be an underflush or overflush depending on the amount of flushing fluids pumped. a pad. four stage separation four-way drag bit a drag bit with four blades four-wing pattern bit drilling bit with a crossshaped tip FP 1) flowing pressure 2) final pressure 3) freezing point F p pump friction F p b pressure base factor FPC Federal Power Commission FPD fluid per day 2) flame photometric detector FPE™ fluid properties evaluation FPH fluid per hour FPIT freepoint indicator tool fom feet per minute FPO field purchase order F-POR fair porosite fos 1) feet per second 2) foot-pound-second system FPT female pipe thread Fpy supercompressibility factor F p w l local gravitational correction for deadweight tester static pressure standard FQG or F. which is frac fluid without proppants.000 psi to artificially fracture a reservoir rock ia order to increase permeability and production. First. Less commonly. or frac 1) fracture 2) fractured 3) fracturing frac bus the enclosure that contains the control panels and recording equipment used on a hydraulic frac job. Fluid and sand are pumped under pressure into the frac head and down the well. and foam are used. liquified petroleum gas. At the end of the frac job. Then. Four-stage separation is used when high gas pressure is necessary for delivery to a pipeline or pressure maintenance system. or nitrogen. frosted quartz grains FR 1) flow recorder 2) flow rate 3) from 4) first recording 5) first reading FR formation resistivity factor Fr formation resistivity Fr Reynolds number factor fr 1) fractional 2) from the 3) front 4) frosted 5) fair FRA friction reducing agent FRAC. diesel oil. The separators each have decreasing pressures until the stock tank is reached. a clear fluid flush is pumped down the well to clean the well of proppants. Fracturing equipment includes pumping units. fracd fractured frac finder log a fracture finder log frac fluid the fluid pumped down a well during hydraulic fracturing. gamma ray log frac head the device that is attached to the blowout preventers during a frac job. Frac. water with acid. is pumped down the well until formation breakdown. frac job frac job a well-stimulation process in which frac fluids are pumped down casing or a temporary workstring under high pressures up to 20. Frac fluid is commonly water. blenders. and bulk handling . the frac fluid with proppants is pumped. FRAC-GR frac log.

such as sand or aluminum oxide pellets. fract. h) emulsion frac. and i) vapor frac. Fractures can be either open or closed to fluid flow due to healing or minerlization. the fracture is a joint. The temperature gradient and different boiling and condensing temperatures are used to separate the fractions. a manifold trailer.FRAC L • fracture gradient equipment such as sand and frac fluid transports. A fraaure can be either natural or induced. The various components condense as liquids at various heights in the column. fractional distillation the separation of components of different boiling points from a solution. or hydraulic fracturing) FRAC L frac log fract 1) fractionator 2) fracture 203 frac tank frac tank the container that stores the frac fluid (typically 580 bbl) for hydraulic fracturing and the spent frac fluid and oil Fractg fracturing fraction a separate hydrocarbon cut or part made by distillation or a similar process (cut) fractional analysis an analysis of the percentage of each hydrocarbon such as methane and ethane in a gas sample. Frac. f) gelled waterfrac. b) sandfrac. regional. one side relative to the other. d) acidfrac. the fracture is a fault. Higher injection rates form longer fractures. If there is no apparent movement. The heated vapors of the solution are passed up a fractioning column where they are cooled as they rise. fract fracture 1) a break or discontinuity in a rock due to mechanical stress along which there was no cohension along the fracture surface at some time in the past. Higher injection rates form longer fractures. The frac job is measured by the pounds of sand used. FRAC. and butane. or fibrous. Formation fracturing was developed in 1948 and was originally done through a tubing string to below a packer. propane. The fraaure finder/micro-seismogram log uses an acoustic logging tool and photographs the acoustic signal that passes through a formation. A fractional township could be due to a shoreline. fractional flow the ratio of the volumetric flow rate of one fluid phase to the total fluid volumetric flow rate within a volume of rock fractional flow curve the relationship of the fractional flow of one fluid and its saturation during simultaneous flow of fluids through a rock fractional township a township with less than 36 normal sections. and frac bus. The frac fluid flows out of perforations in the casing or. extension or shear-based on the stress that formed the fracture. 3) a discontinuity surface in a subsurface which at one time one side of the surface was not attached to the other side fracture acidizing a hydraulic fracture job on a carbonate reservoir using an acid solution as the frac fluid fracture assisted steamflood process. If there is movement. fracture gradient 1) the minimum total in-situ stress divided by the depth in drilling 2) the pressure per unit depth necessary to fracture the formation . or gas in which natural fractures in the reservoir rock have increased the reservoir porosity and/or permeability or contributed to an increase in reservoir anisotropy Fracture Finder log™ an acoustic log that uses the attenuation of compressional and shear waves to locate fracture Fracture Finder/Micro-Seismogram log™ a type of wireline well that is used to locate fractures. The proppant or sand concentration is usually Vi-4 lbs/gal. contractional. if the well is not cased.000 lbs in a massive hydraulic frac. fracturing. (formation fracturing. FAST process fracture density the number of fractures per unit length in a rock or core measured perpendicular to the fracture orientation fractured reservoir a subsurface reservoir of oil. Hydraulic fracturing using high-pressure steam. fractional wettability local fluctuation of wettabilities on the surface or a rock due to different mineral grains with different wettabilities fractionator a device that uses temperature and pressure to separate specific hydrocarbons such as ethane. Some types of frac jobs include: a) hydrafrac. The fractionator is a vertical tower with overhead condensers and reboilers to regulate the top and bottom operating temperatures. caused by drilling or well stimulation. and surface-related. Fractures in minerals are described as conchoidal. The frac fluid is usually water (possibly with acid) or diesel oil. c) waterfrac. g) gelled oilfrac. Fractures can be described as tensile.000. frac. Thickening agents can be used to increase frac fluid viscosity. Attenuation of the signal on the log indicates fractures. splintery. are suspended in the fluid and are used to hold the fractures open after the pumping stops. which usually varies from 20. water. The fractional analysis also determines the gal/1. The fraaure flow capacities of fracture sands is in thousands of darcy-feet. orf 2) a break in a mineral along an irregular surface that is not a smooth cleavage plane. Natural fractures can be classified as tectonic. Fracturing can be done in stages during which different fluids are injected into the well. Propping agents (small spheres). fracture flow capacity fracture permeability times fracture width expressed in either md-ft or md-m.000 ft3of liquid and the heating value of the gas. packers are used to isolate the formation. The feed point for the liquid or liquid and gas is near the midpoint or top of the fractionator.000-1. e) superfrac.

can be recorded to differentiate between water and oil. y. Fracture porosity tends to be small.• . The gas in the free gas cap is associated gas and is always wet gas. The rate of alignment. usually 296-5%. Frag. framestone a limestone formed by a rigid framework of massive fossils such as stromatoporoids. or frag fragment fragile gel a gel with a gel strength that is relatively constant with time. Fractures are identified by different responses on adjacent pads. fraudulent drainage drainage of oil and/or gas from one lease to another by a well(s). F E . (fracture pressure) FRAG. It is part of the Cambrian period. fracture porosity porosity of voids in the rock produced by natural fractures. ago. producing an average of 35% of the oil in place. y. (nuclearmagnetism or nuclear magnetic resonance log) free gas 1) the natural gas that occupies the free gas cap of a reservoir 2) the natural gas that evolves from crude oil as the pressure is decreased ^^S^^iffrr//. The gas/oil contact separates the free gas cap from the oil reservoir. G S RE A <Mf\-'. FRC flow recorder control free-air anomaly a variation in the gravity data for reasons other than the free-air correction free-air correction a correction made on gravity measurements for the elevation of the point of gravity measurement above the datum. When the magnetic field is removed. FFI free-fluid log a wireline well log used to measure free fluids (fluids not bound to surfaces) in formations adjacent to the wellbore.204 fracture identification log • free pipe fracture identification log a four-pad dipmeter that records four microresistivity curves. which is usually sea level freeboard the vertical distance between the waterline and the deck of a ship free fell the drop distance of the tools during cabletool drilling free fluid index the percent of volume that is occupied by fluids free to flow in a formation as recorded on a nuclear magnetism log. FRAC L fracture number the number of fractures per 100 ft fracture pore a pore space caused by a break due to mechanical stress in a rock. The amplitude of the radio-frequency signal is recorded as the free-fluid index (FFI). (gas cap) 0 % ULTIMATE PRODUCTION (PRIMARY RECOVERY) 100 free gas cap drive free-gas cap drive an oil field reservoir drive mechanism in which the pressure of the gas in the gas cap above the oil forces the oil into the wells. Gas will give a low reading due to its low-hydrogen density. Free-gas cap drive is relatively efficient. fracture pressure see fracturing pressure fracture spacing the average distance between parallel fractures fracture strength the minimum differential stress necessary to fracture a substance fracturing seefracjob. Both leases have the same lessee.••/. (gas-cap drive) free-gas clause an oil and gas lease provision in some leases that allows the lessor or the surface-rights owner free use of the gas produced from that property free hole a clean borehole free interstitial water pore water that is free to flow in contrast to bound water free pipe loose casing in a well that can vibrate . called the thermal relaxation time. FIV fracture log a wireline well log of the sonic type that locates fractures in the rocks adjacent to the wellbore by the attenuation of acoustic energy across the fractures. It is part of the Upper Devonian epoch. Fracture pores usually add little porosity to a rock but greatly enhance the rock's permeability. ago. the protons return to their original orientation giving off a radio-frequency signal which is recorded. Frasnian a global age of geological time that occurred about 385-380 m. A fragile gel is in contrast to a progressive gel. rudists. Fractg fractionating the division of crude oil into products by heating and boiling off different components at different temperatures fracturing pressure the pressure necessary to initiate fractures in a formation. A magnetic field causes an alignment of the magnetic movement of hydrogen nuclei in the formation. a reflection of the amount of water or hydrocarbons that are not bound. or corals in their growth position Franconian a North American epoch of geological time that occurred about 510 m. The fracture log records the cumulative amplitude of acoustic waves from a sonic logging tool during a specific time range.'T^S free-gas cap the gas reservoir with gas in the gas phase occupying the pores of the reservoir rock above the oil in a saturated-pool oil field.

Free piston lift uses a free moving piston that travels up and down the production tubing to lift the oil. The energy comes from gas in the casing-tubing annulus. freeze point the depth in a well located at the top of a section of stuck tubular such as drillpipe where it adheres to the side of the well. Another type senses torque and movement. (stuck point indicator tool) free pump a pump that can be circulated in and out of a well free radical an unpaired electron in a molecule free ride an interest in production that is free of production expenses free-running plunger lift an artificial lift method used for gas wells that produces some liquids. freq orf . The free point is just above the stuck or freeze point. FWL free well the well drilled by an assignee under a farmout agreement. b) a free running brush-type piston. and oil. wells with a^iigh gas/oil ratio. freestone rider or freestone clause an oil and gas lease provision that separates pooled portions of the lease from unpooled portions. FWKO free-water or freewater knockout sector the portion of a vertical treater which is fed produced fluids by a downcomer to gravity-separate fluids before the firetube heats the emulsion to separate the oil from the water. (water bath) free-water level the level in a reservoir where the oil phase is equal to the water phase. 2) the location where the drilling assembly is free of vertical stress. and the plunger falls. This prevents drilling and production on the pooled portion from maintaining any leases on the unpooled portion. The free point is located just above the freeze point. in proportion to their working interests. free-water or freewater knockout a vertical or horizontal metal separator that uses gravity to separate water. The most common gas used is production gas. 2) water displaced by oil or gas free-water content a measurement of the excess water content in a cement slurry. Frequency is the inverse of period. Freewater knockouts are often used before heating an emulsion to remove the free water and to prevent unnecessarily heating too much water in the heater treater. gas. Rising bottomhole pressure activates a flowline controller at the surface. The free-running plunger lift is composed of a) a lubricator to receive the piston on the surface. Free-piston lift is used in weak flowing wells. the plunger strikes a bumper that opens a valve to release the gas below it into the flowline. free water knockouts IT free water knockout » . the farmee. and wells with excessive gas. The plunger travels up and down the tubing freely without an intermitter. free-point detector or indicator a tool that is used to locate the free-point on stuck pipe in a well. and a water outlet is located on the bottom of the knockout. (stuck point) Frenchie a Schlumberger employee. and the plunger rises to lift the oil. The string is in compression below the free point and tension above. The tool is slowly raised on a wireline in the drillstring as the drillstring is being rotated from the surface.free piston lift • free piston lift an artificial lift method for oil wells. At the top of the well. d) a 2-in. (Pugh clause) frequency 205 Free water is in contrast to an emulsion. An oil outlet is located near the middle. free-well farmout an agreement between two parties in which one party. free water 1) water produced with oil that immediately settles out from the oil upon production. (plunger lift) free point 1) the depth just above the top of where pipe is stuck in a well. A 250 ml sample of the slurry from a consistometer is poured into a glass cylinder. The freewater knockout has an inlet and deflector baffle near the top on one side and a gas outlet on the top. agrees to pay a disproportionately larger share of the cost of a well or wells than the working interest that the farmee acquires. string of tubing. WATER*. The amount of water is measured after two hours. the farmor. A free-well arrangement can involve several wells and it usually results in a joint working interest. The farmee shares the production with the other party. When upward pull and rotary torque are applied to the pipe from the surface. e) a bumper spring on the bottom of the tubing^ and 0 a 2-in. tubing stop. One type consists of two electromagnets on a telescopic joint. the tension is not transmitted to the stuck portion of the pipe. (frog) freq 1) frequent 2) frequency frequency the number of repetitions of an event such as a waveform per second or hertz. c) a valve shifting prong in the lubricator. The point where torque first appears is just above the stuck pipe and is the free point. The free section is identified by the tension and torque. (obligation well) free-well arrangement the transfer of a fraction of the working interest in a well to another party in exchange for drilling and possibly equipping a well. A valve on the bottom of the plunger closes when it hits a bumper on the bottom of the well.

Fresh water at 4° C has a density of 62. Fresh oil is in contrast to old oil. commonly oil and graphite. fros frosted frosted a finely pitted surface caused by impacts. front-end costs the percentage of the monies paid by limited partners that goes into offering and organization costs front-loaded wavelet energy that occurs over a relatively long time with the maximum amount of energy at the beginning of the wave.206 frequency analysis • FSP frequency analysis see Fourier analysis frequency domain data expressed in frequency. (shore reef) frmwk framework frog a Schlumberger employee. Frg or frg 1) fringe 2) fringing FRIA or fri friable friable a rock that is easily broken up. Frequency domain is in contrast to time domain. When the wrench is put around a pipe or coupling and pressure is applied to the handle. resulting in constructive interference. such as dynamite and air gun. shallow lagoon. in contrast.433 psi/ft or 0. and the mud-pit side is on the right when facing the front of the rig. FWTR or FW freshwater mud drilling mud made with fresh water as the liquid FWTRM Fresnel zone the portion of a reflecting surface from which the seismic energy can be reflected and read by the detector within a half-cycle. and pipe diameter. The Fresnel zone is surrounded by a second Fresnel zone from which the reflections destructively interfere. is separated from the shoreline by a wider and deeper lagoon. produce frontloaded wavelets. fluid viscosity. are used in drilling muds to decrease the friction on the downhole assembly. fresh water water that is very low in dissolved salt content. friction reducer or friction-reducing agent an additive used in a fluid to improve its flow. The opposite side is the back. A higher frequency seismic signal will have a narrower Fresnel zone than a low-frequency seismic signal. Fresh water results in a pressure gradient of 0.000 kg/m3. FRIA or fri friction the resistance to movement friction bearings a type of ball bearings in a rollercone bit that has no rollers. The roller-cone bearings have a friction-ball-friction or solid journal-bearing arrangement. F-MUD fresh oil crude oil for which storage has been paid up to the time of transmission. (Frencbie) frog eyes 1) bubbles of natural gas floating on the drilling mud in the mud tanks 2) water droplets on crude oil coating a swab line front the V-door side of a drilling rig. Friction reducers. froth flow a type of produced fluid flow in a well in which the gas flows "primarily up the center.3 lbm/ ft3or 1. The rapid expansion of the gas when it reaches the surface causes cooling that results in freezing of any moisture. fros or fr frost up the icing of pipes and equipment on a highpressure gas well. Many seismic sources.0481 bar/m. A barrier reef. Quartz sand grains in subaerial sand dunes are often opaque due to frosting caused by collisions with other sand grains during wind transport./ friction horsepower the indicated horsepower minus the brake horsepower friction loss the pressure differential of fluid flowing through a pipe. friction factor 1) the forces that resist motion divided by the contact force perpendicular to the motion direction 2) the force on a conduit wall caused by fluid movement in the conduit. fresh bit a drilling bit that has been dressed fresh mud a water-base drilling mud in which the water is fresher than the formation water. Friction reducers are often made of polymer or resin material that forms a slick surface on solids. FRA friction wrench a tool that is designed to grip pipe. Seismic record traces can be processed by Fourier transform into frequency domain. The diameter of the zone depends on the depth of the reflector and the velocity and frequency of the seismic signal. surface roughness. the jaws with teeth on the wrench become tighter on the pipe or coupling. The driller's side is on the left. fringing reef a reef that grows parallel to the shoreline and is either attached to the shoreline or is separated from the shoreline by a narrow. Friction loss depends on the type of flow. and the oil and water flows up the walls of the pipe frozen an old term for stuck pipe in a well frozen up mechanical equipment that does not work because the parts cannot move FRPT first report FRR final report for rig FR-R friction reducers frs fresh FRt formation factor deduced from true resistivity FRW final report for well Fs feldspar Fs formation factor deduced from sonic log FS&WL from south and west line FSC fail-safe close valve FSD field size distribution FSEL from southeast line fsg or fsg. Fresh water is sometimes quantified as containing less than 2 or 1 parts per thousand dissolved salts. fishing FSH fishin fsh fraction of intergranular space occupied by shales tfaA fraction of intergranular space occupied by nonstructural dispersed shale FSIP final shut-in pressure FSIT final shut-in time FSL from the south line FSP 1) flowing surface pressure 2) final surface pressure 3) final squeeze pressure .

and a boom truck is used to assemble the mast. full wave form an acoustic waveform recorded in an amplitude-time mode fully integrated an oil company that is engaged in all aspects of the petroleum business. The fugacity coefficient is a measure of the deviation of a real gas from an ideal gas. The blades are retracted when it is run into tubing but expanded to fit the casing diameter when in position. The raising legs and slings are stored in the leg sections. This includes exploration. FC accounting full-diameter core a cylinder of rock with a diameter of l3/4 to 5V4 in. When the fugacity of a nonideal gas is substituted for the pressure of an ideal gas in a thermodynamic ideal-gas equation. A full-diameter core is in contrast to a smaller diameter wireline or sidewall core. Additional stabilizers can be used to modify 207 the build rate. production. and development along with the purchase of reserves and the sales and transfer of property from joint ventures and similar arrangements. A series of box panels are pinned together to make the leg sections. Fuller's earth is composed primarily of clay minerals and is used for oil filters. FTL fluid travel lo ft-lb foot-pound ft-lb/hr foot-pounds per hour ft/min feet per minute FTP 1) final tubing pressure 2) flowing tubing pressure 3) field terminal platform FTPF final tubing pressure flowing FTPSI final tubing pressure shut in F trap fault trap FTrL fluid travel log FTS fluid to surface Fe flowing-temperature factor ft/s or ft/sec feet per second ft3 cubic feet ft'/bbl cubic feet per barrel ft'/d cubic feet per day ft'/lb cubic feet per pound ftVmin cubic feet per minute 9?ls cubic feet per second FTT formation tester tool ft2 square feet FU fill up Fuc or fuc fucoid fuel gas natural gas that has been pressured and is used to fuel an engine such as a gas turbine on an offshore platform fiiel injector a mechanical device that is used to spray fuel into the cylinder of an engine fugacity a thermodynamic function that is related to chemical potential. Capitalized costs include all activities and equipment associated with property acquisition. the bit will become out of gauge. naturally occurring material that has a very high adsorptive capacity. exploration. . (true-to-gauge hole) full-hole core see full-diameter core full-opening safety valve a valve that is installed in the drillpipe after a kick has occurred. in diameter and lengths of 20-90 ft that was drilled by a rotary coring bit from the bottom of a well. The mast is raised by the traveling block and can be skidded as one piece or disassembled into two.Fspr or fspr • fully integrated Fspr or fcpr Feldspar FST forged steel few feet of sea water FSWL from southwest line FT 1) formation tester 2) formation temperature 3) feet 4) field tape Ft or ft 1) feet 2) foot Ft filtrate recovered in t minutes F/T flowline temperature F^ temperature base factor Ftf flowing temperature factor ftg 1) footage 2) filling FJQ filtrate recovered in 30 minutes. full-gauge or full-gage bit a drilling bit with the original diameter. full bore a valve or other fitting that has an orifice with the same cross-sectional area as the pipe on which it is fitted (full port) full bore-spinner flowmeter a flowmeter with retractable blades. transportation. A wrench is kept on the drill floor to close the valve. fulcrum the support upon which a lever pivots fulcrum assembly a bottomhole assembly that is used to build angle in a deviated hole. (fullhole or whole core) fuller's earth a very fine-grained./ fugacity coefficient fugacity divided by pressure or partial pressure. drilling. Fugacity is usually expressed in pressure units. full-cost accounting or full costing an accounting method in which both successful and unsuccessful costs are capitalized. Full-cost accounting is in contrast to successful-efforts accounting. the equation applies to the nonideal gas. full-gauge or full-gage hole a well in which the diameter of the well is the same as the diameter of the bit along the entire length of the wall. A fulcrum assembly is in contrast to a packed hole or pendulum assembly. full port see full bore full-stream gas natural gas that contains liquid hydrocarbons full-stream test a test that determines the liquid hydrocarbon content of natural gas full-term working interest an operating interest in a lease which lasts as long as gas and/or oil is produced full view® mast a drilling rig mast that has an A-frame structure with the two sides open for unlimited visibility. A full-gauge hole is in contrast to an undergauge or overgauge hole. three. A single stabilizer is run above the bit to achieve a fulcrum effect. or four sections for transport. With wear.

The nonwetting phase can flow.000 cc of drilling mud to drain through a standard Marsh funnel. Furfural decays with air and high temperatures. Fusulinids are important guide fossils for the Pennsylvanian and Permian peroids. and marketing. the future interest lease becomes effective. the greater the viscosity of the fluid. Funicular saturation is in contrast to insular saturation. (Marsh funnel viscosity) FV furfural a tracer that is used in produced crude oil for identification. fundamental strength the hypothetical maximum stress on a substance that will not cause inelastic deformation. Fus or fusul future-interest lease an oil and gas lease on acreage that currently has a valid lease called the bottom lease. funicular zone the zone in a petroleum reservoir in which large saturation changes occur in a short vertical distance.208 fully penetrating fracture • Fx. fully penetrating fracture a fracture that crosses the entire reservoir height functional allocation sharing arrangement a technique used in farmouts. Furfural is made of corn cobs and sugar cane waste (bagasse) and is soluble in both oil and water. . (top lease) FV 1) funnel viscosity 2) future value fv fraction of bulk volume FVF formation volume factor FVOL flush volume Fvst favosites FW fresh water f^ 1) water cut of formation fluid 2) fraction of intergranular space occupied by water FWC field wildcat fwd forward FWKO free-water knockout FWL 1) from the west line 2) free water level Fw! local gravitational correction for water column calibration standard F wop cumulative oil/water ratio F^ water density correction for water column calibration standard FWTR fresh water FWTRM freshwater mud fxd fixed ffadn finely crystalline F xo formation factor deduced from flushed-zone resistivity refining. no matter how long the stress is applied funicular the interconnected nonwetting fluid such as oil filling the center of pores funicular saturation the occurrence of the nonwetting phase as a continuous web in the pores of the reservoir. The longer the time. further exploration covenant an implied principle of an oil and gas lease that after production has been established on a lease. and limited partnerships to maximize investor tax savings. (transition zone) funnel down a guidance funnel on a subsea completion with the wide end down funnel up a guidance funnel on a subsea completion with the wide end of the funnel up funnel viscosity the number of seconds that it takes 1 qt or 1. calcareous tests or shells. The water saturation in a reservoir ranges from 100% water to irreducible water saturation for an oil/water contact and from 100% liquid to irreducible water saturation for a gas/oil contact. The funicular zone is located between the saturation and pendular zone. and the wetting phase may or may not be at irreducible saturation. drilling ventures. Fully integrated is in contrast to independent. the lessee will continue to explore other areas of the lease and deeper formations Fus fusuline Fusul fusulinid fusuline or fusulinid a football-shaped foraminifera belonging to the suborder Fusulinina. Fusulinids were wheat germ-sized with microgranular. The investors are charged with all currently deductible items so that the intangible drilling and development costs (IDCs) are credited to the investors. The drilling fund sponsor takes the nondeductible item expenditures. When the bottom lease expires.

gal. 9) giga. Gal was named after G. whereas the Imperial gallon used in the United Kingdom and Canada is the volume occupied by 10 lbs of distilled water.03 gals which is often rounded to 980 gals. The Galician system was used in Russia during the late nineteenth and early twentith century. Galileo (1564-1642).001 cm/s2. 2) gravitational field strength. Galena has cubic crystals and cubic cleavage. or tubular. Gravity is often measured in units of milligals. Galician system a cable-tool drilling method that used solid rods instead of rope to raise and lower the bit. 14) grainstone.001 gal. 5) gallon GA 1) gallons of acid. GAL. galena a silvery-gray mineral composed of PbS with a specific gravity of 7. A barrel holds 42 United States gallons. mgal or milligal gall steel surface damage caused by friction gallon a unit of measurement for liquid volume. A gravity unit is equal to 0. org gal/Mcf gallons per thousand cubic feet gal/min gallons per minute gal/sk gallons per sack gal sol gallons of solution galv galvanized . 3) acceleration of gravity. Gabbro is dark in color and is found in both small dikes and sills and in large intrusions. 7) geometrical.833 Imperial gallons. 11) gain. 2) Canadian Gas Association. 3) gelling agents Ga billion years before present ga gauge GAAP generally accepted accounting principles Gab gabbro gabbro an intrusive igneous rock with granular-sized crystals of plagioclase and pyroxene mineral grains. A gal is equal to an acceleration of 1 cm/sec/sec or 10~2 m/sec2 The earth's nominal gravity is 978. (gauge) 2) a measuring instrument 3) to measure some property.10) gallon. 0. Galena can be part of the inert fraction of drilling mud used to greatly increase the density of the drilling mud. wellbore.. Mud weights of up to 35 ppg can be obtained using galena. 13) pore geothermal factor.001 dyne/g or 10~3 gal. Galileo an acceleration of 0. 6) geometrical multiplier. (gauge) ga gage bob see gauging bob gage cutters see gauge cutters gage hatch or hole see gauge hatch or hole gage height see gauge height gage line see gauge line gage line paste see gauge line paste gage location factor see gauge location factor gage platform see gauge platform gage point see gauge point gage pressure see gauge pressure gager see ganger gage reamers see gauge reamers gage ring see gauge ring gage rod see gauge rod gage section see gauge section gage surface see gauge surface gage table see gauge table gage tank see gauge tank gage tape see gauge tape gage ticket see gauge ticket gage wear see gauge wear gage weight see gauge weight gaging the use of tape or measuring line to measure the level of a fluid in a tank (gauging) gaging a tank see gauging a tank gaging a well see gauging a well gaging nipple see gauging nipple gaging point see gauging point gaging reference point see gauging reference point gaging tank see gauging tank gain a change in the signal power or amplitude gain control amplifier the electronic equipment used in seismic exploration to keep the data that is transmitted to the analog-to-digital converter at an appropriate amplitude level GAL or gal gallon gal a unit of acceleration of gravity in the cgs system. 12) geothermal gradient.6.3-7.1 Galileo. 5) shear modulus. The volume of oil in a stock tank is gaged by a gager using a gage line. 2) gas. The United States gallon is the volume occupied by 8.34 lbs of distilled water. 16) Gibbs molar free energy or chemical potential g 1) gram.G • galv 209 G 1) gas. 3) total gas in place. which is equal to 0. 4) geometrical fraction. 8) geothermal. The United States gallon is the equivalent of 0. 15) fluid gradient. 4) gradient. Gab GACD gallons of acid GAD glycol absorption dehydration GAF gross acre feet gaffer a roustabout gage 1) the diameter of a bit.

7 1) specific gravity. and d) bit selection. Three elements (potassium. {density. there is a small. Volcanic ash. gamma ray log a wireline well log that records the natural radioactivity (gamma ray emissions) of rocks in the well by a scintillation crystal in the sonde. and uranium) account for most of the gamma rays emitted from the sedimentary rocks. only shales have significant natural radiation. The amount and energ