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1. DC-DC Converters There are three kinds of switching mode DC-DC converters, buck, boost and buck-boost. The buck mode is used to reduce output voltage, whilst the boost mode can increase the output voltage. In the buck-boost mode, the output voltage can be maintained either higher or lower than the source but in the opposite polarity. The simplest forms of these converters are schematically represented in Figure 1. These converters

=1 u Vs =0 L Vo C L Vs =1 u =0 C Vo =1 u Vs L C =0 Vo

Vin

R

Vin

R

Vin

R

(a) Buck

(b) Boost

(c) Buck-boost

Figure 1. Switching-mode DC-DC converters: (a) buck, (b) boost and (c) buck-boost. consist of the same components, an inductor, L, a capacitor, C and a switch, which has two states u = 1 and u = 0. All converters connect to a DC power source with a voltage (unregulated), Vin and provide a regulated voltage, vo to the load resistor, R by controlling the state of the switch. In some situations, the load also could be inductive, for example a DC motor, or approximately, a current load, for example in a cascade conﬁguration. For simplicity, here, only current and resistive loads are to be considered. 2. Principles The working principles of the these DC-DC converters can be explained as follows. In the buck mode, when the switch is on position 1, the DC source supplies power to the circuit which results an output voltage across the resistor. When the switch changes its position to 0, the energy stored in the inductor and capacitor will discharge through the resistor. Appropriately controlling the switching position can maintain the output voltage at a desired level lower than the source. In the boost mode, when the switch is on position 1, the circuit is separated into two parts: on the left, the source is charging the inductor, meanwhile the capacitor on the right maintains the output voltage using previously stored energy. When the switch changes its position to 0, both the DC source and energy stored in the inductor will supply power to the circuit on the right, hence boost the output voltage. Again, the output voltage can be maintain at desired level by controlling the switching sequence. Finally, for the buck-boost mode, switch positions 1 and 0 represents charging and discharging modes of the inductor. Appropriately controlling the switching sequence can result in output voltage higher or lower than the DC source. Since the inductor cannot change the direction of current, the output voltage is opposite to the DC source. 3. Model under ideal assumptions Under ideal assumptions: ideal switch, ideal capacitor and ideal inductor, these converters can be described using ordinary diﬀerentiation equations as follows:

1

γ= .’ represents the derivation with respect to the normalized time. dvc C = iL − vo /R − io dt dvc vo = vc + R c C dt diL L = uvin − vo − RL iL dt Inserting the second equation into the ﬁrst leads to: Rc dvc dvc = iL − vc /R − C − io C dt R dt Rc dvc 1+ C = iL − vc /R − io R dt Hence.1) C (3. Buck model with RL and Rc Since. a body resistor of the inductor. ‘.Buck converter: dvc = iL − vc /R − io dt diL L = uvin − vc dt where.7) x1 ˙ x2 ˙ = −γx1 + (1 − u)x2 − d = −(1 − u)x1 + u x1 ˙ x2 ˙ = −γx1 + (1 − u)x2 − d = −(1 − u)x1 + 1 4. io is the load current. time and load normalization: √ t LC iL L vc .6) Normalized buck-boost model (3. Rc can be added to the above models. RL and an equivalent series resistor (ESR) of the capacitor.5) x1 ˙ x2 ˙ = −γx1 + x2 − d = −x1 + u d= io vin L C where. x2 = (3. with an abuse of notation. τ=√ . Normalized boost model (3.2) C = (1 − u)iL − vc /R − io dt diL L = vin − (1 − u)vc dt Buck-boost converter: dvc C (3. τ . . Rvc RRc vo = + (iL − io ) R + Rc R + Rc 2 .4) x1 = vin vin C R LC Then the normalized state equations of three converters are as follows: Normalized buck model (3. Boost converter: dvc (3. Model with body resistors In more general cases.3) = (1 − u)iL − vc /R − io dt diL L = uvin − (1 − u)vc dt Introduce the following state.

A uniform Simulink model of DC-DC converters.3) C = (1 − u)iL − vo /R − io dt diL L = uvin − (1 − u)vo − RL iL dt Rvc RRc vo = + ((1 − u)iL − io ) R + Rc R + Rc (4.and the overall model is vc R iL − − io (R + Rc ) R Rvc RRc RRc io = uvin − − RL + iL + R + Rc R + Rc R + Rc Rvc RRc vo = + (iL − io ) R + Rc R + Rc Boost model with RL and Rc dvc (4.1) C dvc dt diL L dt = 5. The input-output connections of the model is shown in Figure 3 The ﬁrst input to the model is the switch 3 .2) C = (1 − u)iL − vo /R − io dt diL L = vin − (1 − u)vo − RL iL dt RRc Rvc + ((1 − u)iL − io ) vo = R + Rc R + Rc Buck-boost model with RL and Rc dvc (4. Figure 2. Simulink Model These three modes of DC-DC converters have been uniformly implemented in the MATLAB/Simulink as show in Figure 2.

One can also deﬁne either zero or non-zero value to the initial capacitor voltage by selecting or de-selecting the “zero capacitor voltage” option. the internal resistance of the capacitor and the inductor. Three converter modes can be selected through the pull-down menu. These parameters are: the capacitance. The model has two outputs. C. The second one deﬁnes the DC source voltage and internal resistance. inductance. The third input is used to deﬁne the output current. Finally. the option “Positive Inductor Current” deﬁnes whether the condition iL ≥ 0 should be enforced or not. L. signal eight 1 or 0. which are the states of the system. 4 . Input and output connections of the DC-DC converter model. The model can be conﬁgure with a number of parameters as shown in Figure 4. the output voltage and the inductor current. RC and RL respectively.Figure 3.

Parameters of the DC-DC converter model. 5 .Figure 4.

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