PART 3 INTRODUCTION TO ENGINEERING HEAT TRANSFER
Introduction to Engineering Heat Transfer
These notes provide an introduction to engineering heat transfer. Heat transfer processes set limits to the performance of aerospace components and systems and the subject is one of an enormous range of application. The notes are intended to describe the three types of heat transfer and provide basic tools to enable the readers to estimate the magnitude of heat transfer rates in realistic aerospace applications. There are also a number of excellent texts on the subject; some accessible references which expand the discussion in the notes are listen in the bibliography.
Table of Tables
Table 2.1: Thermal conductivity at room temperature for some metals and non-metals ............. HT-7 Table 2.2: Utility of plane slab approximation..........................................................................HT-17 Table 9.1: Total emittances for different surfaces [from: A Heat Transfer Textbook, J. Lienhard ]HT-63
................................................HT-54 Figure 9..........................................................2: Emissive power of a black body at several temperatures ...................................................6: Heat transfer for a wall with dissimilar materials (Parallel thermal resistance)..8: Critical radius of insulation . Note that kbody is the thermal conductivity of the body........................HT-14 Figure 2.HT-17 Figure 3...... PrenticeHall publishers].............7: Heat transfer through an insulated wall .............................................HT-46 Figure 9.................................... John H...... tip temperature.....................HT-31 Figure 3............1: Slab with heat sources (a) overall configuration....................6: Wall with convective heat transfer ..........................HT-42 Figure 8.............................................................4: Counterflow heat exchanger.............................HT-20 Figure 3..................1: Radiation Surface Properties ................................................................HT-29 Figure 3................................................3: Velocity profile near a surface......... [From: Lienhard............................ HT-8 Figure 2......................HT-11 Figure 2.........................................3: A cavity with a small hole (approximates a black body) ..................HT-35 Figure 5...predicted and observed..2: Voltage change in an R-C circuit....................HT-13 Figure 2......... ......1: Turbine blade heat transfer configuration .............................2: Temperature and velocity distributions near a surface............2: Element of fin showing heat transfer ............................7: Cylinder in a flowing fluid ................................ HT-9 Figure 2.................. (a) Finned with both fluids unmixed..3: Temperature boundary conditions for a slab.........................................................................................3: The temperature distribution........................ and heat flux in a straight onedimensional fin with the tip insulated.......................................................2: Temperature distribution for slab with distributed heat sources .....................................................10: Spherical shell........1: Geometry of heat transfer fin ..............HT-19 Figure 3..................................................HT-45 Figure 8........................ A Heat Transfer Textbook.........9: Cylindrical shell geometry notation...................2: One-dimensional heat conduction .......................HT-10 Figure 2............. HT-6 Figure 2.....HT-46 Figure 8....................... Lienhard] ...........................1: Conduction heat transfer ......................................... ...........HT-45 Figure 8............HT-18 Figure 3...... HT-5 Figure 2.......................................HT-54 Figure 9.................................HT-41 Figure 6.....10: Temperature distribution in a convectively cooled cylinder for different values of Biot number.......HT-32 Figure 4........5: Path of a photon between two gray surfaces ........................................HT-20 Figure 3.........................HT-44 Figure 8................ not of the fluid........5: Heat transfer across a composite slab (series thermal resistance) ................1: Heat transfer along a bar ............HT-25 Figure 3............4: A small black body inside a cavity ................................. (a) Parallel flow..........................................HT-40 Figure 6.....HT-12 Figure 2................... (b) Unfinned with one fluid mixed and the other unmixed ........................5: Heat exchanger configurations ..................................................................HT-36 Figure 5........................................................................................2: Cross-flow heat exchangers........................................4: Momentum and energy exchange in turbulent flow.......................................5: Fluid temperature distribution along the tube with uniform wall temperature .....................HT-34 Figure 5...........................................................4: Temperature distribution through a slab ....................................................... Bi.... (b) Counterflow..HT-23 Figure 3.................HT-32 Figure 4..............................................................8: Temperature distribution through an insulated wall .3: Geometry for heat transfer between two fluids ...........HT-52 Figure 9................HT-11 Figure 2....9: Effect of the Biot Number [hL / kbody] on the temperature distributions in the solid and in the fluid for convective cooling of a body....1: Temperature variation in an object cooled by a flowing fluid ............HT-55
.........HT-26 Figure 3......................Table of Figures
Figure 1................................................................... (b) elementary slice.................................. r2 / r1 = 2 [from: A Heat Transfer Textbook...........HT-53 Figure 9....1: Concentric tube heat exchangers........
.......10: Radiation between two arbitrary surfaces ....8: Shielding a thermocouple to reduce radiation heat transfer error ... DeWitt..HT-62 Figure 9....P........................ DeWitt.Figure 9..... . F..HT-65 Figure 9.......P...12: View Factors for Three .............................. F.......P..........HT-66
.....13: Fig......................................P...............................HT-59 Figure 9......... Incropera and D....6--View factor for perpendicular rectangles with a common edge ..... John Wiley and Sons] ......5--View factor for coaxial parallel disk [from: Fundamentals of Heat Transfer..... Incropera and D....HT-65 Figure 9..... 13... F....... John Wiley and Sons] .........14: Fig 13............HT-60 Figure 9...................................11: Radiation heat transfer for concentric cylinders or spheres ......9: Radiation between two bodies.... John Wiley and Sons] .............HT-60 Figure 9..............P...HT-64 Figure 9.... DeWitt.....................6: Thermocouple used to measure temperature.Dimensional Geometries [from: Fundamentals of Heat Transfer............................................HT-61 Figure 9......... Incropera and D....................HT-59 Figure 9....7: Effect of radiation heat transfer on measured temperature............15: Fig 13.........................4--View factor for aligned parallel rectangles [from: Fundamentals of Heat Transfer.....P....
The third process is radiation or transmission of energy through space without the necessary presence of matter. for example. thermal. or geometrical).1: Conduction heat transfer The second heat transfer process is convection.0
Heat Transfer Modes
Heat transfer processes are classified into three types. Radiation is the only method for heat transfer in space.1 shows the process pictorially. a familiar example is the heat transfer from a glowing piece of metal or from a fire.1)
2. which has cooling air next to it. is at a higher temperature than the inside surface. or heat transfer due to a flowing fluid. Figure 1.
& Heat “flows” to right ( q )
Figure 1. which is defined as transfer of heat occurring through intervening matter without bulk motion of the matter. It is plausible that the heat transfer rate Q . The fluid can be a gas or a liquid. but it can be motivated by considering heat flow along a "bar" between two & heat reservoirs at TA. The outside surface. This type of heat conduction can occur. In convection heat transfer. is a
.1. Radiation can be important even in situations in which there is an intervening medium.1.
Muddy points How do we quantify the contribution of each mode of heat transfer in a given situation? (MP HT. We must first determine how to relate the heat transfer to other properties (either mechanical. the heat is moved through bulk transfer of a non-uniform temperature fluid. TB as shown in Figure 2. say) has one surface at a high temperature and one at a lower temperature. A solid (a block of metal. through a turbine blade in a jet engine. The first is conduction. The level of the wall temperature is critical for a turbine blade. which is exposed to gases from the combustor. both have applications in aerospace technology. The answer to this is rooted in experiment.0
Conduction Heat Transfer
We will start by examining conduction heat transfer.
If TA – TB is zero. TA. bar geometry. for the bar.1: Heat transfer along a bar An argument for the general form of f2 can be made from physical considerations. although the argument is by no means & rigorous. TB .3)
If we define ∆T = TA – TB and f = f2. The derivative evaluated at TA = TB (thermal equilibrium) is a measurable ⋅ ∂f 2 property of the bar. as said. All of these lead to the generalization (made by Fourier in 1807) that. as follows: f( ∆T) = f(0) + ∂f ∆T + L ∂( ∆T) 0 (2.function of the temperature of the two reservoirs. bar geometry. so that & we can postulate that Q is proportional to the area. bar properties)
(2. bar properties]
(2. Finally. (Are there other factors that should be considered? If so. we would have twice the heat transfer. we find that (for small TA – TB). experience leads us to believe that as L increases Q should get smaller.1)
& It also seems reasonable to postulate that Q should depend on the temperature difference TA . the derivative in equation (2.4) has the form
. It also seems ∂ TA − TB reasonable that if we had two bars of the same area.TB). what?).2)
TA & Q L
Figure 2. then the heat transfer should also be zero. One requirement.TB. The temperature dependence can therefore be expressed as
& Q = f2 [ (TA . is f2 = 0 if TA = TB. Using a MacLaurin series expansion. the bar geometry and the bar properties. In addition.
f 2 (TA − TB ) = Q = f 2 (0) +
∂f 2 ∂(TA − TB ) T
A −T B =0
(TA − TB ) + L. This can be expressed as
& Q = f1 (TA . we know that Q > 0 if TA > TB or > 0 .4)
We know that f2(0) = 0 .
Some values for familiar materials are given in Table 1. The proportionality constant k is called the thermal conductivity.8 is the one-dimensional form of Fourier's law of heat conduction.5 Steel 50 Wood Cork 0. A is the cross-sectional area and L is the length of the bar. The expression in (2. L
(2. k is a proportionality factor that is a function of the material and the temperature.026 Cu 390 Engine oil 0.8)
Equation 2. A
.18 Fe 70 Brick 0.4 -0 . others can be found in the references. = − kA B = − kA Q = kA A dx L L
A more useful quantity to work with is the heat transfer per unit area.1: Thermal conductivity at room temperature for some metals and non-metals Metals k [W/m-K] Non-metals k [W/m-K] H20 0.15 Al 200 H2 0. In the limit for any temperature difference ∆T across a length ∆x as both L.TB → 0.6)
& Q & =q .5)
In equation (2.7)
The quantity q is called the heat flux and its units are Watts/m2. we can say
(T − TB ) (T − TA ) dT & .6 Ag 420 Air 0. Its units are W / m-K.5).2 0.6) can & be written in terms of heat flux as
& q = −k dT . dx
(2. TA .∂f 2 ∂ TA − TB
) T A −T B =0
kA . Table 2. The thermal conductivity is a function of temperature and the values shown in Table 1 are for room temperature. Thermal conductivity is a well-tabulated property for a large number of materials. defined as
we can devise a basic description of the process.10)
˙ ⎛˙ dQ ⎞ ˙ Q( x) − ⎜Q( x) + ( x)dx + L⎟ = 0 . ⎝ ⎠ dx
Taking the limit as dx approaches zero we obtain
˙ dQ( x) = 0.9)
The heat transfer rate on the right is
˙ dQ ˙ ˙ Q( x + dx) = Q( x) + dx + L.2).9) and (2.10)
(2.8). dx x Using the conditions on the overall heat flow and the expressions in (2. ⎝ dx ⎠ x
(2. From equation (2.2: One-dimensional heat conduction For one-dimensional heat conduction (temperature depending on one variable only). The first law in control volume form (steady flow energy & equation) with no shaft work and no mass flow reduces to the statement that ΣQ for all surfaces = 0 (no heat transfer on top or bottom of figure 2. the heat transfer rate in at the left (at x) is
dT ˙ Q( x) = −k⎛ A ⎞ .11)
.2.1 Steady-State One-Dimensional Conduction
Insulated (no heat transfer)
& Q(x )
& Q(x + dx )
13b) describe the temperature field for quasi-one-dimensional steady state (no time dependence) heat transfer. the area is not a function of x.13a) or (2. ⎟ ⎝ A dx ⎠ dx dx
If k is constant (i.14) can be integrated immediately to yield
dT =a dx
(2. Example 2.3: Temperature boundary conditions for a slab For this configuration. dx ⎝ dx ⎠
(2.1: Heat transfer through a plane slab
T = T1
T = T2
Slab x=0 x=L x Figure 2. i. We now apply this to some examples.d ⎛ dT ⎞ ⎜ kA ⎟ = 0 .13a)
or (using the chain rule)
⎛ 1 dA ⎞ dT +⎜ = 0. dx 2
Equation (2.e. this reduces to
d ⎛ dT ⎞ ⎜A ⎟ =0 dx ⎝ dx ⎠
(2. A = constant. if the properties of the bar are independent of temperature).14)
(2. Equation (2.15)
.e.13) thus became
d 2T =0.
T T1 T2 x Figure 2.
(2.3. we need two boundary conditions to determine a and b. or T −T a= 2 1 . dx L
(2.16) is an expression for the temperature field where a and b are constants of integration. The condition T (0) = T1 implies that b = T1. This is given by &
& q = −k
(T − T ) dT = − k 2 1 = constant .and
T = ax + b .16)
Equation (2. say T (0) = T1. such as (2. T (L) = T2.17)
This linear variation in temperature is shown in Figure 2. For a second order equation.4 for a situation in which T1 > T2.14). ⎝ L ⎠
(2. One such set of boundary conditions can be the specification of the temperatures at both sides of the slab as shown in Figure 2. The condition T2 = T (L) implies that T2 = aL + T1.18)
Muddy points How specific do we need to be about when the one-dimensional assumption is valid? Is it enough to say that dA/dx is small? (MP HT.3)
.2) Why is the thermal conductivity of light gases such as helium (monoatomic) or hydrogen (diatomic) much higher than heavier gases such as argon (monoatomic) or nitrogen (diatomic)? (MP HT. L With these expressions for a and b the temperature distribution can be written as ⎛T −T ⎞ T x = T1 + ⎜ 2 1 ⎟ x .4: Temperature distribution through a slab
The heat flux q is also of interest.
and as k decreases.20)
x TL 1 2 & Q TR
Figure 2. the heat transfer paths and the thermal resistance circuit. the thermal resistance. and the analog of the temperature difference.5: Heat transfer across a composite slab (series thermal resistance) Another example is a wall with a dissimilar material such as a bolt in an insulating layer.5. From this perspective the slab is a pure resistance to heat transfer and we can define
& T − T2 Q= 1 R
(2.T2. In this case. The resistances are in series and sum to R = R1 + R2. the heat transfer resistances are in parallel. The concept of a thermal resistance circuit allows ready analysis of problems such as a composite slab (composite planar heat transfer surface).6 shows the physical configuration. In the composite slab shown in Figure 2. The analog of Q is current. the heat transfer rate is given by
& T − TR = TL − TR .2. T1 .
. is voltage difference.2 Thermal Resistance Circuits
There is an electrical analogy with conduction heat transfer that can be exploited in problem & solving.19)
where R = L/kA. If TL is the temperature at the left. and TR is the temperature at the right. as A decreases. The thermal resistance R increases as L increases. Figure 2. the heat flux is constant with x. Q= L R R1 + R2
6: Heat transfer for a wall with dissimilar materials (Parallel thermal resistance)
& For this situation.7: Heat transfer through an insulated wall The overall thermal resistance is given by
R = R1 + R2 + R3 = L1 L L + 2 + 3 k1 A1 k 2 A2 k 3 A3
Brick 0.k1 model k2 k1 & Q
(2. the total heat flux Q is made up of the heat flux in the two parallel paths: & & & Q = Q + Q with the total resistance given by:
1 1 1 = + .03 m
Figure 2.1 m R1 T1 = 150 °C T2 T4 = 10 °C T3 T1 T2 T3 T4 R2 R3
Some representative values for the brick and insulation thermal conductivity are:
More complex configurations can also be examined. a brick wall with insulation on both sides. R R1 R2
(2. for example.
03 m = = 0.0 T − T4 T1 − T4 0
Figure 2. the larger drop is across the insulating layer even though the brick layer is much thicker.7 W/m K
This is a series circuit so
& T − T4 Q 140 K = constant throughout = 1 = = 142 W/m 2 2 A RA 0.8: Temperature distribution through an insulated wall The temperature is continuous in the wall and the intermediate temperatures can be found & from applying the resistance equation across each slab.7 W/m-K kinsulation = k1 = k3 = 0. As sketched in Figure 2.07 W/m-K Using these values. to find T2:
& q= T1 − T2 = 142 W/m 2 R1 A
This yields T1 – T2 = 60 K or T2 = 90 °C. k 2 0. and noting that A1 = A2 = A3 = A. The same procedure gives T3 = 70 °C.14 m 2 K/W .1 m = = 0. we obtain:
AR1 = AR3 = L1 0.
Muddy points What do you mean by continuous? (MP HT. For example.kbrick = k2 = 0.4) Why is temperature continuous in the composite wall problem? Why is it continuous at the interface between two materials? (MP HT.07 W/m K
.98 m K/W
1 2 3 4
1. since Q is constant across the slab.42 m 2 K/W k1 0.8.
no work) tells us that Qin = Qout or
(2. An important case is a cylindrical shell.
control volume r1 r1 r2 r2
Figure 2. dr
The heat transfer rate per unit length is given by
Q = − k ⋅ 2π r
dT . dr ⎝ dr ⎠
& & The steady-flow energy equation (no flow.12b) can be written as
d ⎛ dT ⎞ ⎜A r ⎟ =0 dr ⎝ dr ⎠
(2.9: Cylindrical shell geometry notation For a steady axisymmetric configuration. a geometry often encountered in situations where fluids are pumped and heat is transferred. The configuration is shown in Figure 2.3 Steady Quasi-One-Dimensional Heat Flow in Non-Planar Geometry
The quasi one-dimensional equation that has been developed can also be applied to non-planar geometries.23)
or.Why is the temperature gradient dT/dx not continuous? (MP HT.6) Why is ∆T the same for the two elements in a parallel thermal circuit? Doesn't the relative area of the bolt to the wood matter? (MP HT.
d ⎛ dT ⎞ ⎜r ⎟ = 0. since A = 2π r. the temperature depends only on a single coordinate (r) and Equation (2.7)
& dQ =0 dr (2.
⎛r⎞ T = a ln ⎜ ⎟ + b . r1
dT = a d (r / r1 ) (r / r1 )
(2. Applying T = T2 at r = r2 yields r T2 = a ln 2 + T1 . These will be taken to be known temperatures T1 and T2 at r1 and r2 respectively.26)
where a is a constant of integration.28)
Integrating (2. boundary conditions are needed. If convenient.30) can be put in nondimensional form as
. Applying T = T1 at r = r1 gives T1 = b.30) into non-dimensional and normalized form so that we can deal with numbers of order unity (this also helps in checking whether results are consistent). ln(r2 / r1 )
The temperature distribution is thus
T = (T2 − T1 ) ln(r / r1 ) + T1 . Equation (2. To do this.27)
where both sides of equation (2. Equation (2. divide through by the inner radius. it is generally useful to put expressions such as (2. ln(r2 / r1 )
(2. having an answer that goes to zero at one limit is also useful from the perspective of ensuring the answer makes sense.26) can be written as
dT = a dr r
(2. It is useful to cast this equation in terms of a dimensionless normalized spatial variable so we can deal with quantities of order unity. r1 or
a= T2 − T1 . dr
(2.Equation (2. ⎝ r1 ⎠
As said. Integrating this equation once gives
r dT =a.29)
To find the constants of integration a and b.24) is a second order differential equation for T.27) are exact differentials.
(Look it up. = 1− x + x2 +K) 1+ x The logarithms in Equation (2.T − T1 ln(r / r1 ) = . T2 − T1 ln(r2 / r1 ) & The heat transfer rate. try it numerically.35)
With the substitution of r – r1 = x.
in the limit of (r2 – r1) << r1. Using these expressions in equation (2. or use the binomial theorem on the series below and integrate term by 1 term. From the series expansion for ln (1 + x) r1 we recall that
x x ln 1+ x ≈ x + +K 2 3
(T − T1 ) 1 = 2π k (T1 − T2 ) dT & Q = − kA = − 2π r1k 2 dr ln(r2 / r1 ) ln(r2 / r1 ) r1
per unit length. To r −r make the connection. Q= 1 R
The cylindrical geometry can be viewed as a limiting case of the planar slab problem.36)
.31) can thus be written as
⎛ r − r1 ⎞ r − r1 ln ⎜ 1 + and ⎟ ≅ r1 ⎠ r1 ⎝
r2 r2 − r1 ≅ r1 r1
(2. is given by
(2. The thermal resistance R is given by
R= ln(r2 / r1 ) 2πk
(2. and r2 – r1 = L we obtain
T = T1 + (T2 − T1 ) x L
(2. consider the case when 2 1 << 1 .30) gives
T = (T2 − T1 )
(r − r1 ) + T (r2 − r1 ) 1 . Q .32)
& T − T2 .
ln ( + x ) 1 To see when this is appropriate. so the equation for the temperature field is
d ⎛ 2 dT ⎞ ⎜r ⎟ = 0. The plane slab is thus the limiting case of the cylinder if (r r1) / r << 1. dr
(2.37) once yields
dT = a/ r2.2. Table 2.37)
T1 r1 r2
Figure 2.10: Spherical shell The area is now A(r ) = 4πr 2 .84 . which is the ratio of heat flux for a x cylinder and a plane slab.95
.91 . and for 20% error. consider the expansion .2: Utility of plane slab approximation x
ln ( + x ) 1 x
. the thickness to inner radius should be less than 0. dr ⎝ dr ⎠
Integrating equation (2.17). where the heat transfer can be regarded as taking place in (approximately) a planar slab.10.81
For < 10% error.87 .1 .3
. the ratio of thickness to inner radius should be less than 0.2
. as sketched in Figure 2.which is the same as equation (2. A second example is the spherical shell with specified temperatures T (r1) = T1 and T (r2) = T2.38)
Integrating again gives HT-17
1 − r1 / r2
(2. Applying the second boundary condition gives
T (r2 ) = T2 = a′ +b (r2 / r1 )
Solving for a′ and b.39)
where a′ and b are constants of integration.41)
. normalizing the spatial variable
T= a′ +b (r / r1 )
(2. we specify the temperatures at r = r1 and r = r2. As before. Use of the first boundary condition gives T (r1 ) = T1 = a′ + b .T =−
a +b r
a′ = T1 − T2 1 − r1 / r2
T − T2 b = T1 − 1 .40)
In non-dimensional form the temperature distribution is thus:
T1 − T 1 − (r1 / r ) = T1 − T2 1 − (r1 / r2 )
An example is the wall temperature in a turbine blade because turbine temperatures are critical as far as creep (and thus blade) life.188.8.131.52
Convective Heat Transfer
The second type of heat transfer to be examined is convection. A view of the problem is given in Figure 3. There are three different types of cooling indicated. c = 0 at surface
T T∞ Tw c (velocity)
Figure 3. which shows a cross-sectional view of a turbine blade.1: Turbine blade heat transfer configuration
To find the turbine wall temperature. we need to analyze convective heat transfer.
y y c∞ Ve locity distribution. In this case.2: Temperature and velocity distributions near a surface. where a key problem is determining the boundary conditions at a surface exposed to a flowing fluid. the turbine wall temperature is not known and must be found as part of the solution to the problem. The conditions near a surface are illustrated schematically in Figure 3. which means we need to examine some features of the fluid motion near a surface. all meant to ensure that the metal is kept at a temperature much lower than that of the combustor exit flow in which the turbine blade operates.
The heat flux can thus be expressed as
Q k Tw − T∞ q= = A d′
(3. and molecular conduction and shear are important. In a turbulent boundary layer.2 and 3. The shear stress. Outside of this region is high mixing. The general concept. This quantity has the symbol h and is known as the convective heat transfer coefficient. in that close to the wall.2 is often called Newton’s Law of Cooling. Very near the wall. The convective heat transfer coefficient is defined by
Q q = = h Tw − T∞ A
(3. The latter is the same & µ = τ (where µ is the dynamic viscosity). T is roughly uniform (this defines δ′).
.In a region of thickness δ′.3. For many situations of practical interest. there is a thin layer in which heat is transferred basically by conduction. the fluid motion is smooth and laminar. The units of h are W/m2K. at a plane is given by dc dT .8)
3. The difficulty is that the thickness of the layer is not a fluid property. τ. Generally δ′ is not known and needs to be found and it is customary to calculate the heat transfer using [kfluid / δ′]. is correct.1 The Reynolds Analogy
We describe the physical mechanism for the heat transfer coefficient in a turbulent boundary layer because most aerospace vehicle applications have turbulent boundary layers. the dominant mechanisms of shear stress and heat transfer change in nature as one moves away from the wall.1)
It cannot be emphasized enough that this is a very crude picture. the quantity h is still known mainly through experiments. The treatment closely follows that in Eckert and Drake (1959).
Muddy points How do we know that δ' is not a fluid property? (MP HT. however. It depends on velocity (Reynolds number). The boundary layer is a region in which the velocity is lower than the free stream as shown in Figures 3. structure of the wall surface. there is a thin "film" of slowly moving fluid through which most of the temperature difference occurs. and the heat flux by q = − k dy dy expression that was used for a solid. Outside this layer.2)
Equation 3. pressure gradient and Mach number.
the same amount crosses aa from the other side.3: Velocity profile near a surface As one moves away from the wall (but still in the boundary layer). This net flux of momentum per unit area and time is a force per unit area or stress. In steady flow.plane
Figure 3.c). shown schematically in Figure 3. Fluid moving up transports heat m′ cp T. the flow is turbulent.4. because of the turbulent velocity field.
m′ cp T′ 2 a 1 2 a 1 m′ cp T
Figure 3. qt . given by qt = m′c p (T ′ − T ) that results. given by
t t = m' (c′ − c)
Based on these considerations.4. If T > ˙ ˙ T′. a fluid mass m′ penetrates the plane aa per unit time and unit area. Fluid moving up also has momentum m′ c and fluid moving down has momentum m′ c′.4: Momentum and energy exchanges in turbulent flow. Fluid moving down transports m′ cp T′ downwards. The fluid particles move in random directions and the transfer of momentum and energy is mainly through interchange of fluid particles. The net flux of momentum down per unit area and time is therefore m′ (c′ .3)
. With reference to Figure 3. the relation between heat flux and shear stress at plane aa is
(3. there is a turbulent downwards heat flow.
6) can be integrated from the wall to the freestream (conditions "at ∞"):
1 dT = cp
q ∫ ⎛τ ⎞dc ⎝ ⎠ ˙
(3. For the laminar region. τ
. expressed slightly µ
The same relationship is applicable in laminar or turbulent flow if differently.4)
˙ qt = τ t c p
(3. For gases. we integrate the expression for dT from the wall to the free stream
˙ 1 q dc cp τ
(3. The Prandtl number varies little over a wide range of temperatures. Equation (3.5)
since the locations of planes 1-1 and 2-2 are arbitrary. To get this. approximately 3% from 300-2000 K. and α is the thermal diffusivity.71 at room temperature.
cp k =
µ/ρ υ = =1 k / ρc p α
where υ is the kinematic viscosity. The quantity µcp/k is known as the Prandtl number (Pr).6)
where the relation between heat transfer and shear stress has been taken as the same for both the laminar and the turbulent portions of the boundary layer. We want a relation between the values at the wall (at which T = Tw and c = 0) and those in the free stream.T′− T⎞ ˙ qt = τ t c p⎛ ⎝ c′ − c ⎠
or (again approximately)
(3. The assumption being made is that the mechanisms of heat and momentum transfer are similar. Prandtl numbers are in fact close to unity and for air Pr = 0. after the man who first presented the idea of the boundary layer and was one of the pioneers of modern fluid mechanics. the heat flux towards the wall is
k dT µ dc
k = c p or.7)
˙ q and cp are assumed constant.
based on knowing the skin friction.Carrying out the integration yields
˙ q c T∞ − Tw = w ∞ τw c p
(3. = = ρ∞c p (T∞ − Tw )c∞ ρ∞c p (T∞ − Tw )c∞ ρ∞c pc∞
known as the Stanton Number. The relation between skin friction (shear stress) at the wall and heat transfer is thus
˙ qw τ = w 2. or drag. The Reynolds analogy is extremely useful in obtaining a first approximation for heat transfer in situations in which the shear stress is "known".
. q w is the heat flux to the wall and τw is the shear stress at the wall. The direct relationship between the Stanton Number and the skin friction coefficient is
The relation between the heat transfer and the skin friction coefficient
τ wc p (Tw − T∞ ) ˙ qw ≈ c∞
is known as the Reynolds analogy between shear stress and heat transfer. or q w . 2
(3. we can write an expression for the heat transfer coefficient.9)
is known as the skin friction coefficient and is denoted by Cf . The skin 2 1/2ρ∞c∞ friction coefficient has been tabulated (or computed) for a large number of situations.8)
& where c∞ is the velocity and cp is the specific heat. In equation (3.8). h as
h ≈ ρ∞c pc∞ Cf .10)
& Equation (3.10) provides a useful estimate of h. If we define a non-dimensional quantity
˙ qw h(T∞ − Tw ) h = St. ρ∞c p (T∞ − Tw )c∞ ρ∞c∞
For given mass flow & rate and overall heat transfer rate. which can be accomplished by increasing the cross-sectional area.5: Heat exchanger configurations
. i. P.14) show that to decrease the power dissipated. so that
T − TW & Q = Dc p B c
(3. so that
˙ Q c p (TB − Tw ) = P c 2
(3. Two possible heat exchanger configurations are sketched in Figure 3. Thus. Dc .13)
The mass flow rate is given by m = ρc A where A is the cross sectional area. the power scales as c2 or as 1/A2. c
(3. where Aw is the tube & & “wetted” area (perimeter x length). To begin.14)
Equations (3. is q w A w. One type of heat exchanger has an array of tubes with one fluid flowing inside and another fluid flowing outside.11)
The fluid resistance (drag) is all due to shear forces and is given by τw Aw = D. Q . an approximate relation for the heat transfer is
T −T ˙ qw ≈ τ wc p B w . For fully developed flow in a tube. with the objective of transferring heat between them.
heat exchanger heat exchanger
diffuser high loss lower loss
Figure 3.e. The total heat transfer. the one on the right will have a lower loss.12)
The power. we need to decrease c .13) and (3. we need to examine the flow resistance of a tube.
˙˙ 1 Qm 2 P∝ 2 ρ c p (TB − Tw ) A2
(3. to drive the flow through a resistance is given by the product of the drag and the velocity.An example of the use of the Reynolds analogy is in analysis of a heat exchanger.5. it is more appropriate to use an average velocity c and a bulk temperature TB .
6 shows the configuration.15c)
The Reynolds analogy can be used to give information about scaling of various effects as well as initial estimates for heat transfer.
. As discussed. Figure 3.9) In what situations does the Reynolds analogy "not work"? (MP HT. a description of the convective heat transfer can be given explicitly as
˙ Q ˙ = q = h(Tw − T∞ ) A
heat flux to wall momentum flux to wall = convected heat flux convected momentum flux
(3. The relation is expressed by
St = Cf 2
(3.2 Combined Conduction and Convection
We can now analyze problems in which both conduction and convection occur. there is an approximate relation between skin friction (momentum flux to the wall) and heat transfer called the Reynolds analogy that provides a useful way to estimate heat transfer rates in situations in which the skin friction is known.
Muddy points What is the "analogy" that we are discussing? Is it that the equations are similar? (MP HT.16)
This could represent a model of a turbine blade with internal cooling.15b)
˙ τ qw ≈ w2 ρ∞c∞c p (T∞ − Tw ) ρ∞c∞
(3.To recap. It is emphasized that it is a useful tool based on a hypothesis about the mechanism of heat transfer and shear stress and not a physical law.10)
3. starting with a wall cooled by flowing fluid on each side.
Tw2 Tw1 T
T1 L Figure 3.6: Wall with convective heat transfer
The heat transfer in fluid 1 is given by
˙ Q = h1(Tw1 − T1) . Putting them all together to write the known overall temperature drop yields a relation between heat transfer and overall temperature drop. A L
& The quantity Q /A is the same in all of these expressions. The heat transfer in fluid (2) is similarly given by ˙ Q = h2 (T2 − Tw2 ) . T2 – T1 :
T2 − T1 = (T2 − Tw2 ) + (Tw2 − Tw1) + (Tw1 − T1) =
We can define a thermal resistance. A which is the heat transfer per unit area to the fluid. as before. ⎢ ⎥ A ⎣ h1 k h2 ⎦
(3. we have
˙ Q k = (Tw2 − Tw1) . such that
˙ Q⎡ 1 L 1 ⎤ + + . R
˙ (T − T ) Q= 2 1 . A
Across the wall.
the wall temperatures can be expressed in terms of heat transfer coefficients and wall properties as
Tw2 = T2 − T2 − T1 h2 Lh2 + +1 h1 k
(3. For a turbine blade in a gas turbine engine.17). One way to achieve the first of these is to have h2 low (for example.18)
Equation (3. k should be large (but we may not have much flexibility in choice of material) and L should be small.18) is the thermal resistance for a solid wall with convection heat transfer on each side.1 to shield the surface).6. to flow cooling air out as in Figure 3. This means h1/h2 should be large. We wish to find T w 2 because this is the highest metal temperature. the wall temperature can be written as Tw2 = T2 -
˙ Q T −T 1 = T2 − 2 1 Ah2 R Ah2
T∞ c∞ rr1 1 r2
Figure 3. cooling is a critical consideration.where R is given by
1 L 1 + + .20)
Equation (3. In terms of Figure 3. A second example of combined conduction and convection is given by a cylinder exposed to a flowing fluid. The geometry is shown in Figure 3. From (3.20) provides some basic design guidelines.7.7: Cylinder in a flowing fluid
. T2 is the combustor exit (turbine inlet) temperature and T1 is the temperature at the compressor exit. The goal is to have a low value of T w 2 .19)
Using the expression for the thermal resistance. h1 A Ak h2 A
T ( r ) = a ln r +b r1
Use of the boundary condition T (r1) = T1 yields b = T1. T = T1 at r = r1 .
and the expression for the temperature is. a. r = r2. ⎝ r2 r1 ⎠
The constant of integration.For the cylinder the heat flux at the outer surface is given by
˙ q= ˙ Q = h(Tw − T∞ ) at r = r2 A
The boundary condition at the inner surface could either be a heat flux condition or a temperature specification. This is a model for the heat transfer in a pipe of radius r1 surrounded by insulation of thickness r2 . is
− h T1 − T∞
k r + h ln 2 r2 r1
) = − (T1 − T∞ )
k r + ln 2 hr2 r1
. At the interface between the cylinder and the fluid. we use the latter to simplify the algebra.21) yields
r⎞ ⎛k −a⎜ + hln 2 ⎟ = h(T1 − T∞ ) . The solution for a cylindrical region was given in Section 2.21)
heat flux just inside cylinder
Plugging the form of the temperature distribution in the cylinder into Equation (3. Thus. the temperature and the heat flow are continuous.r1. in normalized non-dimensional form
ln r/r1 T1 − T = . (Question: Why is this? How would you argue the point?)
˙ q = −k
dT a r ⎡⎛ ⎤ ⎞ = −k = h ⎜ aln 2 + T1 ⎟ − T∞ ⎢⎝ ⎥ ⎠ dr r2 r1 ⎣ ⎦
surface heat flux to fluid
. T1 − T∞ k + ln r2 /r1 hr2
( ) ( )
T ∞ between the inside of the pipe and the flowing fluid far away from the pipe. Secondly.
.˙ The heat flow per unit length.24). tending to increase the heat transfer. To understand why this occurs.24)
(r2)maximum heat transfer = k/h. First. As r2 increases from a value less than r2 = k/h. we can add insulation and increase heat loss. the value of r2 for maximum Q is thus
(3.8. To understand the behavior of the heat transfer we examine the denominator in Equation (3.23) are W / m-s.25)
If r2 is less than this. There are ˙ thus two competing effects which combine to give a maximum Q at r2 = k/h. two effects take place.
(3. the area of the outside surface of the insulation increases. the first with the ln(r2/r1) term. Q . The second of these is (loosely) associated with the k/hr2 term. tending to drop the heat transfer because the temperature gradient decreases. the thickness of the insulation increases. is given by
˙ 2π (T1 − T∞ )k Q= k + ln(r2 /r1) hr2
The units in Equation (3. consider Figure 3. which shows a schematic of the thermal resistance and the heat transfer. The thickness of insulation that gives maximum heat transfer is given by
(3.T∞ is the driving temperature distribution for the pipe). (T1 . A problem of interest is choosing the thickness of insulation to minimize the heat loss for a fixed temperature difference T1 .23) as r2 varies.23)
d ⎛ k r⎞ + ln 2 ⎟ = 0 ⎜ dr2 ⎝ hr2 r1 ⎠
(Question: How do we know this is a maximum?)
& From Equation (3.
22). what is "r"? (MP HT.11) h.8: Critical radius of insulation
. forms of equations. really difficult? (MP HT.r ln r2 1
Figure 3. It is generally good practice to use non-dimensional numbers.A It seems that we have simplified convection a lot. The Mach number and the Reynolds number are two you have already seen. what is A? (MP HT.14)
In the expression
3. where L is a relevant length for the particular problem of interest. is k k called the Biot number denoted by Bi. The results for heat transfer from the cylinder are already in dimensionless form but we can carry the idea even further.13) In the equation for the temperature in a cylinder (3. For the cylinder:
ln r/r1 T .3 Dimensionless Numbers and Analysis of Results
Phenomena in fluid flow and heat transfer depend on dimensionless parameters.12) What does the "K" in the contact resistance formula stand for? (MP HT. These parameters give information as to the relevant flow regimes of a given solution. h. and results presentation whenever possible.26)
. In terms of this parameter. Is finding the heat transfer coefficient.T1 = T T1 k/hr2 + ln r2 /r1
( ) ( )
(3. Casting equations in dimensionless form helps show the generality of application to a broad class of situations (rather than just one set of dimensional parameters).
For Bi << 1 the conduction heat transfer process offers little resistance to heat transfer. T1 .27)
The size of the Biot number gives a key to the regimes in which different features are dominant.9 shows the general effect of Biot number on temperature distribution. 1. Figure 3.T1 = T∞ − T1 1 + ln r2 /r1 Bi
( ) ( )
(3.e. the limiting case is
T − T1 = Bi ln r/r1 T∞ − T1
In this regime there is approximately uniform temperature in the cylinder.10 is a plot of the temperature distribution in the cylinder for values of Bi = 0.e. For Bi >> 1 the convection heat transfer process offers little resistance to heat transfer.1.0 and 10. In this situation. The temperature difference in the body (i. T (r2) close to T∞) compared to the ∆T through the solid with a limiting behavior of
T − T1 lnr/r1 = T∞ − T lnr2 /r1
as Bi goes to infinity. Figure 3. This is much like the situation with an external temperature specified. The size of the Biot number thus indicates the regimes where the different effects become important. from r1 to r2) is small compared to the external temperature difference.T∞ .
.ln r/r1 T . There is thus only a small ∆T outside (i.0.
Figure 3.9: Effect of the Biot Number [hL / kbody] on the temperature distributions in the solid and in the fluid for convective cooling of a body. Note that kbody is the thermal conductivity of the body. Lienhard. John H. not of the fluid. 1980]
. [adapted from: A Heat Transfer Textbook. Prentice-Hall Publishers.
Figure 3.10: Temperature distribution in a convectively cooled cylinder for different values of Biot number, Bi; r2 / r1 = 2 [from: A Heat Transfer Textbook, John H. Lienhard]
Temperature Distributions in the Presence of Heat Sources
There are a number of situations in which there are sources of heat in the domain of interest. Examples are: 1) Electrical heaters where electrical energy is converted resistively into heat 2) Nuclear power supplies 3) Propellants where chemical energy is the source These situations can be analyzed by looking at a model problem of a slab with heat sources α (W/m3) distributed throughout. We take the outside walls to be at temperature Tw. and we will determine the maximum internal temperature. Slice at x, x+dx Tw heat sources W α 3 m Tw & q & q+ & dq dx dx
x + dx (b)
Figure 4.1: Slab with heat sources (a) overall configuration, (b) elementary slice With reference to Figure 4.1(b), a steady-state energy balance yields an equation for the heat flux, q . & HT-33
⋅ ⎞ ⎛⋅ dq ⎟ ⎜ q+ q + adx − dx = 0 dx ⎟ ⎜ ⎠ ⎝ ⋅
dq = α. dx
There is a change in heat flux with x due to the presence of the heat sources. The equation for the temperature is
d 2T +α / k = 0 dx 2
Equation (4.3) can be integrated once,
α dT =− x+a dx k
and again to give
α 2 x + ax + b 2k
where a and b are constants of integration. The boundary conditions imposed are T (0 ) = T (L ) = Tw . αL Substituting these into Equation (4.5) gives b = Tw and a = . The temperature distribution is thus 2k
αx 2 α + Lx + TW . 2k 2k
Writing (4.6) in a normalized, non-dimensional fashion gives a form that exhibits in a more useful manner the way in which the different parameters enter the problem:
T − TW
2 1⎛ x x ⎞ = ⎜ − 2⎟ 2 2⎝L L ⎠ αL /k
This distribution is sketched in Figure 4.2. It is symmetric about the mid-plane at x = the energy due to the sources exiting the slab on each side.
L , with half 2
⎛ T − TW ⎞ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ aL /k ⎠
0 0.5 1.0
Figure 4.2:Temperature distribution for slab with distributed heat sources
The heat flux at the side of the slab, x = 0, can be found by differentiating the temperature distribution and evaluating at x = 0 :
k dT dx = k
L 1 = 2K L
This is half of the total heat generated within the slab. The magnitude of the heat flux is the same at x = L, although the direction is opposite. A related problem would be one in which there were heat flux (rather than temperature) boundary conditions at x = 0 and x = L, so that Tw is not known. We again determine the maximum temperature. At x = 0 and L, the heat flux and temperature are continuous so k dT =hT dx
) at x = 0,L.
x + ka)
Referring to the temperature distribution of Equation (4.6) gives for the two terms in Equation (4.8),
dT x = k - +a =( dx k
x + x+b T k
Evaluating (4.10) at x = 0 and L allows determination of the two constants a and b. This is left as an exercise for the reader.
Muddy points For an electric heated strip embedded between two layers, what would the temperature distribution be if the two side temperatures were not equal? (MP HT.15)
The physical content of this approximation can be seen from the following.5. which cools or heats it. with the high thermal conductivity allowing increased heat being conducted from the wall through the fin. Heat transfer per unit area out of the fin to the fluid is roughly of magnitude ~ h(Tw . With a fin cross-section equal to A and a perimeter P. The regime of interest will be taken h(A / P ) to be that for which the Biot number is much less than unity. Bi = << 1 .T∞ ) per unit area . which is a realistic k approximation in practice. The approach taken will be quasi-one-dimensional. The fin is exposed to a flowing fluid. Typically. The fin is of length L. The heat transfer per unit area within the fin in the transverse direction is (again in the same approximate terms)
. The other parameters of the problem are indicated. The end of the fin can have a different heat transfer coefficient. for example.1. in that the temperature in the fin will be assumed to be a function of x only.0
Heat Transfer From a Fin
Fins are used in a large number of applications to increase the heat transfer from surfaces. The fluid has velocity c∞ and temperature T∞. A / P = r / 2).1: Geometry of heat transfer fin We assume (using the Reynolds analogy or other approach) that the heat transfer coefficient for the fin is known and has the value h. the characteristic dimension in the transverse direction is A / P (For a circular fin. A model configuration is shown in Figure 5. c ∞
Fin y x x=L
T∞ . and it needs some explanation. This may seem a drastic simplification. which we can call hL. the fin material has a high thermal conductivity. The design of cooling fins is encountered in many situations and we thus examine heat transfer in a fin as a way of defining some criteria for design.
e.2 can be written in terms of the heat flux using Q = qA . consider the limiting case of zero heat transfer to the fluid i. but here. the temperature within the fin would be uniform and equal to the wall temperature. if Bi << 1. There is also heat transfer around the perimeter on the top. and thus little variation in temperature inside the fin in the transverse direction. There is heat flow & dQ & & & of magnitude Qin at the left-hand side and heat flow out of magnitude Qout = Qin + dx at the dx right hand side. and use a quasi-one-dimensional approach.2. an appropriate model is to say that the temperature within the fin is a function of x only. ∞
& Qin x x+dx
Figure 5. consider an element. From a quasi-one-dimensional point of view..1)
˙ dq + Ph(T − T∞ ) = 0 . where T1 is an internal temperature. an insulated fin.2)
In terms of the temperature distribution. for a cooling fin. there is a much larger Tw − T∞ k capability for heat transfer per unit area across the fin than there is between the fin and the fluid. in each elemental slice of thickness dx there is essentially a heat sink of magnitude Pdxh T − T . T = T(x). where Pdx is the area for heat transfer to the fluid. this is a situation similar to that with internal heat sources. T(x): d T dx
Ph T − T∞ = 0 . k
If there is little variation in temperature across the fin. for a fin of constant area:
˙ dq ˙ ˙ qA = Ph(T − T∞ )dx + ⎛qA + dxA⎞ . ⎝ ⎠ dx From Equation (5. Under these conditions. These two quantities must be of the same A/ P T −T A/ P magnitude. In other words. If h << 1 . dx.3)
. To do this. bottom. Ak
(5.2:Element of fin showing heat transfer
& & The heat balance for the element in Figure 5.(T1 − Tw ) . and sides of the fin.1) we obtain
(5. of the fin as shown in Figure 5. To emphasize the point. then 1 w << 1 .
(T − T∞ ) −
hP (T − T∞ ) = 0 .3) can therefore be written as d
(5.5) describes the temperature variation along the fin. whether this is appropriate or not. The relation between derivatives that is needed to cast the equation in terms of ξ is
d dξ d 1 d . developing the analytic solution is useful in presenting the structure of the solution as well as the numbers.
(5. and we can change variables to put Equation (5. It is a second order equation and needs two boundary conditions. In the present case.T∞ as ∆ T . where the values of ∆ T range from zero to one and ξ = x / L .3) in terms of this quantity using the substitution d dT .6)
The second boundary condition is at the other end of the fin. We will assume that the heat transfer from this end is negligible1. = = dx dx dξ L dξ
Equation (5. (Does this sound plausible? Why or why not?)
(T − T∞ )x = 0 = T0 − T∞ . (T − T∞ ) = dx dx Equation (5. and if we were looking at the problem in detail we would solve it numerically and not worry about whether an analytic solution existed.8). after all is said and done. The boundary condition at x = L is d T − T∞ dx
Note: We don’t need to make this assumption.5) can be written in this dimensionless form as
d 2 ∆ T ⎛ hP 2 ⎞ ~ L ∆ T = 0. so we resort to the mild fiction of no heat transfer at the fin end. − ⎝ kA ⎠ dξ 2
There is one non-dimensional parameter in Equation (5.
. We need to assess. which we will call m and define by
(5. In this we define T0 − T∞ where ξ also ranges over zero to one. Ak
(5. ~ ~ T .7)
The last step is to work in terms of non-dimensional variables to obtain a more compact description.The quantity of interest is the temperature difference (T . The first of these is that the temperature at the end of the fin that joins the wall is equal to the wall temperature.
.m2 L 2=
hP L 2 . The boundary condition at ξ = 1 is that the temperature gradient is zero or
(5. In terms of the actual heat transfer parameters it is written as
⎛ cosh ⎜ ⎛ 1 − ⎝⎝ T − T∞ = T0 − T∞ ⎛ cosh ⎜ ⎝
x ⎞ hP ⎞ L L ⎠ kA ⎟ ⎠ .12b)
Solving the two equations given by the boundary conditions for a and b gives an expression for ∆ T x −x ⎛ e +e ⎞ in terms of the hyperbolic cosine or cosh: ⎜ cosh x = 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠
cosh mL 1 − ξ cosh mL
This second order equation has the solution
~ mLξ − mLξ ∆ T = ae + be . hP ⎞ L kA ⎟ ⎠
The equation for the temperature distribution we have obtained is
d ∆T dξ
2 2 ~ 2 2 ~
− m L ∆T = 0.12a)
d∆ T −m m (L) = mLae − mLbe = 0 . The boundary condition at ξ = 0 is ∆ T(0) = a + b = 1 .13)
This is the solution to Equation (5.11)
(5.8) for a fin with no heat transfer at the tip.
(Try it and see). kA
. We will see below how large the error is. First. Several features of the solution should be noted.The amount of heat removed from wall due to the fin. so for very short fins the simple expression above would not be a good estimate.3.16)
Q kAhP T0 − T∞
= tanh mL
(5. which is taken from the book by Lienhard.16a)
The solution is plotted in Figure 5. Second. which is the quantity of interest. one does not need fins which have a length such that m is much greater than 3. can be found by differentiating the temperature and evaluating the derivative at the wall.15)
QL dD T =− dξ kA T0 − T∞
mLsinh mL = mL tanh mL cosh mL
(5. x = 0:
Q = − kA
d T − T∞ dx
) x =0
(5. the assumption about no heat transfer at the end begins to be inappropriate as m gets smaller than 3.
16) What types of devices use heat transfer fins? (MP HT. tip temperature.T∞ ) / (T0 . PrenticeHall publishers]
Why did you change the variable and write the derivative
d 2 (T .17) Why did the Stegosaurus have cooling fins? Could the stegosaurus have "heating fins"? (MP HT. beyond L = 5 / m
hPkA ( T0 − T∞ )
Dimensionless temperature at tip (T . and heat flux in a straight onedimensional fin with the tip insulated.1 (a very stumpy fin)
Dimensionless temperature (T . A Heat Transfer Textbook.T∞ ) d2T as in the equation dx 2 dx 2
for heat transfer in the fin? (MP HT.18)
mL . [Adapted from: Lienhard.T∞ ) / (T0 .4%. Q
1 cosh mL
The temperature excess at the tip is less than 1.Heat flow cannot be noticeably improved by lengthening the fin beyond L = 3 / m
Dimensionless heat flow into the fin.3:The temperature distribution.T∞ )
mL = 5 (a long "over designed" fin)
mL = 2 mL = 3
Dimensionless axial position ξ = x / L Figure 5.
say half the thickness of the object. We can thus say T1 − Tw << Tw − T∞ and neglect the temperature non-uniformity Tw − T∞ within the object.Tw between two locations in the object. at least in a quantitative fashion. This will allow us to see what the relevant non-dimensional parameters are and.0
Transient Heat Transfer (Convective Cooling or Heating)
All the heat transfer problems we have examined have been steady state. To introduce the topic as well as to increase familiarity with modeling of heat transfer problems. while the casing is thin and in the path of high velocity compressor flow and thus comes to temperature rapidly.2)
If the Biot number is small the ratio of temperature differences described in Equation (6.
c∞ T∞ Tw T1 object
Figure 6. We need to determine when this type of analysis would be appropriate. but there are often circumstances in which the transient response to heat transfer is critical. The result is that the case expands away from the blade tips. as shown in Figure 6. The ratio of the temperature difference is
T1 − Tw hL ≈ Tw − T∞ k
(6. The disks that hold the blades are large and take a long time to come to temperature.2) is also T1 − Tw << 1. consider the temperature difference T1 .1:Temperature variation in an object cooled by a flowing fluid If the heat transfer within the body and from the body to the fluid are of the same magnitude. An example is the heating up of gas turbine compressors as they are brought up to speed during take-off.1)
where L is a relevant length scale.1. To address this. we examine a lumped parameter analysis of an object cooled by a stream. sometimes enough to cause serious difficulties with aerodynamic performance. We want to view the object as a "lump" described by a single parameter.
. h Tw − T∞ ≈
k T −T L 1 w
(6.6. how more complex heat transfer objects will behave.
In terms of heat transferred to the fluid. The rate of heat transfer to the fluid is Ah (T . Ti − T∞
(6. dT & . as shown schematically below. ⎜ + = 0⎟ which has the solution x = ae − t / τ .6)
The constant a can be seen to be equal to unity to satisfy the initial condition. T(0).3)
where ρ is the density of the object and V is its volume.5)
At time t = 0. There dt RC are. large volume.
. ⎛ T − T∞ ⎞ Equation (6. The first law applied to the object is (using the fact that for solids cp = cv = c) Q in = ρVc
(6. this non-dimensional quantity is equal to one. which we can call Ti .τ.The approximation made is to view the object as having a spatially uniform temperature that is a function of time only.T∞). is equal to some known value. while high heat transfer coefficient and large area will tend to decrease the time constant. Explicitly. For the present problem the form is ⎝ dt τ ⎠
T − T∞ − hAt/pVc = ae . high density.5) is an equation you have ⎛ dx x ⎞ seen before. implies that the solution has a heat transfer "time constant" given by τ = hA The time constant.4)
The initial temperature. Equation (6. T = T(t). The time dependence of the voltage in dE E the R-C circuit when the switch is opened suddenly is given by the equation + = 0 . is in accord with our "intuition". in fact. a number of physical processes which have (or can be modeled as having) this type of exponentially decaying behavior.4) can be written in terms of a non-dimensional temperature difference ⎜ ⎟. so the expression for the time Qout = − ρVc dt evolution of the temperature is Ah T − T∞ = −ρVc
dT . Using this. This is the same form of equation and the same behavior you have seen for the R-C circuit. or high specific heat all tend to increase the time constant. ⎝ Ti − T∞ ⎠
d ⎛ T − T∞ ⎞ hA ⎛ T − T∞ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟+ ⎜ ⎟ =0 dt ⎝ Ti − T∞ ⎠ ρVc ⎝ Ti − T∞ ⎠
(6. This form of equation ρVc .
These are all part of the general approach to modeling of physical systems. i. does a high density "slow down" heat transfer? (MP HT. it is critical to have a clear idea of just what the assumptions really mean.c.
k T − T ≈ h TW − T∞ L c w we could assume
(Tbody interior − Tw ) << 1 (Tw − T∞ )
.19) dt In the lumped parameter transient heat transfer problem.20)
In equation Q in = ρ. especially for fluid flow problems. one almost always cannot compute the process exactly.0
Some Considerations in Modeling Complex Physical Processes
In Sections 5 and 6. a number of assumptions were made about the processes that we were attempting to describe. one generally needs to model.e. The main idea is that for engineering systems. to define some plausible behavior for attributes of the system that will not be computed.3).V. At some level of detail.2: Voltage change in an R-C circuit
dT (6. In carrying out such modeling. and we thus look at the statements we have made in this context.E0
R Figure 6. Modeling can span an enormous range from the level of our assumption of uniform temperature within the solid object to a complex model for the small scale turbulent eddies in the flow past a compressor blade.
7. as well as the fidelity that we ascribe to the descriptions of actual physical phenomena. One assertion made was that because
<< 1 and on the basis of a heat balance. what is c? (MP HT.
fluid motion.13).2b. was that the heat transfer at the far end can be neglected. The basic component of a heat exchanger can be viewed as a tube with one fluid running through it and another fluid flowing by on the outside.1a. for the unfinned tube bundle of Figure 8. The two configurations differ according to whether the fluid moving over the tubes is unmixed or mixed. and leave at the same end. Alternatively. as shown by the finned and unfinned tubular heat exchangers of Figure 8. the fluids may be in cross flow (perpendicular to each other). If the quantity is small. and leave at opposite ends. hence mixing. The solution including this hL L hL L is an axial Biot number is given as Equation (7. and temperature variations are primarily in the main-flow direction.2. made in the fin problem. Since the tube flow is unmixed. where k k you can see that Equation (7. flow in the same direction.1). In the counterflow arrangement of Figure 8. The only place where P Pk and A enter the problem is in a non-dimensional combination.1)
Q kAhP T0 − T∞
(Biaxial /mL) + tanh mL
Bi 1 + axial tanh mL mL
(7. the fluids enter at opposite ends. In the parallel-flow arrangement of Figure 8.0
The general function of a heat exchanger is to transfer heat from one fluid to another.1b. In Figure 8. Another aspect is hA that setting << 1 erases any geometrical detail of the fin cross section. we said that Tbody is approximately uniform and Tw ≈ Tbody interior . the hot and cold fluids enter at the same end. A third assumption.2a.1) reduces to the previous result (5.Based on this.
. In this case the fluid temperature varies with x and y. The simplest heat exchanger is one for which the hot and cold fluids move in the same or opposite directions in a concentric tube (or double-pipe) construction. In contrast. in the transverse direction is possible. effect. flow in opposite directions.
T − T∞ cosh mL 1 − ξ + Biaxial / m sinh mL 1 − ξ = T0 − T∞ cosh mL + Biaxal / mL sinh mL
) ( (
(7. There are thus three heat transfer operations that need to be described: 1) Convective heat transfer from fluid to the inner wall of the tube 2) Conductive heat transfer through the tube wall 3) Convective heat transfer from the outer tube wall to the outside fluid Heat exchangers are typically classified according to flow arrangement and type of construction.2)
8. the fluid is said to be unmixed because the fins prevent motion in a direction (y) that is transverse to the main-flow direction (x).
both fluids are unmixed in the finned exchanger.2: Cross-flow heat exchangers.1: Concentric tubes heat exchangers. (b) Counterflow
x y Cross flow T = f(x.
. (b) Unfinned with one fluid mixed and the other unmixed
To develop the methodology for heat exchanger analysis and design. while one fluid is mixed and the other unmixed in the unfinned exchanger. (a) Parallel flow.y) Cross flow T = f(x)
Figure 8. (a) Finned with both fluids unmixed.
Figure 8. we look at the problem of heat transfer from a fluid inside a tube to another fluid outside.
It is useful to define an overall heat transfer coefficient h0 per unit length as
& Q = 2πr2 h0 (TA − TB ).2 and found that the heat transfer rate per unit length is given by
& Q= 2πk (T A − TB ) r k k + ln 2 + r1 h1 r1 r2 h2
We will make use of this in what follows. h0 r1h1 k r1 h2
(8. A schematic of a counterflow heat exchanger is shown in Figure 8. is
r r r 1 1 = 2 + 2 ln 2 + .2) the overall heat transfer coefficient.3: Geometry for heat transfer between two fluids We examined this problem before in Section 3.
. h0 .4.r1 TA T1 T2 r2 TB
Figure 8. We wish to know the temperature distribution along the tube and the amount of heat transferred.1) and (8.
The heat given to the fluid (the change in enthalpy) is given by
⋅ πD dT = m c p dT 4
. the heat flow from the pipe wall in a length dx is q πDdx = hπD(T0 − T)dx where D is the pipe diameter.4: Counterflow heat exchanger To address this we start by considering the general case of axial variation of temperature in a tube with wall at uniform temperature T0 and a fluid flowing inside the tube. T(x).Ta2 Tb2 Tb1
Figure 8.5: Fluid temperature distribution along the tube with uniform wall temperature The objective is to find the mean temperature of the fluid at x. For heating (T0 > T). The expected distribution for heating and cooling are sketched in Figure 8.5. in the case where fluid comes in at x = 0 with temperature T1 and leaves at x = L with temperature T2 .
T1 x=0 dx T1 x=L
cooling heating T2
From Equation (8.9)
The total heat transfer to the wall all along the pipe is
Q = m c p T1 − T2 . um is the mean velocity of the fluid. ρumc p D T0 − T
(8. cp is the specific heat of the
fluid and m is the mass flow rate of the fluid. 4hx = ρumc p D i.
(8. ⎛T −T ⎞ 4hx .
β= 4h πhD = ⋅ ρumc p D m cp
.9).6) can be written as
T0 − T = e −β x T0 − T1
T d T0 − T dT =− = − ln T0 − T T0 − T T0 − T T1
) T1 . The exit temperature at x = L is
− T0 − T2 & mc =e p T0 − T1
Carrying out the integration.where ρ is the density of the fluid.5)
.e. Setting the last two expressions equal and integrating from the start of the pipe. we find
dT 4h = dx . ln ⎜ 0 ⎟=− ρumc p D ⎝ T0 − T1 ⎠ Equation (8.8)
This is temperature distribution along the pipe.
T0 − T2 ⎛ ∆T1 ⎞ ln ln⎜ ⎟ T0 − T1 ⎝ ∆T2 ⎠
(8.13) for dTa and dTb.
(8.m cp =
hπDL .4. we find:
The concept of a logarithmic mean temperature difference is useful in the analysis of heat exchangers. (There is a negative sign since Ta decreases). an overall heat balance between the two counterflowing streams is
Q = m a c pa Ta1 − Ta2 = m b c pb Tb2 − Tb1 . We can define a logarithmic mean temperature difference for a counterflow heat exchanger as follows. (There is a negative sign because Tb decreases as x increases).10)
or Q = hπDL∆TLM where ∆TLM is the logarithmic mean temperature difference. The heat taken up by stream b is − m b c pb dTb .
(8. defined as
T2 − T1 ∆T − ∆T2 = 1 . With reference to Figure 8. dTb = −
q dA m b c pb
From a local heat balance. The local heat balance is:
− m a c pa dTa = − mb c pb dTb = q dA = q πDdx
dTa = −
q dA m a c pa
. ⎛ T0 − T1 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ T0 − T2 ⎠
The total rate of heat transfer is therefore Q=
hπDL T1 − T2 ln
T1 − T0 T2 − T0
). the heat given up by stream a in length dx is − m a c pa dTa .
1 (Ta1 − Tb2 ) − (Ta2 − Tb1 ) = Q⎛ W ⎜ ⎝
1⎞ ⎟. Wb ⎠
& & where W = mc p . q = h0 ∆T where h0 is the overall heat transfer coefficient.16)
⎛ 1 1⎞ α = h0 πDL⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ Wa Wb ⎠
We know that ⋅ Ta1 .16) can also be written as:
Ta 2 − Tb1 = e −α Ta1 − Tb 2
(8. ⎟ = − h0 πDL⎜ ⎝ Ta1 − Tb2 ⎠ ⎝ Wa Wb ⎠
Equation (8.16) allows us to express ⎜ ⎝ Wa Wb ⎠
.⎛ ⎞ ⋅ ⋅ ⎜ 1 − 1 ⎟ q dA = −⎛ 1 − 1 ⎞ q πDdx d Ta − Tb = d∆T = − ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ Wa Wb ⎠ m a c pa m b c pb ⎠ ⎝
(8.Tb1 = Q / Wb . ∆T ⎝ Wa Wb ⎠
Integrating from x = 0 to x = L gives
⎛ T − Tb1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 1⎞ ln ⎜ a2 − ⎟.19)
Solving for the total heat transfer: ⋅ Ta1 − Tb2 − Ta2 − Tb1 Q= ⎛ 1 1⎞ − ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ Wa Wb ⎠
(8. We can then say:
⎛ 1 d∆T 1⎞ = − h0 πD⎜ − ⎟ dx .20)
⎛ 1 1⎞ − ⎟ in terms of other parameters as Rearranging (8. Also.Ta2 = Q / Wa Thus
1 Efficiency of a Counterflow Heat Exchanger
Suppose we know the two inlet temperatures Ta1. Tb1.
Tb 2 = Tb1 + Wa (Ta1 − Ta 2 ) Wb
Thus Ta2 .Tb2 ) e-α Rearranging (8.Tb1 ) e-α -
(Ta1 − Ta2 )⎛ 1 − Wa e −α ⎞ = (Ta1 − Tb1 )(1 − e −α ) ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ W ⎠
Wa −α Ta1 − Ta2 e Wb
(Ta1 − Ta 2 )= η (Ta1 − Tb1 )
where η is the efficiency of a counterflow heat exchanger:
(8.⎛ T − Tb2 ⎞ ln ⎜ a2 ⎟ ⎛ 1 ⎝ Ta1 − Tb2 ⎠ 1⎞ − ⎟=− .Tb2) e-α Ta2 .17) Ta2 .24)
.Ta1 = Tb1 .23)
8.18).Ta1 + (Ta1 .Ta1 + (Ta1 . From (8.20) we obtain a final expression for the total heat transfer for a counterflow heat exchanger:
⋅ Ta1 − Tb2 − Ta2 − Tb1 Q = h0 πDL ⎛T −T ⎞ ln ⎜ a1 b2 ⎟ ⎝ Ta2 − Tb1 ⎠
(8. ⎜ h0 πDL ⎝ Wa Wb ⎠
Substituting (8. and we need to find the outlet temperatures.21)
(8.Ta1 = Tb1 .22)
or Q = h0 πDL∆TLM
(8.Tb1 = (Ta1 .21) into (8.
1− e 1− e = ⋅ W −α 1− a e m a c pa − α 1− ⋅ e Wb c pb mb
From (8. η →
m b c pb m a c pa
as [ ] → ∞ ( b < Wa ) W
T − Ta2 m b c pb = ⋅ Maximum value of a1 Ta1 − Tb1 m a c pa Tb 2 − Tb1 Maximum value of =1 Ta1 − Tb 2
m a c pa = m b c pb d (Ta − Tb ) = 0 temperature difference remains uniform.25) we can find outlet temperatures Ta2 and Tb2:
Tb2 − Tb1 =
m a c pa
m b c pb
We examine three examples. i)
(Ta1 − Ta2 ) =
m a c pa
η Ta1 − Tb2
m b c pb
m b c pb > m a c pa ∆T can approach zero at cold end
⎛ ⎞ ⎜ 1 − 1 ⎟ η → 1 as h0 . surface area .24) and (8. πDLh0 ⋅ ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ m a c pa m b c pb ⎠ ⎝ T −T Maximum value of ratio a1 a 2 = 1 Ta1 − Tb1
T − Tb1 m a c pa = ⋅ Maximum value of ratio b2 Ta1 − Tb1 m b c pb
m b c pb < m a c pa
α is negative . η = 1
σ = 5. reflected or transmitted. with random phase and frequency.fraction of incident radiation absorbed ρ = reflectance .1)
Reflective energy may be either diffuse or specular (mirror-like). the reflection angle equals the angle of incidence.
9. It has several properties: 1) It has α = 1. When radiated photons reach another surface.2)
.1: Radiation Surface Properties From energy considerations the three coefficients must sum to unity
(9. α Incident radiation Radiation transmitted. 2) The energy radiated per unit area is Eb = σT4 where σ is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant.67 x 10-8
W m K
Radiation Heat Transfer (Heat transfer by thermal radiation)
All bodies radiate energy in the form of photons moving in a random direction. The behavior of a surface with radiation incident upon it can be described by the following quantities:
α = absorptance . τ Radiation reflected.9. For specular reflections. they may either be absorbed.fraction of incident radiation reflected τ = transmittance – fraction of incident radiation transmitted
Figure 9. Diffuse reflections are independent of the incident radiation angle. ρ
Figure 9.1 shows these processes graphically.1 Ideal Radiators
An ideal thermal radiator is called a "black body". Radiation absorbed. and absorbs all radiation incident on it.
2898 cm K [adapted from: A Heat Transfer Textbook by Lienhard. is given by f = c/λ so high energy means short wavelengths and high frequency. The frequency of the radiation. eλ kW/m -micron Figure 9.
The energy of a black body.2.2898 cm K. the wavelength for maximum energy emission shifts to shorter values. the energy radiated per unit area for a range of wavelengths of width ∆λ . f. The quantity λT at the condition where eλ is a maximum is given by (λT )eλmax = 0. Monochromatic emissive power. dλ ∆λ The behavior of eλ is given in Figure 9. E b . We can dE ∆Eb define eλ = b ≈ . J.predicted and observed
= 0.2: Emissive power of a black body at several temperatures .The units of Eb are therefore
. As T increases. is distributed over a range of wavelengths of radiation.
The distribution of eλ varies with temperature.
. There are many reflections and absorptions.Figure 9. The irradiance within a cavity whose walls are at temperature T is therefore equal to the radiant emittance of a black body at the same temperature and irradiance is a function of temperature only. H = EB. The measurement of this is the emittance. where H is the irradiance. The inside of the cavity has radiation which is homogeneous and isotropic (the same in any direction. The cavity and the black body are both at the same temperature.
9.4. Since αB = 1 for a black body.4: A small black body inside a cavity The radiant energy absorbed by the black body per second and per m2 is αΒH. uniform everywhere). The radiant energy emitted by the black body is EB. ε .3: A cavity with a small hole (approximates a black body) A physical realization of a black body is a cavity with a small hole.
Cavity Black body
Figure 9. the radiant energy falling on any surface inside the cavity. Very few entering photons (light rays) will get out. Suppose we put a small black body inside the cavity as seen in Figure 9.2
Kirchhoff's Law and "Real Bodies"
Real bodies radiate less effectively than black bodies.
1.. It was derived for the case when Tbody = Tsurroundings (cavity) and is not strictly true for all circumstances when the temperature of the body and the cavity are different.ελ = ε. The power absorbed per unit area is equal to αH. so the absorptance and emittance are not functions of λ .5. α + ρ = 1 (no radiation transmitted so transmittance = 0).3
Radiation Heat Transfer Between Planar Surfaces
α 2 E1 ρ2 E1 E1
α1ρ2 E1 ρ1ρ2 E1
ρ1ρ2α 2 E1
ρ1ρ 2 2 E1
ρ1 ρ2 E1 ρ1ρ2 α 2 E1
2 2 2
← radiation from real body at T ε= E E b ← radiation from black body at T
Values of emittance vary greatly for different materials. Consider a photon emitted from Surface 1 (remembering that the reflectance ρ = 1 . the relation α = ε . since αλ . We suppose that the surfaces are thick enough so that. Suppose we have a small non-black body in the cavity.
9. They are near unity for rough surfaces such as ceramics or oxidized metals. but it is true if αλ = α .02 for polished metals or silvered reflectors.5: Path of a photon between two gray surfaces Consider the two infinite gray surfaces shown in Figure 9. Thus
E =α =ε Eb
(9. A table of emittances for different substances is given at the end of this section as Table 9. This situation describes a "gray body". An energy balance gives E = Ebε = α H =α Eb.3). is known as Kirchhoff's Law.α): Surface 1 emits Surface 2 absorbs
E1 E1 α 2
. The power emitted is equal to E. ελ are properties of the surface. αλ = ελ .3)
Equation (9. The level of the emittance can be related to the absorptance using the following arguments. and roughly 0. Also. taken from the book by Lienhard. It implies that good radiators are good absorbers.
Surface 2 reflects Surface 1 absorbs Surface 1 reflects Surface 2 absorbs Surface 2 reflects Surface 1 absorbs
E1 ( − α 2 ) 1 E1 ( − α 2 ) 1 1 α E1 ( − α 2 )( − α1 ) 1 1 E1 ( − α 2 )( − α1 ) 2 1 1 α E1 ( − α 2 )( − α1 )( − α 2 ) 1 1 1 E1 ( − α 2 )( − α1 )( − α 2 ) 1 1 1 1 α
The same can be said for a photon emitted from Surface 2: Surface 2 emits Surface 1 absorbs Surface 1 reflects Surface 2 absorbs Surface 2 reflects etc……
E2 E 2α1 E 2 ( − α1 ) 1 E 2 ( − α1 ) 2 1 α E2 ( − α 1 )( − α 2 ) 1 1
We can add up all the energy E 1 absorbed in 1 and all the energy E 2 absorbed in 2. The net heat flux from 1 to 2 is
E1 ( − α 2 ) 1 1 α .. The energy E 1 absorbed in 1 is
E1 ( − α 2 ) 1 + E1 ( − α 2 ) 1 ( − α 2 )( − α1 )+ K 1 α 1 α 1 1
This is equal to
E1 ( − α 2 ) 1 1 + β + β 2 + . In doing the 1 1 bookkeeping. 1 α
1 −1 = ( − β ) = 1 + β + β 2 + .. 1 1− β
We thus observe that the radiation absorbed by surface 1 can be written as
1 α Likewise E2 ( − α1 ) 2 is the radiation generated at 2 and absorbed there as well. it is helpful to define β = ( − α1 )( − α 2 ) ... . 1− β Putting this all together we find that
⎛ E2 1 − α 1 α 2 ⎞ E α 2 1 E2 − ⎜ ⎟ = 1−β 1−β ⎠ ⎝
is absorbed by 1. 1− β
as the final expression for heat transfer between gray. ε 1 = α1 for any gray surface (Kirchhoff's Law).
q net 1
ε σT ε − ε2σT2 ε1 = 1 1 2 ε1 + ε2 − ε1ε2
. so from Equation (9. planar. α2 = 1.⋅
q net 1
= E1 −
E1 1 − α 2 α1 1− β
E2α1 E1 − E1 1 − α1 − α 2 + α1α2 − E1α1 + E1α1α2 − E2α1 = 1− β 1 − 1 − α1 − α 2 + α1α2
q net 1
E1α 2 − E2α1 . and E2 = σT4.4)
E1 E 2 = = f (T) .
E1 = σT 4 α1
ε 1σT 4 = σT 4 α1
Therefore. we would have q = 0. α1 α 2
If body 2 is black. again. Using Kirchhoff's Law we find. surfaces:
⋅ 4 4 σ⎛ T1 − T2 ⎞ ⎝ ⎠ .4)
& If T1 = T2 . α1 + α 2 − α1α2
(9. = 1 1 + −1 ε1 ε2
q net 1
04 80 k∆T k∆T so a thickness L = ⋅ = = 0.
. if we had cork insulation with k = 0.Example 1: Use of a thermos bottle to reduce heat transfer Silvered Walls
Inside of thermos (hot fluid)
Outside of thermos (Cold)
ε1 = ε2 = 0.
Example 2: Temperature measurement error due to radiation heat transfer Thermocouples (see Figure 9. what thickness would be needed?
0.6) are commonly used to measure temperature.02
q1 to 2
For the same ∆T. The thermos is indeed a L 6.02 for silvered walls
T1 = 100 °C = 373 K T2 = 20 °C = 293 K
⋅ 4 4 σ⎛ T1 − T2 ⎞ ⎝ ⎠ 1100 − 420 W = = 6.02 0.04.9 2 = 1 1 99 m + −1 0.9 q good insulator. Consider a black thermocouple in a chamber with black walls.47 m would be needed. There can be errors due to heat transfer by radiation.
m K What temperature does the thermocouple read? We use a heat (energy) balance on the control surface shown in Figure 9.7: Effect of radiation heat transfer on measured temperature. (Conduction heat transfer along the thermocouple wires is neglected here.)
Heat in (radiation) Heat out (convection)
Figure 9.6: Thermocouple used to measure temperature Suppose the air is at 20 °C.7. The heat balance states that heat convected away is equal to heat radiated into the thermocouple in steady state. and the convective heat transfer coefficient is W h = 15 2 . the walls are at 100 °C. although it would be included for accurate measurements.T1 metal 1 metal 2
Measured Voltage T2
Note: The measured voltage is related to the difference between T1 and T2 (the latter is a known temperature). Figure 9. HT-61
21) Still muddy about thermocouples.23)
9.8: Shielding a thermocouple to reduce radiation heat transfer error
Muddy points Which bodies does the radiation heat transfer occur between in the thermocouple?(MP HT. The thermocouple thus sees a higher temperature than the air. a given object 1 radiates to object 2.67 x 10 ⎛ 373 − Ttc ⎞ ⎝ ⎠
from which we find Ttc = 51 °C = 324 K. as shown in Figure 9.4 Radiation Heat Transfer Between Black Surfaces of Arbitrary Geometry
< 100 ϒC 100 ϒC
where A is the area of the thermocouple.The heat balance is
4 4 hA Ttc − Tair = σA⎛ Twall − Ttc ⎞ ⎝ ⎠
. We could reduce this error by shielding the thermocouple as shown in Figure 9. (MP HT.8. for any two objects in space. Substituting the numerical values gives
4 -8 4 15 Ttc − 293 = 5.9. and to other places as well.22) Why does increasing the local flow velocity decrease the temperature error for the thermocouple? (MP HT.
j. Thus A1 F1-2 = A2 F2-1. The net energy interchange from body 1 to body 2 is
Eb1 A1 F1-2 .8)
. If so. T1 Body 1
Figure 9. For the situation in Figure 9.10: Radiation between two arbitrary surfaces For body 1. we know that Eb is the emissive power of a black body. so the energy leaving body 1 is Eb1 A1. Fi . This is given by the radiation shape factor or view factor. The energy leaving body 1 and arriving (and being absorbed) at body 2 is Eb1 A1 F1-2.9: Radiation between two bodies We want a general expression for energy interchange between two surfaces at different temperatures.Eb2 A2 F2-1 = Q1− 2 .7)
F1-2 = fraction of energy leaving 1 which reaches 2 F2 -1 = fraction of energy leaving 2 which reaches 1 F1-2 . Suppose both surfaces are at the same temperature so there is no net heat exchange.Eb2 A2 F2-1 = 0. F2 -1 are functions of geometry only
A 2 . T2
A 1 . but also Eb1 = Eb2. Eb1 A1 F1-2 . The energy leaving body 2 and being absorbed at body 1 is Eb2 A2 F2-1.
(9.elsewhere Qnet T2
7) is the shape factor reciprocity relation.
Q 2 −1 = A2 F2 −1 Eb2 − Eb1 = A1F1− 2 Eb2 − Eb1 = A Eb2 − Eb1
View factors for other configurations can be found analytically or numerically.12 through 9. i. The net heat exchange between the two surfaces is
Q1− 2 = A1F1− 2 Eb1 − Eb2
) [or A2F2−1(Eb1 − Eb2 )]
Example: Concentric cylinders or concentric spheres T2
T1 Figure 9. taken from the book by Incropera and DeWitt.11: Radiation heat transfer for concentric cylinders or spheres The net heat transfer from surface 1 to surface 2 is
Q1− 2 = A1F1− 2 Eb1 − Eb2 . that all of the energy emitted by 1 gets to 2. and examples of the analytical forms and numerical values of shape factors for some basic engineering configurations are given in Figures 9.e. Shape factors are given in textbooks and reports (they are tabulated somewhat like Laplace transforms).Equation (9. Thus
Q1− 2 = A1 Eb1 − Eb2
) ( ) ( )
This can be used to find the net heat transfer from 2 to 1.
We know that F1-2 = 1.
0. clean Platinum Pure.7 0.0. 98% pure Commercial sheet Heavily oxidized Brass Highly polished Dull plate Oxidized Copper Highly polished electrolytic Slightly polished.0.0.12 0. polished Sheet steel. polished Iron and Steel Mild steel.19 0.260 40 40 40 .95 .480 40 .260 40 40 20 .360 40 230 .200 40 .540 40 0 40 .97 .590 40 .0.8 .0.900 40 .22 0.1370 200 40 .1 0.98 0.0.0.29 0.96 0.1 0.2 .07 .05 .94 0.0.93 0.8 .83 0.0.0.9 0.95 0.540 260 . smooth Wrought iron.8 .0.75 0.94 .95 0.590 260 .63 0.11 .03 0. polished plate Oxidized at 590oC Drawn wire and strips Silver Tin Tungsten Filament Filament
Metals Temperature ( o C) 200 .1:Total emittances for different surfaces [Adapted from: A Heat Transfer Textbook.90 540 .38 0.12 .53 0.04 .33 0. rough lime Quartz Rubber Snow Water.0.14 .260 90 40 40 90 .92 .15 0.0.16 0.20 40 40 20 0.91 0.260 40 .0.66 0.600 90 90 .59 0.92 0.260 100 .04 0.57 .0. dull oxidized Stainless.82 0.76 0.260 40 . polished Stainless.8 . oxidized Iron.32 0.97 0.89 .90 200 .66 0.9
Table 9. Lienhard]
.94 0.07 .92 .9 0.0.39
Surface Asbestos Brick Red.08 0. planed 0.1000 40 10 . thickness Wood Oak.1mm
Nonmetals Temperature ( o C) 40 40 980 9980 1090 980 1090 1040 .74 0.89 .46 .0.06 0.1090 2760 0.035 0.0.0.05 0.0.93 .0.94 0.0.56 0.1 .94 0. rusted Wrought iron.95 .94 0.9 0.0.01 . rolled Sheet steel.0.02 .75 0.0.0.58 0.86 .85 0. after repeated heating Lead Polished Oxidized Mercury: pure.600 150 .0. Rough Silica Fireclay Ordinary refractory Magnesite refractory White refractory Carbon Filament Lampsoot Concrete.93 0.98 0.0.540 260 40 . strong rough oxide Cast iron. rough Glass Smooth Quartz glass (2mm) Pyrex Gypsum Ice Limestone Marble Mica Paints Black gloss White paint Lacquer Various oil paints Red lead Paper White Other colors Roofing Plaster.07 . J.260 40 40 40 40 40 40 90 40 40 40 40 .5 .11 0.95 0.8 0. to dull Black oxidized Gold: pure.93 .66 0.Surface Aluminum Polished.1430 40 40 40 260 .85 0.05 .02 0.0.0.17 0.0.61 .97 0.96 0.09 0.0.0.96 .04 .35 0. polished Steel.
12: View Factors for Three . DeWitt.6--View factor for perpendicular rectangles with a common edge [from: Fundamentals of Heat Transfer. Incropera and D.Figure 9. 13.13: Fig.15: Fig 13. F.5--View factor for coaxial parallel disk Figure 9.4--View factor for aligned parallel rectangles Figure 9. John Wiley and Sons]
.14: Fig 13.Dimensional Geometries Figure 9.P.P.
P. R. A Heat Transfer Textbook.. 1987. Lienhard..Heat Transfer References
Eckert. M. Wiley. Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer. McGraw Hill Book Company. 1987. Prentice-Hall. F. R. M. D. P. F. G. A. H. and Dewitt. Heat Transfer. and Drake. 1959. Analysis of Heat and Mass Transfer.. and Drake. 1992. Eckert. E. Hemisphere Pub.. J. Mills. Heat and Mass Transfer. Incropera. R. G. E.
.. Irwin. R. Corp.. 1990.
say.Muddiest points on heat transfer
HT. we would not have to consider convection. Two factor contribute. HT.
. we need some basics of the kinetic theory of gases.1 How do we quantify the contribution of each mode of heat transfer in a given situation? Developing the insight necessary to address the important parts of a complex situation (such as turbine heat transfer) and downplay (neglect or treat approximately) the other aspects is part of having a solid working knowledge of the fundamentals.4 What do you mean by continuous? The meaning is similar to the definition you have seen in the math subjects.2 How specific do we need to be about when the one-dimensional assumption is valid? Is it enough to say that dA/dx is small? The answer really is “be specific enough to enable one to have faith in the analysis or at least some idea of how good the answer is”. To say this in a more physical manner. For example if there were a vacuum between the two surfaces in the thermos bottle. For now. For the gases mentioned above the dominant factor appears to be the velocity. whether we approach location a from the left or from the right. The kinetic energy per molecule at a given temperature is the same and so the lower the molecular weight the higher the average molecular velocity. the collision cross section and the average molecular velocity. is a reasonable criterion. because otherwise every problem will seem very complex. This is an important issue. the temperature as a function of x has the same value at x = a. but often the situation is more subtle. Benjamin/Cummings Publishers. Physical Chemistry. HT. This is a challenge that comes up a great deal. A reference for this is Castellan. if we say that A is an area defined per unit depth normal to the blackboard then saying dA/dx is small. which is a statement involving a non-dimensional parameter. Sometimes one can rule out one or two modes on the basis of the problem statement. A way to state it is that the function at a given location has the same value as we approach the location independent of the direction we approach from. One way to sort out what is important is to make order of magnitude estimates (similar to what we did to answer when the one-dimensional heat transfer approximation was appropriate) to see whether all three modes have to be considered. it will have no “jumps” or discontinuous (step) changes in value. 1986. HT.3 Why is the thermal conductivity of light gases such as helium (monoatomic) or hydrogen (diatomic) much higher than heavier gases such as argon (monoatomic) or nitrogen (diatomic)? To answer this. In terms of what the function looks like.
If we now add bolts to
. with the interface truly a sharp plane. there would be a finite temperature difference across an infinitesimal distance. across an interface the heat flux is continuous. If the heat flux is continuous. for a thin control volume that encloses the interface the net heat flow into the control volume is zero. the contribution from the heat flux at the upper and lower ends of the control volume is negligible so the heat flux in one side must be the same as the flux out of the other. is not the same in the two materials. is related to the temperature gradient by dT r q = − k∇T . and if ⎝ dx ⎠ the thermal conductivity. there was a different temperature on the two sides of an interface between two materials. If so. q x = − k ⎛ ⎞ . for one-dimension.HT. the approximation made is that the bolt and the wood are both exposed to the same conditions at the two sides of the wall.
HT. HT. It has a certain heat resistance. This argument could also be applied to any location inside a solid of uniform composition.6 Why is the temperature gradient dT/dx not continuous? As derived in class. As sketched below.e. The relative areas of the bolt and the wood indeed do matter. however.5 Why is temperature continuous in the composite wall problem? Why is it continuous at the interface between two materials? We can argue this point by supposing T were not continuous. From the first law. leading to a very large (infinite in the limit) heat flux which would immediately erase the temperature difference. or. Suppose we consider a square meter area of wood without bolts. k. guaranteeing that the temperature is continuous in each material. then dT/dx is not continuous.. The heat flux. i.7 Why is ∆T the same for the two elements in a parallel thermal circuit? Doesn't the relative area of the bolt to the wood matter? In terms of the bolt through the wood wall.
The thermal ⎛ ⎞ resistance of the wood will be increased by a factor of ⎜ Awithout / Awith ⎟ . If there are n bolts. if the value of the resistance is affected by the surface condition (smooth. and it is found that for the same state variables.
the wall.10 In what situations does the Reynolds analogy "not work"? The Reynolds Analogy is just that. the concepts are deeper than that. or measured experimentally where we cannot compute it. HT. as briefly discussed in class) for application to these situations.8 How do we know that δ' is not a fluid property?
⎛ δ ′⎞ The term ⎜ ⎟ represents the resistance to heat transfer for a unit area. surface condition. but it is not strictly µc p applicable if there are pressure gradients. It is not a law of nature.Lbolt . and the effective area will be n times the area for one bolt. In the form we have derived it. Put another way. However. it can have a range of values of several orders of magnitude depending on the parameters I described (Reynolds number. corrugated. the amount by which the heat transfer is increased depends on the fractional area with low thermal resistance compared to the fractional area with high thermal resistance. surface shape…). the conceptual framework provided by the analogy has been found useful enough that the analogy has been extended (in a more complex form. the resistance of each bolt is Rbolt =
In summary. bumpy.
. which is larger ⎝ bolts n bolts ⎠ than unity. The analogy is drawn between the heat transfer process (transfer of heat represented by heat flux) and the momentum transfer process (transfer of momentum represented by shear stress) HT.9 What is the "analogy" that we are discussing? Is it that the equations are similar? While the equations are similar. they will be kbolt Abolt in parallel. but rather a plausible hypothesis that allows useful estimation of the heat transfer coefficients in many situations in which little or no explicit heat transfer information exists. The resistance to ⎝k⎠ heat transfer per unit area (1/heat transfer coefficient) can be computed for cases of laminar flow. etc. the Reynolds Analogy is appropriate for use in air. or if the Prandtl number ( Pr = ) is not k unity.) how can the resistance be just a property of the fluid?
HT.HT. Even with present computational power. In fact heat could be coming into one side of the heater if one of the temperatures were high enough. what is "r"? The variable r denotes the radial coordinate. We will look at heat transfer by convection in more depth in a few lectures.22). HT.
HT. what would the temperature distribution be if the two side temperatures were not equal? If the two temperatures on the outer surfaces of the composite layer were T1 and T2 . We will concentrate on describing (i) the basic mechanisms of convective heat transfer and (ii) ways of estimating the heat transfer coefficient from known fluid dynamic information. For some circumstances. the heat flux from the two sides of the electrical heater would be different. The K is thus the symbol for Kelvin.11 In the expression
1 . in other words the location of the point at which we want to know the temperature. because it necessitates determining the fluid dynamics. For a turbine blade. but to answer the question in a few sentences. h. Is finding the heat transfer coefficient.14 In the equation for the temperature in a cylinder (3.A
A is the area normal to the heat flow. the latter is key to predictions of heat transfer. The units of Q are & The definition of the resistance comes out of Q = Rthermal Watts/meter2.13 What does the "K" in the contact resistance formula stand for?
& ∆Tdriving . (Sketch this out and prove it to yourself. it would be the outer surface area of the blade.15 For an electric heated strip embedded between two layers. but the sum of the two heat fluxes would still be equal to the heat generated per unit area and unit time. finding the heat transfer coefficient is a difficult problem.) The temperature distribution would be linear from the heater temperature to the two surface temperatures. what is A? h. it is still beyond the state of the art. calculating the flow around aerospace devices with the accuracy needed to be confident about heat transfer coefficients is not by any means a “standard” calculation. please come and see me.12 It seems that we have simplified convection a lot. HT. or degree centigrade. If this example is not clear. so the units of Rthermal are [degrees x meters2/Watts]. for example. really difficult? We have indeed “simplified convection a lot”.
vol. V. J. HT.c. I found it convenient to put it the equation in the form of Eq. HT. 2 Ak dx HT.17 What types of devices use heat transfer fins? A number of types of heat exchangers use fins.5) − (T − T∞ ) = 0 .18 Why did the Stegosaurus have cooling fins? Could the stegosaurus have "heating fins"? My knowledge of this issue extends only to reading about it in the text by Lienhard (see reference in notes). no.T∞ ) d2T HT. does a high density "slow down" heat transfer? It doesn’t.20 In the lumped parameter transient heat transfer problem..19 In equation Q in = ρ. unlike a gas.3) − (T − T∞ ) = 0 2 Ak dx It is not necessary to change variables. Examples of the use of fins you may have seen are cooling fins on motorcycle engine heads.E. However.3) as is d 2T Ph (or in the form T = T∞ ). or cooling fins on air conditioners.5). D. 4244. Thompson. 192.. The journal article referenced in that text is: Farlow.
dT (6.. We don’t have to differentiate between the two specific heats for a solid because the volume changes are very small. since: (1) the reference temperature is T∞ . and (3) the derivative of T − T∞ is the same as the derivative of T .
. C. 1976. HT. cooling fins on electric power transformers. d 2 (T − T∞ ) Ph (5.3). pp. Science.d 2 (T . This is d 2T Ph (5.3) is given in Section 5.0 of the notes. high density means more “heat capacity”.V.16 Why did you change the variable and write the derivative as in dx 2 dx 2 the equation for heat transfer in the fin?
The heat balance and derivation of the equation for temperature (5. (5. The high density slows down the rate at which the object changes temperature. 1123-1125 and cover. O. − 2 Ak dx and what is of interest is the difference T − T∞ . (2) making the substitution results in a simpler form of the equation to be solved. what is c? dt
c is the specific heat for a unit mass. and Rosner. “Plates of the Dinosaur Stegosaurus: Forced Convection Heat Loss Fins?. and one could solve (5.
If we neglect conduction from the wire junction (in other words assume the thermocouple wires are thin and long). The discussion was about different possible sources of this type of error. The assumption is that the temperature of the junction is the temperature that is of interest. that the heat transfer may be estimated using the Reynolds analogy (Section 3. If the boundaries are not at the same temperature as the fluid. if we take a pair of dissimilar wires (say copper and constantan (an alloy of tin and several other metals) or platinum and rhodium) which are joined at both ends and subject the two junctions to a temperature difference. For fixed skin friction coefficient the higher the velocity the higher the heat transfer coefficient. The boundaries may not be at the same temperature of the flowing fluid. We have seen. HT. the heat balance is between convection heat transfer and radiation heat & transfer. As on page 59 of the notes.HT. the possible error in this thinking is the subject of muddy point 1.21 Which bodies does the radiation heat transfer occur between in the thermocouple? The radiation heat transfer was between the walls (or more generally the boundaries of the duct) and the thermocouple. and they radiate to the thermocouple. for example in a turbine.22 Still muddy about thermocouples. there can be an error in the temperature that the thermocouple reads. HT.
. For a fixed Qconvection if the heat transfer increases the temperature difference between the thermocouple and the fluid decreases. it is found that a voltage difference will be created.1). If we know the temperature of one junction (say by use of an ice bath) and we know the relation between voltage and temperature difference (these have been measured in detail) we can find the temperature of the other junction from measurement of the voltage.23 Why does increasing the local flow velocity decrease the temperature error for the thermocouple?
& T The heat transferred by convection is Qconvection = h( thermocouple − T fluid ). I didn’t mean to strew confusion about these. however.