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December 7, 2011
Capital Bikeshare: The Growth, Success, and Challenges of Urban Bikesharing A year to the day after launching, Capital Bikeshare (CaBi) celebrated its one-millionth ride, far exceeding initial projections.1 The bicycle-sharing network’s momentous success and the ubiquity of red bicycles around the Washington, DC region highlight an innovative development for moving residents, tourists, and commuters around major cities. As urban cycling in general and bikeshare programs in particular continue to expand throughout the nation’s major urban cores, decisions made by planners, communities, and businesses must be informed by a range of important considerations. What is Capital Bikeshare? Capital Bikeshare is a network of rentable bikes that can be unlocked, ridden, and docked at stations around Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia (Appendix A)2. Each station comes equipped with several bicycle docking stations, a solar-powered automated kiosk for station information and rental transactions, and a map alerting users to other nearby stations (Appendix B). Users can purchase daily subscriptions for $7 (initially $5), three-day memberships for $15 (initially 5 days), monthly subscriptions for $25, and annual subscriptions for $75. While the first 30 minutes of any ride are
1Photo Credit: Capital Bikeshare. DC Department of Transportation. Capital Bikeshare Hits One Million Rides on First Anniversary. September 20, 2011. http://www.dc.gov/DC/DDOT/About+DDOT/News+Room/Press+Releases/Capital+Bi keshare+Hits+One+Million+Rides+on+First+Anniversary (accessed September 29, 2011). 2 DC Department of Transportation. Capital Bikeshare. http://www.dc.gov/DC/DDOT/On+Your+Street/Bicycles+and+Pedestrians/Bicycles/Bi cycle+Sharing (accessed September 29, 2011).
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included in the base price, additional fees accrue for longer rides (Appendix C). However the proximity of stations allows users to ‘daisy-chain’ rides, meaning a user can dock a bike approaching the 30-minute mark and immediately unlock the bike again to restart the clock. If a rider returns a bike to a station without any available docks, they can ‘check-in’ digitally for a 15-minute extension to eturn the bike to an empty dock at a nearby station. Daily and three-day users receive an access code from the station kiosk to unlock bikes around the region. Monthly and annual riders receive keys digitally linked to their credit-card and online user account. With the spread of smartphones and Internet-enabled devices, Capital Bikeshare promotes a downloadable application called Spotcycle that allows users to see their location relative to bike stations as well as the current dock openings and available bikes at any station in the network. In addition, DC’s Department of Transportation (DDOT) integrates CaBi into its goDCgo online transit tool. Demonstrated Demand for Bikesharing On September 20, Washington, DC and Arlington, VA launched CaBi and in its first year of operation deployed more than 1100 bikes and 110 stations.3 The system gained substantial notoriety as the first of its scale in the country and experience overwhelming success in a short period of time. According to DDOT, program managers aimed for “8,000 members in the first year and hoped they would take 500,000 rides.”4 Within eight months, the system recorded its 500,000th ride on June 1st.5 Four months later, that number doubled, reaching one million rides by more than 18,000 members
3Photo Credit: Bike Arlington DC Department of Transportation. Capital Bikeshare. http://www.dc.gov/DC/DDOT/On+Your+Street/Bicycles+and+Pedestrians/Bicycles/Bi cycle+Sharing (accessed September 29, 2011). 4 DC Department of Transportation. Capital Bikeshare Hits One Million Rides on First Anniversary. September 20, 2011. http://www.dc.gov/DC/DDOT/About+DDOT/News+Room/Press+Releases/Capital+Bi keshare+Hits+One+Million+Rides+on+First+Anniversary (Accessed September 29, 2011). 5 Hendel, John. Capital Bikeshare officially hits 500,000 trips. June 1, 2011. http://www.tbd.com/blogs/tbd-on-foot/2011/06/capital-bikeshare-officially-reacheshalf-a-million-trips-11173.html (Accessed November 15, 2011).
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http://greatergreaterwashington. For CaBi member Lauren Statman.nytimes. Chairman of the Arlington County Board and CaBi board member Jay Fisette. David. September 20. 2011) 9 Goodman. May 12. 2010. 3 Allen – PPOL 614 . I was at the annual Adams Morgan Day festival where I saw CaBi representatives soliciting information on the upcoming program’s launch.6 At its one-year birthday.79 million miles. In the first year. Capital Bikeshare was the solution to a number of my transportation problems. It’s about a basket with milk and other groceries. It’s about every day on your way to work. Alexandria’s Director of the Department of Transportation and Environmental Services. After talking to them about how the program worked and the pricing structure.David Allen December 7.8 In addition. Bike Sharing Expands in Washington. Right before my graduate school program started in the fall of 2010.asp?article= %20350722&paper=59&cat=104 (Accessed November 15.” according to Rich Baier. http://www. riders pedaled approximately 1. “It’s not about spandex shorts. http://green. attributed part of the system’s widespread success to the introduction of urban bicycling to average residents and riders. David.”9 Personally. http://fastlane.000 casual riders (usually tourists). and people see that pretty clearly. September 27.”7 By locating numerous Capital Bikeshare stations in dense neighborhoods and near robust transit locations. Capital Bikeshare’s first year results exceed expectations.org/post/12176/capital-bikeshares-firstyear-results-exceed-expectations/ (Accessed November 15.com/article. 2011) 7 US Department of Transportation. 2011. “it seems cool because you don’t have to commit…It removes all the headaches of ownership. “Capital Bikeshare celebrates one remarkable year. I live in Adams Morgan but work in a business park in Alexandria. 2011.gov/2011/09/capital-bikeshare.blogs. 8 Pope. 2011). It’s not about thousands of dollars on the latest gadget.” September 23. CaBi “helps solve the lastmile problem of commuters getting to their destination.com/2010/09/20/bike-sharing-expands-in-washington/ (accessed November 12. J.connectionnewspapers. 2011. 6 C.html (Accessed 13 October 2011). including the purchase and maintenance costs as well as concerns surrounding theft. 2011 and 70.dot. BikeShare Under Consideration. Michael. I tested out one of the bikes and signed up immediately. CaBi effectively reduces several of the principal barriers to entry preventing people from buying and using bikes around the city.
Kathy.washingtonpost. the BikeShare program – in combination with Metro. August 15. Christy. http://www. I sold my car and haven’t looked back. 2011 For me. May 23.html (accessed October 13.com/wpdyn/content/article/2010/05/21/AR2010052102745. A month after signing up for CaBi and using the bikes to get comfortable with cycling in a major city. I save thousands annually in loan. 2011. The program’s continued success and network expansion is a good sign that many others find similar value in the program. and to alleviate worries about CaBi bike availability. 11 Park. http://www. MD. http://www. the ability to hop on a bike at one station and drop it off at another meant that I could metro to work in the morning (rather than driving) and metro at night to Dupont Circle or Rosslyn. and fuel costs as well as the invaluable health impacts of regular rigorous exercise.html (Accessed October 13. Alexandria to join Capital Bikeshare.html (Accessed October 13.com/articles/2011/08/capital-bikeshare-to-expand-tomontgomery-county-65171.”12 10 Sullivan. using CaBi to get to class and back.C.washingtonpost. and ZipCar – was the final step to relieving my car dependence. other cities in the region are hoping to latch onto the success of the CaBi program by launching their own CaBi compatible systems including Alexandria.David Allen December 7. October 11. 2011. 4 Allen – PPOL 614 . 2011). casual rides on longer trails.11 With foresight of the program’s likely success.com/local/alexandria-to-join-capitalbikeshare/2011/10/11/gIQA4OOudL_story. maintenance.. Patricia. I decided to buy my own bike for major excursions. Capital Bikeshare to expand to Montgomery County. Regional Expansion Within the current network. 2010. 2011). Expanded bike-sharing program to link D. Arlington. VA10 and Montgomery County. After several months using Capital Bikeshare to make quick jaunts around the city. Arlington’s Commuter Services Chief said the contract for CaBi was written specifically so “other jurisdictions can easily be added. 2011). The program has been nothing short of transformative for me and without a car.tbd. Washington and Arlington plan to install 60 more stations and hundreds of bikes over the next six months to meet user demand. DC Circulators. Beyond that. For me. 12 Goodman. I still use CaBi to get around different parts of the city and find it often takes less time than any other form of public transit.
Fifty bikeshare stations planned for stations along the Red Line. Notably. Despite the fact that they have been trying to launch a bikesharing initiative since 2008. to join the regional network. Regardless. 2011 Alexandria’s City Council voted unanimously.00 annually because of pressing demands to replace aging DASH busses.David Allen December 7. http://www.000 in the first year as a pilot demonstration of 6 stations and 108 bikes and re-evaluate expansion plans in subsequent years (Appendix G). Memorandum: CMAQ-RSTP Projects for FY2013-2017. “Parking Technologies.net/article/20111130/NEWS/711309033/1081/fiftybikeshare-stations-planned-for-stations-along-the-red-line&template=gazette (Accessed December 4th. 2011). cost-effective and efficient way to move through…compact. the city backed away from initial appropriations nearing $400.gazette. Alexandria will fund the network with $400. 2011).wtop. dense areas of mixed used development. Ari.com/?nid=41&sid=2588064 (Accessed October 13.” It is unclear if this is a reflection of the relative costs of different systems or if the city’s priorities are not effectively aligned to its resource allocation.pdf (Accessed October 13. Instead. http://alexandriava. Kristi. 2011. March 2. the prominence of cycling initiatives in the CMAQ request (priorities 2 and 3) conflicts with funding levels below that of the city’s lowest priority. Capital Bikeshare comes to Alexandria. the City’s request demonstrates the value of the system as “a practical. 2011).15 13 Ashe. November 30. 2011. October 12. the city has only recently been able to secure sufficient funding including a $1. 7-0. 14 City of Alexandria. http://www. Virginia.”14 Montgomery County similarly is also planning to place 200 bikes and 20 stations along Metro corridors in Rockville and Shady Grove. 15 Tousignant. however. 2011.3 million grant made available by the Federal Transit Administration and funds specifically carved out for bikesharing programs by Maryland Governor Martin O’ Malley. 5 Allen – PPOL 614 . according to City Councilman Rob Krupicka. advanced by the fact that Alexandria has “the largest number of residents who bike to work every day of any area in the region.gov/uploadedFiles/tes/info/2011-03-02%20Agenda %20Item%204%20FY2013-2017%20RSTP-CMAQ%20Schedule.13 While the bikesharing initiative was identified as the second of nine priorities in its FY12-17 Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement (CMAQ) funding request.
the Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments (COG) submitted an application for US Department of Transportation TIGER II grant funding on behalf of Washington.” As the successor to the first government-sponsored bikesharing program in the country (also in Washington. August 23. COG explained how the system reflected a growing national need: Innovative. DC build out the CaBi network that regional integration was a key component of the system from its initial design. DC and surrounding communities in Virginia and Maryland. affordable. 2010. and residential centers. it is a new bike transportation network. and regional and global environmental problems worsen. With significant regional traffic congestion and projections for even worse conditions in the future (20% more vehicle miles travelled by 2030). the application represented the transit needs of many in the DC region: a relatively inexpensive option that could help ease congestion on already crowded roads. DC). COG explained the critical role Capital Bikeshare could play in linking “connections to transit. sustainable forms of transit provision such as bikesharing are increasingly significant and needed as the existing surface transportation system continues to come under strain.” that with Mayor Adrian Fenty’s focus on supporting bike lanes and signals would “provide people with safer routes throughout the city…providing more options and a more balanced approach to transportation.16 In their application. diminish the region’s reliance on fossil 16 Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments.David Allen Vision for Capital Bikeshare December 7.pdf 6 Allen – PPOL 614 . Before the system launched in September 2010.mwcog. COG highlighted the potential for Capital Bikeshare. which embodied “a sustainable. employment centers. A Regional Bike-sharing System for the National Capital Region.” Then DDOT Director Gabe Klein heralded the program’s launch as “not only bikesharing. busses and trains. http://www. and healthy transportation alternative” that would enhance the “livability…and economic competitiveness” of the region. 2011 It’s important to consider as cities surrounding Washington.org/uploads/committeedocuments/bV5YWlxe20100820155649. economic inequity increasingly limits access and opportunity.
Washington. At the time of its publication. is not the first bikeshare program in the area. innovative. September 26. According to COG. Capital Bikeshare was designed to promote economic vitality. would have accelerated the growth of Capital Bikeshare to more than three times the expected initial launch to include over 3500 bikes in 331 stations throughout DC. Part of a $100M set-aside from the contract was for “a computerized bicycle rental program. However. DDOT contracted with ClearChannel Adshel to build 800 bus shelters across the city.gov/show. there was recognition among local leadership that bicycling could be a vital mode of transportation for commuters and individuals. policies. Maryland. equal opportunity. As part of the program. However.aspx/agency/ddot/section/2/release/9291/year/2005/ month/9/page/2 (Accessed October 13. with ClearChannel paying more than $150 million to the city over 20 years for advertising rights in the shelters. and low cost-way. bikesharing “maximizes existing infrastructure by extending the reach of rail and bus transit in an effective.dc.” The COG request.David Allen December 7. and Northern Virginia. 2005 http://newsroom. and improve the health of riders through more physically active forms of transportation. 2011) 7 Allen – PPOL 614 . if funded. USDOT decided to fund other multimodal projects that better met the Recovery Act program’s criteria. Mayor Williams Signs New Bus Shelter Contract. and public education programs. especially those 17 DC Department of Transportation. only two full time positions within DDOT were focused on bicycles. while successfully deployed as a regional entity. DC initially laid out plans for the country’s first bicycle-sharing program in 2005 as part of Mayor Anthony Williams’ Great Streets initiative. and environmental quality by replacing other modes of transit for trips under three miles (17% of current commuter trips and 30% of all non-work trips) as well as the ‘last mile’ of longer transit trips.”17 This followed the release of the District of Columbia Bicycle Master Plan in April of 2005 that made recommendations for better bicycle facilities. Capital Bikeshare’s History It is also important to recognize that Capital Bikeshare. 2011 fuels.
Bike Sharing Kicks Into High Gear. 2011 without access to a car. who managed the SmartBike DC program. 37% of DC households did not own a vehicle – almost four times the national average. by targeting a small class of riders and a small geographic space. By implementing the program in select neighborhoods. It's a great way to get around the city on a nice day. August 13. 19 Silverman. Shaw and Judiciary Square Metrorail stations. Elissa. A ClearChannel Outdoor report from June 2010 noted that average daily ridership for the program was around 133 riders per day (Appendix D) – contrasted with daily Capital Bikeshare averages of well over 4. And it's fun.washingtonpost.20 18 DC Department of Transportation.” To promote the program.000 daily trips. April 2005.gov/DC/DDOT/On+Your+Street/Bicycles+and+Pedestrians/Bicycles/Bi cycle+Sharing (accessed September 29. D. Steve Ginsburg of Clear Channel Outdoor. then bicycle and pedestrian program manager for the District's Department of Transportation. http://www.gov/DC/DDOT/On+Your+Street/Bicycles+and+Pedestrians/Bicycles/Bi cycle+Master+Plan (Accessed September 29. Capital Bikeshare. Despite the limited start. he continued the program’s development and on August 13. DC hoped to build a pilot project that could be scaled throughout the city.dc." Different than Capital Bikeshare. http://www. 2008. http://www. noted that many cities around the country were excited at the prospect of the system.C.dc. District of Columbia Bicycle Master Plan. 2008. 2011).David Allen December 7. Unfortunately. In 2005. 20 DC Department of Transportation. bicycle stations were located by active WMATA Metro and Bus stations as well as new bicycle lanes. especially with increasing gas prices and traffic congestion.html?sid=ST2008081300258 (accessed October 13. Plus they won't have to worry about parking. including near the Gallery Place. SmartBike DC focused initially on experienced riders and discouraged casual and tourist use. SmartBike DC would initially replace “cab rides and car trips for a lot of folks looking to get around the city quickly.18 When Mayor Adrian Fenty came into office in 2007. 2011).com/wpdyn/content/article/2008/08/12/AR2008081202907. no short-term memberships were made available. 8 Allen – PPOL 614 . 2011).19 According to Jim Sebastian. Sebastian explained the DDOT wanted “to start small and start slow…we’re trying to keep this simple at first. Washington launched the SmartBike DC program with 120 bikes and 10 racks located mostly in the downtown area. the program never met DDOT’s expectations.
dc. and Air Quality (CMAQ) program (80%) with Virginia state grants and local contributions from DC and Arlington covering the remainder. Bixi. Capital Bikeshare. Largest Bikeshare Program in the United States. a major segment of individuals making short-distance trips to major areas around DC. 22 21 C.David Allen December 7. Mitigation. 2011 DDOT bike program specialist Chris Holben explained that the limitations of SmartBike DC were three fold. estimated at between 25 and 30 percent of potential ridership at the time. 2011). +Largest+Bikeshare+Program+in+the+United+States. However. By the time SmartBike DC launched. 2011) 9 Allen – PPOL 614 .Capital+Bikeshare. launching today.dc. +Largest+Bikeshare+Program+in+the+United+States. Virginia had similarly started working on its own bicycle-sharing program. a system that would be orders of magnitude larger. http://www. 2010.21 According to a DC news release.org/post/7194/capital-bikesharelaunching-today-will-change-everything/ (Accessed October 13. neighboring Arlington. will change everything.printhttp://www. 20 September 2011. http://greatergreaterwashington. the limitations of SmartBike DC helped to inform the planning for Capital Bikeshare. and ironically. the absence of short-term memberships prevented their use by tourists. Finally. although contracted through a different provider.gov/DC/DDOT/About+DDOT/News+Room/ci. the ten initial stations proved too geographically constraining for maximum utility. with Alta Bicycle Share contracted to operate the system. the $6M Capital Bikeshare system was funded mainly by the USDOT Federal Highway Administration through the Congestion. DC decided to join with Arlington to expand their system for the launch of Capital Bikeshare in both cities – despite the fact that the bikes and infrastructure were completely different from SmartBike DC. Capital Bikeshare. Secondly. Expansion of the SmartBike DC program encountered hurdles with ClearChannel Outdoor. and ultimately Washington.print (Accessed September 29. First. 22 DC Government Press Release.gov/DC/ DDOT/About+DDOT/News+Room/ci. ClearChannel did little to advertise the program despite being primarily a company centered on building advertising revenues. Local groups such as the Crystal City Business Improvement District (BID) and the Potomac Yard Transportation Management Association (covering both the new Washington National’s park and the new USDOT headquarters) also contributed.Capital+Bikeshare. David. September 20.
especially at peak rush-hour times. with the system expecting to become fully operational little over a month later.pdf (Accessed 15 October 2011). With active advertising campaigns across the district. 10 Allen – PPOL 614 . 24 Miller. Stephen. Across four different corridors. 2011. the rise in bike lanes across the city at the behest of Mayor Fenty and DDOT Director Klein had helped to engender greater private use of bicycling to get around the city in rather large numbers. Capital Bikeshare already had 1200 registered users by launch day ready to take advantage of the first available stations. Capital Bikeshare has implemented rebalancing efforts including specialized vehicles to move vehicles from full to empty stations and the establishment of a “Reverse Rider Reward” program that provides users with an incentive to move vehicles themselves during key times for potential prizes. Bikesharing’s Challenges and Critics One of the main challenges in rapid adoption of a new transit program is the management of rider expectations and ensuring the availability of the service. average ridership had increased both in peak and non-peak hours (Appendix E). 2011 http://www.org/post/10666/would-you-pay-1-for-more-reliablerush-hour-bikeshare/ (Accessed 15 October 2011). Many complain on public forums like Facebook and Twitter about Capital Bikeshare’s inability to keep bikes available at the busiest points of origination or provide open spaces to park at the busiest destinations.24 Part of the problem is also cultural.David Allen December 7. To correct the problem.dc. 2011 Prior to Capital Bikeshare’s launch. District of Columbia Bike Lanes Fact Sheet. The first two thousand annual registrants received t-shirts and marketing materials along with their Capital Bikeshare key (I was one of them – I still have the shirt) – an effort to use early adopters to further promote the system both on their physical person as well as through brand evangelization. Would you pay $1 for more reliable rush hour bikeshare? June 6.gov/DC/DDOT/Publication%20Files/On%20Your %20Street/Bicycles%20and %20Pedestrians/Bicycles/Bike_Lane_Count_Fact_Sheet_2011. especially one more distributed throughout all wards of the city and with more flexible use and payment options. the rise in supporting infrastructure and private use primed many riders to take full advantage of a more institutionalized system. requiring people to understand that the system is 23 DC Department of Transportation. July 4. http://greatergreaterwashington.23 Essentially.
Initial ridership in the first three months of Capital Bikeshare’s implementation led many to question why usage of the system east of the Potomac was so low relative to other areas (Appendix F). challenges remain for bikeshare programs in DC and elsewhere: • Equitable Access. more affluent corridors. 2011 focused on bike sharing rather than a guaranteed form of transportation – just like metro trains and busses are often oversubscribed (Appendix I).and middle-income families in the area. To ensure access to all residents. 11 Allen – PPOL 614 .25 ➢ Capital Bikeshare has worked to revise station placement and gain input on future expansion through a range of transportation planning analyses and public outreach activities including interactive digital surveys26 and public town hall meetings in both Washington and Arlington. Veronica.org/post/9020/why-is-capital-bikeshare-usage-loweast-of-the-river/ (Accessed 15 October 2011). DDOT has also worked with local financial institutions to ensure that residents are able to open bank accounts with credit cards that can be used to join and rent from either Capital Bikeshare’s virtual storefront or directly at kiosks. David. While DDOT did conduct public outreach the summer before the program launched.org/post/6215/tell-ddot-where-you-want-acapital-bikeshare-location/ (Accessed September 29. Despite success.David Allen December 7. While the geographic separation from the city’s urban core by the river and the topography of the area may play a role. 2010). many of the events where DDOT hosted bikeshare information may have reached a larger proportion of middle-aged and elderly residents who are less likely to use the system. Why is Capital Bikeshare usage low east of the river? January 31. some have called for greater public education about the system and its potential benefits for residents in these areas. some speculate that the annual membership rate of $75 may be too much of an upfront cost for low. 2010. ensuring access to residents who live outside of downtown and across the Potomac presents a significant challenge. http://greatergreaterwashington. June 17. In addition. 25 Davis. http://greatergreaterwashington. Tell DDOT where you want a Capital Bikeshare location. Especially as many of the stations are designed to support riders in busy. 2011. 26 Alpert.
html (Accessed November 15. critics will continue to challenge public funding for bikeshare programs as a lower priority. including federally funded bike sharing programs.tbd.connectionnewspapers. 2011 • Program Costs. governments have yet to make a profit on the system. but there’s an economy of scale that will take place as the program gets bigger. 2011) 28 Hendel. One of the biggest hurdles to continued regional expansion is the cost associated with buying. Cantor stated “one reason for the [deficit] has been federal spending on projects that don’t involve highways or transit systems at all. the initial costs can be substantial (Appendix H).asp?article= %20350722&paper=59&cat=104 (Accessed November 15. http://www. 2011. 2011) 12 Allen – PPOL 614 . 2011.”27 Especially as government funding at all levels becomes increasingly scarce. as with any new program. it will be crucial for programs like Capital Bikeshare to continue demonstrating that the system is not supporting urban cycling as a recreational hobby. John.com/article. Earlier in the year. and replacing CaBi components (bikes. the initial cost of a pilot will be more than a fully developed system. GOP House leader Eric Cantor doesn’t like Capital Bikeshare.”28 In coming years. BikeShare Under Consideration.000. http://www. 27 Pope. Federal and state grants have helped with much of the initial capital expenditures but rider dues and overage fees do not yet cover the full operations and maintenance (O&M) cost of the service. However. May 12. Michael.000 in annual station O&M costs. and an additional $23. docks) as well as overall system operations. According to Michael Farrell.David Allen December 7. August 29. In depicting the diminished availability of Highway Trust Fund resources. a transportation planner with the Washington COG “the operation is not at the break-even point yet. although relatively cheaper to other transit systems like busses and rail. With each station costing nearly $50. Congressional Republicans including House Majority Leader Eric Cantor (VA) and Senator Rand Paul (KY) led a campaign targeting use of Highway Trust Fund money to support “transportation enhancements” that can include cycling infrastructure.com/blogs/tbd-onfoot/2011/08/gop-house-leader-eric-cantor-doesn-t-like-capital-bikeshare12558. maintaining. but rather has become a central component of any city’s public transit portfolio. Many have noted that despite overwhelming success.
DC Community Partnership Initiative. Similarly. Bendix. Washington. Executive Vice President of the development firm Boston Global Investors.walmartwashingtondc. SmartBike DC.”29 Walmart.” \ Montgomery County’s roll out of Capital Bikeshare stations includes an agreement from the Chevy Chase Land Company to pay for two 29 MacDonald.30 Arlington has already integrated bikeshare sponsorships directly into its zoning process as part of requirements for a “transit-related improvements package. 2011 ➢ The first solution to ensuring a bikesharing program’s financial viability is to promote adoption in dense urban areas. as bikesharing programs advance. agreed to set aside more than $2 million for Capital Bikeshare stations and other supporting infrastructure like bike lanes and parking racks. D. http://www. According to Kevin R. DC has already had problems with when compared to international programs (Appendix J). ➢ To augment public resources. as a publicly funded organization.pdf 13 Allen – PPOL 614 . bikesharing stations are becoming a mainstay of major residential and commercial properties because it gives the developer “an anchor in the community and connects our property to the rest of the city. 2011.com/assets/DC-Community-PartnershipInitiative-copy. It’s important to remember that Capital Bikeshare’s predecessor in DC.David Allen December 7.C. developers can pay to expand stations and bikes as part of the amenities they offer – especially attractive to young urban professionals. in its negotiations to expand into Washington. bikesharing programs like CaBi can still look to major companies to buy advertising or sponsorships much in the same way firms sponsor ballparks or in which Metro has considered selling naming rights to its stations.com/commute/2011/11/bike-share-stationsponsorship-dance/595/ (Accessed December 4. Now. http://www. November 29. Christine. who are increasingly more likely to rent bikes and car than they are to buy. was paid for and operated completely by an advertising firm – ClearChannel Adshel. with six major retail properties. many cities are seeking innovative funding programs like sponsorships as well as advertising on bikes and stations. 30 Walmart. an issue Washington.theatlanticcities. 2011). The Bike Share Station Sponsorship Dance.
drivers. 2011.com/blogs/capitalland/2011/11/developer-offers-fund-2-moco-bikeshare-stations/1962276 14 Allen – PPOL 614 . When Mayor Rahm Emmanuel was elected in Chicago. it’s clear the Capital Bikeshare program has been a phenomenal success. he hired DDOT Director Gabe Klein to lead Chicago’s Department of Transportation in the hopes that Klein could replicate Capital Bikeshare’s success directly. Chicago. and pedestrians. Other cities including Boston. With demonstrated demand. While the developer agreed to pay the upfront $56. Since joining. and New York City have similarly moved to establish larger bikeshare networks modeled on many of the lessons learned from Capital Bikeshare. 31 Capital Bikeshare: Leading the Way By doubling ridership over initial projections during the program’s first year. from sustainability goals including easing traffic congestion to improving public health through from increased physical activity. Montgomery County is required to pay the annual operating costs at about $25. November 30. Kytja. Ensuring a Place for Cycling in the City 31 Weir. 2011 stations.000 station costs. The confluence of events leading to the launch of Capital Bikeshare as well as overwhelming user-demand demonstrate a range of opportunities and challenges that planners and operators must address going forward to provide adequate service and multi-modal flexibility while also ensuring public safety of riders. By exploring the lessons learned in Capital Bikeshare’s first year.David Allen December 7. http://washingtonexaminer. cities around the United States are designing their own bikeshare programs in hopes of providing an alternate form of public transit that can help advance a range of public policy goals. one near the Bethesda metro stop and one in Friendship Heights. other city planners and bikeshare providers can further mature and tailor systems to the demographic and geographic contours of a given region. Chicago has decided to move forward with a large campaign of supporting infrastructure like bike-lanes and safety upgrades before their bikeshare program rolls out in summer 2012. Developer offers to fund 2 MontCo bikeshare stations.000 each.
By building Context Sensitive Solution companions for AASHTO’s design-focused “Green Book. “one cannot turn a blind eye on a bicycle – they must acknowledge their community – all of it. However. 2011). The Real Reason why Bicycles are the Key to Better Cities. 2011 Kasey Klimes. using public space more efficiently.” 32 (Emphasis hers). Kasey.pdf 15 Allen – PPOL 614 . saving money. remarked that most advocates are well-versed in the talking points for the benefits of urban cycling: improving health. http://americancity. June 2005. especially as speeds increase and environmental diversity diminishes. not an abstract concept…Invite a motorist for a bike ride through your city and you’ll be cycling with an urbanist by the end of the day. Klimes explains that cycling makes “livability’ an experience. http://design. the immense societal problems in distressed areas. Norman W.” CNU explains how design standards that promote driving over pedestrians and cyclists can literally narrow the view of drivers away from their surroundings.David Allen December 7. David Dailey is one of my best friends who grew up with me in Hampton Roads. May 17.org/Documents/GarrickCSSMajorUrbanThoroughfares.transportation.” I’ve seen this phenomena myself. the neighborhoods that compose their communities. 33 Garrick.33 Klimes describes this effect as “a cascade of freeway concrete flying by at incomprehensible speeds. PowerPoint Presentation at the AASHTO SCOD Meeting. easing congestion. 2011.” In the derivative debates between the Moses and Jacobs camps. the beauty of architecture. to Klimes. Virginia and moved to DC 32 Klimes. “the most vital element for the future of our cities is that the bicycle is an instrument of experiential understanding. traveling by car reduces the world to a simple question of how to quickly get from point A to B: Their environment. Context Sensitive Solutions for the Design of Major Urban Thoroughfares. and providing sustainable transportation options that produce zero carbon emissions. an author for Next American City. In comparison.” The Congress for New Urbanism makes a similar argument. the faces of neighbors…all of this becomes a conceptually abstract blue from the driver’s seat.org/buzz/entry/2982/ (Accessed November 12th. As Klimes explains.
David remarked that he was nervously excited about using CaBi. Washington. its important for cycling advocates to take public perceptions of their advocacy into account. David makes frequent trips home for events and to see family by car. it is representative of growing friction as cycling and bikesharing networks expand at a rapid clip. Remaining in the area to work for his local representative.html (Accessed November 15. “I think it's an awesome idea. However. He says his initial hesitance to joining the program was around safety and whether he would want to carry a helmet around just in case he wanted to use the system throughout the day – a problem many users of bikeshare programs around the country experience. and Chicago and can fuel debates on gentrification displacing long-time residents and transportation patterns.com/online/blogs/johncassidy/2011/03/battle-of-the-bikelanes-im-with-mrs-schumer. 34 Cassidy. A New Yorker editorial from John Cassidy earlier this year explained how many motorists who find great satisfaction from driving can be easily put-off when they feel cycling advocacy becomes proselytization. which is really the only way to get around Hampton Roads. the expansion of the network to places near where he lives and works as well as the increase in bikelanes and stations near the Capitol have led him to recently decide to join – although he’s waiting until it warms up in the spring. 2011. The suit uses a state law allowing citizens “to challenge arbitrary and unfair actions by the government. 16 Allen – PPOL 614 . In October. March 8. 2011 for college.” which for the price he said. “is a steal. 2011).34 Former NYC Transportation Commissioner Iris Weinshall has even launched a lawsuit with a coalition of supporters against current Commissioner. John. http://www.” While the growth of bikeshare programs in particular and urban cycling in general demonstrate that more and more individuals are making the switch towards bicycles. This is especially true – according to Ben Fried.newyorker. A bit hesitant to begin with. It just comes down to me making that jump and actively incorporating that mode of transportation into your daily routine.” While the case is limited to one stretch of road. Within minutes on the bike. he was sold. Editor in Chief of the online Magazine. Janette SadikKhan.David Allen December 7. Streetsblog – when the growth of cycling is associated with an influx of young professionals to major urban areas like Boston. Battle of the Bike Lanes. I took David on a bikeshare trip across the city to see some friends in the Petworth area of DC. over a bike-lane on Prospect Park West.
Next to parking are the roads where cars and busses move more freely.salon. “the car is no longer king. a writer for Salon. 2011 Similar to the debates between Moses and Jacobs over how the city promoted the elevation of roads and freeways against the needs of communities and residents. “Are Urban Bicylists just elite snobs?” December 4th. the city puts street parking next to the bikelanes.David Allen December 7. often because the increased adoption of bikelanes leads to significant congestion gains. http://www. instead of the false equivalency between either cars or bikes (or transit in general). 2011. Regardless. The recent documentary Urbanized also takes a look at how cities like Amsterdam have developed design programs that integrate all modes of transport – pedestrian. recently commented on the uproar caused by the New Yorker editorial. effectively creating a hard barrier between cyclists and traffic. Will. On each side of the road are sidewalks for walking. 17 Allen – PPOL 614 .” For many urbanists. However. bikes. much of the friction in places like New York over the loss of parking and driveable space for bikelanes can similarly appear to be the result of authoritarian transportation planners playing on “interestgroup politics.” Will Doig. adjoined to separate bikelanes.com/2011/12/04/are_urban_bicyclists_just_elite_snobs/singleton/ (accessed 5 December 2011).” but recognizing “urban bicyclists have an image problem. To protect bikers from drivers (and drivers from bikers). indicating that the fight for limited public space is far from over. 35 Doig. cycling advocates would be well served to stress rational coexistence by developing compelling cases for modal trade-offs in select corridors and managing expectations that different ends will require different means of transportation. as Boston Mayor Thomas Menino announced when the city launched their own bikeshare program. automotive – throughout the system. the ascendance of bikesharing programs in our cities is a welcome change to the status quo.com.”35 The modern perception of cyclists echoes similar arguments made against urbanists in the Moses-Jacobs era. refuting the notion that urban bicyclists are “just elite snobs.
Computer Kiosk – Center) 18 Allen – PPOL 614 . 2011 Appendix A: Capital Bikeshare System Map and Regional Breakdown Appendix B: Capital Bikeshare Station (Map – Left.David Allen December 7.
2011 Appendix C: Capital Bikeshare Pricing Structure Appendix : SmartBike DC Ridership Averages 19 Allen – PPOL 614 .David Allen December 7.
2011 Appendix E: DC Ridership in Select Corridors After Bike Lane Construction 20 Allen – PPOL 614 .David Allen December 7.
2011 Appendix F: Initial Ridership Map. October – December 2010 21 Allen – PPOL 614 .David Allen December 7.
VA Pilot Capital Bikeshare Station Locations Appendix H: Cost of Bikeshare 22 Allen – PPOL 614 . 2011 Appendix G: Alexandria.David Allen December 7.
David Allen December 7. 2011 Appendix I: High Demand Station Map 23 Allen – PPOL 614 .
2011 24 Allen – PPOL 614 .David Allen December 7.
David Allen December 7. 2011 Appendix J: Comparing Capital Bikeshare Station Density to Other Programs 25 Allen – PPOL 614 .
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