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Doing Business in Algeria

Doing Business in Algeria

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Algeria

© 2011 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank 1818 H Street NW Washington, DC 20433 Telephone 202-473-1000 Internet www.worldbank.org

All rights reserved. 1 2 3 4 08 07 06 05

A copublication of The World Bank and the International Finance Corporation.

This volume is a product of the staff of the World Bank Group. The findings, interpretations and conclusions expressed in this volume do not necessarily reflect the views of the Executive Directors of the World Bank or the governments they represent. The World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this work.
Rights and Permissions

The material in this publication is copyrighted. Copying and/or transmitting portions or all of this work without permission may be a violation of applicable law. The World Bank encourages dissemination of its work and will normally grant permission to reproduce portions of the work promptly. For permission to photocopy or reprint any part of this work, please send a request with complete information to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, USA; telephone 978-750-8400; fax 978-750-4470; Internet www.copyright.com. All other queries on rights and licenses, including subsidiary rights, should be addressed to the Office of the Publisher,The World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, DC 20433, USA; fax 202-522-2422; e-mail pubrights@worldbank.org.

Additional copies of Doing Business 2011: Making a Difference for Entrepreneurs, Doing Business 2010: Reforming through Difficult Times, Doing Business 2009, Doing Business 2008, Doing Business 2007: How to Reform, Doing Business in 2006: Creating Jobs, Doing Business in 2005: Removing Obstacles to Growth and Doing Business in 2004:Understanding Regulations may be purchased at www.doingbusiness.org. ISBN: 978-0-8213-7960-8 E-ISBN: 978-0-8213-8630-9 DOI: 10.1596/978-0-8213-7960-8 ISSN: 1729-2638 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication data has been applied for. Printed in the United States

Current features News on the Doing Business project
http://www.doingbusiness.org

Rankings How economies rank-from 1 to 183
http://www.doingbusiness.org/rankings/

Contents
Introduction and Aggregate Rankings 5 - Year Measure of Cumulative Change Starting a Business Dealing with Construction Permits Registering Property

Business reformers Short summaries of DB2011 business reforms, lists of reformers since DB2004 and a ranking simulation tool
http://www.doingbusiness.org/reforms/

Historical data Customized data sets since DB2004
http://www.doingbusiness.org/custom-query/

Methodology and research The methodologies and research papers underlying Doing Business
http://www.doingbusiness.org/Methodology/

Download reports Access to Doing Business reports as well as subnational and regional reports, reform case studies and customized country and regional profiles http://www.doingbusiness.org/reports/ Subnational and regional projects Differences in business regulations at the subnational and regional level
http://www.doingbusiness.org/subnational-reports/

Getting Credit Protecting Investors Paying Taxes Trading Across Borders Enforcing Contracts Closing a Business Doing Business 2011 Business Reforms

Law library Online collection of business laws and regulations relating to business and gender issues
http://www.doingbusiness.org/law-library/

http://wbl.worldbank.org/
Contributors More than 8,200 specialists in 183 economies who participate in

Doing Business
http://www.doingbusiness.org/contributors/Doing-Business/

Business Planet Interactive map on the ease of doing business

http://rru.worldbank.org/businessplanet

where. trading across borders. More information is available in the full report. 2010*. are not studied directly by Doing Business. the indicators refer to a specific type of business. * Except for the Paying Taxes indicator. The Doing Business methodology has limitations. over time. from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe. the transparency of government procurement. The indicators are used to analyze economic outcomes and identify what reforms have worked. Note: Doing Business 2010 data and rankings have been recalculated to reflect changes to the methodology. The following pages present the summary Doing Business indicators for Algeria. macroeconomic conditions or the underlying strength of institutions. enforcing contracts and closing a business. The data set covers 183 economies: 46 in Sub-Saharan Africa. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulations and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 183 economies. 18 in the Middle East and North Africa and 8 in South Asia. but they are in the top 10. 24 in East Asia and Pacific.Doing Business 2011: Making a Difference for Entrepreneurs is the eighth in a series of annual reports investigating regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. The good-practice economies are identified by their position in each indicator as well as their overall ranking and by their capacity to provide good examples of business regulation to other countries. along with information on ordering the report. 1 . dealing with construction permits. Other areas important to business such as an economy ’s proximity to large markets. which covers the period January to December of 2009. the security of property from theft and looting. protecting investors. These good-practice economies do not necessarily rank number 1 in the topic or indicator. registering property. supporting policymakers in designing reform. Data in Doing Business 2011 are current as of June 1. Because standard assumptions are used in the data collection. 25 in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. To make the data comparable across economies. they also help identify the source of those obstacles. are available on the Doing Business website (www. 32 in Latin America and the Caribbean. and why. paying taxes. comparisons and benchmarks are valid across economies. analyzes their relationship with economic outcomes and recommends reforms.doingbusiness. the quality of its infrastructure services (other than those related to trading across borders). The data not only highlight the extent of obstacles to doing business. The data. getting credit. These graphs allow a comparison of the economies in each region not only with one another but also with the “good practice” economy for each indicator. as well as 30 OECD high-income economies. Doing Business 2011: Making a Difference for Entrepreneurs presents the indicators. The data used for this economy profile come from the Doing Business database and are summarized in graphs.org). A set of regulations affecting 9 stages of a business ’s life are measured: starting a business. generally a local limited liability company operating in the largest business city.

Compared to global good practice economy as well as selected economies: Algeria's ranking in Doing Business 2011 Rank Ease of Doing Business Starting a Business Dealing with Construction Permits Registering Property Getting Credit Protecting Investors Paying Taxes Trading Across Borders Enforcing Contracts Closing a Business Doing Business 2011 136 150 113 165 138 74 168 124 127 51 2 .Ease of Doing Business Algeria is ranked 136 out of 183 economies. Algeria .Economy Rankings . Singapore is the top ranked economy in the Ease of Doing Business.

2 0.0 6 6 4 5.0 8 17 1248 9 23 1428 3 Dealing with Construction Permits Procedures (number) Time (days) Cost (% of income per capita) Registering Property Procedures (number) Time (days) Cost (% of property value) Getting Credit Strength of legal rights index (0-10) Depth of credit information index (0-6) Public registry coverage (% of adults) Private bureau coverage (% of adults) Protecting Investors Extent of disclosure index (0-10) Extent of director liability index (0-10) Ease of shareholder suits index (0-10) Strength of investor protection index (0-10) Paying Taxes Payments (number per year) Time (hours per year) Profit tax (%) Labor tax and contributions (%) Other taxes (%) Total tax rate (% profit) Trading Across Borders Documents to export (number) Time to export (days) Cost to export (US$ per container) Documents to import (number) Time to import (days) Cost to import (US$ per container) .6 29.Algeria Starting a Business Procedures (number) Time (days) Cost (% of income per capita) Paid-in Min.4 22 240 44.Summary of Indicators .1 3 2 0.7 72.7 35. Capital (% of income per capita) 14 24 12.3 34 451 6.0 11 47 7.9 34.

7 2.5 7 Closing a Business Recovery rate (cents on the dollar) Time (years) Cost (% of estate) .Enforcing Contracts Procedures (number) Time (days) Cost (% of claim) 46 630 21.9 41.

08 0.12 0.16 0. Instead of highlighting which economies currently have the most business friendly environment. The Bahamas.02 Egypt. * Bahrain. Brunei.18 0.1 to 0. Luxembourg.14 0. DB change score 0.20 Doing business has become easier 0.06 0. Liberia. This figure shows the distribution of cumulative change across the 9 indicators and time between Doing Business 2006 and Doing Business 2011. Cyprus. 5 years of data are not yet available.10 0. . Kosovo.04 0. Montenegro and Qatar do not feature in the new metric because they were included in the Doing Business report in years subsequent to the Doing Business 2005 report and hence.54. This snapshot reflects all cumulative changes in an economy’s business regulation as measured by the Doing Business indicators -such as a reduction in the time to start a business thanks to a one-stop shop or an increase in the strength of investor protection index thanks to new stock exchange rules that tighten disclosure requirements for related-party transactions. More details on how the DB change score is constructed can be found in the methodology section of the website. this new approach shows the extent to which an economy’s regulatory environment for business has changed compared with 5 years ago. Arab Rep.22 0. France Tunisia Mauritania Morocco Algeria Spain Note: This year's DB change score ranges from -0.The 5-year measure of cumulative change illustrates how the business regulatory environment has changed in 174 economies* from Doing Business 2006 to Doing Business 2011.

6 .

Compared to good practice and selected economies: 7 . Ranking of Algeria in Starting a Business . Benchmarking Starting a Business Regulations Algeria is ranked 150 overall for Starting a Business.1.

4 Comparator Economies Egypt. Arab Rep.1 11. Capital (% of income per capita) Denmark New Zealand 0. France Mauritania Morocco Spain Tunisia 6 5 9 6 10 10 7 7 19 12 47 11 6.2 13.9 34.8 15.0 1 1 0.0 412.The following table shows Starting a Business data for Algeria compared to good practice and comparator economies: Good Practice Economies Procedures (number) Time (days) Cost (% of income per capita) Paid-in Min.9 33.0 0.1 5.0 0.3 0.5 0.6 15.0 Selected Economy Algeria 14 24 12.0 8 .

9 34. Capital (% of income per capita) . Historical data: Starting a Business in Algeria Starting a Business data Doing Business 2008 Doing Business 2009 Doing Business 2010 Doing Business 2011 Rank Procedures (number) Time (days) Cost (% of income per capita) Paid-in Min. 14 24 10..0 150 14 24 12. Starting a Business sub indicators in Algeria over the past 4 years 9 .6 147 14 24 12.8 36.4 3. 14 24 13..2 .2.2 45.1 31.

and prepare and submit the lease for the registered office of the company Obtain the criminal record and birth certificate of manager Publish the company constitution on the legal journal (B.4. and costs 12. pick up registration forms Deposit the start-up capital with the notary public Draw up and notarize the company constitution documents.O.A. submit specimen of managers’ signatures.93 % GNI per capita to start a business in Algeria.) and a nationally circulated newspaper 1 2 3 1 7 no charge see comment 4 5 2 3 DA 30 DA 1960 6 * File for company registration with the commercial registry within two months of the formation of the company 7 Pay for the stamp duty and obtain a receipt 2 DA 9760 1 DA 4000 10 .L. Overview of the steps to Starting a Business in Algeria It requires 14 procedures. takes 24 days. No: Procedure Time to complete (days) Cost to complete DA 490 1 Obtain an attestation on the uniqueness of selected company name from the Centre National du Registre du Commerce (CNRC).

IBS). IRG). and VAT with the local tax inspectorate Register for the Caisse Nationale des Assurances Sociales des Travailleurs Salariés (CNAS) Open the company’s bank account with a commercial bank Register for the Caisse Nationale de Sécurité Sociale des Non Salariés (CASNOS) Register with the Unemployment Insurance Fund (CNAC) Make a company seal Have company’s accounting books stamped at the court 2 no charge 9 1 no charge 10 11 1 1 no charge no charge 12 13 14 1 2 1 no charge DA 800 DA 6000 * Takes place simultaneously with another procedure. corporate tax (Impôt sur les bénéfices des personnes morales ou des sociétés.8 Register for income tax (Impôt sur le revenu global des personnes physiques. 11 .

pick up registration forms Time to complete(days): Cost to complete: Comment: 1 DA 490 Fees for attestation of company name: . CNRC) conducts a name search and issues a name certificate on the same day.5. The Commercial Registry (Centre National du Registre du Commerce.Name search: DZD 480. and pay a fee.4 City: Algiers Procedure 1 Obtain an attestation on the uniqueness of selected company name from the Centre National du Registre du Commerce (CNRC).Limited Liability Company (% of income per capita) Paid-in Minimum Capital: 34. Procedure 2 Deposit the start-up capital with the notary public Time to complete(days): Cost to complete: Comment: 1 no charge The notary deposits the capital in a bank and obtains a deposit certificate before drawing up the statutes.Fiscal stamp: DZD 10. Details on Starting a Business in Algeria This table summarizes the procedures and costs associated with setting up a business in Algeria. 12 . listing the four proposed company names. STANDARDIZED COMPANY Legal Form: Société à Responsabilité Limitée (SARL) . The applicant must fill out a form. .

Procedure 5 Publish the company constitution on the legal journal (B.000 and above Procedure 4 Obtain the criminal record and birth certificate of manager Time to complete(days): Cost to complete: Comment: 2 DA 30 Since 2003. in practice.000.Procedure 3 Draw up and notarize the company constitution documents. without visiting the Clerk of the Court in the manager’s birthplace.) and a nationally circulated newspaper Time to complete(days): Cost to complete: Comment: 3 DA 1960 The two newspapers are in Arabic and French language. It is assumed that the managers already hold a birth certificate.000 -0.000.760 if the company capital is more than DZD 300.001 and DZD 100.5% if the company capital is DZD 1. . one can apply for the criminal record (extract de casier judiciaire) anywhere. Other stamps are paid at the CNRC. 04-08 (April.A.DZD 9. However.000 . 14 2004).001 and DZD 1. For a daily newspaper. . the fee is DZD 48 per line.6% if the company capital is between DZD 400. 13 .000. registration is completed within 1 day. Procedure 7 Pay for the stamp duty and obtain a receipt Time to complete(days): Cost to complete: Comment: 1 DA 4000 Fiscal stamps are sealed at the fiscal administration. -0.001 and DZD 300. Procedure 6 File for company registration with the commercial registry within two months of the formation of the company Time to complete(days): Cost to complete: Comment: 2 DA 9760 According to Law No.001 and DZD 400. the fee is DZD 280 per line of 24 characters. respectively.000.000. For the official journal.7% if the company capital is between DZD 300.DZD 9.DZD 9.000 -0. and prepare and submit the lease for the registered office of the company Time to complete(days): Cost to complete: Comment: 7 see comment According to Executive Decree n° 08-243 fees are: -5% if the company capital is between DZD 1 and DZD 200.120 if the company capital is between DZD 30.520 if the company capital is between DZD 100. -1% if the company capital is between DZD 200. submit specimen of managers’ signatures.O.001 and DZD 300.L.001 and DZD 500. The managers must file the criminal record with the Trade Register and also provide a copy of the birth certificate. Registration fee (Arrêté du 10 juillet 2004 portant révision des tarifs applicables par le centre national du registre de commerce au titre de la tenue des registres de commerce et des publicités légales): .000 -0. the Official Bulletin of Legal Announcements (BOAL).000 DA. it still takes 2 days to obtain the final registration certificate. The fees vary by newspaper.5% if the company capital is between DZD 500. obtained at the birthplace.

copy of director’s birth certificate. IBS). Open the company’s bank account with a commercial bank Procedure 10 Time to complete(days): Cost to complete: Comment: 1 no charge The bank account can be opened only following commercial registration (a receipt by the Commercial Registry suffices). and VAT with the local tax inspectorate Time to complete(days): Cost to complete: Comment: 2 no charge Procedure 9 Register for the Caisse Nationale des Assurances Sociales des Travailleurs Salariés (CNAS) Time to complete(days): Cost to complete: Comment: 1 no charge The following three departments handle social security matters: 1. The Caisse Nationale des Assurances Sociales des Travailleurs Salariés (CNAS) receives employee declarations. corporate tax (Impôt sur les bénéfices des personnes morales ou des sociétés. IRG). The Caisse Nationale d’Assurance Chômage (CNAC) is the competent authority for unemployment matters. Register for the Caisse Nationale de Sécurité Sociale des Non Salariés (CASNOS) Procedure 11 Time to complete(days): Cost to complete: Comment: 1 no charge Procedure 12 Time to complete(days): Cost to complete: Comment: Register with the Unemployment Insurance Fund (CNAC) 1 no charge Procedure 13 Time to complete(days): Cost to complete: Make a company seal 2 DA 800 14 . statistical ID. 3. The employer must report any new employee within 10 days of hiring. but the time needed for bank accounts to be operational and receive check books varies from bank to bank. tax registration. The Caisse Nationale de Sécurité Sociale des Non Salariés (CASNOS) receives employer declarations. Documents are deposited in one day.Procedure 8 Register for income tax (Impôt sur le revenu global des personnes physiques. The bank requires the following documents: company statutes. 2.

000 per book. 15 . The fees amount to about DZD 2.Comment: Procedure 14 Time to complete(days): Cost to complete: Comment: Have company’s accounting books stamped at the court 1 DA 6000 The accounting and inventory books must be stamped when the company starts its business activity.

16 .

Compared to good practice and selected economies: 17 .1. Benchmarking Dealing with Construction Permits Regulations Algeria is ranked 113 overall for Dealing with Construction Permits. Ranking of Algeria in Dealing with Construction Permits .

0 Comparator Economies Egypt. Arab Rep.2 251.The following table shows Dealing with Construction Permits data for Algeria compared to good practice and comparator economies: Good Practice Economies Procedures (number) Time (days) Cost (% of income per capita) Denmark Qatar Singapore 6 0.8 25 Selected Economy Algeria 22 240 44.6 463.7 18 .7 23.5 47.4 858. France Mauritania Morocco Spain Tunisia 25 13 25 19 11 20 218 137 201 163 233 97 293.

8 111 22 240 39.8 .2.6 113 22 240 44. 22 240 46. 22 240 57. Historical data: Dealing with Construction Permits in Algeria Dealing with Construction Permits data Doing Business 2008 Doing Business 2009 Doing Business 2010 Doing Business 2011 Rank Procedures (number) Time (days) Cost (% of income per capita) ..0 3. Dealing with Construction Permits sub indicators in Algeria over the past 4 years 19 ..

Overview of the steps to Building a Warehouse in Algeria It requires 22 procedures.500 no charge no charge no charge no charge no charge no charge no charge 20 . and costs 44.800 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Legalize property act Obtain building permit Receive municipal inspection Receive municipal inspection Receive municipal inspection Receive municipal inspection Receive municipal inspection Receive municipal inspection Request and receive final inspection to obtain certificate of conformity 2 days 150 days 5 days 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 14 days DZD 2.4.04 % GNI per capita to build a warehouse in Algeria. takes 240 days. No: Procedure Time to complete (days) Cost to complete DZD 1.

200 15 30 days 1 day DZD 15.000 19 20 21 25 days 1 day 22 days DZD 12.000 no charge no charge 13 14 1 day 30 days no charge DZD 13.000 22 18 days DZD 25.000 * Takes place simultaneously with another procedure.000 DZD 15. 21 .500 no charge DZD 13.10 11 12 Obtain certificate of conformity Notarize the updated property act Register the updated property act (title) at the property registry Apply for telephone line Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications inspects the site and prepares an estimate Obtain telephone connection 1 day 1 day 1 day DZD 5.000 16 * Notify municipal/ communal authority of connection to sewer mains 17 18 Apply for electricity connection Electricity company inspects the site and prepares an estimate Obtain electricity connection Apply for water connection The water company inspects the site and prepares an estimate Obtain water connection no charge 1 day 14 days DZD 25.

time.500 Municipal authority (Autorité municipale) Procedure 3 Receive municipal inspection 22 .800 Municipal authority (Autorité municipale) Procedure 2 Obtain building permit Time to complete: Cost to complete: Agency: Comment: 150 days DZD 2. and costs to build a warehouse in Algeria.000 City: Algiers Procedure 1 Legalize property act Time to complete: Cost to complete: Agency: Comment: 2 days DZD 1. Details on Building a Warehouse in Algeria The table below summarizes the procedures.5. BUILDING A WAREHOUSE Estimated warehouse value:DZD 52.024.

Procedure 5 Receive municipal inspection Time to complete: Cost to complete: Agency: Comment: 1 day no charge Municipal authority (Autorité municipale) Procedure 6 Receive municipal inspection Time to complete: Cost to complete: Agency: Comment: 1 day no charge Municipal authority (Autorité municipale) Procedure 7 Receive municipal inspection Time to complete: Cost to complete: Agency: Comment: 1 day no charge Municipal authority (Autorité municipale) Procedure 8 Receive municipal inspection 23 . The variation depends on the visibility and on the exact location of the construction site.Time to complete: Cost to complete: Agency: Comment: 5 days no charge Municipal authority (Autorité municipale) Procedure 4 Receive municipal inspection Time to complete: Cost to complete: Agency: Comment: 1 day no charge Municipal authority (Autorité municipale) The law does not specify the number of inspections that take place during construction. inspections occur randomly before and during the construction process. However.

Procedure 11 Notarize the updated property act Time to complete: Cost to complete: Agency: Comment: 1 day no charge Municipal authority (Autorité municipale) Procedure 12 Register the updated property act (title) at the property registry Time to complete: Cost to complete: Agency: Comment: 1 day no charge Municipal authority (Autorité municipale) Before the building can be used as collateral.000 Municipal authority (Autorité municipale) Although the law requires a certificate of conformity. it is seldom issued in practice. The inspector will usually arrive on site within 2 weeks of the request. Procedure 13 Apply for telephone line 24 . Procedure 10 Obtain certificate of conformity Time to complete: Cost to complete: Agency: Comment: 1 day DZD 5. BuildCo must notify the municipality so that it can perform a final inspection of the construction.Time to complete: Cost to complete: Agency: Comment: 1 day no charge Municipal authority (Autorité municipale) Procedure 9 Request and receive final inspection to obtain certificate of conformity Time to complete: Cost to complete: Agency: Comment: 14 days no charge Municipal authority (Autorité municipale) When the warehouse is completed. banks require the property title and the construction license. This case study assumes that BuildCo possesses a construction license.

000 Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications (Ministère des Postes et Télécommunications) A site visit may be required to prepare the estimate. Procedure 15 Obtain telephone connection Time to complete: Cost to complete: Agency: Comment: 30 days DZD 15.000 Socièté Nationale de l'Electricité et du Gaz (SONELGAZ) Procedure 18 Electricity company inspects the site and prepares an estimate 25 .200 Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications (Ministère des Postes et Télécommunications) The Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications requires a 50% down payment on the estimated charge before connecting the building. Procedure 16 Notify municipal/ communal authority of connection to sewer mains Time to complete: Cost to complete: Agency: Comment: 1 day no charge Municipal/communal authority (Autorité municipale/communale) Procedure 17 Apply for electricity connection Time to complete: Cost to complete: Agency: Comment: 1 day DZD 25.Time to complete: Cost to complete: Agency: Comment: 1 day no charge Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications (Ministère des Postes et Télécommunications) Procedure 14 Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications inspects the site and prepares an estimate Time to complete: Cost to complete: Agency: Comment: 30 days DZD 13.

000 SEAAL A site visit is sometimes required to prepare the estimate.Time to complete: Cost to complete: Agency: Comment: 14 days DZD 15. Procedure 19 Obtain electricity connection Time to complete: Cost to complete: Agency: Comment: 25 days DZD 12.500 Socièté Nationale de l'Electricité et du Gaz (SONELGAZ) Procedure 20 Apply for water connection Time to complete: Cost to complete: Agency: Comment: 1 day no charge SEAAL Procedure 21 The water company inspects the site and prepares an estimate Time to complete: Cost to complete: Agency: Comment: 22 days DZD 13.000 Socièté Nationale de l'Electricité et du Gaz (SONELGAZ) A site visit is sometimes required to prepare the estimate.000 SEAAL 26 . Procedure 22 Obtain water connection Time to complete: Cost to complete: Agency: Comment: 18 days DZD 25.

27 .

Ranking of Algeria in Registering Property . Benchmarking Registering Property Regulations Algeria is ranked 165 overall for Registering Property.Compared to good practice and selected economies: 28 .1.

The following table shows Registering Property data for Algeria compared to good practice and comparator economies: Good Practice Economies Procedures (number) Time (days) Cost (% of property value) New Zealand Norway Saudi Arabia 2 1 0.2 4.9 7.1 6.1 29 . France Mauritania Morocco Spain Tunisia 7 8 4 8 4 4 72 59 49 47 18 39 0.1 Comparator Economies Egypt.0 Selected Economy Algeria 11 47 7.1 5.8 6. Arab Rep.

5 .. 14 51 7.2. 14 51 7. Historical data: Registering Property in Algeria Registering Property data Doing Business 2008 Doing Business 2009 Doing Business 2010 Doing Business 2011 Rank Procedures (number) Time (days) Cost (% of property value) .1 3. Registering Property sub indicators in Algeria over the past 4 years 30 ..1 165 11 47 7.5 159 11 47 7.

2% for the next DZD 500. takes 47 days. 1% for exceeding amount 6% of the property value (5% registration fee + 1% publication fee) no cost 1 Obtain a certificate of non-encumbrances from the Land Registry (Conservation Foncière) Parties file the unsigned contract with the relevant documents at the notary 4 days 2 3 days 3 The seller pays registration and publication fees into notary’s account at the Public Revenue Office (Trésor Public) Parties sign the contract at the public notary The original deed and documents are filed by the notary at the Registry of Deeds (Service de l’Enregistrement et du Timbre) 1 day 4 5 1 day 4 days no cost 6 * The notary provides a tax declaration to be deposited at the local tax office 1 day (simultaneous with following procedures) no cost 31 . No: Procedure Time to complete (days) Cost to complete DZD 500 for the non-encumbrance certificate 3% for first DZD 500.11 % of property value to register the property in Algeria.4.000 of property value.000. and costs 7. Overview of the steps to Registering Property in Algeria It requires 11 procedures.

32 .7 * File tax declaration and proof of payment at the local tax office (Sous Direction du Recouvrement des Impôts) 1 day (simultaneous with following procedures) 30 days (time limit) (simultaneous with following procedures) 1 day (simultaneous with previous procedures) 30 day (time limit (simultaneous with previous procedures) ) 1 day (simultaneous with procedures 6 to 11) no cost 8 * Notary returns deposit to seller no cost 9 * The notary pays registration fees to the local tax authorities (Recette des Impôts) Already counted in Procedure 3 10 * The notary issues payment for publication fee to the Local Land Registry (Conservation Foncière) for publication and issuance of the new deed 11 * The notary issues a copy of the deed to each party Already counted in Procedure 3 no cost * Takes place simultaneously with another procedure.

1% for exceeding amount The parties provide the notary with all the relevant documents such as the original Property title. 2% for the next DZD 500. and cost involved in registering property in Algeria.000 of property value.242. non-encumbrance certificate.5.000. STANDARDIZED PROPERTY Property Value: DZD 14. Procedure 2 Parties file the unsigned contract with the relevant documents at the notary Time to complete: Cost to complete: Comment: 3 days 3% for first DZD 500. The notary takes note of the purchase price and reviews the documents. The original Title is given to the Notary by the Seller. Details on Registering Property in Algeria This topic examines the steps. time. He/she then issues an order of payment to the buyer for the 33 .532. Birth certificate. The Land Registry will also check with the Tax Office to see that the seller is up-to-date with tax payments linked to the property.21 City: Algiers Procedure 1 Obtain a certificate of non-encumbrances from the Land Registry (Conservation Foncière) Time to complete: Cost to complete: Agency: Comment: 4 days DZD 500 for the non-encumbrance certificate Land Registry (Conservation Foncière) The notary obtains a non-encumbrance certificate from the Land Registry (Conservation Foncière).

Procedure 5 The original deed and documents are filed by the notary at the Registry of Deeds (Service de l’Enregistrement et du Timbre) Time to complete: Cost to complete: Agency: Comment: 4 days no cost Registry of Deeds (Service de l’Enregistrement et du Timbre) The Registry of Deeds issues an order of payment of 6% property value to the notary. Procedure 6 The notary provides a tax declaration to be deposited at the local tax office Time to complete: Cost to complete: Agency: Comment: 1 day (simultaneous with following procedures) no cost Local tax office The seller takes the proof of payment to the notary who provides a tax declaration to be deposited at the local tax office Sous Direction du Recouvrement des Impôts) 34 . The 6% consist of: (i) 5% registration fee (2. The notary then drafts the contract.5% to be paid each by seller and buyer) and (ii) 1% for publication fees. to be deposited in the notary’s agent account at the Public Revenue Office. which is signed by both parties and issues a provisional copy of the deed to the seller. The notary then continues with the registration of the transfer deed (see proc. Procedure 4 Parties sign the contract at the public notary Time to complete: Cost to complete: Comment: 1 day no cost After the deposit. 6-11).amount: 20% of the purchasing price.5% for each party) Transfert taxe (taxe de publicité foncière) 1% of property value The notary’s fees are as follows: 3% for the first 500 000 DZD 2% for the second 500 000 DZD 1% for the rest of the amount 17% VAT is applicable on the notary fees Procedure 3 The seller pays registration and publication fees into notary’s account at the Public Revenue Office (Trésor Public) Time to complete: Cost to complete: Agency: Comment: 1 day 6% of the property value (5% registration fee + 1% publication fee) Public Revenue Office (Trésor Public) The Buyer subsequently informs the notary of the payment. the seller provides the notary with the receipt. 5% of the property value for registration fees (2.

) Procedure 10 The notary issues payment for publication fee to the Local Land Registry (Conservation Foncière) for publication and issuance of the new deed Time to complete: Cost to complete: Agency: Comment: 30 day (time limit . if applicable. the notary delivers to the seller a check for the amount of the deposit or. and if there are no objections by the tax office. if the latter was paid from the deposit. The notary must keep it and cannot make it public. (The "minute" is the original received by the notary. Procedure 11 The notary issues a copy of the deed to each party Time to complete: Cost to complete: 1 day (simultaneous with procedures 6 to 11) no cost 35 . the amount minus the capital gains tax. Subsequently. Procedure 9 The notary pays registration fees to the local tax authorities (Recette des Impôts) Time to complete: Cost to complete: Agency: Comment: 1 day (simultaneous with previous procedures) Already counted in Procedure 3 Local tax authorities (Recette des Impôts) The notary issues a payment of 5% of the purchase value for the registration fees from the agent account to the local tax authorities.Procedure 7 File tax declaration and proof of payment at the local tax office (Sous Direction du Recouvrement des Impôts) Time to complete: Cost to complete: Agency: Comment: 1 day (simultaneous with following procedures) no cost Local tax office (Sous Direction du Recouvrement des Impôts) The seller or notary files the tax declaration and proof of payment at the local tax office (Sous Direction du Recouvrement des Impôts) Procedure 8 Notary returns deposit to seller Time to complete: Cost to complete: Comment: 30 days (time limit) (simultaneous with following procedures) no cost After 30 days. the tax authorities issue to the notary an original deed (‘minute de l’acte) only for his records. The Land Registry then issues a public deed to the notary.(simultaneous with previous procedures) ) Already counted in Procedure 3 Local Land Registry (Conservation Foncière) The notary issues a payment by check for the publication fee of 1% of the purchase value (part of 6% deposited by the seller) accompanied by a copy of the deed.

Comment: 36 .

37 .

1. Benchmarking Getting Credit Regulations
Algeria is ranked 138 overall for Getting Credit. Ranking of Algeria in Getting Credit - Compared to good practice and selected economies:

38

The following table shows Getting Credit data for Algeria compared to good practice and comparator economies:

Good Practice Economies

Strength of legal rights index (0-10)

Depth of credit information index (0-6)

Public registry coverage (% of adults)

Private bureau coverage (% of adults)

New Zealand Portugal Singapore United Kingdom

100.0 67.1 10 6

Selected Economy
Algeria 3 2 0.2 0.0

Comparator Economies
Egypt, Arab Rep. France Mauritania Morocco Spain Tunisia

3 7 3 3 6 3

6 4 1 5 5 5

2.9 33.3 0.1 0.0 54.6 22.9

10.3 0.0 0.0 9.9 10.7 0.0

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2. Historical data: Getting Credit in Algeria
Getting Credit data Doing Business 2008 Doing Business 2009 Doing Business 2010 Doing Business 2011

Rank Strength of legal rights index (0-10) Depth of credit information index (0-6) Private bureau coverage (% of adults) Public registry coverage (% of adults)

.. 3 2 0.0 0.2

.. 3 2 0.0 0.2

135 3 2 0.0 0.2

138 3 2 0.0 0.2

3. Getting Credit sub indicators in Algeria over the past 4 years

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.. 41 . trade creditors or utility companies as well as financial institutions? Are more than 2 years of historical credit information distributed? Is data on all loans below 1% of income per capita distributed? Is it guaranteed by law that borrowers can inspect their data in the largest credit registry? Coverage No No No Yes Yes No 1 1 0 No No No No No No 0 0 0 0.4.2 Number of individuals Number of firms 0 0 . Getting Credit Indicators (2010) Indicator Private bureau coverage (% of adults) Private credit bureau Public credit registry 2 Are data on both firms and individuals distributed? Are both positive and negative data distributed? Does the registry distribute credit information from retailers.0 0. and the availability and legal framework of credit registries in Algeria. . Details on Getting Credit in Algeria The following table summarize legal rights of borrowers and lenders.

without requiring a specific description of collateral? May a security right extend to future or after-acquired assets. and any financial institution accept such assets as collateral ? Does the law allow businesses to grant a non possessory security right in a single category of movable assets.Strength of legal rights index (0-10) 3 Can any business use movable assets as collateral while keeping possession of the assets. as well as indexed by the grantor's name of a security right ? Do secured creditors have absolute priority to their collateral outside bankruptcy procedures? Yes No Yes No Yes No No Do secured creditors have absolute priority to their collateral in bankruptcy procedures? No During reorganization. proceeds or replacements of the original assets ? Is a general description of debts and obligations permitted in collateral agreements. that is unified geographically and by asset type. so that all types of obligations and debts can be secured by stating a maximum amount rather than a specific amount between the parties ? Is a collateral registry in operation. and may it extend automatically to the products. without requiring a specific description of collateral? Does the law allow businesses to grant a non possessory security right in substantially all of its assets. are secured creditors' claims exempt from an automatic stay on enforcement? No Does the law authorize parties to agree on out of court enforcement? No 42 .

43 .

1.Compared to good practice and selected economies: 44 . Benchmarking Protecting Investors Regulations Algeria is ranked 74 overall for Protecting Investors. Ranking of Algeria in Protecting Investors .

The following table shows Protecting Investors data for Algeria compared to good practice and comparator economies: Good Practice Economies Strength of investor protection index (0-10) New Zealand 9.7 3. France Mauritania Morocco Spain Tunisia 5.3 Comparator Economies Egypt.3 5.3 3.3 5.0 5. Arab Rep.3 45 .7 Selected Economy Algeria 5.

. The following graph illustrates the Protecting Investors index in Algeria compared to best practice and selected Economies: 9.3 5.3 73 5.A ep ra b . 5.7 Fr an ce Eg yp t R .3 3..2.7 5.3 .3 46 .3 5.0 3. N M M or oc c Sp ai al a ita lg o 3.3 5. the greater the investor protection.3 74 5. Historical data: Protecting Investors in Algeria Protecting Investors data Doing Business 2008 Doing Business 2009 Doing Business 2010 Doing Business 2011 Rank Strength of investor protection index (0-10) . Tu ni si nd a er ia n ni a Ze A au r ew Note: The higher the score.3 5. 5.

Details on Protecting Investors in Algeria The table below provides a full breakdown of how the disclosure.4. and shareholder suits indexes are calculated in Algeria. James to the board of directors is required? Whether an external body must review the terms of the transaction before it takes place? Extent of director liability index (0-10) Whether shareholders can hold Mr. Protecting Investors Data (2010) Extent of disclosure index (0-10) Indicator 6 3 0 0 2 1 6 1 1 0 1 What corporate body provides legally sufficient approval for the transaction? Whether immediate disclosure of the transaction to the public and/or shareholders is required? Whether disclosure of the transaction in published periodic filings (annual reports) is required? Whether disclosure of the conflict of interest by Mr. director liability. James pays damages for the harm caused to the company upon a successful claim by the shareholder plaintiff? 47 . James liable for the damage that the Buyer-Seller transaction causes to the company? Whether shareholders can hold the approving body (the CEO or board of directors) liable for the damage that the Buyer-Seller transaction causes to the company? Whether a court can void the transaction upon a successful claim by a shareholder plaintiff? Whether Mr.

James? Whether shareholders can sue directly or derivatively for the damage that the Buyer-Seller transaction causes to the company? Ease of shareholder suits index (0-10) 1 1 1 4 2 0 0 0 1 1 5.3 Whether the plaintiff can obtain any documents from the defendant and witnesses during trial? Whether the plaintiff can directly question the defendant and witnesses during trial? Whether the plaintiff can request categories of documents from the defendant without identifying specific ones? Whether shareholders owning 10% or less of Buyer's shares can request an inspector to investigate the transaction? Whether the level of proof required for civil suits is lower than that of criminal cases? Whether shareholders owning 10% or less of Buyer's shares can inspect transaction documents before filing suit? Strength of investor protection index (0-10) 48 .Whether Mr. James repays profits made from the transaction upon a successful claim by the shareholder plaintiff? Whether fines and imprisonment can be applied against Mr.

49 .

Benchmarking Paying Taxes Regulations Algeria is ranked 168 overall for Paying Taxes. Ranking of Algeria in Paying Taxes .Compared to good practice and selected economies: 50 .1.

6 65. France Mauritania Morocco Spain Tunisia 29 7 38 28 8 8 433 132 696 358 197 144 42.2 Selected Economy Algeria 34 451 72.8 68.7 56. Arab Rep.4 41.The following table shows Paying Taxes data for Algeria compared to good practice and comparator economies: Good Practice Economies Payments (number per year) Time (hours per year) Total tax rate (% profit) Maldives Timor-Leste 3 0 0.5 62.0 Comparator Economies Egypt.8 51 .

2 34 451 .0 34 451 168 72. Paying Taxes sub indicators in Algeria over the past 4 years 52 .2 34 451 167 72. Historical data: Paying Taxes in Algeria Paying Taxes data Doing Business 2008 Doing Business 2009 Doing Business 2010 Doing Business 2011 Rank Total tax rate (% profit) Payments (number per year) Time (hours per year) . 74.2.. 74..0 34 451 3.

Tax or mandatory contribution Payments (number) Notes on Payments Time (hours) Statutory tax rate Tax base Totaltax rate (% profit) Notes on TTR Value added tax (VAT) Stamp duty 12 1 189 17.0% 0.00 0.20 Tax on interest 0 withheld 10.0% DZD 10.00 0.0% Vehicle tax Dwelling tax Fuel tax Drainage tax Tax on built land 1 1 1 0 1 paid jointly DZD 1.0% DZD 40 to DZD 60 value added number of pages in document rental value of land fixed fee fixed fee value of fuel fixed fee rental value of land interest income net salaries 0.4.0% 0.00 53 .000 DZD 1.30 Apprenticeship tax 0 paid jointly 1.200 1. Details on Paying Taxes in Algeria The table below addresses the taxes and mandatory contributions that a medium-size company must pay or withhold in a given year in Algeria.000 3.00 Tax on unbuilt land 1 7.0% 1.00 0.10 0. as well as measures of administrative burden in paying taxes.

60 28.0% 25.40 34 451 72.5% taxable profit gross salaries 6.80 0 paid jointly 2.0 54 .0% turnover 35.Corporate income tax Social security contributions Tax on professional activity Totals 4 12 152 110 19.

55 .

Compared to good practice and selected economies: 56 . Ranking of Algeria in Trading Across Borders . Benchmarking Trading Across Borders Regulations Algeria is ranked 124 overall for Trading Across Borders.1.

The following table shows Trading Across Borders data for Algeria compared to good practice and comparator economies: Good Practice Economies Documents to export (number) Time to export (days) Cost to export (US$ per container) Documents to import (number) Time to import (days) Cost to import (US$ per container) Denmark France Malaysia Singapore 5 2 450 4 439 2 Selected Economy Algeria 8 17 1248 9 23 1428 Comparator Economies Egypt. Arab Rep. France Mauritania Morocco Spain Tunisia 6 2 11 7 6 4 12 9 39 14 9 13 613 1078 1520 700 1221 773 6 2 11 10 7 7 12 11 42 17 10 17 698 1248 1523 1000 1221 858 57 .

.2.. 1198 1378 8 9 17 23 . Historical data: Trading Across Borders in Algeria Trading Across Borders data Doing Business 2008 Doing Business 2009 Doing Business 2010 Doing Business 2011 Rank Cost to export (US$ per container) Cost to import (US$ per container) Documents to export (number) Documents to import (number) Time to export (days) Time to import (days) . Trading Across Borders sub indicators in Algeria over the past 4 years 58 . 1248 1428 8 9 17 23 122 1248 1428 8 9 17 23 124 1248 1428 8 9 17 23 3.

59 .

Nature of Export Procedures (2010) Duration (days) US$ Cost Documents preparation Customs clearance and technical control Ports and terminal handling Inland transportation and handling Totals 8 4 2 3 17 450 100 310 388 1248 Nature of Import Procedures (2010) Duration (days) US$ Cost Documents preparation Customs clearance and technical control Ports and terminal handling Inland transportation and handling Totals 10 6 5 2 23 540 100 400 388 1428 60 . The documents required to export and import the goods are also shown. Details on Trading Across Borders in Algeria These tables list the procedures necessary to import and export a standardized cargo of goods in Algeria.4.

Documents for Export and Import Export Bill of lading Cargo release order Certified copy of the commercial registry Commercial Invoice Customs export declaration Packing list Technical standard/health certificate Terminal handling receipts Import Bill of lading Cargo release order Certified copy of the commercial registry Commercial Invoice Customs import declaration Inspection report Packing list Technical standard/health certificate Terminal handling receipts 61 .

62 .

Compared to good practice and selected economies: 63 . Benchmarking Enforcing Contracts Regulations Algeria is ranked 127 overall for Enforcing Contracts.1. Ranking of Algeria in Enforcing Contracts .

1 20 150 Selected Economy Algeria 46 630 21.2 17.4 23. France Mauritania Morocco Spain Tunisia 41 29 46 40 39 39 1010 331 370 615 515 565 26.2 21.8 64 .2 25.The following table shows Enforcing Contracts data for Algeria compared to good practice and comparator economies: Good Practice Economies Procedures (number) Time (days) Cost (% of claim) Bhutan Ireland Singapore 0. Arab Rep.2 17.9 Comparator Economies Egypt.

. Enforcing Contracts sub indicators in Algeria over the past 4 years 65 .9 .9 127 46 630 21.2.9 124 46 630 21.9 3. 47 630 21. Historical data: Enforcing Contracts in Algeria Enforcing Contracts data Doing Business 2008 Doing Business 2009 Doing Business 2010 Doing Business 2011 Rank Procedures (number) Time (days) Cost (% of claim) .. 47 630 21.

0 219.90 8.0 21.4 Filing and service Trial and judgment Enforcement of judgment Cost (% of claim)* Attorney cost (% of claim) Court cost (% of claim) Enforcement Cost (% of claim) * Claim assumed to be equivalent to 200% of income per capita. 66 .4 4. Details on Contract Enforcement in Algeria This topic looks at the efficiency of contract enforcement in Algeria.1 9.0 390.القسم التجـاري‬ Commercial Section Nature of Procedure (2010) Procedures (number) Time (days) Indicator 46 630 21.4. ("‫)"محكمة سيدي محمد . Court information: Alger Sidi M'hamed Tribunal.

67 .

1.Compared to good practice and selected economies: 68 . Benchmarking Closing Business Regulations Algeria is ranked 51 overall for Closing a Business. Ranking of Algeria in Closing Business .

3 22 9 9 18 11 7 69 .7 4.0 1.The following table shows Closing Business data for Algeria compared to good practice and comparator economies: Good Practice Economies Recovery rate (cents on the dollar) Time (years) Cost (% of estate) Ireland Japan Singapore 0.9 8.0 1.7 1 Selected Economy Algeria 41.7 2.2 1. Arab Rep.2 10.3 38.5 7 Comparator Economies Egypt.4 45.4 92.8 1.3 51.4 76. France Mauritania Morocco Spain Tunisia 17.

2.2.7 51 2. Closing Business sub indicators in Algeria over the past 4 years 70 . Historical data: Closing Business in Algeria Closing a Business data Doing Business 2008 Doing Business 2009 Doing Business 2010 Doing Business 2011 Rank Time (years) Cost (% of estate) Recovery rate (cents on the dollar) ..5 7 41.5 7 41.5 7 41.7 ..7 51 2. 2.5 7 41.7 3.

strengthening property rights. lightening the tax burden.Since 2004 Doing Business has been tracking reforms aimed at simplifying business regulations.000 reforms have had an impact on these indicators. reports that 117 economies implemented 216 reforms to make it easier to start a business. 64% of economies measured by Doing Business have reformed this year. Doing Business 2011. Paying Taxes Negative Change Closing a Business 71 . focusing on easing business start-up. The top 10 most-improved in Doing Business 2011 Dealing with Construction Permits Registering Property Enforcing Contracts Positive Change Starting a Business Protecting Investors Trading Across Borders Getting Credit Economy Kazakhstan Rwanda Peru Vietnam Cape Verde Tajikistan Zambia Hungary Grenada Brunei Darussalam * For Doing Business 2011 the Employing Workers indicator is not included in the aggregate ease of doing business ranking. opening access to credit and enforcing contracts by measuring their impact on 10 indicator sets . * Nearly 1. covering June 2009 to June 2010. simplifying import and export regulations and improving credit information systems.

including implementation of a risk management system and improvements in customs automation. Tajikistan strengthened investor protections by requiring greater corporate disclosure in the annual report and greater access to corporate information for minority investors. Tajikistan made starting a business easier by creating a one-stop shop that consolidates registration with the state and the tax authority. Hungary simplified taxes and tax bases. Brunei Darussalam income tax rate from 23. the company registrar reduced the corporate for small businesses. Peru introduced fast-track procedures at the land registry. in Brunei Darussalam Cape Verde Cape Verde made start-up easier by eliminating the need for a municipal inspection before a business begins operations and computerizing the system for delivering the municipal license. Grenada Hungary Kazakhstan Morocco Peru Peru eased business start-up by simplifying the requirements for operating licenses and creating an online one-stop shop for business registration. Kazakhstan strengthened investor protections by requiring greater corporate disclosure in company annual reports. Peru streamlined construction permitting by implementing administrative reforms. Kazakhstan made dealing with construction permits easier by implementing a one-stop shop related to technical conditions for utilities. Tunisia introduced the use of electronic systems for payment of corporate income tax and value added tax.5% to 22% while also introducing a lower tax rate ranging from 5. reducing inspections. Spain streamlined the documentation for imports by including tax-related information on its single administrative document. Brunei Darussalam Brunei Darussalam made starting a business easier by improving efficiency at and implementing an electronic system for name searches. Rwanda made dealing with construction permits easier by passing new building regulations at the end of April 2010 and implementing new time limits for the issuance of various permits. Cape Verde eased property registration by switching from fees based on a percentage of the property value to lower fixed rates. Rwanda enhanced access to credit by allowing borrowers the right to inspect their own credit report and mandating that loans of all sizes be reported to the central bank’s public credit registry. risk-based inspections and payment deferrals. Rwanda reduced the number of trade documents required and enhanced its joint border management procedures with Uganda and other neighbors. Cape Verde abolished the stamp duties on sales and checks. The appointment of a registrar focusing only on property cut the time needed to transfer property in Grenada by almost half.5% to 11%. Hungary implemented a time limit for the issuance of building permits. Kazakhstan eased business start-up by reducing the minimum capital requirement to 100 tenge ($0. Hungary reduced the property registration fee by 6% of the property value. Egypt reduced the cost to start a business. The introduction of an electronic customs system made trading easier. Egypt made trading easier by introducing an electronic system for submitting export and import documents. improving staff training and enhancing communication with users. Rwanda Spain Tajikistan Tunisia 72 . strengthened investor protections by requiring greater disclosure in companies’ annual Egypt. Peru made trading easier by implementing a new web-based electronic data interchange system. Grenada eased business start-up by transferring responsibility for the commercial registry from the courts to the civil administration. Spain amended its regulations governing insolvency proceedings with the aim of reducing the cost and time. leading to an improvement in the trade logistics environment.70) and eliminating the need to have the memorandum of association and company charter notarized. Kazakhstan speeded up trade through efforts to modernize customs. Amendments to Hungary’s bankruptcy law encourage insolvent companies to consider reaching agreements with creditors out of court so as to avoid bankruptcy. Arab Rep. Morocco reports.Summary of changes to business regulation in top 10 most improved economies in Doing Business 2011 and selected comparator economies. The new regulations also introduced out-of-court workouts. Tunisia upgraded its electronic data interchange system for imports and exports. cutting by half the time needed to register property. Tajikistan lowered its corporate income tax rate. speeding up the assembly of import documents. Grenada’s customs administration made trading faster by simplifying procedures.

Zambia eased trade by implementing a one-stop border post with Zimbabwe. launching web-based submission of customs declarations and introducing scanning machines at border posts.Vietnam Vietnam eased company start-up by creating a one-stop shop that combines the processes for obtaining a business license and tax license and by eliminating the need for a seal for company licensing. Vietnam made dealing with construction permits easier by reducing the cost to register newly completed buildings by 50% and transferring the authority to register buildings from local authorities to the Department of National Resources and Environment. Zambia eased business start-up by eliminating the minimum capital requirement. real-time court reporting and public access to court records. Vietnam improved its credit information system by allowing borrowers to examine their own credit report and correct errors. Zambia improved contract enforcement by introducing an electronic case management system in the courts that provides electronic referencing of cases. a database of laws. Zambia 73 .

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