This ENERGIE publication is one of a series highlighting the potential for innovative non-nuclear energy technologies to be applied widely and contribute to provision of superior services. European Commission strategies aim to influence the scientific and engineering communities, policy makers and key market actors so that they develop and apply cleaner, more efficient and more sustainable energy solutions to benefit themselves and society in general. Funded under the European Union’s Fifth Framework Programme for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration (RTD), ENERGIE’s range of supports cover research, development, demonstration, dissemination, replication and market uptake - the full process of converting new ideas into practical solutions to real needs. Its print and electronic publications disseminate the results of activities carried out under current and previous Framework Programmes, including former JOULE-THERMIE actions. Jointly managed by the Directorates-General Research and Energy & Transport, ENERGIE has a total budget of €1042 million for 1999 to 2002. ENERGIE is organised principally around two Key Actions, (Cleaner Energy Systems, including Renewable Energies, and Economic and Efficient Energy for a Competitive Europe), within the theme “Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development”. With targets guided by the Kyoto Protocol and associated policies, ENERGIE’s integrated activities are focussed on new solutions which achieve balanced improvements in Europe’s energy, environmental and economic performance and thereby contribute towards a sustainable future for Europe’s citizens. Produced by Energy Research Group, University College Dublin, School of Architecture, Richview, Clonskeagh, Dublin 14, Ireland Tel: + 353.1-269 2750, Fax: +353.1-283 8908 WWW: http://erg.ucd.ie/, E-mail: erg@erg.ucd.ie Written by: Vivienne Brophy, Crea O’Dowd, Rachel Bannon, John Goulding and J. Owen Lewis Design: Sinéad McKeon and Pierre Jolivet

with the support of the EUROPEAN COMMISSION Directorate-General Energy & Transport Acknowledgements
We would like to thank the following who supplied valuable information for this publication: Case study material: Anke Benstem, KUKA (Kronsberg Environmental Liaison Agency), Germany; Cathie Curran, Richard Rogers Partnership, UK; Christine Oehlinger, O.Ö. Energiesparverband, Austria. Photographs and diagrams: Alfanso Sevilla, Geohabitat, Almeria, Spain; Tjeerd Deelstra, Ministry of Housing, The Hague, Amsterdam; Marylene Ferrand, FFL Architectes, France; Bill Hastings, ARC Survey, Ireland; Jaime Lopez de Asiain, ETS de Arquitectura de Seville, Spain; Maurice Stack, Architect, Ireland; Derry O’Connell, John Goulding, Brian O’Brien and Crea O’Dowd, University College Dublin, Ireland; International Dark Sky Association. Expert review: Philip Geoghegan, Derry O’Connell, University College Dublin, Ireland.

Neither the European Commission, nor any person acting on behalf of the Commission, is responsible for the use which might be made of the information contained in this publication. The views given in this publication do not necessarily represent the views of the European Commission. Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged. Printed in Ireland 2000



General information

Sustainable Urban Design


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Linz. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Ecological Footprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 2. . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Ö. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 2. . . . . . . . . . . .2 2. . . . . . . . . . Urban Design Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Austria 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Urban Heat Island . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Site Selection and Orientation . . . . . . .8 Aerodynamic Impact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Solar Radiation . . . . . . .6 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . Spain O. . . . . . . . . . .6 Water Quality . . . . . . .23 This is an ENERGIE publication. . .22 5. . .15 3. . . . . . . . . . . .5 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . University College Dublin. . . .6 Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Buildings and Land Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . gaseous) . . . . . . Energiesparverband. .16 3. . . . . . . . . . . .4 Buildings . . . . . .4 2. . . . . . .11 3. . .Sustainable Urban Design Contents 1. .3 Climate Optimisation . . .4 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References and Bibliography . Barcelona. . . . funded under the European Union’s Fifth Framework Programme for Research. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Urban impacts . . . . . . . . . .4 2. . . . . . . . . . . . Ireland Institut Catala D’Energia. .7 Air Quality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Resource Management . . . . liquid. . . .4 Traffic . . . . Technological Development and Demonstration. . . . . . . . Jointly managed by the Directorates-General for Research and Energy & Transport of the European Commission.1 Background . . . . . . Ozone Depletion. . . . . . .9 Urban Dust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Wastes (solid. . . . . . . . . . Selected Design Tools . . . . . . . . Greenhouse Gases. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 3. Partners on the project were: Energy Research Group.

Current trends in architecture and urbanism often continue to ignore the potential of passive measures to achieve thermal comfort. interdisciplinary approach involving the natural and physical sciences and the humanities is a feature of most comprehensive analyses. the focus of this maxibrochure is on physical environmental issues. Granada. The best known definition of sustainable development. and the building layout itself. 2 . It can then be said that a level of sustainable existence has been reached at which the community can live in symbiotic harmony with its environment. increasing polarisation in wealth distribution. as an aid to the process of making urban settlements in Europe more environmentally sustainable. droughts and floods. deterioration in the quality of life. and the issues involved in developing and implementing action plans for sustainable urban living are diverse and often interdependent. not wants. The nature of the problem. that deserve primary attention. Vernacular architecture and urban design often embodied an intimate knowledge of the locality. economical and social services to all residents of a community. that of the World Commission on Environment and Development (the Brundtland Commission). There is increasing acceptance among planners. species extinction. optimising their local environment. Evaporative cooling at the Alhambra. The resulting impacts can be measured in environmental. Spain. social and economic terms. if measures are urgently applied. It aims to outline some of the current thinking in urban design. social and economic degradation in less developed countries . climatically and geographically. It is also worth reminding ourselves that we in the developed countries have used power and knowledge to help ourselves to a grossly disproportionate share of the world's resources leaving much environmental. resource depletion. and show some exemplary responses. However. now beginning to be recognised in broad terms and sometimes only from indications at a global or regional scale. built. Long before the Roman architect Vitruvius wrote the Ten Books of Architecture two thousand years ago. urban designers and governments that current modes of human existence in developed countries are unsustainable in environmental. this very concentration offers opportunities. The knowledge of an appropriate response to climate was fundamental to the planning of many traditional settlements. INTRODUCTION Environment Society Economy In urban settlements. There are many indicators of sustainability that can help in assessing the present condition. and reverse it in many instances. is such that it is still possible to take corrective action and begin to halt the decline. the concentrations of people and their activities create intensified demands on the environment. and strategies that may be adopted by a community to ensure its continued existence and development. where over 80% of Europeans live. the design of buildings came to depend less on ambient energy and more on the abundant supply of fossil fuels for their thermal comfort. However. Spain. Some of the factors supporting this view are indications of: global climate change. to minimise the various environmental impacts . without threatening the viability of the natural. [2] Economy Society Environment Two models of sustainable developments. through design and actions at an urban scale. failure to act appropriately at this stage may soon result in our having to face catastrophic failure of the Evaporative cooling at EXPO ’92. local pollution and damage to ecosystems. the forms. builders. During the Industrial Revolution in the mid-1800s. While recognising that social and economic factors are also of fundamental importance.ideally to the point where they can be assimilated by the ecosystems of the region without lasting damage. 1. dates from the publication in 1987 of ’Our Common Future‘ [1]: (Sustainable development is)…“development that meets the needs of today‘s generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs”. were of neccessity. and its potential for sustainable life. An holistic. social and economic terms.1 BACKGROUND Sustainable Development Sustainable development is development that delivers environmental. economic and social systems upon which the delivery of these systems depend.and sometimes closer to home. and poor equality in access to resources and knowledge. through the manipulation of site. Seville.1. organisation of external spaces. especially in cities. It is worth emphasising that it is our needs.

food and fuel. industry and commerce. its affluence and the extent and nature of its economic and social activities will determine the scale of the issues to be considered.89 Consumer Goods 0. Further subdivision and characterisation of these issues is addressed in this maxibrochure with the overall objective of raising awareness of the specific nature of the damage we do to the environment and of opportunities for remedial measures we can undertake locally as individuals or communities which. water or air used for production or waste disposal. cumulatively. Many of these issues come to a focus in urban settlements. Included in the calculations of the ecological footprint of a community. Conservation of existing buildings.3 Food 1. 2. Input . In general terms they may be considered as inputs and outputs of the ‘urban system’ including: non-renewable and renewable resource use (both including energy). Ecological Footprints per person in Canada [3] Ecological Footprint hectares per capita Housing 0. will have beneficial regional and global effects. By comparison. Many studies show a direct correlation between the density and population of a city and the intensity of the heat island effect. Cities in developed countries generally have a much larger ecological footprint than those in developing countries. institutions (education. transport. Higher urban temperatures increase the demand for electricity for cooling and air conditioning in warm conditions which leads to an increase in the production of carbon dioxide and other pollutants. For example. The ‘ecological footprint’ is a measure of sustainable development by which categories of human consumption are translated into areas of productive land needed to provide resources and assimilate waste products. 2.3 (0. solid. Therefore. agriculture. while Switzerland and Germany have ecological footprints greater than 5 ha/person. and manpower and knowledge.89 Services 0. and recreational or social facilities and what is involved in their establishment and maintenance.4 ha/person. the world’s average ecological footprint is 2. Utilization of external spaces. are the volumes of ‘imported’ raw materials. topographic and environmental characteristics of a site.02 vegetable and fruit) Total 4.1 URBAN IMPACTS ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT Integration of public transport within new development. treatment or disposal. A heat island is an area of land whose ambient temperature is higher than the land surrounding it.output model of energy and material flows of a city. the average ecological footprint in Italy is 4 ha/person.). More specifically.27 3 . These pollutants in turn contribute to increasing global temperatures due to the ‘greenhouse effect’.environmental (and socio-economic) systems on which our existence depends. Taking corrective action in the development of Curitiba. [4] 2. it is vital that we begin to understand in specific terms the damage we are doing and what measures can be applied to rectify that damage and support our continued existence and welfare. we can consider the environmental impacts of buildings. prudent use of resources. London’s ecological footprint is almost equivalent to the entire area of Britain’s farmland. Population size.89 Transportation 0. representating 320% of the land available in Italy. liquid and gaseous wastes and their recycling. etc. protecting its natural features and promoting an efficient. health care.2 URBAN HEAT ISLANDS Our aim should be to promote sustainable urban developments which are designed in response to the climatic. taking into account land.

• reduction in airflow and humidity caused by the sheltering effect of buildings. Wind affects the temperature. Acid rain is a common problem in and downwind of urban communities and industrial facilities. rates of evaporative cooling and plant transpiration and is thus an important factor at a micro-climatic level. AIR QUALITY.5 WASTES (SOLID. finite resource that has hitherto often been used wastefully. vehicle use is one of the main contributors to air pollution in cities.8 AERODYNAMIC IMPACT Wind velocities in cities are generally lower than those in the surrounding countryside due to the obstructions to air flow caused by buildings. dirt and other solid pollutants are washed with rainwater into drains. 2. There are environmental impacts associated with their construction use and disposal. Despite reductions in individual vehicular emissions. Temperature High point ∆τ Base temperature Urban heat island effect. 2. air pollution had reduced midwinter solar radiation in the city by 50% compared with the surrounding countryside [5]. Dust. 2. The expanse of hard impermeable surfaces in cities results in large bodies of rainwater requiring collection and discharge elsewhere. Drinking water from local waterways often requires treatment with chemicals to combat bacteria and other micro-organisms from such pollution. Today. Land use for buildings and other purposes is a scarce. In London prior to the 1956 Clean Act. wastes time and energy. OZONE DEPLETION. LIQUID. 2. The smells and other emissions associated with sewage treatment plants and landfill sites. The prolific use of the private car is both a cause and result of inadequate public transport facilities in many European cities. Traffic congestion in Dublin. 2. placement and density of buildings in an urban environment have a great influence on the consequent transportation patterns. 4 . Issues of sustainability associated with buildings and the land they occupy are discussed in detail in the following pages.3 BUILDINGS AND LAND USE Buildings are required for almost every activity and are the principal elements of the urban fabric. the water sometimes discharged untreated into local waterways. and increases environmental degradation. commercial and industrial waste generated by urban living are of concern to local authorities and inhabitants and a major source of environmental pollution. GREENHOUSE GASES. The design. GASEOUS) Slower mass transport less mobility reduced service The domestic.6 WATER QUALITY The quality of our water is influenced greatly by human development.4 TRAFFIC Too many cars on streets Traffic congestion reduces the quality of life in cities. Future sustainable development needs to address land use and planning according to function to ensure that optimal use is made of the available land resource to serve the needs of society as a whole.7 Impermeable city surfaces. traffic and industrial processes are a regular source of irritation. the increasing number of vehicles on the roads in cities ensures the continuing rise of urban air pollution levels. particularly where large numbers of people live close to such pollution. • building and other hard surfaces which absorb solar radiation and reflect heat.Some of the main factors contributing to increased temperatures in urban areas are: • air pollution and heat production from buildings and traffic. The sun’s capacity to contribute to thermal comfort in winter was thus halved. SOLAR RADIATION Many cities have succeeded in reducing the high levels of pollution traditionally caused by large-scale fossil fuel combustion. especially in and near cities and towns and in suburban areas. Increasing traffic congestion Less use of public transport 2. Built-up areas with tall buildings may lead to complex air Smog over Paris.

Apart from the aesthetic effects of urban dust. water recycling and solar thermal.efficient. groundwater management and vegetative pollution filters • Natural shelters (e. building openings and passageways. ecological planning and design can offer a means of climatic moderation to benefit people. It clings to porous surfaces such as stone. is lower in towns than over open land. Extensive sealed surfaces and insufficient planted areas intensify this problem. waste can be largely dealt with within city boundaries and the environmental impact of urban developments contained Protection . 5 . Stone decay in Dublin. manufacturing and other processes. exhaust fumes from buildings and vehicular traffic. flexibility • Comprising a mix of different building types. Contemporary cities populated by high-rise buildings experience down draughts on windward faces and suction on lee faces causing turbulence at ground level particularly around corners. This use. through arcades. The streaking effect under windows and architectural mouldings is a result of this dust being washed off non-porous surfaces such as glass. brick or concrete. flora and fauna in urban settlements • Strategies include optimising solar energy. 3. low buildings following curved street lines result in low wind velocities at street level.mitigating climatic extremes • Bioclimatic. and they often continue to serve as exemplars. natural cooling. wind and acoustic sheltering. and lodging itself on the porous material below. recovery and reuse could reduce the demand on electricity grids and water supply networks • Through resource use minimisation. closed-loop production • In the near future building-integrated systems.movement through a combination of wind channelling and resistance. Sustainable urban design and planning should promote an environment which offers: Diversity .allowing variety. heat recovery. tree shelter belts) can create climatic buffer zones between differing land uses Traditional sustainable design. Such contextual influences have been implicit in traditional landscapes. activities and social classes and considering the 24 hour occupation of urban areas • Developed around ‘green’ spaces with a diversity of flora and fauna species • Utilising a range of energy sources (primarily renewable) thus reducing dependence on a single resource Productivity . settlements and lifestyles. geography. 600 500 Altitude 400 Windspeed : m/s 40 40 30 300 200 20 100 0 20 30 20 30 40 In older settlements and mediaeval towns.g. 2.9 URBAN DUST Urban dust is particulate matter released into the air as a by-product of building works. combined with knowledge of best practice experience and innovation. and this often results in wind turbulence in some areas and concentrated pollution where there are wind shadows. culture and traditions of a location. such as photovoltaics. Wind speed at a given height. studies have shown that excessive exposure to this dust may aggravate pulmonary disorders. although technological developments can offer solutions hitherto unavailable. URBAN DESIGN STRATEGIES Environmental strategies for sustainable development should be based on an understanding of the climate. reuse and recycling. will give every urban block the potential to produce energy and water both for its own use and to contribute to urban networks of energy production.

innovative design and configuration of buildings within urban plots can help ensure adequate solar access. and these are influenced by: • Orientation In relation to the sun’s daily and seasonal movement. appropriate to the climate • Enable a degree of freedom in placing buildings on plots without causing excessive solar obstructions to/by adjacent buildings • Use street proportions and external landscaping features which take into account variations in climate and sun angles occurring across Europe 3. Daylight penetration and thermal comfort within any built environment are largely the result of the building’s exposure. and more solar radiation is desirable in buildings there than in countries further south.Site planning aims: • Maximise the potential for passive solar gain in winter • Allow solar access at street level. which will determine the relative importance of solar and wind strategies. patterns of water run-off) • Landscape features and obstacles • Existing roads. in northern Europe the sun is at a lower angle for any given time of the year. North-South orientations are generally preferable to East-West facing buildings. The edges of built-up urban areas in particular need protection from prevailing winds and driving rain in northern Europe. 6 . causing longer shadows. denser developments result in a greater reduction in wind speeds but proportionally increased turbulence. Consideration must be given to optimising the solar access of any site. Optimal siting: • Cool climate low to mid slope to avoid strong winds and cool air pockets • Temperate mid slope preferable to exploit summer breezes.1 SITE SELECTION AND ORIENTATION Solar access should be a principal influence on the planning of any development. Where solar gain is desired (during the heating season. relative size and glazing ratio of each facade can play a major role in the energy efficiency of a building. These factors vary across Europe. geological characteristics. Roads laid on an east/west axis. where excessive solar gain may be problematic. Providing secondary access roads along east/west axis giving buildings side-entry and side-gardens. are most conducive to southerly oriented buildings. High altitude siting. The planning of access roads on a site influences solar access considerably by determining plot orientations. plot ratio. buildings and infrastructure routes • Planning and building legislation (setbacks. rights to light.30° of south) is possible and the use of appropriate building forms can result in successful. with smaller north/south links where necessary. Considerable tolerance in orientation (+/. for example) adjacent structures or vegetation should not be permitted to obstruct sunlight. particularly as passive solar technologies become increasingly common in urban situations. windbreaks and surface roughness determine protection or exposure. • Adjoining developments In general. and wind flows. south facing. site coverage. • Surrounding terrain Topography. emergency services access) Where such constraints require roads to be on a north/south axis. north facing (iii) a 5°slope. This can create open spaces serving as solar / thermal buffers in front of buildings. upper and lower slope also possible when sheltered from prevailing winds without compromising the benefits of summer breezes • Hot arid high altitudes preferable above sloped ground to benefit from cool air flows • Hot humid high altitudes on windward side to increase evaporative cooling potential N E N W S 5° W S N E W 5° E S (I) Standard house 0° inclination (II) North facing slope 5° inclination +400 kWh/year (III) South facing slope 5° inclination -150 kWh/year Secondary access road In a typical residential development with houses at 21m spacing. Primary access road N Common planning constraints: • Site topography (steep contours. • Form The design. particularly on smaller sites. climate-responsive buildings. for example. compare the heating requirements of the same house on: (i) flat ground (ii) a 5°slope. water courses. but this may not be viable in every situation. Consideration must be given to the need for heating or cooling and to daily and seasonal variations in solar radiation and wind flows.

and when closed in winter provide a buffer zone. Buildings are located on terraces which wrap around a ridge following the contours of the land. water-based wildlife and vegetation. Mallorca. An important part of the concept at ParcBIT is the proposed integrated transport system with trams. publicly focused. The topography of the site has played a significant role in the definition of built form and circulation patterns. Taller buildings should be placed to the north of lower ones. designers are often faced with sites in ecologically sensitive areas or on difficult soil conditions. The cooling potential of wind flows across a site should be considered at the early stages of a design.Varying roof profiles across a site helps to increase the number of buildings with good solar access. ParcBIT is intended to be a business and science park set within the context of a full community development. particularly in terms of ground and surface water conditions. should limit water run-off to avoid disrupting salinity levels. Building forms and densities can be designed to optimise shading. compact urban community • To use the naturally available resources on the site to create an enriched agricultural landscape Model of ParcBIT. where they cause least solar obstruction and overshadowing. where air is warmed by the ground on a calm. require especially careful design to minimise environmental impact. Careful analysis of the site and its landscape has influenced the masterplan which is designed to preserve natural landscape features.1. In NW Europe a 3m2 solar installation can provide up to 50% of average annual DHW demand. 3. Height to width ratios for streets and squares are controlled to ensure good daylight penetration to buildings. The communities are arranged within three urban clusters each of which is in itself a village. Air movement up or down a slope can significantly influence cooling. where air is cooled by the ground on a calm. sunny day. Katabatic flows. Richard Rogers Partnership. together with a multi-disciplinary design team. Sites located near wetlands. Mallorca As part of the EXPO CITIES project in the Balearic Islands. Plan of urban clusters. creating cold pockets in hollows or valleys and aggravating frosty conditions due to trapped cold air.In developments with a mix of building types and forms. move downwards and have more noticeable effects. manufacturing and housing to a quieter residential area on the outskirts.1 Case Study – ParcBIT Project.500 people with a peak working population of 6. 3 1 roof 2 south facing glazing 3 south facing external space 4 north elevation 1 4 2 Southern European site layouts should aim to optimise natural cooling. Building facades are designed to open in summer to provide shade and ventilation to buildings and pedestrian routes. The proposal aims to maintain a balanced cycle of activities over the day and throughout the year. [6] Objectives of ParcBIT project: • To provide a masterplan for a highquality living and work environment • To encourage state-of-the-art telecommunications technologies in a pilot community that offers solutions to the problems of modern urban living • To make ecological concerns paramount in the design solutions • To create a vibrant. buses. The phasing of the construction is structured so that each of the villages will grow from the core outwards.000 people. if they are to occur. and which together form a distinct balanced community. clear night. Traditionally constructed buildings with thick masonry walls will help ensure that rooms are cool and comfortable. establishing life in the centre to form a focus for each village. while providing shade to public spaces in summer and allowing solar access in winter. production. As a residential community of 2. Anabatic flows. publicly focused centre. and electric cars connecting each cluster with the university and Surfaces to consider when assessing solar access. 7 . through a working district of offices. buildings should be arranged with respect to the sun’s path and orientation of the site. The energy strategy for the development proposes to reduce demand by 70% by constructing energy-efficient buildings and by using a combined heat and power system fuelled using renewable energy sources. Most solar thermal systems in Europe are used for domestic hot water (DHW]. Ten percent of the winter floodwater from two flood torrents traversing the site is to be collected in a storage area and released over the year to provide both irrigation and drinking water. rise up a slope. the architectural firm. for example. preceded by the progressive laying down of infrastructure. Grouping and spacing of buildings should be designed to prevent undesirable windtunnel effects. As pressure on land for development increases. Such developments. has provided a masterplan for a new sustainable community near the capital city of Palma. Each cluster gradually diffuses from a vibrant. at site boundaries or corners surrounded by roads.

g. can be mitigated by climate-responsive design.000 people on the university campus. 3. Fundamental to the success of any new development is planning foresight and wellprogrammed investment in high quality infrastructure and facilities. the embodied energy of the building materials must be considered. Infrastructure supply lines can be shorter. increase the potential for shared resources and reduce vehicle use generated by suburban dispersal. Moving infrastructure upwards against gravity requires more energy than horizontal flows. thus reducing the overall number of spaces required.1 Buildings The move towards revitalising and repopulating inner city sites with high density. A sustainable approach to the issue of density reduces the dominance of the role of the car and instead considers less environmentally damaging ways of achieving the horizontal and vertical movement of people. Energy strategy. A starting point in any project must be to assess the microand macro-climatic characteristics of the site. food. Advantages of medium to high density developments: • Increasing the density will leave more land for green areas within and adjacent to urban areas • Schemes for food production at a community scale become feasible.2. Mallorca. developments with higher densities use less energy for horizontal movement: in mixed use developments most facilities can be located within walking distance or integrated within an efficient public transport system.000 inhabitants and a further 5. At an architectural level. pedestrians and the provision of green spaces between buildings. In general. including allotments for food production and on-site bio waste treatments. steel) with a higher embodied energy than traditional materials used in low rise construction. • Reduced travel distances favour cyclists and pedestrians • District heating and cooling systems become more feasible where local sources of waste heat are available 8 . a higher density scheme will allow a greater area of land to be dedicated to landscaped public areas and activities. reducing distances for energy and water service runs. water and waste must be addressed. The potential disadvantages of high-density developments in terms of daylight access. water and waste. Green-planted cycle and pedestrian routes will provide access to residential areas from road and tram links. and topographical factors. for example. energy. Reducing travel distances will reduce car use and its related greenhouse gas emissions. For maximum density developments containing high-rise buildings. Parking areas will be located so that residents and office workers can share spaces. goods. However. Comfortable walking distances. the additional energy required for the vertical transfer of people and services such as energy. wind tunnelling and urban heat island effects for example. Higher density developments enable the sharing of facilities and resources. High-rise structures often require materials (e. allowing design strategies to focus on the needs of cyclists. an exercise which will indicate • it is the necessary density to support a good bus service • it is the lowest density viable for district heating schemes • it is the highest density capable of allowing good solar access with appropriate layout Traditional inner city density.2 A net density of 100 people per hectare [or about 40 – 50 dwellings] is recommended for neighbourhood developments on average in the UK on the basis that: [13] DENSITY 3. location and existing settlement. social. mixed-use developments aims to improve the viability and vitality of urban centres. Bio-climatic design for buildings and open spaces in ParcBIT.Palma. The optimum densities for mixed development of a site depend on variables such as climatic. A road-based tram system will serve 7.

Ten per cent of the housing will be owner-occupied. health centre. almost half of whom will be living there by the opening of the EXPO in June 2000. four storey apartment buildings to the west next to the service road and tram route. church and community centre. The streets are laid out to favour pedestrians and cyclists. fulfilling the aim to develop workplaces close to home. could reduce the amount of carbon in the atmosphere by 3 tonnes/hectare per year. 9 . bordered with trees and grass verges. will provide 6. Mutual shading. neighbourhood parks. is being developed according to the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives recommendations of Agenda 21. Hannover. comprehensive landscaping and green space. the district has a network of minor streets. All of the dwellings will have direct access to a green space in the form of a courtyard and nearly all of the dwellings will have a private garden. with sufficient tram-stops to ensure that no dwelling is more than 600m from a stop.g.2 Case Study – Kronsberg. with an ecological concept in the spirit of the Charter of Aalborg. Kronsberg. A grid layout incorporates avenues. Some basic considerations for developments in different European climates are outlined below: Cool climate • Aim for optimum balance between maximum solar access and wind shelter • Use vegetation to reduce heat loss in winter and at night Temperate climate • Maximise solar access and natural ventilation potential in buildings • Use vegetation for seasonal wind-shelter and solar shading Hot-arid climate • Plan high-density developments which allow space for shaded external areas. The simultaneous realisation of the residential area with its infrastructure and amenities. three storey housing in the middle. and two storey terraced housing to the east. Extensive commercial estates are being developed directly adjacent to the residential district. whose timber can be used as a substitute for coal. From the main service road. A new tram service connecting Kronsberg to the city centre will have a journey time of 20 minutes. shops. e. New forests planted in four year rotations of fast growing willow or poplar within a framework of mixed hardwoods.000 dwellings for 15.appropriate bioclimatic design strategies. The main service road runs parallel to the tramway on the edge of the residential area to minimise disruption.000 inhabitants. which commits it to a new sustainable design approach. Car parking Transport route.2. Hannover Another example of an EXPO CITIES project. It is a high-density development respecting the principles of efficient resource and land-use. accessible by public transport. parks. coordinated by the Kronsberg Environmental Liason Agency. [7] Commercial development at Kronsberg. and reserved areas for social services and commercial uses. The long-term planning aim is to expand the current commercial development to the south after EXPO 2000. Residential district at Kronsberg. with each section of the district containing 1000 dwellings in eight blocks grouped around a neighbourhood park. An Arts and Community Centre will house the city council’s advice bureau. squares and planted courtyards. the remaining ninety per cent will be subsidised rented accommodation. density and dwelling types. serving only local traffic. cafes and restaurants. courtyards • Select vegetation appropriate to the climate for shading • Provide adequate solar access in winter Hot-humid climate • Plan high-density developments around shaded external areas conducive to a free flow of air • Design buildings to facilitate natural air movement patterns • Provide adequate solar access in winter 3. constitute attractive conditions for the location of businesses and employment. The landscape plan for Kronsberg incorporates the planting of woodland on the Kronsberg ridge with diverse habitats created in the vicinity for wild plants and animals . A mixed residential district of terraced houses and large and small apartments. the new district of Kronsberg. Services and amenities for the new district will include a primary school. a balcony or a roof garden. a schools centre and three kindergartens. There will be three zones from west to east with differing levels.

Paris.Climatic considerations to be addressed in providing comfortable external spaces include solar and wind access and proximity to sources of noise or air pollution. three new parks have been formed. much of it located in underground car parks. Much of the area was derelict and in need of renovation. Solar houses. and encompasses an area of 14 hectares. designed to act as a . External space. climatic shelter belts and buffer zones. Social issues such as maintenance. Berlin. 3. 10 Parc de Bercy is built in the centre of a former wine quarter in the east of Paris. these amenity spaces improve the immediate and general environment through the provision of natural air filtration mechanisms.2.8 parking space per dwelling. and visual and acoustic screening of motorways. the provision of a network of many small green spaces or ‘urban forests’ throughout a city is often preferable to a few large parks. Parc de Bercy. the Parc André-Citroën. subdivided into regularly planted and shaped plots.requirements in Kronsberg have been set at 0. spatial and architectural design parameters. Thus when considering climate and air quality at an urban scale.2. sheltered or shaded areas creating microclimates more comfortable than surrounding public open spaces. summer shading canopies. and visual privacy or openness must also be addressed when designing external spaces. A raised walkway.3 External Spaces Much research has been done on the psychological benefits of comfortable external spaces and how these can be influenced by climatic. ‘water’ section of the park. and the Bastille Viaduct. Paris. Derelict land in cities may be reused to provide community forests and parks. and traversed by a canal which leads to the third. Parc de Bercy. security. As part of the regeneration of disused and derelict parts of the city. The park was designed by Bernard Huet and FFL architectes. 3. as well as habitats for the area’s local fauna. containing trees informally interspersed within an orthogonal grid of paths. Kronsberg. Filled with vegetation. water retention areas. the Parc de Bercy. Bastille Viaduct. The most significant benefits of climate control are usually gained from localised features such as courtyards.4 Case Study .Urban Parks in Paris Paris has many large and small public parks and gardens. from mature trees to flower beds. Paris. It is divided into three rectangular sections: an open grassed play area. a central garden section.

Jean-Francois Jodry and Alain Provost were responsible for the southern part.6 90. The park covers an area of 14 hectares.1 91.5 91. while a row of limestone pillars containing small water fountains lines the western end of the park.4 77.3. while protecting against unwanted solar radiation when overheating may occur. implications for solar access and the appearance of the trees in winter 11 . Parc André-Citroën is located on the site of the former Citroën car factory in the west of Paris. comprising the viaduct. Maximising solar access is generally desirable in northern latitudes. Deciduous trees are particularly effective seasonal shading devices.0 89. and shops under the arches of the viaduct at street level. Paris. A terrace of fountains saturates and cools the paved area between the orangeries. yet another is left to grow wild. 3. while in southern latitudes protection from excessive solar access is generally required in summer.6 89. distance from buildings. Patrick Berger was the architect responsible for the design of the renovation works.8 91.0 93. The characteristics of plants that can significantly affect their contribution to solar shading are: • Growth pattern the time taken for sufficient growth to provide shade/cooling benefits • Diameter and height implications for tree-spacing.0 83. economically and environmentally. requiring less maintenance than exotic species.8 85.WIDE. The Bastille Viaduct is an example of the advantages of reusing existing urban fabric to improve a local environment socially.2 3.8 89.6 85. Geometrically sculpted gardens contain and control the vegetation. along which runs a promenade lined with trees and other vegetation. Dublin. Gilles Clement and Patrick Berger designed the northern sector and Jean Paul Viguier.6 85. SPECIES SOLAR RETENTION % 88. A disused viaduct was renovated to provide an elevated linear park. and is centred around a large green expanse of grass. wide streets) vegetation can be used effectively as a means of solar shading (trees and shrubs) and absorption (grass).0 89. X : BENEFICIAL SUMMER SHADE Y :DETRIMENTAL The main considerations in the design of planting are species type.1 Solar Radiation The aim when addressing solar access to any development is to design for maximum desirable solar radiation when heating is required. SHORT TREES GIVE BETTER SHADE PATTERNS BOTH SUMMER AND WINTER Acer Negundo Catalpa Bignoinoides Celtis Australis Ceratonia Silicua Cercis Siliquastrum Citrus Aurantium Ficus Macrophilia Gleditsia Triacanthos Ligustrum Japonicum Melia Azedarach Mioporum Pictum Morus Alba Nerium Oleander Olea Europea Phoenis Dactilifera Pinus Alpensis Platanus Acerofilia Populus Alba Bolleana Robina Pseudoacacia Sophora Japonica [8] AL WINTER SHADE Y1 X1 Y2 X2 Seasonal shading. another contains a pattern of evergreens. providing protection in the summer months while allowing daylight and solar penetration in winter.3 CLIMATE OPTIMISATION Bastille Viaduct. Where sunlight reaches ground surfaces directly (plazas.3 86.8 90.0 93. extent of shadows at maturity • Duration of leaf season timing relative to the heating/cooling season. growth rate and location.8 94. Different species of vegetation have different capacities to absorb solar radiation. the 13 hectare park above.visual and noise buffer to the nearby motorway was also planned but financial constraints have prevented the construction of this part of the development. Each garden has a different theme: deciduous trees are scattered throughout one garden.1 87. COMPARISON OF TREE FORMS: Y2 < Y1 AND X 2 > X1 . Local species generally have stronger resistance to local pest and climatic conditions.

Prevailing winds Swiss municipalities are encouraging the planting of existing flat roofs.and low-branching trees and shrubs. using earth berms or changes in ground levels. consider crown diameter and height relative to the location of solar collectors and windows. are beginning to be found on buildings in urban centres across Europe. tall buildings separated by open spaces can create local turbulence with implications for driving rain and drifting snow. and. 12 . Low maintenance grass roof systems are increasingly available. which extends their lifetime Acoustic insulation from the additional roof mass A natural habitat for species is created in an often otherwise hostile urban environment • Up to 50% reduction in rain water discharge from roofs due to vegetation retention and evapo-transpiration of water • Reduction of the urban heat island effect through the absorption of solar radiation by vegetation • Replacement of green space lost to the building’s footprint 3. though not common. In cool climates and locations subject to high winds.2 Wind Wind velocities have a significant impact on thermal comfort in urban microclimates. interiors Reduced thermal stress in roofing materials. Trees in sheltered locations retain their leaves for longer. and prevailing winds. r sun N Winte 45º 45º Selective tree siting to maintain solar access. shrubs and plants.3. covering entire roof surfaces or incorporated within roof gardens. Vienna. Service and circulation spaces are to the north of the house and act as thermal buffers. consequently. In Bern. yet allowing enough air flow through external spaces. through evaporation of the water. GREEN SPACE ACCESS ROAD HOUSE AND GARDEN BUFFER SPACE MAJOR ROAD Deciduous planting provides shade in summer and allows light to penetrate in winter Planting and landscaping act as insulation and shelters against motorway noise and pollution. Some of the benefits include: • • • • Improved thermal stability of building structures and. a law has been introduced requiring the provision of planted roofs on all new construction or existing buildings undergoing retrofitting. to reduce wind speeds at different levels • Provide protected public spaces. Roof planting also reduces the area of roof surface exposed directly to the sun and the summer and winter temperature extremes to which a building’s roof structure is subjected. They provide a thermal mass which helps stabilise roof temperatures. Planted. Gardens and living spaces are oriented south to maximise light and heat to living areas and to garden. provides cooling. shade and a more pleasant environment. especially in warm climates. Roof ponds are an alternative to planted roofs. for example Green roofs. Although average wind velocities in cities can be as little as 50% of those over open water. Dense planting around narrow openings in the urban fabric will mitigate wind-tunnel effects. which may or may not be desirable depending on the climate and solar access requirements. Green spaces provide shelter. reducing excessive wind speeds. Turbulant wind conditions around tall buildings. impede the movement of dust and improve thermal comfort within surrounding buildings by reducing fabric heat transfer and infiltration. Roof gardens can be established on the flat roofs of buildings using potted trees.• Pollution resistance durable species are needed in urban areas to avoid premature plant death When planning trees near buildings. To reduce wind speeds so to provide shelter: • Configure buildings to give wind protection without creating tunnels • Use wind shelter belts (vegetation or architectural elements) to provide protection from prevailing winds • Plant a mixture of high. vegetation can be used as a wind break. or grassed roofs.

inducing cooling of the air and adjacent surfaces. temperatures can be up to 10K lower in urban parks than in surrounding densely built areas (see section 3. walls. building plots and allotments • Alongside roads. Landscaping elements used to obstruct the path of the winter wind through public spaces 1. wind tunnelling is avoided and summer evaporative cooling is provided creating a protected microclimate. design and equipment. The temperature of hard landscaping materials can be lowered when water is sprinkled.By placing trees along promenade. such as the provision of vegetation. To increase air temperatures at a site: • Optimise solar exposure and create `sun traps’ on south-east to south-west facing sites • Provide windbreaks to direct cold air flows away from open occupied spaces and buildings • Use dark coloured heat retaining materials (concrete. should be located near densely planted areas. Water evaporation absorbs a considerable amount of heat energy – 590 calories per cubic cm of water evaporated. from bodies of water. Avoid funnel-like gaps between buildings 4. EXPO’ 92.6). pedestrian streets.3 Temperature Evaporative cooling has been used to reduce temperatures locally in Southern European countries for centuries. Direct evaporation of water raises the moisture content of surrounding air. from the Gardens of Alhambra to the 1992 Seville EXPO. by allowing the humid air from around the vegetation to escape. seen in many traditional settlements in hot-arid climates which feature ponds or wetted surfaces placed along known air-paths. Concentrated sources of heat production. Passive direct evaporation strategies at an urban scale can be achieved by simple means. parallel rows of smooth faced buildings. Indirect evaporation avoids problems with humidity levels and does not require as high a velocity of air flow as direct systems. kitchens or plant rooms. Evaporative cooling. fountains or ponds in public spaces. Avoid large flank walls facing dominant wind Urban heat stored in landscaping mass dissipates. Avoid long. although its use often entails a greater level of planning. masonry) on south facing surfaces 3. arcades and other spaces between buildings at ground level • Private gardens. Seville. When using evaporation in hot climates an expansive surface of water is not needed but natural ventilation should be designed to avoid problems with increased humidity levels. exposed to high solar radiation. thus inducing natural ventilation in buildings. squares. run over or through them.3. The presence of a body of water will help to moderate temperature extremes due to its high thermal storage capacity. or by more complex means such as water towers. dry air flow. Alternating densely planted areas with open spaces enhances night cooling. and is replaced with cooled external air. e. passageways. Evaporative cooling is most effective downwind of a cool. Opportunities for integrating vegetation within urban developments: • Public and semi-public open spaces: plazas.g. architectural elements (screens. Sydney. To increase wind speeds. courtyards. motorways • Down the centre of roads and motorways • Roof gardens • Pergolas • Planted roofs • Planting applied to vertical building surfaces as ‘organic’ facades 13 . paved streets. This is especially beneficial in built-up areas with large surfaces of heat retaining materials. buildings) and configuration of streets and buildings to direct prevailing winds where needed while not obstructing desirable summer air flows • Limit the use of low-branching trees and shrubs • Locate public spaces where they will benefit from katabatic air flows down valleys and slopes 3. Due to the evaporation of water from vegetation. courtyards. Orientate long axis parallel to dominant wind evaporative cooling from river 2. fountains or evapo-transpiration of vegetation.3. promoting natural ventilation: • Use vegetation. Evaporative cooling.

p.3. A master plan was devised for EXPO ’92 by a team of architects. Some plants are not only resistant to air pollution. Studies prior to the construction of the EXPO. and further in-use assessments have shown that comfortable external environments were achieved by the natural means described above when climatic conditions in Seville remained below the following levels: • Vegetation absorbs ozone.7kg of sulphur dioxide per annum.000 visitors per day could relax between visits to over a hundred international pavilions on the site.25 p. Relative humidities under planting or dense trees can be 3% to 10% higher than in unplanted areas [10]. Fundamental to the development was the provision of the most comfortable external conditions possible through natural and passive cooling measures using vegetation and water. with which to filter the air. Water was used throughout the site in fountains. sprays.m. leaf surface-to-air temperature and relative humidity of the air. with a trunk diameter of 38cm can remove 19. As the level of evaporation is directly proportional to the density of vegetation. with vegetation integrated with the built areas as much as possible. cascades. leaving three quarters of the site as external spaces. Seville One of the main aims of the designers of the 1992 Seville EXPO was to provide a comfortable external environment in which the estimated 290. external 14 . equivalent to five average air-conditioner units running for 19 hours each. planners and local authorities which established criteria to achieve a bio-climatic. effects are greatest in hot dry summers. sulphur dioxide. NOx.000 Kcal of energy away from raising air temperatures. water walls. for example. SO2. use only branching trees Provide measures for evaporative cooling Limit the amount of exposed hard landscaping materials and use ground cover vegetation extensively 3. more solar radiation is used to evaporate water on the leaves of the plants than to raise the temperature of the air. In areas where air quality is poor. Studies have shown that for mid-European latitudes. Consider planting near or downwind from sources of dust or pollution such as motorways and dry and dusty ground surfaces. [9]. ponds. if at least 20% of an urban area is planted. sprinklers and sprays for example • Use vegetation in preference to hard landscaping materials where possible • Use low planting to reduce moisture evaporation from ground In landscaped urban areas the evapo-transpiration process of plants influences the relative humidity and air temperature. [9]. providing an effective natural cooling strategy. but can significantly improve the local air quality by filtering particulate matter from the air through their leaves. The ratio of soft to hard landscaping was proposed at 60:40. Deciduous trees have the added advantage of a seasonal replenishment of their leaf supply. A Douglas Fir.To decrease air temperatures: Over one day.3. 3. ponds. [9] • • • • Use vegatation for solar shading.4 Relative Humidity To increase humidity at a site: • Increase the water retention of surfaces and reduce drainage • Provide a means of evaporative cooling using fountains. and least in winter. Vegetation species of different heights were used to maximise the filtration of air at different levels. The area of the EXPO site was 215 hectares with pavilions taking up an area of 50 hectares. diverting 230. Seville.5 Air Quality Plants and soil survive through the exchange of light. reducing the amounts present in the atmosphere • Soil micro-organisms are particularly effective in contributing to the conversion of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide • Plants placed at roadsides release oxygen which combines with nitrogen oxide to form nitrogen dioxide. Reductions in outdoor air temperatures of up to 10K were claimed. large tree can transpire 450 litres. without damage to itself. Extensive planting of vegetation took place very early in the process to provide sufficient time for plant growth before the opening of EXPO. a single. many species of vegetation can absorb substantial levels of common urban pollutants such as CO2. 3. particularly in summer Site any wind shelter belts to avoid impeding air flows.3. and other polutants. meeting and resting areas which could be bio-climatically controlled. carbon dioxide. Planted screens were designed to channel prevailing winds into the site. ecological framework for the development. which is again absorbed by plants Bio-climatically controlled spaces. water and gases. EXPO’ 92. The pavilions were grouped to allow the public open spaces to give a sense of unity to the site while providing external spaces for restaurants. where atmospheric pollution is around 0. enhancing their cooling.6 Case Study – EXPO’ 92.

solar reflectance and transmittance. Building construction with a high thermal mass can be beneficial in both cool and hot climates. EPDM) absorb large amounts of solar radiation especially in summer. and glass facades in particular. In general compact building forms are preferable. also influences thermal and visual comfort conditions in adjacent external spaces. construction materials should be: • • • • • appropriate to the climate preferably indigenous of low embodied-energy recycled. etc. The thermal stabilty provided by high mass construction contributes to slower heat transfer in hot dry climates. Storage. 3. The use of vegetation and architectural features to providing shade in such situations may be more appropriate. 3. Seville.4. In hot climates. south facing walls can be covered with deciduous vegetation to avoid obstructing desirable solar gain in winter. landscaping features • Heat dissipation systems • Air filtration systems Shaded pedestrian routes. In cold climates where solar heat gain by day is beneficial for evening heat release. non-toxic dependant on local skills Appropriate light-coloured reflective facade in hot climate. but consideration should be made to avoid problems with glare.1 Building Materials A building’s envelope not only acts as a climatic filter determining internal comfort but. recyclable. reflective surfaces are preferable for reducing the heat gain of a structure by day. Building materials exposed to direct solar radiation will store this as heat which is released after a time period depending on the reflectance and heat storage capacity of the material. offering solar. Conventional dark coloured roof finishes (asphalt. The use of light colours on external finishes reduces thermal gains in building envelopes. which can in turn increase the cooling load of the building. In all climates. energy conservation. Workshop Bath BUFFER SPACES Bedroom Hallways. Bath Bedroom Living Area Kitchen / Dining N S Location of indoor spaces. Seville. 3. due to its thermal mass. while in cooler climates. solid construction exposed to winter sun can act as a heat sink.Relative humidity 40% and Max. depending on the climate).4. heat losses and gains can also be minimised.4 BUILDINGS EXPO ’92. light coloured. Vertical and horizontal shading can shield large surfaces of a facade. PVC. temperature = 30°C* *with minimum wind speeds of 1m/second. grassed roofs and roof gardens can significantly mitigate heat gain. At an urban level this can be an advantage in contexts where a delayed release of stored heat will benefit external spaces used in the evening time. wind and rain protection. but care should be taken to reduce exposure to glare caused by light reflected off these surfaces. Lighter coloured or reflective finishes. In general. Stairs.2 Building Form and Construction Optimum building forms vary according to climatic parameters and can have a profound impact on the form of urban spaces. Strategies used for microclimate control throughout the EXPO ’92 site include the design of: • • • • • Vegetation Shading Ventilation Water evaporation Thermal inertia of the ground. and shelter (solar or wind shelter. 15 . building design should aim to maximise daylighting. Using dark coloured finishes to reduce glare may result in an increase in the solar heat gain of the structure. EXPO ’92. By minimising the surface to volume ratio. temperature = 36°C Relative humidity 60% and Max.

Reduce waste at source 2. Life-cycle environmental impacts of ten construction methods and heating systems were undertaken to determine the most cost-effective. Denmark. and to the south of lightweight timber construction. 16 . The project is served by 108m2 of solar collectors for hot water. timber construction.1Energy and Resource Management The efficient management of energy and other resources is of great importance in any sustainable urban design strategy.30% saving on electricity use . 3. Sort wastes 3. The design U-values of 0.7 W/m2K for windows respectively indicate the high thermal standards applied.5 RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Waste management strategy: 1. In Northern European climates. Spain and the UK. A special design tool was developed and is being used throughout the project. the implementation of different energy-saving measures in the new and retrofitted buildings.40 – 60% energy savings for space heating and hot water . environmentally acceptable systems. PV solar energy for ventilation and optimised energy supply systems with an Energy Management Control System • Sustainable low energy design which aims for: . This solar low-energy development has become a model residential area. Belgium. and to provide information and demonstration of this practice for city authorities. Minimisation of activities and functions that waste energy and resources is a primary consideration where effective action can result in a much smaller energy and resource supply task.Buildings should be designed to encourage natural ventilation in the summer months while providing wind shelter in winter. from an economic viewpoint. the walls to the north. Radstadt. Optimisation of the micro-climate and passive solar design were major objectives in site selection and building orientation.3 Case Study . included eleven low-energy residential projects in seven EU Member States: Austria. 3. Radstadt.2 W/m2K for walls and 0. To achieve low-energy buildings standards. west and east are constructed of brick cavity walls with 160mm insulation. In all climate zones it is beneficial to zone activities within buildings according to solar and wind exposure.GREEN City.30 – 40% saving on water usage • Monitoring programmes which will be carried out for all the projects GREEN City Project Planning Principles • Sustainable urban planning • Sustainable and healthy building design • Energy and environmental assessment • Optimised energy and water supply systems • Building-integrated solar energy design Cavity wall construction. buffer zones located to the north of buildings prevent excessive heat loss. builders and consultants. Light-weight Radstadt. Italy. daily and seasonal occupancy. Re-use/re-cycle 4. Dispose of waste safely [11] 3. while in the warmer southern European climates uninhabited rooms to the west of buildings provides a thermal buffer against low afternoon sun. Some of the sustainable building measures to be carried out include: • Reduced ventilation rates achieved by improved ventilation design and the use of low-emissivity building materials • Integrated solar heating design. and involves the planned construction of over 900 new dwellings. supported by the EU Thermie programme. Austria The European GREEN (Global Renewable Energy and Environmentally responsible Neighbourhoods) Cities project. The main purpose is twofold: to initiate low-energy and environmentally sound housebuilding practice in these cities using best available technologies in new-build and retrofit projects based on energy and environmental assessment. 14kWh/m2/yr provided by solar energy and 62kWh/m2/yr by biomass. while a wood-chip fuelled district heating system and a heat recovery ventilation system help ensure low energy consumption. A primary aim was to minimise the total energy consumption for both construction and operation of the buildings. Zoning rooms to provide thermal buffers can benefit both hot and cool climates. The total energy consumption for heating and domestic hot water for an average multi-family house is 76kWh/m2/yr. of which thirtysix have been completed. which assesses. France. giving new identity and an improved quality of life to one of the oldest parts of Radstadt.4.5. In the 13th century city of Radstadt. fifty new dwellings were planned.

Typically.While energy and resource optimisation at the scale of the individual building or other facility is important and the cumulative effects of such measures can be large. and the re-use and efficient treatment of water. wind power.5. Photovoltaic application. Earth Centre. ponds) for natural cooling is most effective in high temperatures. Strategies for as much on-site treatment of waste as possible should be established. households require 30 to 50 cubic metres of water per person per year for direct domestic consumption alone. Particular attention should be paid to construction wastes and the potential for re-use of materials ranging from formwork to top-soil. increasing ground water retention within urban areas will be of benefit in most climates by addressing the important issue of water management. environmentally acceptable waste treatment equipment and controls which minimise the level of pollutants emitted into the atmosphere. Communal strategies for waste collection and treatment must be managed properly and supported by a large enough population for the process to be feasible. reduced consumption. Efficient removal of surface water (street drainage) and the high run-off coefficients of hard landscaping materials in contemporary cities reduce the amount of water retained on or in the ground with effects on drainage.3 Water Management Strategies with regard to water use should promote sustainable water management.2 Waste Management The provision of adequate storage is necessary for different categories of waste. Reed bed. to reduce transportation energy costs and minimise landfill. per year 3. [12] Septic Tanks Accidental spillage Leaking storage container Waste incinerator Refuse dump Leaky sewer Well Water table River Polluted groundwater Water channeling as design feature. 3. The principle of a CHP plant. For example. there are many energy and resource supply measures that are often best undertaken at an urban scale including: district heating systems.5. the scale of waste combustion operations must be large enough to meet the cost of efficient. Doncaster. particularly for domestic waste in high density residential developments. 17 . large-scale photovoltaic energy generation. Impact of poor waste handling on water resources.2 persons living in 40 m2 apt.. Copenhagen. This includes recycling collection points and communal waste-disposal areas. vegetation. .... Whilst the use of water features (fountains. large-scale combined heat and power production (eg using biomass as a fuel). water conservation. and hydro-electric power production. 100 m3 Volume of water used by. Designated access routes of adequate dimensions for waste collection vehicles must be provided. soil stability and oppurtunities for natural cooling through evaporation.

Specific energy-efficient construction methods and the use of environmentally sound building materials are mandatory. . where possible.5 Case Study – EXPO 2000 Kronsberg. using protected channels and soakaways to create small water-courses along urban routes Rainwater collected and stored may then be used for irrigation and other purposes. Sky glow at night.5. effectively acting as thermal heat sinks. At Kronsberg. All buildings are to be linked to a district heating system. 3. water shortages may occur during prolonged dry weather. uniform lighting with a low glare co-efficient and fully shielded fixtures effectively pointed downwards reduce light pollution and through more efficient lighting. hot-water and electricity. can provide safer road conditions Low pressure sodium lighting is one of the most efficient light sources and has a low operating cost. but with no reduction in comfort. to reduce CO2 emissions by up to 60% through savings on heating. A district co-generation plant will produce power and heat with reduced emissions. Rainwater Storage Strategies • Below ground Underground tanks and lakes.Rivers and canals can form the edge of landscaped pedestrian routes.g. Two wind turbines have been erected which will supply the electricity needs of 3. Fresh water. Lucca.4 Light Pollution Measures to reduce light pollution in urban areas: Canal. A comprehensive analysis of precipitation and evaporation data for a site should be carried out at the early stages of a project.000 dwellings. This will be achieved by optimising energy use in low-energy housing and the incorporation of renewable energy sources and innovative technolgies. Another 32 dwellings are to be constructed as ‘passive solar houses’ to demonstrate a building standard that will enable the space heating to be reduced to 15–20 kWh/m2/yr while significantly reducing energy needs for hot water and household appliances. Brazil. Even in countries with high rainfall. canals and reservoirs can collect rainwater whilst providing areas of natural habitats and amenity . introducing a greater variety of vegetation into urban areas . contribute to natural cooling within the immediate microclimate • Above ground .Lakes.Roadways and pavements can be designed to incorporate rainwater retention and infiltration systems e. In the Solar City part of the development. 100 passive solar dwellings and a children’s day-centre are to draw half of their heating requirements from active solar energy and the other half from the district heating network. shield fittings to avoid light spillage • Infrared motion-sensor lights are successful in security applications and help to reduce electricity consumption • On public roads. Low-energy housing. where water of potable quality is not required. A standard ‘Low Energy House’ in Germany has an energy requirement of 70–100 kWh/m2/yr.It is important to establish an efficient water conservation system. The bright yellow monochromatic light causes less glare than mercury vapour lamps which are commonly used for all-night lighting. due to the inadequate provision of water storage. Hannover An energy target has been set for the Kronsberg development. Kronsberg. Photovoltaic cells installed on the roofs of the primary school and the community and district arts centres produce power for these buildings. Kronsberg. use energy efficient luminaires of the minimum necessary wattage and. 18 Wind turbine. security or operational reasons. • Reduce the use of non-essential lighting (turn off neon signage or shop-window displays in the early hours of the morning for example) • Where lighting is required for emergency. a maximum level of 55 kWh/m2/yr was established.5. 3.

low waste building methods. Infiltration Strategy . leaflets and brochures. filtered and redirected into the water features on site in a “Mulden-Rigolen-System”. watering gardens and green areas. Water Management Concept The water management strategy for Kronsberg comprises three main principles: • rainwater management • reduction in potable water use • awareness-raising programmes Rainwater from hard-landscaped areas is collected. with help and advice from the Hannover Waste management and Kronsberg Environmental Liason Agency. via the existing stream which runs through the site. Waste avoidance is the key principle in household waste management. and the nearby Kronsberg Farm will sell its produce directly in the district. Sorting of construction waste. Organic matter may be composted by each household. incorporating exhibitions. Retailers will minimise packaging. will promote water-saving strategies for residents. The City administration has made regulations obliging property developers to choose environmentally friendly materials. General Water Strategies: • • • • • Follow natural drainage paths as closely as possible Minimise the use of impervious ground surfaces Facilitate the absorption of rainwater in the cleanest condition possible Provide for collection and storage of rainwater for irrigation and other uses Consider on-site treatment of grey water Public awareness campaign. and is channelled into a grassed-over hollow (mulde) which acts as a filter • Beneath the hollow runs a pebble-filled underground storage basin (rigole) into which the water seeps • Some of the water is allowed to seep back into the ground to maintain the water table level • The rainwater is gradually released from the basin into surrounding retention areas via a drainage pipe with a restricted-flow outlet Retention Strategy: • Most of the water leaves the site at this stage. Strategies for minimising construction waste as well as household.the Mulden-Rigolen System: • Rainwater falls towards open gulleys. glass and packaging will facilitate recycling. Composting of organic waste. and materials that can be recycled. Residents are encouraged to save potable water. Construction waste makes up 40% by weight of Hannover’s waste. A public awareness campaign. The on-site sorting of building waste for reuse. The value of water will be emphasised through school projects by primary school children. Water conservation project. Recycling banks near dwellings will substantially reduce waste collection (by about 75%) and will subsequently reduce householders’ waste collection charges. contributing to an estimated reduction in drinking water use of about 26 litres per person per year. paper. Pre-sorting of household waste into organic matter. All new houses will be equipped with water-saving fittings (flow restricters and pressure regulators). which run alongside roadways and pavements. were developed. All the rainwater falling in the school grounds and from the grassed roof of the school will be collected and used for flushing toilets and to water the school garden.Waste Management Concept High priority is given in Kronsberg to waste-minimisation strategies. is supported by Hannover Waste management. In the community centre and school. rainwater is reused for flushing toilets. Some of the filtered rainwater is collected in retention basins and fed to points of use for toilet flushing and irrigating landscaped areas Water retention area. Training for water engineers and school teachers will also be provided. commercial and industrial waste. 19 .

including lower emissions. offer the benefits of a renewable energy source whose pollutant emissions may be eliminated using vehicles equipped with catalytic converters.5 Germany-standard 1. modes of movement are a major source of environmental and social degradation. Planning Pedestrian 45 40 35 Bus Bicycle Car Underground Time in minutes 30 25 20 15 10 < 450m faster to walk 5 < 250m faster to walk 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10km+ faster by underground (or lightrail) < 4500m faster by bicycle 9 10 11 12 Distance in km Travel times from door to door for different modes of transport in urban areas. sheltered bus stops and the minimum necessary car parking spaces Alternative fuels for vehicles: DME RME Biogas Ethanol Electricity DiMethyl Ester RapsMethyl Ester Energy used in transportation. and measures to reduce traffic speeds (traffic calming) outside of established transport corridors • provided with an infrastructure of ample cycle parks. Amsterdam 0.1 Urban traffic control Developments should be planned and designed according to a road management hierarchy primarily favouring pedestrians and cyclists.0 Kronsberg. driving rain and snow • landscaping materials • energy-efficient street lighting of minimum wattage and with shielded fixtures 3.3 Whilst patterns of movement are influential in defining and sustaining a city.2 Renewable vehicle fuels Renewable vehicle fuels have a range of benefits. Biodiesel fuels such as RME.e. Kronsberg. 3.8 DWM Terrain. [11] Incentives for using ‘low-energy / zero-emission public transport’: • Cycle-path networks integrated with urban planning policies • Providing municipal bicycles and low-energy vehicles for hire • Adequate charging / fuelling stations for electric and biodiesel vehicles • Restricted access for private cars within city centres and environmentally sensitive sites • Public awareness campaigns and incentives Development should be: • located around or close to public transport nodes and frequently used routes • planned around a network of pedestrian routes and footpaths which encourage walking and cycling by minimising distances between frequented facilities • served by an efficient low-emission public transport network with stations planned to facilitate minimum walking distances. and unlimited supply when compared with conventional fossil fuels. Design Pedestrian routes should be safe. The following issues should be considered: • seasonal solar shading or access depending on the climate • shelter from wind. 20 . An increase in ‘sustainable mobility’ is needed. ‘Sustainable mobility’ is the facilitation of transport which fulfils its economic and social functions while limiting its detrimental effect on the environment.3. Often.6. Internal street network favours pedestrians and cyclists. this may involve urban zoning to reduce travel distances and the provision of facilities which encourage low or zero energy modes of transport. This includes design and planning strategies which support and promote less environmentally damaging transport systems for people and goods. Hannover 0. and easy to use. particularly in terms of integrating different areas within an urban settlement. an efficiently run public transport network.6. attractive.6 Some European car parking requirements TRANSPORT spaces per dwelling UK & Ireland-standard 1. a product of rapeseed oil. [14] Strategies to reduce private car use will be most beneficial and successful in mixed-use developments where alternative modes of transport can be offered i. due to vehicle emissions and the loss of land to roads and parking facilities.

Road management systems which improve the efficiency of public transport and reduce private car use include co-ordinated fares. or data to passengers. and road charges based on car use. AUTOCARD members pay an annual fee of 30 Euros and are then only charged for actual costs based on the type of car used and kilometres driven. Bremen. as specified on maps provided at each City-Bike rack. The consortium is putting into service more than 1.6. Special prices apply to cars hired for a full day or week. In December they are collected. Key technologies are modern telematics as well as the AUTOCARD car rental system. and today there are 2. The prices for five different car categories vary from 1.00 pm and 7. a parking space is always available. allowing it to be used as a personal car key. Zeus car sharing system. but can only be locked at a City-Bike rack with the special lock provided.3 Information systems and telematics Technology has its part to play in improving urban transport networks. (Zero and low Emission vehicles in Urban Society) involves a consortium of organisations active in the procurement of such vehicles in eight European cities. CO emissions by 300 tonnes and NOx emissions by 115 tonnes.200 tonnes.4 Case Study – Copenhagen Free Bike Scheme Greater Copenhagen has 1. a third by public transport and a third by private car. Users can collect a car at one of 28 public traffic nodes in Bremen.2 Euro/h to 4. 7 million inhabitants. To encourage the use of bicycles in the city. This service offers a high level of flexibility and new options for reducing and adapting car use. Bremen has developed an efficient intermodal mobility service. a combination of public transport and an extensive car sharing system. with 480.4 Euro/h. There are no extra costs for insurance and petrol. repaired and stored during the winter. Cars may be booked at any time and when returning the car. the City-Bike can be locked at any City-Bike rack and the deposit is returned. Advanced Transport Telematics (ATT). Microprocessor chips and smart cards can be used to track municipally-owned bicycles and low-energy vehicles available for hire. and many examples of its use in increasing the efficiency of public transport can be found across Europe. and to reduce CO2 emissions by 14. The AUTOCARD incorporates an integrated computer chip. Bremen.3. is used for giving priority to buses at traffic lights. Copenhagen. It is expected to save more than 4. The City of Copenhagen has an extensive network of bicycle tracks throughout the city. City-Bikes are available from numerous City-Bike racks throughout the city. 3. 21 . for a nominal deposit. City-Bikes are kept in circulation continuously. and allow such groups the benefits of lower prices by the procurement of these vehicles through ZEUS. 3. The aim is also to generate wider interest in zero and low emission vehicles among large fleet operators. Users of small cars pay no charge between 11. Car-share. lack of fuelling and charging infrastructure.6.500 free City Bikes in the streets. Cost and availability factors such as pricing. all contribute to limiting the use of zero and low emission vehicles. In this way.5 Case Study – ZEUS in Bremen The THERMIE Integrated Quality Targeted Project ZEUS. Approximately one third of commuters in Copenhagen travel to work by bicycle. The City-Bikes can only be used in the city centre.200 low or zero emissions vehicles. of which more than 150 buses will use alternative fuels and PV generated electric vehicles. After use.000 people living in the municipality of Copenhagen.00 am. the “Free-of-Charge City Bikes Project” was launched in 1994. The aim of ZEUS is to demonstrate the role that European city and regional bodies can play in overcoming these market obstacles. the transmission of computerised information over long distances. public transport and taxi services in participating cities. The bike can be used for an unlimited time.6.600 tonnes oil equivalent annually. City bikes project. The bikes are available from April to December. for example. Germany As partner in the ZEUS project. and lack of maintenance facilities.

4. However. taking into account short and long wave radiation. Developed by: University of Liège. Developed by: Group Building Environmental Physics. France. Developed by: L’Ecole d’Architecture de Toulouse. Efficiency Public Transport Parking CRITERIA Canyon Canyon is a tool developed to calculate the dynamic evolution of ambient air in urban street configurations. which incorporates several levels of analysis from climatic to cultural. Buildings. Transport. Solid Compon. Inputs refer to a city’s resource consumption. ZEIS Sustainability Indicators are methods of analysis which attempt to quantify the many levels of environmental. SELECTED DESIGN TOOLS The complexity of urban design. as well as other transfer phenomena associated with materials and components in the street. Sound Discomfort Grey Water Recycling BUILDING EMISSIONS Waste Public Lighting ENERGY URBAN SUSTAINABILITY SERVICES Water Lectures Education ENVIRONMENT TRANSPORT Health Shopping Private Transport Pedestrian Roads DOMAIN Natural Zones Natural Risks Industrial Risks Road Syst. Developed by: Polytecnico di Torino. Services. Emissions. The programme is designed for a large number of building configurations. Belgium 22 . Urban Pattern Renewable Energy Incineration Building Transport Industry Water Grey Water Public Lighting Waste Hydrology Neighbourhood Building Form Building Quality Indoor Comfort Chemical Compon. and provides an integrated multi-criteria decision module to rank various alternative proposals. few tools have been developed to assess conditions in the urban environment at city block or neighbourhood scale. and Environment). A wide range of design tools is available to aid in the design of more energy-efficient buildings. The aim of urban sustainability indicators is to analyse an urban complex in terms of its environmental impacts. ZEIS is a prototype for a computer aided urban design tool. The tool calculates the thermal balance in the street. Some design tools which address the environmental impact of a proposed development on surrounding areas are outlined below. University of Athens. wastes or goods manufactured. Within six main categories (Energy. the programme has established approximately 100 criteria for sustainability. Italy Townscope Townscope II assesses thermal comfort. outputs refer to its by-products. is fundamental to the difficulties encountered in the development of successful urban design tools. Greece CPCALC CPCALC is a tool developed to calculate the air pressure distribution around buildings. geographic to geometric. social and economic impact of concern in urban design. or to predict the impact of proposed buildings on an existing urban environment. critical wind discomfort risk and perceptive qualities of urban open space. These impacts can be described broadly as inputs and outputs.

Hudson J. Sustainable Settlements . ESIF. EC DG XVII. H. revised version 1998 Daniels K. Our Common Future. Concrete Quarterly.environment-agency. Laurence King. UK.htm Excessive Ecological Footprint Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential www. 1998 • [3] Viljoen A. 1994 Battle G. (The Bruntland Report). 1995 [10] Mascaro L. Bristol. Fitzgerald E.Contemporary Architecture. Berlin Germany 26–29 March 1996. 1998 [13] Barton H.net/greenclips NASA takes aim at hot roofs www.S. of Energy Contractors Report. James and James. Faber and Faber. 1996 [11] O’Cofaigh E. EC DG XVII Thermie publication. 1998 [9] Hough M.co. Building a Sustainable Future .Sustainable Building for Ireland. Reprint Dec. Landscaping To Save Energy: The Protective Landscape. Peretti G. Green Design . Stationary Office. Routledge. Van Nostrand Reinhold. Steemers K. Lewis J O. Architectural Design. Keeping The Lid On Overheating.uk Sustainable Urban Neighbourhood www. The Balearic Islands shaping the 21st century. Urban Environment / Ambiencia Urbana. 1997 Urban Technologies Sectoral Report 1995–1997.darksky.5. J. Geohabitat.org International Council Environmental Iniatives for Local [4] www.a Guide for Planners. Cities and Natural Process.iclei. McCarthy C. EC DG XII. Urban Environmental Management. Solar Thermal Systems in Europe. James and James Science Publishers Ltd. Salvador P. General Information Report 53. supported by the European Commission. Birkhåuser Verlag 1997 DETR. REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY Conference Papers [1] United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development. Gumuchdjian P. Lewis J O.greendesign. July 1993 Battle G. Designers and Developers. Architectural Design.Principles and Practice of Sustainable Architectural Design. Building Design. University of the West of England. Living with the City Urban Design and Environmental Sustainability • [8] Gomez F. Dominguez E. Wenau A. Arquitectura 5.uk Environment Acency. The Technology of Ecological Building. Hannover Kronsberg: Model of a Sustainable New Urban Community. Architects Journal.1990 Rogers R. Prestel. The Superior Technical School of Architecture of Seville (ETSAS). The Environmental Impact of Tall Buildings in Urban Centres • Nikolopoulou M. 1997 McNicholl A. Sagra-Luzzatto. 1998 Benstem A.org/ What We Use and What We Have: Ecological Footprint and Ecological Capacity www. Open Spaces of Expo ’92.org International Dark Sky Association www.ubc. Architecture and the Environment . The Design of Sustainable New Towns.html How sustainable are our choices? www.urbed. Estate Layout For Passive Solar Housing Design. Olley J. December 1998 23 . 1998 Givoni B.uia. Dynamic Cities. Stephens and Associates. A Green Vitruvius .eurofound. James and James. 1998 White R. 1996 Olgyay V. The Climatic Dwelling.ie The European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions Articles [7] Dodd J.progress. 1998 Gleiniger A. 1996 O’Cofaigh E. 1992 Passive Solar Design Studies Project Summary 045. King C.1995 [14] Vilanove R. UK Dept. Kronsberg Environmental Liaison Agency GmbH (KUKA) and the City of Hannover. UK www. McCarthy C. Environmental Conscious Urban Renewal in Turin (Italy) Web Sites [2] www. Landscape Sustained by Nature. Luton. Winter 1998 Rogers R. Lewis J O. 1996 Environmentally Friendly Cities Proceedings of PLEA ‘98 Lisbon. Sustainable Cities and Landscape Patterns • [5] Yannas S. 1996 Lloyd Jones D. Design With Climate: A Bioclimatic Approach To Architectural Regionalism. 1996 • Deabate M. Local Government Management Board.ire. Tardiveau A.org/uiares/reshum. 1998 Lopez de Asiain J. 1987 [6] Alcock R. Best Practice Programme. Baker N. Paris . Lewis J O. Creating the Cities and Citizens of Tomorrow. 1994 Glass Dr. 4th European Conference. Prestel Verlag. Van Nostrand Reinhold. 1999 [12] Sevilla A.Bioclimatic Building Design. Portugal. 1996 Battle G. Present Tools to Shape Sustainable Cities. Climate Considerations in Building and Urban Design. 1997 Herzog T. Thermal Comfort in Outdoor Urban Spaces Solar Energy in Architecture and Urban Planning. Solar Energy in Architecture and Urban Planning. The Balearic Government.gov.ca/ecoresearch/ecoftpr . Landabaso A. John Wiley and Sons. Cities For a Small Planet. The Green Zones in Bioclimatic Studies of the Mediterranean City • Gonçalves J. Architectural Design. McCarthy C.Homes for an Autonomous Community.

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fi OPET Israel Tel-Aviv University 69978 Tel Aviv.2-296 6016 .bg EC BREC .2-375120/ +357.waw.se.2-203 90203 Facsimile: +420. 3035 Kaunas. please contact the above internet website address or Fax +32.8-245 014 E-mail: sonja.22-622 4392 E-mail: kape4@pol. 1200-215 Lisboa.61-188 5210 Facsimile: +386. Energeticienilor Blvd.ee FEMOPET LEI . Hungary Manager: Mr Andras Szalóki Contact: Mr Zoltan Csepiga Telephone: +36. EKODOMA Ltd Zentenes Street 12-49 1069 Riga.22-622 2794 Facsimile: +48.3-20 88 64 30 Facsimile: +33. Belgium Manager: Mr Hubert van den Bergh Contact: Ms Greet Vanuytsel Telephone: +32.14-321 185 E-mail: opetvtc@vito.ro Sofia Energy Centre Ltd 51.se Orkustofnun Grensasvegi 9 IS-108 Reykjavik.14-335 822 Facsimile: +32.V.7-582 48 472 Facsimile: +421.fatur@ijs.90-193 719 Contact: Mr Anders Lidholm Telephone: +46.011-319 0292 E-mail: opet@grupposoges.szalóki @energycentre.2-325 630 E-mail: klusacek@tc. Rakowiecka 32 02-532 Warsaw. OPET Finland Technology Development Centre Tekes P.721-05 97/ 241 98 53 E-mail: ekodoma@mail.ac.hu FEMOPET Romania ENERO 8.631 1570 E-mail: femopet@femopet.2-867140/ +357.omikk.1-313 7837 Facsimile: +36.10-521 5908 E-mail: marjatta.Sweden Manager: Ms France Goulet Telephone: +46. 28-1.bg Technology Centre AS CR Rozvojova 135 165 02 Prague 6.22-484 832 E-mail: grewis@ibmer.7-582 48 470 E-mail: ecbratislava@ibm.cas.si Latvia FEMOPET c/o B.2-980 6854 Facsimile: +359. For further information.il OPET Luxembourg Avenue des Terres Rouges 1 4004 Esch-sur-Alzette Luxembourg Manager: Mr Jean Offermann (Agence de l’Energie] Contact: Mr Ralf Goldmann [Luxcontrol] Telephone: +352. Slovakia Manager: Mr Michael Wild Contact: Mr Michael Wild Telephone: +421.568 8896 E-mail: ete@os. James Boucher Blvd.3-20 88 64 40 E-mail: are@nordnet.1654-705 000 Facsimile: +44. 6 1421 Nicosia. Poland Manager: Ms Marina Coey Contact: Ms Marina Coey Telephone: +48.aarniala@tekes.547-711 282 Facsimile: +352. Radulov Contact: Dr L.Edifico SODEAN 41092 Sevilla.is CEEETA-PARTEX Rua Gustavo de Matos Sequeira. Israel Manager: Mr Yair Sharan Contact: Mr Yair Sharan Telephone: +972. 3. Bulgaria Manager: Dr L.be Wales OPET Cymru Dyfi EcoParc Machynlleth SY20 8AX Powys United Kingdom Manager: Ms Janet Sanders Contact: Mr Rod Edwards Telephone: +44.61-161 2335 E-mail: tomaz. Estonia Manager: Mr Villu Vares Contact: Mr Rene Tonnisson Telephone: +372.apc. Spain Manager: Mr Juan Antonio Barragán Rico Contact: Ms Maria Luisa Borra Marcos Telephone: +34.1-395 6019 Facsimile: +351.O.547-711 266 E-mail: goldmann@luxcontrol.322 2790 E-mail: crit@mail. Solon Kassinis Contact: Mr. Finland Manager: Ms Marjatta Aarniala Contact: Ms Marjatta Aarniala Telephone: +358.com. Radulov Telephone: +359.941-108 33 Facsimile: +46. Solon Kassinis Telephone: +357. Italy Manager: Mr Antonio Maria Barbero Contact: Mr Fernando Garzello Telephone: +39. France Manager: Mr Pierre Sachse Contact: Mr Jean-Michel Poupart Telephone: +33.011-319 0833 +39. Lithuania Manager: Mr Romualdas Skemas Contact: Mr Sigitas Bartkus Telephone: +370. PL-00-950 Warsaw.es SOGES Corso Turati 49 10128 Turin.1-303 9065 E-mail: Andras.sodean@sadiel. Cyprus Manager: Mr.2-962 5158 Facsimile: +359. Bucharest 79619.pl Energy Centre Bratislava c/o SEI-EA Bajkalská 27 82799 Bratislava. Sweden Manager: Ms Sonja Ewerstein Contact: Mr Anders Haaker Telephone: +46.lei.1-313 4824/ +36. Dt. Slovenia Manager: Mr Boris Selan Contact: Mr Tomaz Fatur Telephone: +386.cz FEMOPET Cyprus Andreas Araouzos. Czech Republic Manager: Mr Karel Klusacek Contact: Mr Radan Panacek Telephone: +420.LEI FEMOPET c/o EC BREC/IBMER Warsaw Office ul.70-632 5588 E-mail: opet.com OPET Bothnia Norrlandsgatan 13.1654-703 000 E-mail: opetdulas@gn.2-980 6855 E-mail: ecsynkk@bsrec. Bulgaria Manager: Ms Violetta Groseva Contact: Ms Violetta Groseva Telephone: +359.90-163 709 Facsimile: +46.70-648 6919/ +46.101 31 Stockholm.7-351 271 E-mail: bartkus@isag.tau.gsci.Lithuania Lithuanian Energy Institute 3 Breslaujos Str.1-395 2490 E-mail: ceeeta@ceeeta. Latvia Manager: Ms Dagnija Blumberga Contact: Ms Dagnija Blumberga Telephone: +371.bkc. 1040 Sofia.3-641 0193 E-mail: sharany@post.ewerstein@stem. Hungary Manager: Mr Gyula Nyerges Contact: Mr Gyula Nyerges Telephone: +36.95-446 0628 E-mail: mborra. Iceland Manager: Mr Einar Tjörvi Eliasson Contact: Mr Einar Tjörvi Eliasson Telephone: +354.1-338 2702 E-mail: nyerges@omk. Malminkatu 34 0101 Helsinki.2-681 461 E-mail: ecencentre@enpro.cy These data are subject to possible change.1-266 3123 Facsimile: +36.7-351 403 Facsimile: +370.pl FEMOPET Slovenia Jozef Stefan Institute Energy Efficiency Centre Jamova 39 SLO-1000 Ljubljana.net Energy Centre Hungary Könyves Kálmán Körút 76 H-1087 Budapest.1 EE0001 Tallinn.org FEMOPET Black Sea Regional Energy Centre (BSREC] 8.c/o Institutet för framtidsstudier Box 591 S. Triaditza Str.venet@swipnet.Blaviksskolan 910 60 Asele .721-05 97/ 241 98 53 Facsimile: +371.pt RARE 50 rue Gustave Delory 59800 Lille.85-452 0388 Facsimile: +46. Box 443 901 09 Umea .322 0917 Facsimile: +401.245 0303 Facsimile: +372. Portugal Manager: Mr Aníbal Fernandes Contact: Mr Aníbal Fernandes Telephone: +351.3-640 7573 Facsimile: +972.hu Estonia FEMOPET Estonian Energy Research Institute Paldiski mnt.lv OMIKK National Technical Information Centre and Library Muzeum Utca 17 H-1088 Budapest.95-446 0966 Facsimile: +34.it VTC Boeretang 200 2400 Mol.011-318 6492 Facsimile: +39.vsat. 1407 Sofia.2-305797 Facsimile: +357.569 6105 Facsimile: +354. Romania Manager: Mr Alexandru Florescu Contact: Mr Christian Tintareanu Telephone: +401.lt FEMOPET Poland KAPEBAPE-GRAPE c/o KAPE ul. Box 69. Poland Manager: Mr Krzysztof Gierulski Contact: Mr Krzysztof Gierulski Telephone: +48.2-305159 E-mail: mcienerg@cytanet.fr SODEAN Isaac Newton s/n Pabellón de Portugal .22-484 832 Facsimile: +48. Nowogrodzka 35/41 XII p.10-521 5736 Facsimile: +358.

ucd. The most important actions concern maintaining and enhancing security of energy supply and international cooperation.cordis.ie/erg_downloads.NOTICE TO THE READER Extensive information on the European Union is available through the EUROPA service at internet website address http://europa.lu/fp5/home. As part of the wider Energy Framework Programme. The European Commission Directorate-General Energy & Transport initiates. strengthening the integrity of energy markets and promoting sustainable development in the energy field.int/ The overall objective of the European Union’s energy policy is to help ensure a sustainable energy system for Europe’s citizens and businesses. The internet website address for the Fifth Framework Programme is http://www. administrative.cec.2-295 0577 E-mail: info@bxl. principally through the ENERGIE sub-programme (jointly managed with the Directorate-General Research) within the theme “Energy. focus on accelerating the market uptake of cleaner and more efficient energy systems through legal.eu. by supporting and promoting secure energy supplies of high service quality at competitive prices and in an environmentally compatible way. electricity. oil and gas. promotional and structural change measures on a trans-regional basis. Other programmes managed by Directorate-General Energy & Transport. This contributes to sustainable development by focusing on key activities crucial for social well-being and economic competitiveness in Europe.eu. nuclear energy. they logically complement and reinforce the impacts of ENERGIE. ALTENER and SYNERGY.int/en/comm/dg17/dg17home.dg17. Environment and Sustainable Development” under the European Union’s Fifth Framework Programme for RTD. technological development and demonstration (RTD). coordinates and manages energy policy actions at transnational level in the fields of solid fuels. renewable energy sources and the efficient use of energy. A central policy instrument is support and promotion of energy research.html The European Commission Energy & Transport Directorate-General 200 Rue de la Loi B-1049 Brussels Belgium Faxsimile: +32.htm This maxibrochure is available for downloading as a pdf file at the internet website address http://erg.html Further information on Directorate-General Energy & Transport activities is available at the internet website address http://europa. such as SAVE.be .

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